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2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures
Part 1 Results and Trends
ROBERT G. KEIM, DDS, EDD, PHD EUGENE L. GOTTLIEB, DDS ALLEN H. NELSON, PHD DAVID S. VOGELS III

T

his is the first installment in a series of reports on the fifth JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures, a nationwide survey of clinical techniques and diagnostic methods� Previous studies were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1996, and 2002� This month, we will compare the results of the current survey to those of past studies, highlighting trends in orthodontic treatment� Articles in the next two issues of JCO will break down the data from the 2008 Study into various categories� Methodology The 2002 Study questionnaire was revised to reflect responses to that survey, as well as recommendations from JCO editors and leaders of the orthodontic industry, with an emphasis on new technologies that have developed over the past six years� In an attempt to reach all the specialty orthodontic practitioners in the United States, we mailed 10,523 questionnaires during the first week of June 2008� A total of 808 forms were returned, for a response rate of 7�7%� This number of responses, along with the consistency of answers and demographic information across the 22 years of JCO treatment studies, tends to

validate the results� Data from the questionnaires were entered on computer by an independent company and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences� Individual responses that were obviously erroneous or outside the range of possibility were excluded from calculations of those specific tables� The complete tables will be available on the JCO website at www�jco-online�com� The median (the middle number when all responses are ranked from highest to lowest) is often used in this Study rather than the mean (the arithmetical average), because medians are less affected by extremely high or low responses� Means are reported when necessary, such as for breaking down responses by category� A notation of “NA” in a table indicates that the item was not included in the questionnaire for that Study� Results from 1990 or 1996 are sometimes omitted from this article for purposes of clarity; in most cases, these figures did not differ substantially from those of 1986 or 2002� For many questions, clinicians indicated whether they used a technique or appliance “occasionally” or “routinely”; for ease of comparison among the various surveys, the “occasionally” responses have been omitted from these tables�

Dr. Keim is Editor, Dr. Gottlieb is Senior Editor, and Mr. Vogels is Managing Editor of the Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, 1828 Pearl St., Boulder, CO 80302. Dr. Nelson is Director and Research Consultant, Nelson Associates, Nederland, CO.

Dr. Keim

Dr. Gottlieb

Dr. Nelson

Mr. Vogels

VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11

© 2008 JCO, Inc.

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0% (AZ.7% Years in practice 21.3% 15.OK.0 18.MS.9% NA NA 3.MA.TX) Pacific 17.000 15.2% 5 weeks 13.0% 20.1% 18.9% $401.8% 0.000-1.7% 11.6% 4.3% 6.0 NA 11.0% 6.9% 1990 45.4% 7.8% (AL.100.8% 20.000-850.NH.4% Other 3.0 95.OH.VT) Middle Atlantic 13.6% 6.0 Age recommended for first orthodontic exam (years) 7.3 7.1% 10.0 Age recommended to begin treatment (years) 11.1% 500 20.5% 7.6% 28.0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1986 44.0 Sex Male 85.DC. 626 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 .MI.0 60.UT.0% 6.PA) South Atlantic 18.0% 16.7% 6.5% 11.0 63.2% 1996 48.000 or less 4.7% 27.7% (DE.6% 10.GA.0% Two-phase treatment 12.MN.7% More than $1.CO.6% 10.MD.0% (AK.0 5.7% 6.NE.NC.SC.5% 43.ID.CA.LA.6% 7.WI) West North Central 6.3% 29.5% 20.4% 2.4% 18.1% 5.2% 19.OR.7% 14.1% 5.NM.0% 20.0 59.3% 15.KY.0% 18.NY.3% 4.1% 14.SD) Mountain 8.3% 14.0% 6.ME.0 NA 10.100.WY) West South Central 11.6% $201.7% 11.1 NA NA 14.2% 13.6% 33.000 15.0 5.TABLE 1 DEMOGRAPHICS (MEDIANS) 2008 Age (years) 52.8% 2.0 NA 10.2% 4.9% 14.6% 10.5% 14.0 Geographic region New England 5.3% (IA.1% 2.7% 4.MO.5% 4.6% NA 327 20.0% 6.0 4.2% 7.1% 7.3% 2.MT.0 93.HI.1% 17.9% 33.0 Oldest patient (years) 67.WV) East South Central 4.0% 20.VA.7% 15.1% 19.000-600. Dollar amounts in each category have been adjusted upward since 1986 to reflect national trends.1% 400 20.5% 15.WA) Gross income* $200.7% $601.8% 17.7% 350 25.1% 12 weeks 0.0 89.7% 5.9% 10 weeks 3.2% (AR.7% (NJ.0% 42.1% 8 weeks 19.9% 34.8% (CT.5% 11.4% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA *Annual income from preceding calendar year.9% 10.0% 6 weeks 46.KS.4% 18.8% 8.3% Female 14.4% 7.3% 17.2% 19.6% 17.7% $851.5% Active cases 500 Adult active cases 20.FL.000-400.0% 27.5% (IL.IN.0 51.8% 1.000 43.000 10.6% 15.0% Youngest patient (years) 7.5% 18.ND.3% 2002 49.RI.000 9.NV.TN) East North Central 14.0 Normal appointment interval 4 weeks 14.

Downs. but gross income continued to increase. in that order—the same top five as in the first Treatment Study in 1986� Respondents were somewhat more likely to use personalized or “eyeball” analyses for both cephalometric tracings and archforms than in 2002� Higher percentages reported using the Bolton Index and Andrews archform analysis routinely in 2008 than six years earlier. to the point that nearly half of all respondents were over the $1 million mark� For the first time. but palatal expanders and transpalatal arches were used less routinely than in previous surveys� The use of ceramic brackets continued to increase in relation to stainless steel brackets (Table 5)� Compared to the 2002 Study. Nelson. and Vogels Demographics As has been found in the biennial JCO Orthodontic Practice Studies. as it has been in every Study to date. there was a substantial increase in the routine use of self-ligating fixed appliances compared to standard edgewise brackets (Table 4)� While the Roth prescription was still the most commonly used preadjusted system. with selfligating brackets again showing a notable increase� Nearly all brackets still had mesh bases. Ricketts. the percentage of two-phase patients dropped off. as in the last survey. the MBT bracket was the only one to show more routine usage than in 2002� Lingual appliances registered a slight uptick. but self-etching primers gained in routine usage compared to etching with phosphoric acid� The median bond failure rate was reported as 5%. while the median age of the oldest patient continued to rise� A gradual trend toward lengthening the average interval between appointments also continued� Diagnostic Records The most noteworthy finding of the current Study was the rapid growth in routine usage of digital records (Table 2)� Digital cameras. more practices used combination or titanium brackets. which were not even listed on the questionnaire as recently as 1996. but microetching and chemical enhancement were used less often than in 2002� Recycling stayed at about the same level as it was six years ago. to only 12%� The median age of the youngest patient increased slightly to 7. making comparisons difficult. Gottlieb. but the overall percentage of respondents who routinely performed cephalometric analyses decreased (Table 3)� The most commonly used analyses remained the Steiner. and McNamara. were now used almost exclusively� Digital radiographs and models continued to gain in popularity compared to their analog counterparts� Panoramic x-rays were the only records taken by virtually all respondents before treatment and by a majority of respondents during and after treatment. but the Roth remained the most popular standardized archform analysis� Fixed Appliances Since the 2002 Study. Tweed. this survey reflected an aging of the specialty and an increase in the percentage of female orthodontists over the past six years (Table 1)� The median number of active cases and the percentage of adult patients remained the same as in 2002. but fewer used plastic or gold brackets� Appliances with �022" slots gained even more popularity over those with �018" slots. while twin brackets remained an overwhelming choice over single brackets� Both standard-size and miniaturized brackets continued to decline in usage. used by fewer than 10% of the respondents� Indirect bonding continued a gradual increase in popularity compared to direct bonding (Table 6)� Adhesive products were broken down differently from previous surveys. although pretreatment study models in some form still seemed to be nearly universal� Most of the clinicians preferred to take their records in centric occlusion rather than in centric relation� Routine use of articulators and diagnostic setups continued a gradual decline� The use of computerized cephalometric tracings or analyses also increased dramatically since the last survey.Keim. the mandibular posterior teeth were considered the most difficult to VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 627 .

0 1.7 1.3 1.6 4.0 0.1% 5.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.7 2.7 NA NA NA NA NA 13.0 1.4% 0.1 1.0 0.9 18.6 2.8 0.5 0.5 24.8 4.5 0.2 4.2 23.4 0.3 3. 4.6 0.0 5.4 0.6 0.3 68.2 0.9 2.4 4.8 2.1 86.9 7.3 0.6 1.4 0.8 3.5 1.4 2.6 3.3 0.8 8.0 0.6 3.5 0.4 8.2 1.4% 4.2 17.5 NA 10.2 3.8 40.2 17.0 0.9 NA 43.9 0.4 3.3 3.4 NA 0.9 10.0 68.5 0.4 NA NA NA 97.7 12.2 NA 0.5 0.7 12.1 28.3 1.2 22.6 5.1 75.0 2.0 4.6 5.3 0.7 0.5 NA NA NA NA NA 3.6 NA 1.9 NA 1.9 NA NA NA 96.7 NA NA NA NA NA 6.5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 628 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 .7 6.8 0.3 NA 0.1 0.2 8.2 22.5 13.8 0.9 0.4 1.4 90.7 0.0 0.9 26. Pretmt.5 0.8 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.7 29.6 4.5 18.1 5.1 0.6% 1.5 9.6 0.5 0.0 53.1 0.0 0.4 2.8 0.9 6.9 0.7 67.4 8.4 53.3 30.9 79.1 7.6 7.9 87.3 38.9 0.8 1.9 0.1 0.8 4.0 0.3 NA 10.3 1.3 76.9 0. 1986 Progress Posttmt.3 0.6% 1.6 1.1 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 31.3 NA NA 12.4 0.5 NA 7.2 65.4 9.9 29.2 57.4 29.3 1.7 0.3 NA 20.9 3.4 80.3 18.7 86.4 0.1 3.8 13.9 8.4 0.0 0.8 0.7 65.2 9.0 5.3 69.0 1.5 NA NA 3.4 53.1 1.4 9.4 20.1 97.5 38.4 5.3 0.0 0.4 17. 2002 Progress Posttmt.8 0.6 2.1 1.3 4.3 0.2% 29.4 3.5 NA 0.3 35.6% 2.0 2.1 16.8 0.3 2.0 0.4 0.8 0.3 NA NA 0.2 6.0 0.0 76.6 NA NA 1.6 2.3% 8.9 4.0 2.8 2.7 65.3 0.6 12.1 3.5 44.5 0.9 12.6 0.8 11.6 1.6 41.6 2.5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 65.6 0.1 0.9% 14. X-rays Full series Bite wings Periapical Panoramic Cephalometric In centric occlusion In centric relation Lateral Cephalostat Natural head position Frontal Submental vertex Laminagrams Wrist x-ray Computed tomography Cone-beam CT Magnetic resonance imaging Digital radiography Study casts In centric occlusion In centric relation Mounted on articulator Bite registration Diagnostic setups Digital models Digital models from CBCT Occlusograms Height and weight charts Growth charts Mandibular kinesiograph EMG Transcranial TMJ x-rays Video imaging Photographs 35mm intraoral 35mm extraoral Polaroid intraoral Polaroid extraoral Digital intraoral Digital extraoral Digital 3D 2008 Progress Posttmt.1 26.5 6.6 10.9 0.4 NA NA 3.1 10.6 9.6 2.5 6.7 0.9 1.5 NA 1.1 65.9 24.3 13.5 0.6 0.4 7.0 0.9 2.5 55.5 7.2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures TABLE 2 DIAGNOSTIC RECORDS USED ROUTINELY Pretmt.7 0.1 1. Pretmt.7 20.3 0.0 0.3 NA NA 9.8 NA 0.3 11.1 14.3 4.2 24.3 NA 15.3 0.4 4.

3 43.8 2.7 0.3 16.0 25.9 NA 19.1 12.3 1.3 NA NA 7.6 20.8 9.6 16.9 3.8 3.9% 16.1 21.3 27.7 1986 89.7 26.8 22.3 23.9 7.2 15.3 NA NA NA NA 13.4 1.0 6.0 8.0 2.1 19.3 21.0 10.3 28.5 4.3 2.1 0.8 22.0 28.1 19.3 27.7 27.3 1.3 22.4 NA 9.2 0.2 28.7 41.3 39.2 2.4 27.1 2.2 20.6 5.5 9.4 3.2% 11.6 11.7 4.5 25.2 0.6 18.1 2.1 48. and Vogels TABLE 3 CEPHALOMETRIC AND ARCHFORM ANALYSES USED ROUTINELY 2008 Cephalometric Pretreatment Progress Post-treatment Alabama Alexander Burstone Downs Eastman Holdaway Jarabak McNamara Northwestern Ricketts Sassouni Steiner Tweed Viazis Wits “Eyeball” Own analysis Other Manual tracing Computerized tracing Computer imaging and analysis Templates VTO Archform Tweed arch length Bolton Index Pont’s Index Bonwill-Hawley Alexander Andrews Brader Ricketts Roth Customized Own analysis Other 74.5 1.4 1990 89.0 26.4 NA 8.6 9.4 NA 13.5 81.8 46.9 NA 22.4 NA 8.5 4.4 1996 89.2 1.7 10.4 2.1 17.1 NA 22.8 13.3 17.5 4.8 VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 629 .8% 17.5 10.2 0.8 0.3 10.9 12.3 7.8 3.3 7.9 0.8 11. Gottlieb.9 7.5 7.8 7.3 5.1 16.Keim.2 44.4 1.4 6.2 2.8 7.7 2.1 7.5 3.0 3.4 4. Nelson.0 20.0 4.7 3.8 16.3 2.2% 15.7 11.3 NA NA NA 15.9 38.6 27.8 33.3 2.4 1.5 8.6 76.6 0.8 3.5 61.6 5.2 44.6 3.4 NA 13.2 4.9 3.1 1.9 3.5 10.0 4.6 35.7 NA NA NA 26.1 22.6 1.1 NA 9.6 1.9% 20.8 17.5 18.3 12.4 11.8 NA 3.8 14.5 0.2 NA 23.2 NA NA NA NA NA 45.7 5.2 33.4 23.4 4.6 17.1 1.7 3.1 2002 82.4 18.

4 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 22.9 18.9 8.1 3.9% NA 8. one-paste compomers gained slightly in routine usage compared to the 2002 Study� Routine bonding of posterior teeth.9 29.7 7.0 2.1 NA 66.6 1.8 44.8 8.9 1.5 15.0 6.6 4.3 19.2 2.4% 4.8 5.3 5.1 15.6 0.6 56. from 20 to 15 seconds� Glass ionomer band cements continued to be the most commonly used.6 2. with LED units by far the most popular curing lights� The median exposure time per tooth dropped slightly since the 2002 Study.0 21.3 NA 76.9 2002 0.5 NA NA NA NA NA 630 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 .6 26.7 55.3 NA NA NA NA NA 1986 5.2 17.3 4.7 NA NA NA NA NA 48.8 0.7 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 20.1 18.9 2.8 10.5 2.0 2. remained on the upswing over the past six years (Table 8)� The maxillary first molars were the only teeth that were routinely banded by a majority of respondents to the current survey� TABLE 4 FIXED APPLIANCES USED ROUTINELY 2008 Begg Bidimensional Bioprogressive Lingual MEAW Preadjusted prescription Alexander Andrews Hilgers MBT Orthos Roth Other Self-ligating Carrière Damon In-Ovation SmartClip SPEED Standard edgewise Tip-Edge Other Palatal expansion appliances Haas Hyrax Quad Helix Other Transpalatal arches 0.8 23.2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures bond successfully� No-mix adhesives gained more of an edge in routine usage for both chemical and light curing� A vast majority of respondents said they used some kind of light-cured adhesive on a routine basis.0 1.2 1990 2.9 NA 0.4 1.7 3.1 1996 0.5% 4.8 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 24.9 1.2 50.2% NA 10.1 NA 5.0 6. as opposed to banding.3 NA 5.0 3.0 1.4 19.0 0.4 15.6 4.9 1.1 7.4 4.5 20.9 49.3 NA 64.3 2. with light-cured glass ionomers now used by nearly as many respondents as the standard varieties (Table 7)� Light-cured.3% NA 7.6 8.

0 0.4 90.2 4.6 4.2 9.0 39.9 2.4 0.7 90.9 1.1 8.4 0.8 2.2 40.8 12.4 38.6 57.4 1.6 49.5 54.6% 89.8 NA NA 26.3 11. and Vogels Routine use of titanium-alloy archwires.9 10. Forsus.8 4.8 1.1 53.9 5.0 13.0 49.4 6.9 0.5 1.9 9.0 0.6 26. Invisalign.1 22. VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 631 . continued to increase compared to stainless steel.4 62.8 1996 Use Mean 99.0% 79.5 3.7 8. except the thermally activated type. banded Herbst.7 17.1% 85.0 0.4 32.2 5.2 5.3 4.1 11.9 31.6 96.8 9.9 7.1 87.3 14.2 30. Nelson.0 13.5% 82.6 82.7 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA *Not reported by bracket material in 1986. Distal Jet.6 88.018" slot . Gottlieb.8 2.7 38.9** NA 1986 Use Mean* 93.2 NA 0.8 3.5 0.0 3.8 3.7 2.Keim.4 47. **1986 figure is median percentage of all brackets.8 12.1 15.6% 5.022" slot Bidimensional slot Other slot Single Twin Standard size Miniaturized Self-ligating “Reduced friction” Mesh base Non-mesh base Chemically enhanced base Microetched base (laboratory) Sandblasted base (in-office) Recycling Metal Ceramic 8. there was a general trend TABLE 5 BRACKETS 2008 Use Mean Stainless steel Ceramic Plastic Gold Titanium Combination .3 50.8 3.8 3.2 5.2 24.6 2. and MARA (Table 10)� Both the Forsus and Invisalign systems showed sizable increases in usage compared to the 2002 Study� As in 2002.7% 65.6 2.5 3.2 25.8 15.1 2. from four to five in each arch� Other Appliances The only removable or functional appliances used routinely by more orthodontists in the 2008 Study than in the past were the Class II Corrector.5 46.8 3.5 4. although stainless steel wires were still used routinely by nearly three-quarters of the respondents� The median number of archwires per extraction case rose slightly.1 90.0 5.6% 83.2 2002 Use Mean 98.2 0.7 35.4 61. especially in the early stages of treatment (Table 9)� Titanium molybdenum archwires were used substantially more for finishing than in 2002.

2% 5.0% 68.0 5.0% 27.8% 7.0% NA NA NA 80.0 26.0 5.9% 13.5% 29.2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures TABLE 6 BONDING PROCEDURES USED ROUTINELY 2008 Direct bonding Indirect bonding Labial Lingual Two-part chemical-cure sealant Light-cured flowable microfill Glass ionomer for bonding Enamel-protective sealant Fluoride varnish Adhesion booster Self-etching primer Phosphoric acid etchant Etching time in seconds (median) Bond failure rate (median) Highest bond failure rate Maxillary anterior teeth Maxillary posterior teeth Mandibular anterior teeth Mandibular posterior teeth Type of adhesive (chemically cured) No-mix Two-paste Type of adhesive (light-cured) No-mix Two-paste Precoated Light exposure per tooth in seconds (median) Preferred curing light Halogen LED Laser Plasma 89.6 4.0 5.9 1.9% 6.2% 50.1% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1990 91.5% 44.8% NA 1996 92.8% NA NA NA 20.0% 9.5% 30.0% 67.5% 7.2 7.6 1.0% NA NA NA NA 40.6% 33.0% 3.7% NA NA NA 91.8% 22.1% 20.5% 15.4% 8.5% 66.8% NA NA 22.2% 4.8 5.2% 11. TABLE 7 ROUTINE USE OF BAND CEMENTS 2008 Glass ionomer Light-cured glass ionomer One-paste compomer (light-cured) Two-paste compomer Zinc phosphate Other 37.9% 2002 91.4% 77.0 5.4 0.5% 30.3 2002 43.8% NA NA NA NA NA 74.6% 72.1% 9.5% 32.9 1996 58.1% 2.8% 7.2% 60.9 632 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 .0 5.6% NA NA NA 75.4 12.3% 76.6% 18.2% 54.7% 21.4% 54.3% 19.3% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA *1986 responses were not broken down by frequency of use.2% 14.2% 8.7% 2.0% 35.4% NA 13.6% 5.7% NA NA NA 46.6% 23.0% 7.2% 64.0% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1986* 96.1% 12.7% 50.0% 30.7 14.8% 7.7% 13.8% NA NA NA NA 60.3% 16.6 5.0 45.2 NA NA 21.1% 41.7% 12.4% 27.

1 2002 Finishing 79.3 21.8 1.0 0.4 13.5 22.0 NA NA NA NA TABLE 9 ARCHWIRES USED ROUTINELY Early Stainless steel Multistranded/braided stainless steel Chrome cobalt nickel Nickel titanium Multistranded/braided nickel titanium Titanium molybdenum Titanium niobium Thermally activated titanium Coated Other Number of archwires in typical sequence (median) Extraction Maxillary Mandibular Nonextraction Maxillary Mandibular 42.8 30.2 6.0 42.0 9.1 87.0 22.3 80.6 2.6 0.2 15. VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 633 .5 26.7 21.5 6.8 23.8 16.5 0.0 2002 24.1 NA 90.2 48.Keim.2 13.1% 3.3 0.9 6.3 2.2 41.1 2.2% 5. this question was not surveyed in 1986.4 36.2 40.4 51.4 21.0 11.8 16.2 8.4 91.7 52.9 NA NA NA NA 1986 25.3 48.0 51.4** NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 5 5 4 4 4 4 NA 4 4 *1990 responses were not broken down by frequency of use.0% 17.6 3.1 15.9 26.8 49.7% 72.8 9.7% 90. Gottlieb.0 3.4 0.9 1.8 1.1% 9.4 2. and Vogels TABLE 8 ROUTINE BANDING OR BONDING 2008 Banding Maxillary second molars Maxillary first molars Maxillary second premolars Maxillary first premolars Mandibular second molars Mandibular first molars Mandibular second premolars Mandibular first premolars Bonding Maxillary second molars Maxillary first molars Mandibular second molars Mandibular first molars 15.2 8.1 0.3 1990* 89.9% 52.5 13.2% 92.1 1. **Includes all alloys other than stainless steel.2 2.3 7.0 Early 49.4 89.9 1.4 2008 Finishing 73.1% 76.7 72.4 23.9 1.7 1996 27. Nelson.7 21.0 6.3 1.4 6.

4 1.1 3.3 1.4 17.3% 1.2 1.3 1. the median percentage in the current survey was only 18% (Table 13)� As in every previous Study.9 NA 1.1 0.2 6.9 NA NA 0.7 NA NA 8.2 634 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 . and Jones Jig appliances were fabricated in-house by a majority of clinicians� Routine prescription of headgear continued a dramatic decline since the 1996 Study.7 NA 8.5 5.1 20.8 23.9 12.2 0.9 1.1 NA NA 0.4 0.8 19.9 0.9 18.0 NA 5.3 3.0 2. fewer and fewer patients have been treated with extractions.2 0. nearly all extractions involved some combination of premolars� The percentage of extraction cases involving all four third molars continued to decline.0 2.8% 12.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 4.8 NA NA 7.6 2.1 0.2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures toward more use of outside laboratories for fabrication of removable and functional appliances.7 1990 2.6 1996 1.5 5.9 4.9 11.0 0.5 2.8 4.0% 13.2 NA NA 1.3 10.9 4.4 0.9 0.0 NA 4.1 0.5 2.7% 6.3 NA NA NA 4.3 NA NA NA NA 5.1 14.1 5.9 1986 4.8% 4.1 4.2 0.6 1. perhaps owing to the development of skeletal anchorage techniques (Table 12)� Only reverse headgear was used routinely by as many respondents as in 2002� It appeared that most orthodontists who used facebows prescribed the safety or breakaway type� Extractions Over the past two decades.7 9.5 22.7 0.3 NA 0.0 NA 10.3 11.5 7.0 3.6 2002 0.8 2.3 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.1 NA 5.6 NA 1.1 13.1 27.1 4. as opposed to in-office construction (Table 11)� Only the Forsus. Jasper Jumper.6 NA 3.3 11.0 NA 3. but only 21�5% used third-molar enucleation� Slightly fewer used sectional wires for initial cuspid retraction than in past surveys� TABLE 10 REMOVABLE AND FUNCTIONAL APPLIANCES USED ROUTINELY 2008 Activator Bionator Bite plates Class II Corrector Distal Jet Dynamax Forsus Fränkel Herbst Banded Bonded Crowns Removable Fixed-removable Hilgers Pendulum Invisalign Jasper Jumper Jones Jig Magnets Mandibular Corrector Mandibular Protrusion MARA Sagittal Schwarz plates Twin Block Other 0.0 4.4 4.0 8.6 1.2 1. reaching a low of 7�7%� More than twothirds of the clinicians continued to prescribe serial extractions.1 NA 3.2 3.

9 12.6 4.4 11.7 NA 1986 In.9 84.1 35.9 9.5 27.2 41.3 84.2 81.6 47.5 3.6 36.5 1.4 89.4 NA NA 78.3 73.5 NA 78.1 2.4 0. Gottlieb.3 89.7 NA 9.0 25.7 95.8 19.3 NA NA NA NA 94.5 72.7 10.8 NA 24.1 NA 51.6 NA NA NA NA NA NA 24.2 5.4% 89.1 65.2 13.3 11.2 26.3% 1.6 NA NA 21.3 61.6 8.9 25.Outside Office Lab 14.1 4.4 83.5 7.8 82.6 12.3 49.6 81.0 20.5 5.0 20.5 73.3 95.8 86.2 13.1 90.2 17.5 74.3 2.2 84.5 25.9 75.2 67.Outside Office Lab Activator Bionator Bite plates Class II Corrector Distal Jet Dynamax Forsus Fränkel Herbst Banded Bonded Crowns Removable Fixed-removable Hilgers Pendulum Invisalign Jasper Jumper Jones Jig Magnets Mandibular Corrector Mandibular Protrusion MARA Sagittal Schwarz plates Twin Block 24.0 0.7 50.0 1.1 1990 36. Nelson.7 76.9 48.7 15.8 12.6 42.3 2002 23.0 78.0 NA 21.0% 8.1 74.8 NA 30.7 94.9 VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 635 .0 12.0 21.2 24.0 NA 78.4 5.9 26.4 12.5 11.0 30.9 79.7 45.3 NA 85.2 NA 69.1 51.5% 5.1 47.0 66.7 22.0 75.3 5.9 NA 48.4 52.8 9.9 84.3 45.8 2.7 6.2 17.4% 7.8 82.3 1986 41.3 4.6% 92.2 10.1 32.5 NA 21.5 26.2 10.9 52.2 42.4 20. and Vogels TABLE 11 FABRICATION OF REMOVABLE AND FUNCTIONAL APPLIANCES 2008 In.7 NA NA NA NA 5.1 73.3 77.1 29.1 2.3 12.8 15.4 18.6% 5.1 15.7 18.1 1996 In.7 68.1 20.Keim.3 20.9 81.7 38.7 80.3 0.9% 3.6 77.9 34.1 15.9 0.6 88.9 70.7% 89.8 4.9 13.0 79.2 NA 75.9 5.6 15.0 87.5 54.7 4.9 67.1 11.6% 10.4 84.0 32.6 100.7 27.6 57.1 0.Outside Office Lab NA 11.8 87.3 81.8 57.7 NA NA 88.3 NA NA 87.4 42.5 3.9 88.3% 10.2 1.6 9.3 23.3 NA TABLE 12 HEADGEAR USED ROUTINELY 2008 Kloehn facebow J-hook Cervical-pull Straight-pull Variable straight-pull High-pull Combi Reverse Chin cup Facial mask Other Safety or breakaway 13.7 NA NA 12.4 22.7 NA 45.2 75.6 16.8 89.8 76.7 26.5 1996 35.0 70.4 NA NA NA NA NA NA 75.Outside Office Lab 18.8 32.8 2002 In.2 23.2 87.8 75.0 33.2 2.3 23.3 NA 90.6 10.1 25.3 1.7 54.

lower second molars 0.2% 9.7 6.0 8.9 NA 1.1 0.2 8.5 *1996.0 2.2 10.2 31.TABLE 13 EXTRACTIONS 2008 Treated at least one extraction case 94.7 Lower incisors 2.9 33. and 1986 figures refer to labial surface only. 636 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 .2 NA 0.2 8.4 2.8 NA 3. 1990. TABLE 14 FINISHING PROCEDURES USED ROUTINELY 2008 Cosmetics Incisal adjustment Shaping labial/lingual surface* Porcelain laminate veneers Composite resin build-up Anterior stripping (slenderizing) With hand instruments With handpiece With air turbine Posterior stripping With hand instruments With handpiece With air turbine Fiberotomy** Gingivectomy Frenulotomy Laser procedures Exposure of impacted teeth Removal of opercula Frenectomy Gingivectomy Ankyloglossia Zig-zag (up-and-down) elastics Equilibration Positioner 71.0 Upper first.3 6.8 4. lingual surface was reported separately.2 Upper first molars 0.8 NA NA NA 8.2 NA NA 1.4 3. **1996.9 2002 95.1 9.0 7.4 NA 1.6 39.9% Percentage of active cases (median) 18.8 16.5 18.1 13.9 67.7% 25.6 14.7 12.0 22.1 17.5 Use serial extraction 68.3 8.7 3.2 15.4 9.9% 13.6 NA NA NA NA NA 26.9 Lower first premolars 7.9% 28.8 1990 52.4 Lower second molars 0.2 1996 54.5 7.6 0.2 9. and 1990 figures are means.8 2.3 Upper.2 1986 46.3 2.5 2.9 0.9% 33.0 6.9 1990 87. lower second premolars 6.5 1.8 23. 1986 figures are medians.4 0.2 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 25.8 3.5 NA NA NA 9.1 9.5 6. lower third molars 7.9 30.2 18.1 9.8% 12.7 0.8 8.7 2002 67.0 Percentage of extraction cases* Upper first premolars 20. and 1986 figures refer to fiberotomies performed by periodontists. orthodontists and other dentists were reported separately.9 48.1 11. 1990.7 19.2 26. lower first premolars 39.4 14.8 0. 1996.6 NA 3.5 10.9 NA 1986 95.2 5.6 23.2 16.1% 22.8 NA NA NA 9.4 Upper.0 NA 0.0 32.9 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 17.3 0.1 Upper second molars 0.0 33.4 NA 1.1 13.4 9.7 16.0 23.3 15.6 19.5 10.8 8.8 3.0 4.0% 34.9 2.3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 15.2 62.1 Upper.0 42. lower second premolars 6. lower first molars 0.6 4.3 0.3 1996 92.0 43.4 Upper second.7 5.4 7.5 11.2 Other 0.8 21.1 NA *2008.0 3.1 11.2 Upper.1 14.1 0.4 Use third-molar enucleation 21.5 0.3% 20. 2002.0 20.5 23.1 0.4 78. lower first premolars 1.4 34.6 25.9 5.9 0.8 Upper.5 0.2 Use sectional wires for initial cuspid retraction 28.9 NA NA 74.2 NA 2.9 73.

4 0.0 1.4 6.8 7.0 6. with a plurality prescribing “permanent” retention for the first time� Surgical-Orthodontic and TMJ Treatment The percentage of respondents treating surgical-orthodontic patients was down slightly from its 2002 high.5 6.9 2.8% 24.4 NA 24.0 0.9% 19.8 12.5 22.1 0.7 0.1 25.5% 24.1% 36. composite resin build-up.0 29.4% 20.5 4.9 10. as opposed to Hawley and spring-type retainers.0 39.9 30.2 48.1 5. continued to increase (Table 15)� Banded retainers were used by only a few clinicians compared to 1986. surveyed for the first time.4% 11.8 33. with an overall median of only four such cases treated in the past year (Table 16)� For the first time.3 1.1 5.4 29. the TABLE 15 RETENTION METHODS USED ROUTINELY 2008 Removable Hawley Spring retainer Modified spring retainer Clear slipover (invisible) Essix Invisalign Other Fixed banded 3-3 4-4 5-5 6-6 Fixed bonded Maxillary Mandibular 2-2 3-3 4-4 Specific retention period Number of months (median) Long-term (up to 10 years) Permanent Number of visits (median) 56.0 NA NA NA VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 637 .0 33.7 8.1 43.6 41.8 1.0 1996 77.8 NA NA NA 36.2% 27.2% NA 1990 79.6 8.3% 23.0 38.0 6.4% 4.1 2.2 32.4 8.6 0.4 47.8 47.7 16. clinicians were asked how long they treated patients before and after surgery.0% 24. and posterior stripping with hand instruments� Laser procedures.0 13. were used by more respondents than ever� Although the median retention period remained at 24 months.5 3.3% 14.0 NA NA NA 27.4 1.6 0.7 1.7 NA NA 4.Keim. Nelson.9 13.9 0.4 36.6 1.7 1.0 2.9 0.0 2002 63. Gottlieb. were not used by many respondents� More than one-third of the clinicians routinely used zig-zag elastics for finishing� Routine equilibration rose for the second consecutive survey. but bonded retainers.9 1.5 NA 3. reshaping. and Vogels Finishing and Retention Most cosmetic finishing procedures were used more routinely in 2008 than in any Study to date (Table 14)� These included incisal adjustment. anterior stripping. a trend continued toward more open-ended retention.7% 15.7 7.2% 5.9 NA NA 4.7% NA 1986 86.0 3.6 NA NA NA 32.0 1.4 16. but positioner use reached an all-time low� Routine use of clear retainers.6% 14. especially mandibular 3-3.7% 24.0 28.9 3.

7 0.8 0.6 28.7 0.0% Referred to other specialist 10.7 2.9 11.3 1.6% 24.6 1.4 0.7 NA 0.5 0.0 53.6 14.0 75.6 2.0% 27.4 NA 0.3 10.2 0.8 Patient distribution (medians) Combined with orthodontics 50.8 0.6 3.0 67.0 NA NA 0.2 1.0 0.6% 27.0 1.2 NA NA 0.6 0.5% NA 2.6 2.0 Mean length of orthodontic treatment (months) Presurgical 14.8% 5.0% NA 5.1 0.2 2.0% 23.5 75.1% 25.0 75.3 0.1 0.1% Median number of cases treated in preceding year 4.0 NA NA 1990 81.6 1.0 Treatment methods used routinely Upper splint Lower splint Functional appliances Fixed appliances Equilibration TENS EGS Ultrasonic heat Fluoromethane spray and stretch Hypnosis Biofeedback Myofunctional therapy Acupuncture Palliative Drug therapy Iontophoresis Applied kinesiology Osteopathic manipulation Physical therapy Arthroscopy Orthognathic surgery Other 61.5% 15.1 1986 70.2 22.0 0.0 50.2 3.6 0.0 NA 0.2 2.0% NA 1.0 Success rate (one year post-treatment) 75.3% 5.9 21.0 Referred to oral surgeon NA Referred to physician NA Referred to general dentist NA Referred for psychological evaluation 0.9 4.0 80.7 15.0 2002 95.7 0.0 NA NA 0.3 15.4 2.3 0.6 NA NA NA 3.6 2.0% 6.6 NA 0.0 1.2 15.0 1.1% 5.0 1.4 0.5 3.9 3.4% 5.1 12.5 18.3 3.9 0.9 0.5 Postsurgical 8.4 75.9 1.7 16.3 2.4 0.4 0.2 2.3 0.0 0.1 28.0 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.0 NA NA 1996 89.2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures TABLE 16 SURGICAL-ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT 2008 Treated at least one case 88.4 1.7 NA NA 0.8 8.8 7.7 2.1 638 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 .2 1996 73.4% NA 3.6 7.8 2.1 1.7 22.5 30.3 1.0 60.0% 8.6 0.8 NA 18.4 5.0% 12.0 50.9 1.0 0.0 NA NA 1986 81.0 2002 71.6 NA NA TABLE 17 TMJ DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT 2008 Treated at least one case Median number of cases treated in preceding year 56.7 1.5 0.1 1990 74.9 12.0 55.0 0.4 3.3 54.9 1.0 1.8 0.2% 5.

0 Premolar extraction 5.7 Proprietary course 49.0% 66. respondents were asked for details on their use of the Invisalign system� TABLE 19 SKELETAL ANCHORAGE Treated at least one case 60. defined as “asymptomatic one year posttreatment”. but the median number of cases remained at five.6 Molar intrusion 15.0 80.2 2.5% Class II 12.9 Class III 2.8 7.6 Midline correction 2.3 Other 8.0 Miniscrews causing inflammation 0.0 Has availability of miniscrew anchorage reduced your surgical-orthodontic cases? Yes 25.0 Training in skeletal anchorage University graduate course 12.1% 6.0 18.8% Postgraduate course 26.0% Oral surgeon 44.8 1. crowding 3.0 1.6 Open bite 12.7 TABLE 18 INVISALIGN TREATMENT Treated at least one case Median number of cases treated in preceding year Patient distribution (medians) Invisalign only Invisalign and fixed appliances Age (years) Number of aligners per case Cases considered successful Cases with relapse Types of cases treated routinely Class I.4% 12. and Vogels means were 14�5 months for presurgical and 8�0 months for postsurgical treatment� The percentage of clinicians treating at least one TMJ case reached an all-time low.4 Other 6. severe crowding Class II Class III Space closure Upper premolar extraction Lower premolar extraction Four-premolar extraction Lower incisor extraction Finishing/positioner Other 76.2 4.2 47. moderate crowding Class I.7% Median number of cases treated with miniscrews in preceding year 3.Keim.6 0.0 Median patient age (years) 25.3% No 40.5 Incisor translation/inclination 1. remained at 75%� Upper splints and arthroscopic and orthognathic surgery were used more routinely for TMJ treatment than ever before� Equilibration and TENS were used more routinely than in the 2002 Study.1 Types of cases treated routinely Class I.0 32. but most other methods were used less frequently than in any previous survey� Invisalign Treatment For the first time.0 10.6 Molar distalization 7.6 Median percentages of Miniscrew failures 2.7 Bimaxillary protrusion 7.4 2.3 Molar uprighting 7.0% 0.9 Undecided 33.6 Periodontist 10. Gottlieb.8 7. Nelson.0 Median number of cases treated with intraosseous implants 0.0% Loose miniscrews 3. as in the past two surveys (Table 17)� Respondents who reported treating at least one patient said they combined TMJ treatment with orthodontics in a median of 50% of their cases—as in the 2002 and 1996 Studies—and referred 10% of their patients to other specialists� The success rate.6 VOLUME XLII NUMBER 11 639 .2 0.8 Who usually places miniscrews? Orthodontist 43.9 General dentist 1.

Inc�. P�O� Box 17085. 10 Pheasant Run. 100 Center Plaza. Lubbock. and MARA: Ormco/“A” Company. Inc�. Bohemia. 10403 International Plaza Drive. Ontario. Forsus. miniscrews were used in a median of three patients. as opposed to university settings� A wide variety of cases were treated routinely with miniscrew anchorage. N3C 1V1 Canada� Tip-Edge: TP Orthodontics. Herbst: Dentaurum. rather than being combined with fixed appliances� The median age of Invisalign patients was 32. and open bite� The appliances listed in this Study are trademarks of their respective companies. MO 63074� Essix: Raintree Essix. with a median of 12 patients (Table 18)� Nearly all of these were treated with Invisalign only. Sheboygan. PA 18940� Quad Helix: RMO Inc�. 851 Martin Ave�. with a slight edge going to oral surgeons over the orthodontists themselves� Miniscrew failures and loose screws were reported in only a few cases. NY 11716� SPEED: Strite Industries Ltd�. as follows� MBT. and the median number of aligners used was 18� Fully 80% of the cases were considered successful. 1714 Cambridge Ave�. Orange. 6448 Parkland Drive. with no relapse reported on average� By far the most common use of the Invisalign system was for moderate crowding. 298 Shepherd Ave�. TX 79414� In-Ovation: GAC International. Inc�. Newtown. LaPorte. and Jones Jig: American Orthodontics. London W1G 9LQ. Inc�. Santa Clara. CO 80217� Distal Jet. and inflammation in a median of zero cases� Nearly half of the clinicians who used miniscrews had received their training in proprietary courses. 5064 50th St�. Jasper Jumper. England� Invisalign: Align Technology. Monrovia. CA 95050� Twin Block: DynaFlex. 355 Knickerbocker Ave�. and SmartClip: 3M Unitek. CA 92867� Carrière: ClassOne Orthodontics. 2724 S� Peck Road. FL 34243� (TO BE CONTINUED) 640 JCO/NOVEMBER 2008 . Sarasota. WI 53082� Dynamax: Dynamax (UK) Ltd�. IN 46350� Hyrax. Pendulum. but none by more than 16% of the respondents� The most common treatments were molar intrusion. 4 Queen Anne St�. 1717 W� Collins Ave�. St� Ann. CA 91016� Orthos. but intraosseous implants in a median of zero patients� The median patient age was 25� Only a quarter of the respondents who used miniscrews thought the availability of skeletal anchorage had reduced their need to recommend surgical-orthodontic treatment� Clinicians were divided as to who inserted the miniscrews. Denver.2008 JCO Study of Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures More than three-quarters of the respondents said they treated at least one Invisalign case in the previous year. Inc�. Damon. followed by space closure� Other types of cases were treated routinely by fewer than 10% of the respondents� Skeletal Anchorage A section on skeletal anchorage was also included in the Treatment Study questionnaire for the first time (Table 19)� About 60% of the clinicians reported treating at least one such case in the preceding year. Cambridge. Class II.