circulating tissue that supplies nutrients, removes wastes, and coordinates metabolismunctions Functions: Metabolic – nutrition, excretion, respiration and hormone transport; Physical / Chemical – maintenance of acid-base, electrolyte and water balance; Body defense – WBC, coagulation Blood = plasma (50-60%) + formed elements (40-50%) Whole blood – formed elements = plasma – clotting factors = serum Plasma = 90% water, 6-8% organic solutes, 2-4% inorganic solutes General Composition 7-8% body weight 5-6L in male, 4-5 in female Bright red arterial and darker red venous blood Specific gravity: 1.035 – 1.075 Viscosity = 5-6x water pH: 7.35-7.45

Cellular Elements Cell Subtype Erythrocytes / RBC Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil Lymphocyte Monocyte Thrombocytes / Platelet Reticulocyte Leukocytes

Description most abundant, 40-45% of blood, 5.2M in males, 4.6M in females, no organelles, 33% hemoglobin, biconcave, flat, no nucleus, strongly flexible (reversible deformation), 120 day life span Nucleated – granulocytes (NEB) and agranulocytes (LM), phagocytosis, 4-10K in blood, shorter life span, active glycolysis, PPP, moderate oxidative phosphorylation, rich in lysosomes, has unique enzymes (myeloperosidase & NADPH-oxidase), CD11, CD18 58%, phagocytic, polymorphonuclears (PMN), infections 2%, allergies, parasitism 1%, heparin, histamine 33%, B lymphocyte for antibody production, T lymphocyte for cell-mediated immunity 4%, large phagocytes, clean up dead neutrophils Irregularly shaped, colorless, 150-400K in blood, from megakaryocytes, no nucleus, platelet plug, glucose as energy, glycogen during coagulation Immature RBCs, active protein synthesis, has glycerol kinase

Plasma – Straw-colored, clear, 90% water, electrolytes, metabolites, nutrients, vitamins, hormones, proteins Plasma Protein – 7.0-7.5g/dL, major part of solids in plasma, separation via (1) salting out – use of solvents  fibrinogen, albumin, globulin; (2) Electrophoresis – albumin, α1, α2, β and γ fractions Plasma Protein Albumin α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) α1-fetoglobulin Retinol-binding protein α1-antitrypsin (α1 antiproteinase) Ceruloplasmin Haptoglobulin (Hp) α2 macroglobulin Description Major plasma protein, 3.4-4.7g/dL, single polypep chain, 3 structural domains, 9 subdomains, osmotic effect, distribution and transport (FFAs, bilirubin, Ca, steroid hormones, W, sulfonamides, penicillin G, dicoumarol, aspirin) Mostly conjugated, α1 or α2 based on electrophoretic mobility High (42%) CHO content, intrchain disulfide bonds, unknown function Fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, ↓ postnatally, homologous to albumin, elevate in hepatoma Transports retinol, equimolar complex with transthyretin (thyroxine) Inhibits leukocyte proteases, protects lung damage from inflammation, Heavenly blue, ↑ Cu, 8 Cu binding sites, carries 90% of plasma Cu, ferroxidase (Fe2+  Fe3+), Cu+ homeostasis ¼ of α2-globulins, binds extracorpuscular Hgb noncovalently, prevents Hgb loss in urine Large, 4 identical subnits, internal cyclic thiol ester bond (Cys-Glu) = thio ester plasma CHON family, Zn transport, panproteinase inhibitor, binds to cytokines and targets them Major component of plasma CHON (3%), transports iron, 2mol Fe / transferring, ↑ in pregnant and iron-deficients Binds and prevents heme excretion, Fe reused in liver Precipitates Group C polysacchs of Pneumococcus with Ca, promotes phagocytosis, <1mg/dL in adults, ↑ with acute infections Very small amounts, easily excreted, part of histocompatibility antigens Fat transport, LDL has 50% total cholesterol Igs / antibodies, made by humoral immune system (B cells) with antigen stimulation Becomes fibrin for hemostasis, ↑ during menstruation, pregnancy, inflammation, infection ↓ = hepatoma Emphysema (due to lack of countercheck of proteolytic damage), hepatic cirrhosis, smokers ↓ = Wilson’s disease - ↑ Cu in brain and liver Abnormalities ↓ = nephritic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis

α-globulin β-globulin

Transferrin Hemopexin C-reactive protein (CRP) β2-microglobulin β-lipoprotein γ-globulins Fibrinogen



Acute infections Hypobetalipoproteinemia (↓ LDL) ↑ = infections

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