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tNAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 00 4Monterey, California
TACTICAL HF FIELD EXPEDIENT ANTENNA PERFORMANCE
VOLUME I by Gurkan Turkes March 1990
Richard W. Adler
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TACTICAL HF FIELD EXPEDIENT ANTENNA PERFORMANCE VOLUME I
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Computer Simulation, Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC), Tactical -IFField Antennas
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This thesis inxestigates the performance of xarious configurations of tactical Iligh Frequenc (HF) field deployable antennas in the presence of lossy earth. Antennas investigated include horizontal dipoles, short sloping %%ires, mN erted vees, and monopoles with buried and elevated radials. Numerical models of the antennas are exercised via the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) for radiation pattern performance. Antennas are analyzed for applicability to (1) short-range Near Vertical Incident Skywave (NVIS), %here high ele ation radiation angles are required. (2) medium- and long-range lo%% radiation angle use, and (3) verticaly polarized lo.N-angle radiation for ground %Navecommunication. Good NVIS and ground %Ne performance oLcurs for horizontal dipoles. Sloping ires and sloping dipoles are similar to horizontal dipoles but exa hibit a moderate amount of azimuth plane directi%it.. Vertical monopoles xNith at least 15 buried radials produLe mediumand lona-rane sk.Naxe coxerage and good ground '.axe performance. Four elexated radials for quarter-N\axelength monopoles are-shown to out-perform 15 buried radials and are much-easier to erect. The larger and more difficult-to-erect inverted vee dipole slightly outperforms a monopole by virtue of modest azimuth plane directivity. The results of this study can be included in an- antenna engineering handbook and can be used to interface with existing ionospheric propagation codes in order to obtain optimum communication effectiveness. h
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Tactical HF Field Expedient Antenna Performance Volume I by Gurkan Turkes Lieutenant Junior Grade, Turkish Navy B.S., Turkish Naval Academy, 1982 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1990
Author: Gurkan Turkes Approved by:w 9 !' =
Richard W. Adler, Thesis Advisor
Ste ien JauregaSecond Reader
-'ohn P. Powers, Chairman, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
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Vertical monopoles witfl at least 15 buried radials produce medium. inverted vees.Defense Technical Information Center . Good NVIS and ground wave performance occurs for horizontal dipoles. where high elevation radiation angles are required.and long-range low radiation angle use. . Antennas are analyzed for applicability to (1) short-range Near Vertical Incident Skywave (NVIS). short sloping wires.ABSTRACT This thesis investigates the performance of various configurations of tactical High Frequency (HF) field deployable antennas in the presence of lossy earth. Acoession For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced Justificatio By Distribution/ ID"  Availability Codes Avail and/or Dist Speslal °'° Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . Sloping wires and sloping dipoles are similar to horizontal dipoles but exhibit a moderate amount of azimuth plane dirc-tivity. Antennas investigated include horizontal dipoles. and (3) vertically polarized low-angle radiation for ground wave communication. The results of this study can be included in an antenna engineering handbook and can be used to interface with existing ionospheric propagation codes in order to obtain optimum communication effectiveness. The larger and more difficult-to-erect inverted vee dipole slightly outperforms a monopole by virtue of modest azimuth plane directivity.2) medium. Numerical models of the antennas are exercised via the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) for radiation pattern performance. and monopoles with buried and elevated radials. Four elevated radials for quarter-wavelength monopoles are shown to out-perform 15 buried radial3 and are much easier to erect.and long-range skywave coverage and good ground wave performance.
............ HALF-WAVELENGT...................1) IV.............. Wires buried 2 inches deep (4...... 31 F.21 D................ A...................................... QUARTER-WAVELENGTH SLOPING WIRE.................... 31 2...............MMENDATIONS.......SLOPING DIPOLE.....MONOP~OLE WITH RADIAL WIRES .......... high (4..................................... BACKGROUND..................................... ANTENNA MODELING AT THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL B......3 1.... THE\ NMERICAL ELECTROMAGNETCEGNEIGDSG SYSTEM (NEEDS) .... Vee Dipole ........... INFORMATION ABOUT GROUND.... NUMERICAL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR ANTENNA ANALYSIS ................ 2.. A..HORIZONTAL DIPOLE............14 C. 111..........21 E....... 1 2 3 3 4 D...... THE N UMER ICAL ELECTROMYAGNETICS CODE (\EC-3'MAI'NFRAME)..................... IMPORTATNT ANTENNA PARAMETERS ........................ 31 1...... 11........... A..................08 ............................ QUA RTER-WA VELENGT-I MONOIPOLE WITH A 4 FOOT GROUND ROD .. and 30 wires) ............................INVERTED VEE DIPOLE....... INTRODUCTION .......... CONCLUSION'S.................Defense Technical Information Center .... HALF-WA VELENGT........... QUA RTE R-WAVELENGTH. 15.... CONCLUSIONS AND RECO.... C.... B............... D.......... BASIC THEORY OF THE ANTENNAS....... 43 43 -iv Courtesy of the Department Of Defense ...... c......3...TABLE OF CONTENTS I........ A........ 3....... M4onopole.. 15................ 14 B. 9 9 9 10 14 HALF-WNAVELENGTH... Wvires elevated 0.....5 1.............................................. .... FHalf-Wavelength Dipole...... and 30 wires)... WIRE MODELING GUIDELINES.......................................12 DESCRIPTION OF ANTEN NUEIA OES.........................
Defense Technical Information Center ...............................43 tAPPENDIX A.......45 SAMPLE SESSION OF NEC....... LIST OF REFERENCES .......47 49 vAPPENDIX B.................B.......50 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense ....... NPGNEC MAINFRAME (NEC-3) LIBRARY..... RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................... INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST..............
...LIST OF TABLES Table 1...... 8 vi Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .......................... GROUND TYPES...Defense Technical Information Center ...
...... ihe azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole ........... Figure 14.of the buried radial wire system ..... The quarter-wavelength -monopole with a 4 ft ground rod ...............LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.... vee dipole ..... The monopole antenna fed from a coaxial cable . Figure 11. The elevation patterns -of the sloping wire for 7........... The radiation patterns of the monopole with buried radials .... Figure 6...... The elevation patterns of the 120 ft high inv.. Figure 29. Figure 2...... Figure 9...... Figure 20... Figure 5................. Figure 16......... Figure 27... The half-wavelength horizontal dipole .. The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength sloping dipole .... Figure 30. The quarter-wavelength sloping wire ..... Figure 21....... The elevation patterns-of -the 35 ft high inv.......... Figure 3...... Figure 10.. Figure 25.......... Figure 12.............5 MHz . Figure 28.. Figure 23.......Defense Technical Information Center .. The half-wavelength inverted vee dipole .. The azimuth. 4 5 6 7 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 -2 vii Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .. Figure 22.............................2 MHz .....3 MHz . The elevation patterns -of the sloping wire for 28.. The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength inverted vee dipole ................................ The performance curves of the elevated radial wire system . The azimuth pattern of the quarter-wavelength monopole ...... The azimuth pattern of the quarter-wavelength-sloping wire ... Figure 15.................. Figure 19.. Figure 8........... The elevation patterns-of the sloping wire for 21... The radiation patterns of the monopole with elevated radials ............... Figure 26....... vee dipole ...... Figure 4.. Figure 7.... Figure 24............... The vee dipole antenna .... The elevation pattern-of the half-wavelength inverted vee dipole ........ The elevation patterns-of the half-wavelength sloping dipole . The quarter-wavelength monopole with buried radial wires .. pattern of the halftwavelength horizontal dipole ............... .......... The quarter-wavelength -monopole with elevated -radial wires . The half-wavelength sloping dipole .. Figure 17.. The elevation patterns of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole ....... Figure 18......... The performance curves.... The elevation pattern of the quarter-wavelength monopole ...... The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole ... The half-wavelength dipole ...... Figure 13....
Before the advent of satellites. medium-. 11 year cycle as well as randomly due to solar disturbances. In this thesis.Defense Technical Information Center . the following set of 1-1-F tactical antenna model configurations were analyzed at 3. skywave is the dominant mode of propagation. BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION The military forces of today have the capability to be highly mobile. For the HF band.3. 24 hour cycle 2. there are -two possible propagation modes.8.2. 4 season cycle 3. and integrate complex intelligence resources and weapon systems to effectively deliver combat power at critical points. But in a worst-case operational scenario. the assumption would have to be made that satellite communications would be'impossible. The control and coordination of these capabilities rely on dependable communications. 21. 14.5 MHz frequencies that cover the HF band HI-alf-wavelength horizontal dipole skywave and ground wave. the military employs numerous and varied communication systems. and 28. 7. and radio telegraph. To support the complex nature of the modern battlefield. FI connunication systems provide the military short-.2. A. Users of military HF communications vary from special operation teams which are operating in isolated areas to major military command headquarters which control joint service operations. strike quickly over long distances. HF technology has been relatively neglected as satellite communications are more reliable and the data rate is much higher than HF links. the ionosphere varies in density over 1. For example. The changing conditions of the ionosphere effect the useful extent of the HF band. long range communications were routed over high frequency ( HF ) skywave paths. where the II Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . The high frequency (I-IF) band covers frequencies between the 3 and 30 MHz as defined by the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR). and long-range communication for voice.I. digitally coded burst messages. radio teletype traffic. In this situation all essential external cornmunications would have to be made with HF communication systems.
15. number of radials and the position of them with respect to the ground.08 wavelengths high. Finally.. 1]. the loss resistance is small compared to the radiation loss [Ref. B. (2) where RL is the loss resistance and R. average power gain. The radiation resistance R.. length. sloping angles for dipoles. For example. The results of this study can be used to interface with existing ionospheric propagation codes in order to obtain optimum communication effectiveness. The effect of the input impedance on the radiation pattern is one of the most important observable and controllable factors. buried 2 inches deep or elevated 0. IMPORTANT ANTENNA PARAMETERS Antenna parameters such as input impedance. Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . the antenna impedance should be a conjugate match which means a load of equal resistances and equal magnitude and opposite sign reactances. The loss resistance RL represents both power dissipated on the antenna structure and associateJ hardware as heating losses and power dissipated in the ground because of the ground-system losses. and the feed points were varied.. ground rods. one quarterwavelength long. it should be noted that the antenna impedance for receiving and transnitting is the same as a consequence of reciprocity [Ref. is the antenna resistance. The resistive part consists of two components. = i.. height above ground. lJ. R. + (1) where Z. is a form of dissipation and represents power that leaves the antenna as radiation and never returns. is the antenna impedance. 11.* Half-wavelength inverted vee dipole 0 Half-wavelength sloping dipole 0 Quarter-wavelength sloping wire * Quarter-wavelength monopole with 4 ft ground rod * Quarter-wavelength monopole with 4. and X. is the antenna reactance. is the radiation resistance of the antenna. to maximize the power transferred from a receiving antenna. and 30 radial wires. On many antennas.Defense Technical Information Center . Rill = RtL + Rr . The input impedance of an antenna is the impedance presented by the antenna at its terminals and is composed of real and imaginary parts [Ref. The antenna impedance is important for transfer of power from a transmitter to an antenna or from an antenna to a receiver.
.e. 1] cos[( F(O) = g(o0Jo) = -i-) cos 0) sin os (4) where g(0) is called the element factor and ](O) is called the normalized pattern factor. 1] D= 2. I].Defense Technical Information Center .94(h)i+ A 1. The current distribution of the half-wavelength dipole is 1(z) = Imsin[#( . l b [Ref. dissipation). 1]. 2.Iz)] where Iz and 2-t 7 This=current goes to zero at the ends-(z - (3) +-s-) and its maximum value Imoccurs at the center (z=0)as seen in Fig. 2 [Ref. l]. It has a linear current distribution whose amplitude varies as one-half of a sine wave with a maximum at the center [Ref. I]. Half-Wavelength Dipole This is a very widely used antenna. BASIC THEORY OF THE ANTENNAS 1.. Starting from this current formula the complete (i. The directivity of a vee dipole can be greater than that of a straight dipole. The-corresponding directivity of the vee dipole is [Ref. Vee Dipole "This antenna can be visualized as an open circuit transmission line that has been bent so that ends of length (h) have-an included angle y as seen in Fig.15 (5) (6) DdB = 10 log(D) Figure 3 is a typical radiation pattern (elevation) of the inverted vee dipole. The real part of the input impedance (the input resistance) represents far field losses (i. normalized) far-field pat= tern can be obtained as [Ref. Ia [Ref." The input impedance of a vee dipole is generally less than a straight dipole of the same length. The 0 variation of the function F(0) determines the far-field pattern as seen in Fig.e.C. Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .. The advantage of a half-wavelength dipole is that it can be made to resonate and present a zero input reactance.
Defense Technical Information Center . Monopole "A monopole is a dipole divided in half at its center feed point and fed against a ground plane.DIPOLE (7) 2 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense ." [Ref. 4. ZINMONO I ZIN.SS /2 1(z) 78 1. The input impedance for a monopole is therefore half of its dipole counterpart as is the radiation resistance and input power.0 (a) (b) Figure 1. High frequency monopoles are often fed from coaxial cables behind the ground plane as seen in Fig. The principles of image theory are applicable and the terminal voltage is half that of the dipole because the gap width of the input terminals is half that of the dipole and the same electric field over half the distance gives half the voltage. 1] The currents and charges on a monopole are the same as on the upper half of its dipole counterpart. The half-wavelength dipole: (a) Current distribution I(z) (b) Radiation pattern F( 0 ) (From Ref 1) 3.
In this thesis. -buildings. etc. The reason fair ground was chosen is because there are many configurations of the antennas and five different frequencies. 5 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . In many situations the-earth is well approximated as being infinite and planar. since the fields above the image plane are the same. INFORMATION ABOUT GROUND The operation of HF antennas which usually are wire antennas is affected significantly by the presence of typical environmental surroundings such as the earth. VONO Rr. The vee dipole antenna: (From Ref.e. but it is a poor conductor. D. 21. the roof of a car. the various configurations of the antennas were investigated over fair (average) ground. such as radial wires around a monopole. ground). A ground plane can take many forms. 1) Rr.Figure 2.. or the real earth (i. In the Antenna Engineering Handbook.Defense Technical Information Center .DIPOLE (8) The radiation pattern of a monopole above a perfect ground plane is the same as that of a dipole similarly positioned in free space. practical ground types are-considered under six different categories as seen in Table 1 [Ref. compared to other ground types. Fair ground also has average values of perrnittivity and conductivity.
INV.. VEE DIP.. EPS=-1.2MHZ L--LAMBDA/2 ELEVATION PAT. PATTERN GAIN IN BIl ..SIG=. HRIZONTAL VERTICAL TOTAL IELEVATION ANGLE Figure 3.. H=7. The elevation pattern of the half-wavelength inverted vee dipole 6 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .62M--25 FR=14..Defense Technical Information Center . .003 90 180 0 0 .
is the input resistance. and RI. The electric fields penetrate into the earth and excite currents. RoHMmc is ohmic resistance. The monopole antenna fed from a coaxial cable: (From Ref. Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .ground is different from the pattern when the antenna is operated over a perfect ground plane.Defense Technical Information Center . By using image theory. 1] as R. The Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) includes the Fresnel plane wave reflection coefficient method for modeling structures over ground. 1) The effect of imperfect ground.Rr. The pattern of an antenna over finite. approximate patterns can be obtained.Figure 4. which has low conductivity compared to perfect ground. R.... is the radiation resistance.. + R OMIC R"' Rn (10) where e is the radiation efficiency. This method is fast but of limited accuracy and should not be used for structures very close to the ground. is more ohmic losses._ e . Therefore the radiation efficiency of the antenna decreases [Ref. i 7 . These currents give rise to ohmic losses which appear as an increase in the input ohmic resistance.
This is usually achieved with a Radial Wire Ground System which produces a pattern more nearly like that for a perfect ground. Conductivity Relative permittivity (mhos!m) 0.'Norton method requires a separate computer program (SOMNTX) to be run prior to NEC in order to generate and store a " Ground Interaction Matrix " which is then called by NEC.5 0.0 22. increasing low elevation angle radiation which is very useful for long distance communications.0 0.0 Land type flat desert.003 0.steep rocky hills average ground pastoral land.15 34. cities mountains. Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . GROUND TYPES (FROM REF.5 7.Defense Technical Information Center . medium hills rich farm land rice paddy There is another method which is called Sommerfeld/Norton for wire antennas only. The losses in an-earth ground can be reduced by providing a highly conductive return path. 2). but it is usually convenient to do so. This method was used in this research since it is more accurate for structures which are close to ground although it is slower and requires more memory space. For high-power transmitting antennas it is important to have a well designed radial system to achieve high efficiency.0 0. The radial wires can be laid on top of the ground or buried slightly beneath-it.00022 2. they need not be buried. The Sommerfeld. In-fact.0012 10. however.011 13.065 0. they should not be buried too deep.Table 1.
two widely used antenna modeling programs which are available at NPS. * Lumped parameters (such as loading coils and traps) can be included in a MININEC model. GRAPS for plotting. IGUANA./XT or PC:AT computer. b. Limitations Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . MININEC is a good tool for antenna analysis and design. The capabilities of MININEC are [Ref. * Electric and magnetic fields (near and far) can be calculated. a graphics utility system. 3]: 9 Up to 10 wires and 75 unknowns (segments) may be used in constructing a MININEC model. ANTENNA MODELING AT THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL At present. MININEC MININEC is an interactive program which is useful for many applications in wire antennas. and several auxiliary prograins. NUMERICAL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR ANTENNA ANALYSIS A. Capabilities Although it has liinted capabilities. 0 Antennas can be modeled either in free space or over perfectly conducting ground. NEEDS consists of a package of programs and operates on a PC. especially for small problems.Defense Technical Information Center . * Fresnel reflection coefficient correction of radiation patterns may be included in MININIEC models via up to five changes in ground surface impedance.11. They are the Mini-Numerical Electromagnetics Code (MININEC) which runs on a personnel computer (PC) and the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) which runs on a mainframe computer and on a PC. * Far fields can be calculated in either volts per meter or in terms of power radiation pattern. Tle ground model may resemble either a circular or cliff model. there are. The programs are MININEC and NEC2 for antenna modeling. * Solutions can be obtained for impedances and currents on wires. B. 1. THE NUMERICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING DESIGN SYSTEM (NEEDS) As a system. a.
10 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . Technically. INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS UTILITY FOR AUTOMATED NEC ANALYSIS (IGUANA) This system was developed to reduce the time required for NEC antenna model evaluation by providing partial automation to both the data entry and the data display processes. THE NUMERICAL-ELECTROMAGNETICS CODE (NEC-3/MAINFRAM E) 1. a considerable learning process is required to master its capabilities. 3. 71: * Up to 300. Only simple structures or a simplification of larger structures can be modeled. GRAPS GRAPS is a program designed for plotting output data from MININEC. depending on the version of NEC being used. NEC2 NEC2 is a version of NEC limited to structures which are in free space or above the earth [Ref. bilinear. and log-log [Ref. 6]. 3]: * The number of wires and segments can be used in modeling are limited. * MININEC can not perform surface modelings via a surface current patch. C. IGUANA simplifies modeling of structures by allowing use of a digitizer or mouse to. 51. polar. data transmission to a mainframe host computer. 4].Limitations of MININEC are [Ref. NEC is used to analyze antennas or other metal structures based on the use of numerical solutions of integral equations for currents induced on the structure by an incident plane wave or-a voltage source. Because it is a powerful and complex tool. 4. log-linear. This data can then be edited and combined with other views of the object to produce a three-dimensional model. while NEEDS was used as an auxiliary tool. It is-a user-oriented computer code written in FORTRAN and the most capable and flexible tool available at NI'S for electromagnetic modeling of wire antennas. and display of NEC output data [Ref. 1000. It is menu-driven and written in BASIC. INTRODUCTION All antennas from this thesis have been modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code. NEC. or general data. * MININEC can not be used for antennas closely coupled to finite ground.input views of a structure.Defense Technical Information Center . Smith. The various types of GRAPS plots are linear. Facilities are included for user input of required control and documentation cards. Version 3 (NEC-3) with double-precision accuracy on the IBM 3033 computer. 2. NEC-3 has the following capabilities [Ref. or 2000 -wire segments. In particular.
ELECTRIC FIELD INTEGRAL EQUATION (EFIE) In solving for the current. MAGNETIC FIELD INTEGRAL EQUATION (MFiE) NEC includes a patch option for modeling surfaces using the MFIE. and ready accessibility to data.R') R 3. The solution is obtained by using the method of moments. 71: 11 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . = source point. 71: Io . a current is uniformly distributed around the segment surface. = distance along the wire axis. Using the extended thin-wire kernel. two approximation options are available in NEC. and data handling utilities (see Appendix A) The NEC codes use both an electric field integral equation (EFIE) and a magnetic field integral equation (M FIE) to solve general electromagnetic radiation problems. = COpc& = phase constant. For thin-wire the current on the surface of segment is reduced to a filament of current on the segment axis. or 1000 surface patches.* Up to 150. * A library of useful PROGRAMS. the thin-wire kernel and the extended thin-wire kernel. The I FIE used in NEC is given in [Ref. = permittivity. = incident electric field at r. = axial current. EXECS. 2. where f is the-frequency. 500.Defense Technical Information Center . * More rapid computations than obtained using NEC2 on a PC. = observation point.?S (. The EFIE used in NEC is given in [Ref. = 24f. A k 2 . T (F.rF) = unit vector along the wire axis. This formulation is restricted to closed surfaces with nonvanishing enclosed volume. F s (11 ) where: S so E'() co I(s') r k F F' g(". exp = free space Green's function. * Convenient storage of NEC datasets and results.
up to AL = 2 for the same accuracy as the thin-wire kernel approximation. or-less when modeling critical regions of an antenna.a 6. The segment length A should be 0. A wire segment is defined by the coordinates of its two end points and by its radius. less than about 10E-3 2.efficient run-time.05).Defense Technical Information Center .. = unit vector normal to the surface.of segments is the-most critical step in obtaining accurate results. For accuracy and. guidelines are given for modeling wire antennas. Since only wire antennas were investigated in this -thesis. 3.) x JYs(F') x V'gds'Fcs' f (12) n D. is the wavelength of the desired -frequency.12 <A < 0. 7] 1. Using extremely short segments. = incident magnetic field at the observation point. 5. An antenna and any other conducting object in its vicinity that affect performance must be modeled with strings of segments following the paths of the wires. 2. = surface current density. the radius of the wire can be increased for modeling large-diameter conductors.0012 and ). 4. the number of segments should be the minimum required. The wire radius must be small compared to the segment length A . WIRE MODELING GUIDELINES Short straight segments for wires and the flat patches for surfaces are the basic de- vices for -modeling structures with NEC. For the thinwvire kernel approximation. 12 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .1(F)= 2n x T7l(F + 5 where: 7. A must be-greater than about 8 for errors of less than 1%.(F) ". But. -Each wire must be broken-into segments of length A . Proper choice. Geometrical-and electrical guidelines for segments are given below [Ref. where 0. segments should follow the paths of conductors as closely as possible. Geometrically. should be avoided since it may lead to numerical -inaccuracy. for the extended thin-wire kernel -approximation.
NEC will not allow the current to flow from one segment to other. and not to the mid-point of a single segment. A segment is required at each point where a network connection or a voltage source is located.Defense Technical Information Center . 13 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . 11.7. Large changes in radius between the two adjacent connected wires should be avoided. It is also important that the largest radius not violate guidelines (5) and (6). as long as the lengths of two adjacent segments are held to a ratio of 2:1 or less. 8. Any changes in segment length between two adjacent connected wires should be limited to a factor of 2:1 or less. 10. The change in radius between adjacent segments should generally be limited to a factor of two or less. The end of one wire must be connected to the junction of two segments on another wire. in regard to the radius versus segment length. Very long and straight wires may be modeled using tapered segment lengths (with the "GC" card). Identical coordinates should be used for connected segment ends. 12. If the distance between the ends of two segments is greater than about IE-3 times the length of the shortest segment. 9.
The azimuth pattern of the same antenna is given in Figure 9. But in some cases. 14 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . the main lobe direction may not be in the sloping (desired) direction due to the antenna height.III. The four-wavelength high dipole provides good medium and long range communications as seen in Figure 6c.high elevation angle radiation) communications. In Figure 6b the height of the antenna is now close to two wavelengths with a near out of phase condition giving a maximum at 0 = 0 and more lobes at this higher frequency (14. In Figure 6a the height of the antenna is close to one half-wavelength. but it may also provide some ground wave (low elevation angle radiation) vertically polarized communications. Generally speaking. This antenna provides medium and long range communications. 8.Defense Technical Information Center . especially for high frequencies (see Figures S and 9). It favors NVIS. there is not a perfect null at 0 = 0. and 9. and relatively poor long range communications compared to same antenna at 3. Figure S shows the azimuth pattern of this antenna at 0 =43 degrees. B. medium. The results show that radiation patterns of a quarter-waveiength sloping wire are more directive than those of a half-wavelength horizontal dipole. and top angles. frequency. since the image is not exactly of equal amplitude and opposite phase. QUARTER-WAVELENGTH SLOPING WIRE The configuration of the quarter-wavelength sloping wire is in Figure 10. The horizontally polarized gain is dominant over the vertically polarized gain in the broadside direction as seen in Figures 7. These figures also show that this antenna is very good for skywave omnidirectional use because total gains of' the antenna for different frequencies have a circular shape in the azimuth plane. HALF-WAVELENGTH HORIZONTAL DIPOLE Figure 5 shows the configuration of the antenna. The results of this configuration for different frequencies and different types of ground can be used as a reference for comparison to other configurations.8 M I-z. The azimuth pattern at 0 = 45 degrees is shown in Figure 7. For fair ground.2 MHz). DESCRIPTION OF ANTENNA NUMERICAL MODELS A. the radiation patterns (elevation) show that this configuration is good for Near Vertical Incident Skywave (NVIS .
ALF-WAVELENG-.00 PHI =60.H.) *25 *35 *50 *90 *120 THETA =90.00 ETA 90.Defense Technical Information Center .'TH HORIZONTALLY POLARIZED DIPOLE HEIGHTS ( ft. The half-wavelength horizontal dipole 15 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .00 Figure 5.
NOR. EPS=1OSIG.0O3 (a1) 3 *00 (b) -0 0 ' I1IOR.DIP.5 MHz 16 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .Defense Technical Information Center .5MHZ tI-LAk4BDA/ ELEVATION PAT.2MH4Z 1--LAMBDA/2 ELEVATION PAT.2 MHz (c) Fr = 28.8 MHz (b) Fr = 14. H=36. EPS--lO.SIG*.DIP. EPS=IO.576)4=I20 FR=28. Hx36. H=36S7S= 120' TU=3. The elevation patterns of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole: (a) Fr =3-.0OJ to 120 40 -3 -ti -25 HOR.SUHZ 4AIO/ ELEVATION PAT.DOP.SIG=.576M*12O'FR=14.003 120 I40Z1 tAL IILIWU ANtt (C) Figure 6.
pattern of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole: Antenna is 120 ft.HOR. The azimuth.DIP.576M=12O* FR=3.SIG=.3 THETA=45 0 270 s 210 PATTERN GAIN IN 08 '~~~HOIZONTAL * VERTICAL TOTAL ANGLES IN DEGREES-TRUE 150 180 Figure 7.Defense Technical Information Center . EPS=1O.8 MHz 17 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . H=36.8MHZ L--LAMBDA/ AZIMUTH PAT. high and frequency is 3.OO.
H=36. The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole: is 120 ft.HOR.2MHZ L--LAMBDA/ AZIMUTH PAT.SIG=.Defense Technical Information Center .OO3 THETA=43 0 270 s 0 3 0"' PATTERN GAIN IN DOI HORIZONTAL VERTICAL TOTAL 180 w- IANGLES IN DEGREES TRUE Figure 8.576M=120 FR=14.DIP. EPS=1O. high and frequency is 14.2 MHz Antenna 18 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .
Defense Technical Information Center .HOR. H=36.5 MHz 19 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . high and frequency is 28.DIP.5MHZ L--LAMBDA/2 AZIMUTH PAT. EPS=1.SIG=. The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength horizontal dipole: Antenna is 120 ft.003 THETA-=20 0 270 90 PATTERN GAIN IN OBI -'H~~"ORIZONTAL - 180 VERTICAL TOTAL ANGLES IN DEGREES TRUE Figure 9.576M=120' FR=28.
* CONNECTED TOWER.Defense Technical Information Center . 9 4 GROUND ROD. The quarter-wavelength sloping wire 20 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . ANTENNA HEIGHT Figure 10. 'FEED (TA) AT TOP.QUARTER-WAVELENGTH SLOPING WIRE * 30 A'ND 45 DEGREES TOP ANGLES * 50OAND 9OHIGH (H).
The azimuth pattern of the 35 ft high inverted vee dipole at a fiequency of 3. and 7. and 13c and d show elevation patterns which have main lobes in the opposite direction of sloping (undesired) fbr frequencies of 28. 12a and b.Defense Technical Information Center .8. 14.5. This antenna also provides medium range as well as long range -communication. and top angle affect the side lobe levels. HALF-WAVELENGTH INVERTED VEE DIPOLE The configuration of the antenna is shown in Figure 18.2. A comparison of Figures 19 and 20 shows that more gain is obtained by incrcasing frequency rather than b} inweabing the height of the antenna. The height of the antenna. HALF-WAVELENGTH SLOPING DIPOLE Figure 15 shows the configuration of the antenna. C. Increasing the frequency results in more gain for a 120 ft high antenna as seen in Figure 19.2.5 MHz with a 35 ft high antenna are in Figure 20. and top angle are similar to those observed for the quarter-wavelength sloping wire. it can be seen that medium.and longrange communications can be provided and higher frequencies of HF band give multilobe radiation patterns. frequency.3.8.Figures 1Ic and d. This configuration has a more directive pattern than the quarter-wavelength sloping wire.5 MHz and a 120 ft antenna. In addition.2 MHz respectively. 21. the distance between the end of each leg and the ground should not exceed 10 ft. Figure 19 shows three elevation patterns of this configuration for frequencies of 3. D. and 28. the effects of height. This pattern is vertically polarized in the direction of the antenna. The vertically polarized gain is maximum in the sloping direction as seen in the azimuth pattern (Figure 17). 14. From these figures.8 MHz is in Figure 21. Construction limitations restrict this antenna to a tower that is not electrically connected to the antenna and the angle between each leg and tower to be a maximum of 45 degrees. Radiation patterns in Figure 16 show that large top-angles produce small side lobes in the direction opposite of the slope. In general. In addition. The elevation patterns for frequencies of 3. 21 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . and 28. frequency. By comparing Figures 19a and 23. it can be seen that the inverted vee dipole provides radiation that is more directive than for a monopole antenna. radiation patterns of this configuration are more directive than those of a horizontal dipole in the direction the antenna slopes as seen in Figure 14.
. H =-90 ft.5WHZ H=5O'=5. The elevation patterns of the sloping wire for 28.ROD IA=3O AND EL.432u (b)A TA H =TOP ANGLE OF THE ANTENNA FROM THE GROUND poftrnom mm '~80 ...WN CONNECTED AND4' GR..Defense Technical Information Center . EPSx10.S1C0 FR=2a...WITT CONNECTED AND4* GR.2AU WI/S SLP. (di) TA = 30 degrees.ROD TOWER TA=45 FR=2a.WIRE...5 MHz: (a) TA =45 degrees..WL/S SLP.. (b) TA =30 degrees.OOS ELPAT. 22 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense ..4SZM ELPAT..ROD TOWER 4A UA=30 ELPAT..2AM EPS=1O. EPSl1O.... H =50 ft.. H = 9Oft.O3 FRx~a.WIRC. CPSxIQ. H =50 ft.WIRE...S1G=.ROO TOWER UAS 003 w27...SIG=.003 Fkh2.5MHZ HuOO (a) (c) WL/4 SLP.Wrn4 CONNECTED AND GR.Wrn4 CONNECTED TOWER A'OR.. (c) TA=45 degrees. -m =HEIGHT Figure 11.MHZ H=5OI=5.. WLA SLP.WIRE.PAT....SG--..5mmH =9O'47.
30 degrees.ATHCONECED SoP. 23 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . EPSm1OSIG-. LPfAT.RO T~A5WL/ SP.Defense Technical Information Center . GR.24U LA. 1-I = 50 ft.3MHZ H~9O=27.3MHZ H=5O'=15. SO H HEIGHT OF THE ANTENNA FROM THE GROUND Figure 12.WI~ TA=S5 TOWER CONNECTED AND A'CR. The elevation patterns -of the sloping wire for 21.3 MHz: (a) TA =45 degrees.ROD TA=30 IIISPMIEwn.SIG:.24M ONCE OE A.IR03 R131ZH9Z12 1600 (a) (c) WOl SLP.5l=. H = 90 ft.ES1. H-= 50 ft.SUHZ H=5O*=t5.WITH CONNECTED TOWER V GR.ROO ELPAT. EPS=1O.oos FR=21.WRE.ROD 7A=30 AND -ELPAT.OO3 rR=21. (b) TA = 30 degrees. 1-1 90ft (d) TA.OO3 rR=21.432u 00 30 -34 -20 -10 00 to (b) TA =TOP (d) ANGLE holmWem.G.'WL4 OM ND . (c) TA =45 degrees. EP5=1o.WIRE.
The elevation -patterns of the sloping wire for 7.ATcSWIRoSONM.O3~-.degrees.PAT. EPS:1IO. H= 50-ft.ewrCONTETWRANA'G. NF2OS-. H = 9Oft.ROO TAw4S ELPAt. H = 90 ft.24k JSL.2wNz H=30'15.ROO AND TA=30 EPS--Weji=.Defense Technical Information Center .ooS TOM.PWlCNETDTOUAD4OfOTgS .Wrn4 CONNECTE TOWER 4 GR.2UNZ tH=5OucS. 24 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense ..43 H404? U.WIT CONNECTED ANO TOWER A'GR. (d) TA = 30 degrees. N-AI (C) L4S.0os FR=7. H = 50 -ft.0 R72H W0=742 (b) ITA H =TOP =HEIGHT (d) ANGLE OF THE ANTENNA FROM THE GROUND Figure 13. (b) TA = 30 degrees.KA/ SMPOIP. (c)~ Tik=-45.UN (*) WIJA4 SLP.S*-z.24M EL.DIP.DOS rR*7.2 MHz: (a) TA =45 degrees.MZH~O~742 ELPAT.OTAO TWOOS~.
003 FR=28. .WL/4 SLPWREWTH CONNECTED TOWER AND 41 GR.Defense Technical Information Center .ROD TA=4s AZ. The azimuth pattern of the quarter-wavelength sloping wire 25 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .PAT. ORIZONTAL VERTICAL TOTAL ANGLES IN DECREES TRUE 180 Figure 14..24M TH=30 0 2400 PATTERtN GAIN IN DOI ..SIG=.5MHZ H=50'=15.. EPS=1O.
00 PHI = 60.Defense Technical Information Center . * CENTER FEED * 4'GROUND ROD (TA) ANTENNA HEIGHT S1 THETA = 60. The half-wavelength sloping dipole 26 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .00 Figure 15.00 ETA = 90.HALF-WAVELENGTH SLOPING DIPOLE * 30 AND 45 DEGREES TOP ANGLES ( TA) * 50' AND 90' HIGH * DETACHED TOWER.
ELEVATION EPS2$O.OO3. (b) TA =45 degrees. -H-50 t.SLPGDWWIT DETACHED TOWER V' GROUND AND ROO ELLVAIION EPSzIO.SWqZ PAT. H = 90 ft. EPSIO.SIG=. and the frequency is 2S.$10.Defense Technical Information Center .EVATlW PAT.0O3 FR / r2AD WT DETACHEDITOWE ' GOUN RO PA SLI)NG EEAINPT P=OSG-03r=8S rA H =TOP ANGLE OF THE ANTENNA FROM THE GROUND =HEIGHT Figure 16. WL2 M WITH DETACHED TOWER A'ROMN A104 O. H-= 90 ft.S4NZ ROD 30 so 3 (a) (C) RO AND TOWER 4' GROUND WITH WL/2 SWPING DIPOLE DETACHED 48--%4HZ FAI. (d) TA =45 degrees.SI~. H-=50 ft.5 M~lz for all patterns. 27 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . The elevation patterns of the half-wavelength sloping dipole: (a) TA = 30 degrees.OOS FRZ28. (c) TA= 30 degrees.rRz26.
The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength sloping dipole: degrees. .SIG=. Fl = 50 ft. EPS=1O.WL/2 SLOPING DIPOLE WITH DETACHED TOWER AND 4' GROUND ROD AZIMUTH PAT.003 FR--28. TA =45 28 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .5MHZ THETA=-23 0 270 90 PATTERN GAIN IN DOI .HORIZONTAL ' 180 VERTICAL TOTAL IANGLES IN DEGREES TRUE Figure 17. . . .Defense Technical Information Center .
29 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .* HALF-WAVELENGTH INVERTED VEE DIPOLE WITH A DETACHED TOWER HEIGHTS (ft.00 ETA 90.) * 25 * 35 * 50 * 90 * 120 1.Defense Technical Information Center . The half-wavelength inverted-vee dipole.00 Figure 18.00 PHI =60./2 ANTENNA HEIGHT THETA =90.
SIG=-.WV.003 INV. EPS=I-O.Defense Technical Information Center .576M=12O FR=.003 PAIttN GAM Del IN 12 go4MAL (C) -10 -I 0 t Figure 19.5U4HZ IPI.5. high inv. VEE DIP.SI=. The elevation patterns of the 120 -ft. EPS=1IO. DIP.576U=120' FR=14.2MHZ-t.376U=t2 iW.5 MHz (a) Fr 3.AMBDA/ ELEVATION PAT. 1I=3S.--AL2DA/2 ELEVATION PAT. CPWS30. VEE DIP. H=36.SUZ LIAMSA VEE ELEVATION PAT.003 to (b) -25 -15 -5 5 INV.2 MHz (c) Fr= 28.8 30 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .28. vee dipole: MHz (b) Fr= 14. H=36.
15. and 30 ivires) Figure 28 shows the configurations of' the antenna with 4 and 15 radial wires elevated 0.E. The elevation and azimuth patterns of this configuration are the same typical monopole radiation pattern shape as seen in Figures 23 and 24 respectively. 31 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . 2. F. higher frequencies produce more power as the number of radial wires decreases. Elevation and azimuth patterns of this antenna-for 15 radial wires can be seen in Figure 29.08-.ter such as the number of' radials and type of ground system. Its low take-off angle provides long distance skywave communications.Defense Technical Information Center . The relative power versus frequency (HF"band) for different number of elevated radial wires was plotted in Figure 30.)arameters are related to gain of the antenna. QUARTER-WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH A 4 FOOT GPOUND ROD Figure 22 shows the configuration of the antenna with insulated supporting wires and a 4 ft ground rod. This configuration with 4 radial wires produces more power than the same configuration with 15 and 30 radial wires. In addition.08 ). The relative radiated power versus frequency (HF band) for different numbers of radial wires can be seen in Figure 27. 15. It should be noted that higher frequencies produce-more-power as the number of radial wires increases. The effects of these . Wires buried 2 inches deep (4. high (4. high. Figure 26 shows elevation and azimuth patterns of the 15 radial wire configuration. The shape of the radiation patterns were not effected by changing the frequency or any other antenna param. QUARTER-WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH RADIAL WIRES I. Wires elevated 0. but it has poor NVIS performance due to lower gain at the high elevation angles. and 30 wires) The configurations of the antenna with 4 and 15 radial wires buried 2 inches deep are in Figure 25.
.003 ELEVATION PAT. N..MHz (b) Fr= 14.. H=l.2 MHz (c) Fr= 28.SIG=-.. EPS=10.5 MHz (a) -Fr= 3I8 32 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .SIH ULMUA EPS--lO. .668M=35'TR--2B.668U=35'FR=tA.. vee dipole: . to.. VEE H=IO. . .. YEE DIP. INV. . VEEDIP..003 ELEVATION PAT.003 90 INV. high inv.. FAI KOkItI"Sol It# .SIG=.2MHZ L--LAMSDA2 ELEVATION PAT. The elevation patterns of t he 35 ft.5IJHZ txLAMBDA2 EPS=IOSIG=.Defense Technical Information Center . 661I~eAL () ISO 3 Figure 20. Igo0 DIP.W.10 68&=35 FRu3.
. Fre- 33 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .8 MHz and the antenna-is 35 ft high.003 THETA=45 0 270 so PATTERN GAIN IN DOI . VEE DIP... H=1O.663M=35' FR=3.8MHZ L--LAMBD/ AZIMUTH PAT.SIG=.. EPS=1.INV. - 180 ORIONTAL VERTICAL TOTAL ANGLES IN DGRSES TRUE Figure 21.Defense Technical Information Center .. The azimuth pattern of the half-wavelength inverted vee dipole: quency is 3.
34 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .QUARTER-WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH A 4 FOOT GROUND ROD Figure 22.Defense Technical Information Center . The quarter-wavelength monopole with a 4 ft ground rod.
The elevation pattern of the quarter-wavelength monopole.Defense Technical Information Center .with a 4 ft ground rod.* QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH 4' GROUND ROD ELEVATION PAT. FR=3.8MHZ 90 120 00 -15-25 -5 GAIN IN 081 ----------------------------HOR12ONTAL S-PATTERN I 1 - ' VERTICAL TOTAL ELEVATION ANGLEI Figure 23. 35 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .
36 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .HORIZONTAL ' 180 VERTICAL TOTAL ANGLES IN DEGREES TRUE Figure 24.QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH 4'-GROUND ROD AZIMUTH PAT. The azimuth pattern of the quarter-wavelength muonopole with a 4 ft ground rod. . FR=3.Defense Technical Information Center .8MHZ THETA=60 0 270 90~9 PATTERN GAIN IN 091 .
00 ETA 90.00 ETA=90.MONOFOLE WITH 4 RADIAL WIRES (2" BURIED) MONOPOLE WITH 15 RADIAL WIRES (2' BURIED) THETA 60.Defense Technical Information Center . The quarter-wavelength monopole with-buried radial wires: (b) 15 wires (a) 4 wires 37 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .00 PHI 60.00 (a) (b) Figure 25.00 PP'I 60.00 THETA 60.
003 THETA=63 0 270 9 . EPS=1O..BURIED ) FR--3. The radiation patterns of the monopole with buried radials: vation~ pattern (b) Azimuth pattern 38 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . EPS=lO. ).BUHZ WIL/ MONOPOLE WITH 15 WL/4 RADIALS 2"T ELEVATION PAT...OWIONWI TOA (b) (a) Ele- Figure 26.SIG=.SIG=..8MHZ AZIMUTH PAT..Defense Technical Information Center ......OO3 I00 0 I&S3 -25 -I5 -3 5 (a) WL/4 MONOPOLE WITH 15 WI/S RADIALS (2" BURIED) FR=-3..
. .... .. ... 9. ..MONOPOLE WITH BURIED RADIALS .........Defense Technical Information Center ........ 0... . . S.... .. .. .. ... .... .. ...9 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .. . .. ... . ...... .. W KS. ..... . .. . .
00 PHI 60.00 E~TA 90. The quarter-wavelength monopole with elevated radial wires: wires (b) 15 wires (a) 4 40 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .MONOPOLE WITH 4 RADIAL WIRES( .00 (a) THETA =-60.00 ETA =90.08 LAMBDA ELEVATED) MONOPOL.E WITH-15 RADIALS (.00 (b) Figure 28.00 PH! ::60.Defense Technical Information Center .08 LAMBDA ELEVATED) THETA 60.
OBLAMBDA) ELEVATION PAT.Defense Technical Information Center . EPS=*1OSIGQ=. 41/ Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .WL/S MONOPOLE WITH 15 WL4RADIALS (LEATED .003 FR=14. EPS=I0ISIG..2MHZ *00 AZILACTH PAT.003 THETA=63 330 3C /270(2xc\\ .
........2 high 42 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense ...... ....) OVER FAIR (AVERAGE Figure 30...... ..MONOPOLE WlIH ELEVATED RADIALS ................... . cc/ P 7 / .. The performance curves of the elevated radial wire system: wavelength monopole with radial wires elevated 0.....s -- WA --" - FREQUENCY (MHZ... ) GROUND...........Defense Technical Information Center ..... .................08 ....... LEGEND... -.. Quarter..... ..
7.3. * Higher frequencies show more radiated power for both buried and elevated radial wire ground systems (Figures 27 and 30). the antennas have been studied at frequencies of 3. 14.2. The quarter wavelength monopole provides good ground wave communications. 2. but it has poor NVIS performance. The quarter wavelength sloping wire and half wavelength sloping dipole provide more directional radiation than the half wavelength horizontal dipole. This antenna is good for NVIS communications. such as the frequency. 21.2. and top angle should be chosen to produce a main lobe in the desired direction. 7. B. The effect of imperfect ground on the radiation pattern is less severe for horizontal antennas than for vertical antennas. The followings are observations of radial wire ground systems : * With fewer radial wires.8. A half-wavelength inverted vee dipole produces radiation that is more directive than that of a monopole antenna and provides medium. Specific observations are : 1.Defense Technical Information Center . in addition. the elevated radial wire ground system gives better results than the buried ground system (compare Figures 27 and 30). it may provide ground wave communications. The monopole with a ground rod is less efective than with a radial wire ground system in reducing the effect of finite ground on low-angle radiation. The skywave does not depend on ground constants as much as the ground wave does.5 MHz over fair (average) ground. All antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) with double precision accuracy.8. 21. .2. 7.2. Antenna parameters. 3. and 28. In this thesis.3. Radiation patterns of a half wavelength horizontal dipole may be used as a reference for other works. 14. CONCLUSIONS Various configurations of monopole and dipole antennas have been studied at frequencies of 3. 5.43 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . 6. More gain can be obtained by increasing frequency rather than by increasing the height of the antenna. * The increase in radiated power for a monopole with buried radial wires when the number of wires are-between 4 and 15 is more than the increase between 15 and 30 wires (Figure 27). 4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A.IV. RECOMMENDATIONS Additional studies are needed 1.and long-range communications. A radial wire ground system is a good ground plane for a monopole. height of the antenna.
Defense Technical Information Center .of antennas in this study.5 MHz over fair ground. Other types of conventional antenna configurations slio&. The work can be extended by doing more analysis at diftrent frequencies in the HF band and over different types of ground. 44 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . 2.and 28. Antenna types investigated were various configurations of monopoles and dipoles in this thesis. 3. New geometrical structures of wire antennas can be created and modelled based on the performance.d also be studied.
It is suitable for wires above and beneath the interface. NECGS A version of NEC which makes use of geometrical symmetry in order to simplify generation of monopole structures.APPENDIX A. 12. PLOTDG A plotting program that plots the geometry created by NEC geometry data cards. 9. NPGNEC MAINFRAME (NEC-3) LIBRARY A brief description of the programs which can be found in the NEC FORTRAN library are described below: 1. PLOTI-I3SI) A program designed for plotting radiation patterns of the sky and surflce waves. 11. 14. S. 6. PLOTDG79 A program flor plotting the data geometry on a 3279 terninal. PLOTDGLP A program designed for plotting the data geometry on the laser printer for thesis -use.'M. 13. 4.except the output is in V/M. PLOTHNAB This program plots surflace wave-data for azimuth patterns in mVM. and radial components. 7. vertical. It is quite useful for analysis of monopoles with radial wires and with top loading.on a PC). vertical. and total gain components of azimuth radiation patterns. PLOTVNAB This program plots sky and surface wave elevation patterns in mV. PLOTNF A program used to plot near fields in log or linear format. 3. NECARY A version of NEC designed for use with large arrays.Defense Technical Information Center . 10. NPSNEC (NEC2) A mainframe implementation of NEC2 (which is normally used. PLOTH3SW A program sinilar to PLOTH3SD. IPLOTRPH-IM A program for plotting the horizontal. 5. The output is-a plot of all three components plus the total in dB'V. NPGNEC (NEC3) The most current and capable version of NEC available at NPS. It is useful for checking these-cards before submitting a job for processing. 45 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . PLOTDGTX A program used for plotting the data geometry on a TEK618 -display unit. The input must contain horizontal. 2. M.
The NEC Module library includes modules compiled from the above FORTRAN programs. PLOTRPVE A program like PLOTRPHM for plotting radiation patterns in the vertical plane for half space. 19. 46 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . It must be run prior to NEC2 when the Sommerfeld. RPIMAKER A program generating the NEC RP1 cards needed to get vertical plane surface wave data for plotting.Defense Technical Information Center . it requires epsilon. and frequency in MHz. SOMNTX A program similar to SOMNEC. 16.13. sigma. PLOTRPVM A program like PLOTRPHM for plotting radiation patterns in the vertical plane for free space. but for use-with NEC3.'Norton ground option appears on a ground (GN) card. SOMNEC A program generating the interpolation table when using the Somerf'eld/Norton method fbr finite ground environments. 18. RECON < filename > must be typed to get the module from the MVS library into a form that can be run on VM.CMS. 17.
Type NECPROF and enter. A.'PF21 key. for example. if a horizontal azimuthal plot of the data is needed. EXECUTL iTtE CHOSEN PLOTTING PROGRAM The plotting program to be used is determined by which display is needed. If the second option was selected.APPENDIX B. PF15 -key and then get back into it by using the PF9 PF21 key. to display a horizontal azimuthal radiation pattern. It would vary depending on the particular circumtances and the type of problems. The result will appear either on the TEK618 display unit (if TEK618 was selected in the PLOTCMD file)-or as a DISSPLA METAFILE (if COMPRS option was selected in the PLOTCvlD file). The first entry of NECPROF is to start to NEC session . After the program run. it is necessary to exit from the old B disk file list display by using the PF3. Type ICMS and enter. It can then be run by using the PF2 or PFI4-keys. C. GET NECPROF RUNNING Type NECPROF and enter. For example. the PF3 PF9 key should be used to see DISSPLA METARILE which was just created. PLOTRPI-IM is used by first typ'ng RECON PLOTRPHM. but it is not necessary. or by typing the name of the program which will be run next to the data file in the B disk file list. SAMPLE SESSION OF NEC The following steps explain the NEC session process.Defense Technical Information Center . LOG ON B. Then. D. the second one is to format the disk which will be used. PLOTRIPHM is typed next to MWRWI PLOTDATA in the B disk file list. CREATE DATA FILE This should be done on the B disk. To send METAFILE through the 47 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . To ge into the B disk use PF9. MWRWI DATA BI (see Volume II). the B disk file list includes the following files MWRWI DATA FILE FTOSFOOI MWRWI LISTING B1 Ill BI MWRWl PLOTDATA BI It should be noted that to get to the above display. then use XEDIT to create a data file.
This will produce a plot on the IBM 3800 laser printer. to the A disk. since the B disk is temporary. This is done by typing the CA next to a filename in the B disk file list. the session will be terminated by typing LOG. The listing shows the results of the calculations. 48 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .DISSPLA plotting program. After the necessary files have been saved. a LISTING file is created. DISSPOP or THESPOP should be typed next to METAFILE in the B disk file list. Normally this printout and a plot represent the output to be saved. E. it can be sent to the B disk by typing CB next to the filename in the A disk file list. To work with this file again. F. It can be printed by typing PRINT next to the file name in the B disk file list. the files needed or necessary should be saved by sending their. It is possible to get back to the ICMS without logging off. LOGGING OFF Before logging off.Defense Technical Information Center . LISTING FILES During the running of the program.
2... Monterey.. October 19S8...Method of Moments. Naval Postgraduate School.C. J. MSEE Thesis. Oney. 1981. December 1989. 6. Rockway. C. Naval Ocean Systems Document 1326. Inc.. Thie~e. J. Stutzman. 4. Unisys Corporation. Strauch.Defense Technical Information Center . January 1981. User's Guide For The IGUANA For Version 5. GRAPS User's Guide. G. J. by John Wiley & Sons. A.4. The New MININEC (Version 3): A Mini-Numerical ElectromagneticsCode. NEC Ver. Naval Ocean Systems Document 938. 5.C. Naval Ocean Systems Center Technical Document 116. A.2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A'unlerical Electromagnetics Code ( NEC) Method of Moments. Volume 2. Logan. Prepared for the Naval Ocean Systems Center. 30 September 1988. Burke.J.J. G. CA.. Part III: User's Guide.W. 3. January 1981. 49 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . Antenna Theory and Design.LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Tactical HF Field Expedient Antenna Performance. Numerical Electrontagnetics Code (NEC) .. September 1986. W. 7. Logan.. L. J. Poggio.
ANKARA . CA 93943-5002 Chairman. 6. 5 5.S.TURKEY 1 10. Army Information Systems Engineering and Integration Center ATTN: Commander (Janet McDonald. Code 012 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. Research Administration. S.ANKARA . 1 3. I 4. Adler. 5 8. ligi Bakanliklar . CA 93943-5000 Penn State University ATTN: J. I 9. Hava Kuvvetleri Komutanligi Muhabere Bsk. Breakall.TURKEY I 50 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . Copies 1. ligi Bakanliklar . Richard W.ANKARA . CA 93943-5000 Naval Postgraduate School Dr. PA 16S02 U. Code 0142 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey.TURKEY 2 2. CA 93943-5000 Director. ligi Bakanliklar . ligi Muhabere Bilgi Destek Daire Bsk.Defense Technical Information Center . li-i Bakanliklar . Bsk. K. 5 7. Jauregui. Code EC'Ja Monterey. Code EC:Ab Monterey. ASB-SET-P) Ft. CA 93943-5000 Naval Postgraduate School Prof.INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST No. Library. -luachuca. AZ 85613-5300 Gnkur. Code EC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanligi Muhabere 13sk.TURKEY 1 11.ANKARA . CSSL 211 EE East University Park. Kara -Kuvvetleri Komutanligi Muhabere 3sk.
KOCAELI - TURKEY 2 21. Golcuk Tersane Komutanligi1 AR-GE Golcuk . Mu.TURKEY Nedirn KATAL1 Kuyubasi sok. 18. Kd.Iip-i .TURKEY 13. 20. K. No: 13 Kiziltoprak .ANKARA . 15. Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria. ve Egt.Defense Technical Information Center .Ok.ISTANBUL .KOCAELI .ISTANBUL . Cimen Apt.TURKEY Deniz Harp Okulu Komutanligi1 Okul Kutuphanesi Tuzia .Golcuk 1 - 17.ISTANBUL .TURKEY GLurkan TURKESDz.ANKARA .TURKEY Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi Okul Kutuphianesi ANKARA .TURKEY Bogazici Universitesi1 Okuil Kutuphianesi ISTANBUL . Denizalti Filosu -K. Hava Harp Okulu Komutanligi1 Okul Kutuphanesi Yesilyurt .12.TURKEY 14. Virginia 22304-6145 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . Mrk.TURKEY 16. ligi Muhabere Okulu Marnak . 19. Utgm. Kara Harp Okulu KomutanligiI Okul Kutuphianesi Bakanlikiar .
785M CM WIRE 11#12 ( RADIUS R=.1.1500.0.121. 0508M DEEP CM CM FREQUENCY :7.7. . 0. 62. 0.1500.0.003 EX 0.0.1.-.3.0. 0.010265GE 0 FR 0. . 0. .0.1.121.0.0 RPO.121.-.0508.0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES BURIED 2" =.57220.127.116.11.0 RPO.18.104.22.168.0. 0.0 .22.214.171.124 RPO.121. 0.3.0.0 RPO.0 RPO.126.96.36.199.1. 2MllZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 41.0.003 EX 0.0.1.0 52 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . 0.121.19.0.0. 1.1.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0 RPO.0. .010265M ) CM WIRE CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGlIA=.0.3. 7368.1.0.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.121. 0.1.121.0. 1.0. 0.-. 188.8.131.52.10.0. 0. 003 CE GW 2.1500.0. 62.4 GW 1.7. 1500.30 GW 1.2902.0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES CM BURIED 2" =. 10.5773.1500.0.1.0.0.1500.1500.0.70.0 RP1.0.010265 GR 0.7.2902.01.010265 GR 0.010265 GW 3. 939M //#12 ( RADIUS R=.184.108.40.206.0.2.7337.121.RPO.3.20.-0508.3.1.3. 0.0.80.10. 4.0.0. . 0508. 0.3.0. 0508M DEEP CM FREQUENCY :3.0 PL3. 9473M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 220.127.116.11.10.1.01.2 GN 2.0.94178.0.0. .0.-. 0508.0. 18.104.22.1680.0. . 0.1.0.0.0.1.1.50..22.214.171.124.0.3 PLO.121.0. 0. 0.8MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 78.0.1500. 003 CE GW 2.010265GW 3.0 RPO.0 RP1. 0.0. 0508.20.-.1.8 GN 2. 0.Defense Technical Information Center .4166.3.1609. . 66M CMl WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 126.96.36.199 PL3.121.0 RPO..0.3.2.0 RPO.0.-.60.0.1500. 0.1609.0.0.0.0 RPO.3.0.0508.1.0.0.1500.10.0 RPO.1500.0.1.
188.8.131.52.1500. 0.3.O.0.0.0.2902.2.0 RPO.1.1. 785M #E12 ( RADIUS R=.O. 66M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) =11. 66M WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) =11.1500.1500.1.0.1.10.0.1.0 RPO.3.O.50.121.0. 0. 0508M DEEP 7.1.010265M ) CM WIRE CM GROUND(0) EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.PL3.010265 GR 0. 3.20.0.010265 GE 0 FR 0.1609..1.3. RPO.0.10.0 RPO. 121.Defense Technical Information Center .15 GW 1.1500.60.2. 0. 2MHZ WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) =41.1.1. 121.10. 0.1.3.0 PL3.0.1500.1.0.4166. 184.108.40.206.0.0.0508M DEEP CM FREQUENCY 220.127.116.11. .010265 GW 18.104.22.168.121.0.1500.. 0.1.0.121.2 GN 22.214.171.124MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) 41.121.1500.3.121.3.1.1500.0 RPO. 0.0. 62.80.121. 0.O.O.121. 0.0. . 0.0.7.0 RP1. 0. 0.121.50.0.3. 0.0.0.3. 1.1.0 RPO.0.94178.0. 0.1O.0.3.40. .0. 126.96.36.199.1500.0.20.O. 0. 0508.1500.0 RPO.3.0.O RP1.1500. 0. 3 PLO.3.1500.1.1.0 RPO.0.2.0.121.3.3.7.003 EX 0. 785M * 53 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0.0.70. 0.2902.0 RPO.188.8.131.52 RPO.0 EN CMl GEOMETRY CF ~ CH CM FREQUENCY C1M CM QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES BURIED 2" =.0 RPO.0.0.3.121.0. .121.O. 0.0.0.O.1.0.003 CE GW 2.1O.0.0.0 RPO .0.1.1609.0.3 PL3. .3.3. 0.0.0.3. 0.1500. 2. 0.3 PL3 .0.-. 0. 1500.0 RPO.0.121.0 RPO.0 RPO.62.0.1500.70. 0.40.1500.121.30.0.121.1500.0 EN CM GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES CM B3URIED 2" =.3.0 RP1.1.01.0. 0508.0.121.1609. 2.0.3. 0.1500.0.0 . 0508.121.0 RPO.3 PLO .1.0 RPO.30.3.0 RPO.1.3.2.-.1.1. 0 RP1.7. 7.121. 0.-. 1609.
. . 0. .50. . 184.108.40.206 PL3 .2. 0508.0.0.010265 GW 220.127.116.11.-.18.104.22.1680.0 PL3.3.94178.2902.3.121.1.0 RPO.121.7.-.1-.1.0.0. 0.0.003 CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 CE GW 2.0508. 0.0.121.:#12 ( RADIUS R=.1500. 22.214.171.1240.1.121.0.0.1.1500.0 RPO.0.1.0.1.126.96.36.199.0. .0.60.10.121. 0.1.0.3.1609.1S00.0.3.3.188.8.131.52. 0.3.30.459M1 CM :#12 ( RADlUS R=.1500.1.1500.3.0.3.121-.184.108.40.206. 0.01.0.3.1500.0.0 RP1. 167M WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 6.0. 0.0.30.10.30 GW 1.1533.0.0.003 EX 0.80.7.0.0 EN CM GEOMETRY : QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES CM BURIED 2" =.1.010265 GR 0.1500.1533.1. 0.0.3.0.O.1.010265 GR 0.0 RP1.1500.0.1500.1.0. 62.1609.0 RPO. 220.127.116.11. .18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.0508.1. 0.010265 GEO0 FR 0.0 RPO.0.0 RPO.2.3.010265 GW 3. 003 CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 CE GW 2.1500. 0. 62.0.1500.1.3.0.121-.0.10.7.121.0. 2816.010265M ) CM WIRE SIGMA=.20.0 RPO. 0.80. 0.0.0. 0.0.0.121.126.96.36.199.3. 2MHZ = 21.010265 GE 0 FR 0.-.0.0.2.1.1500.121. .0.-. 0508.121.-. 0.1.2 GN 2.010265M) CM WIRE SIGMA=.0.0 RPO.0.0508.0 RPO.0.0.0 RPO.0.0..9.60653.3 PLO.188.8.131.52.0 RPO.0 RPO. 0. .0.3 PLO .0.3.0 RPO. 0.0j3.0 RP1.01.3.12-. 2.3 PL3.0.0 54 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0.0 PL3 .1500.O. 0508M DEEP CM CM FREQUENCY :14.0 RPO. 0508.0.0 RP1.7. 0.0.0.Defense Technical Information Center .121.1609.0. 0.-.1500.003 EX 0.3.1..3.10.0 RPO. .2 GN 184.108.40.206.121.2902.3.40.4 GW 220.127.116.11. 0.7.10.4118.104.22.168.0.1609.2.1. 0. .12-1. 1. 0.0.0 RPO. 0.1.0.0 RPO.
0.0..10.0.121. 1.0.30 GW 1.0 RPO. 1.1500.0. 0.0 RPO. .0.0.0 RPO.1. 2 GN 2. . .1500.010265 GE 0 FR 0.1.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA-.0.50.0 PL3.1.-.121.0. .6107.0-.0 55 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .-.1O. 0. 0. .0 RPO.1500.3183.1500.O.0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES CM BURIED 2" =. .0. 0508.0.1.0.-. 0.0508.3.3.2.1.121. 0. 2MHZ = 21.3.O.22.214.171.124.0.1. 1267M CH WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) CM -WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 6.1500.1609.0.3183.3. 0.3.4. .0 RPO.O. 003 CE GW 2.121. 0.459M1 CM WIRE :1112 ( RADIUS R=. 1.010265 GW 3. 2816. 0.003 EX 0.1.20.121.01. 0.80.0.0.3183.0. 0.0508M DEEP CM FREQUENCY : 14.0.0 RP1.01.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0.1.1. 0.1500-.0.2 GN 2.010265 GW 3.0508.7. 0.0.0.31126.96.36.199.0 RPO.0.2.0. 0. .0.1500.1.5. .RPO.0.0.2.3 PL3..0 RPO. 0.62.5.4.121. 121. 62.3. .-.0.3 PLO.459M CM WIRE : #12 ( RADIUS R=. 2MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 188.8.131.52.0.121.0.0 RP1.0.1500.0.-.3.0.O.7.1.2816.010265 GR 0.0508.6107.3.-003 EX 0.O.5.0.0.003 CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON =10 CE GW 2.1500.121.0508.1. 3.0.0.Defense Technical Information Center .1.010265 GR 0.0.1.1609.30.1. 0508M DEEP CM FREQUENCY 14.14.1500.60.10. 0. 0.3.O.3.2.0 RPO.0 RPO.0.0.1.0 PL3.3.0508.0.1O.1.010265M ) SIGMA=.121.14.1. 1.0.0 EN CM GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES CM CiMl BURIED 2" =.5. 1500 .O.0 RPO.184.108.40.206.0.0.40.-. 1267M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) =220.127.116.11.0.15 GW 1.121.
0.O.1.1609.121. 18.104.22.168.0.0.3 PL3.1500. 0.1500. 0. 0.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.40 . 0845M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 4.0 RPO. 0. 22.214.171.124.0.0. .0 RPO.1500.0.121.0 RPO.4 GW 1.0 EN CM GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES CM BURIED 2" =. 0508M DEEP 21.21.-10265 0 GEO0 FR 0. 62.3.0. .0.3.0.1. 3MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 14.0.083718.Defense Technical Information Center .0.0.1. 0. 0.3.0.0 RPO.0.0 RP1.O.0. .121.1500. 0.01.1500.1500.O.70.121.3 PLO.O.1500.1.10.0. 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.0.1.0. 0.3.0 RPO.184.108.40.206.0.0.0.3 GN 2.-.1500.1.1.0.121.121.0 RPO.121. 0.1500.097220.127.116.11.3.0.O.18.104.22.168.1500. 010265M) 12 56 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0.1. 5211.3.0 RPO. 0..0 .3.1500.0.121.3.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. 0.0.097138.121. 3MHZ WAVELENGTH (-FOR SKY WAVES) = 14.1500.1.3.121. 0.1.121. 0.0 RPO.0.80.0 RPO.0508.60.0508M DEEP CMl FREQUENCY 21.0.0. . 0.0.40.0 RPO.121. 1500 .0 RPO.0. 0.0 RPO.0.0 EN CM GEOMETRY Cm CH CMl FREQUENCY CM CM CMl WIRE QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER-WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES BURIED 2" =.188.8.131.52.0 RPO.1.0 RPO .3.-.1609. 385M 7#f ( RADIUS-R=. 0.0.0.7.184.108.40.206. 0.7.1500.0 PL220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.010265 GR 0.0.0.0.3. 0.0 RPO.3.0 RP1.121. 0.2.2.0.-.10.0.003 CE GW 2.0 RPO.1500.3.1500.010265 GW 22.214.171.1240..126.96.36.199.0.B0.003 EX 0.1.0 RPO.0.3.3 PLO .0.RP1.1609. 0.7.385M CM WIRE #12 ( RADIUS R=.0.1.3 PL3.0. 1. 0845M WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 188.8.131.52.3.3.0 RPO.0.70. 62.30.0508.0. .3.1500. 0.3.0 RP1.121. 0.0.0508.1609.1.
0 RPO. 0. 0.0.2694.0 RPO.0.20. .7.7.3 PLO.0.20.0.1500.1500.1500.O.0.0.1.80.0.0. 0..0.0.3.1500.10.010265 GW 184.108.40.20694.0 RPO.0.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0 PL3.2. 3MHZ = 14. .01.0.3.1.3 GN 2.0 RPO.1.10.-.121.3.60. 0.0.121.SIGMA=.-.0508.121.21.0.3.1609.0.0.0.0.0 RPO. 62.003 EX 0.0.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0508.0. 0508M DEEP CM CM FREQUENCY :21.0.0 RPO.1.1500. 0.0.0.121.0.0 RPO.0 RPO.0 RP1.60.3. 0845M WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) CH WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 220.127.116.11.1609.121.30.0.0.0.0 RPO. 0508.0. 0.1. 1.15 GW 1.1.0.-121. 62.0.7. 62.010265M ) CM WIRE SIGMA=.-121. 0.0.121.0.3.3. 0. 0508.0.1.1. 18.104.22.168. 0.3.0 RP22.214.171.124.126.96.36.19994.0508.5211.121.0. 0.7.0. 0.1.1.1.0 RPO.3.5211.O.0915.O.1500. 0..0.0 RP1.3.O.O.0.0 RP1.010265 GW 3. . .3.0 RPO.188.8.131.52.0.010265 GR 0.0.385M CM :#12 ( RADIUS R=.0.121.3. 0:0.0.3.1.121.2694.3..0.0.1.10.1500.0 57 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .184.108.40.206.0.O.0. 0.0.0.30 GW 1. 1.Defense Technical Information Center .1500. 003 CM GROUND(0) : EPSILON = 10 CE GW 220.127.116.11.0.0 RPO.0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL-WIRES CM BURIED 2" =.1609.3.0. 0.1.-.0. .18.104.22.168.3.003 EX 0.0508.3 PL3.1500.2.121. 0..1.01.0.0.0 RPO.22.214.171.124 PL3 .-.1.0.1.-.0.3. 0.0.40. 0.3.1.121.0. RPO.1.1500.0. .126.96.36.199.0 PL3.1500.0 RPO.0.3.003 CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 CE GW 2.1500.010265 GR 0.-3 PLO .0.1500.0.121.3.0. .0. 0.0.1.50. 0.21.1500.80.0915. .3 GN 2.1609.1.40.1.3. .10.30.-.70.1500.0 RPO.3. .2.1500. 0. 62.0 RPO.1500.3.121.
3. 5263M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 3.20.8183.3..3.0 RPO.-.2.Defense Technical Information Center . 1500.0.0.0.70.0.1500.0.0 RP1.0.-.1998.0.121.0508.0.1500. 0.80..0.121.3. 5263M WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) .003 EX 0.0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES CM BURIED 2" =.0.1500.121.0 .0.Q.003 0. .0.0508.3.10.10. 0.0 RP188.8.131.52.1609. .5MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 10.06496.-.2.0.0 . .7.1609.0508.1500. 0.10.1. .2.O. 62.0.0.01.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 1) SIGMA=.6315.010265 GR 0.1.0508.0.0.1.0.0.01.0.010265 0 0.0.5 184.108.40.206-.0. .121. 3 PLO .80719.1. . 003 CE GW 2.1. 0.9.Q.0508M DEEP CH FREQUENCY :220.127.116.110.1500.2.0. 0.6318.104.22.168.1.0.0 .0.1.O.0.0.3.-10265 0 GE 0 FR 0.0.1.10.-. .22.214.171.1240.1500.0.0.0.0.121. 1 .0 PL3.121. 0.0 RPO.3.299M WIRE :#12 ( RADIUS R=.0. .0.0 RPO.1.5O. 0.121.1609.7. 5MHZ WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 10.1.010265 GW 3.60.010265M) GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA-.0 RPO. 0.0. 0.010265 3. 0.0 RPO. 0.0.0.3. .10.0.-.3.0.299M CM WIRE :#12 ( RADIUS R=. 0.0 RP1.0.-.0.121.1. 003 2.40.0508.0. 62.1.3. 0.1500.1.121.30.1.0 RPO.0.06496.1.3 58 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0.121.3.121.3 PL3.0 RPO. . 121.0. .010265 0.RPO .0508M DEEP FREQUENCY : 28.15 GW 1.1998.1. 0.4 1.2.1. 0.0. EN CM CM CM CH CM CM CM CM CE GW GW GR GW GE FR GN EX PL3 GEOMETRY : QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES BURIED 2" =.3.0 RPO. 2. 0.1.0.050126.96.36.199.0 RPO. .188.8.131.52 * GN 184.108.40.206.
220.127.116.11.30 GW 1. .18.104.22.168.8183.0 RPO..60.0 RPO.C.0.6315.0.1609. RPO.0 RPO.1500. 1500.1.0.1500.121.121.0.0 RPO.0 RPO.0.1.0 RPO.0508M DEEP CM FREQUENCY :28.0. 0.3 PL3.2. 62.1. 5263M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 3.40.1500.10.0.1500.0.0 RPO.0.0.1. 2.0.299M CM WIRE #'12 ( RADIUS R-.22.214.171.124 10 RPO.30-.1500.121.0 RP1. 3158M :3.0 RPO. 003 CE GW 126.96.36.199.3. 010265M ) CM GROUND(O) EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.0 RPO . 010265M ) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.1500.3 PLO .0.0 RPO.. 0.121.0.0.3. 188.8.131.52.-.0.1500.80.3.2. 9473M WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 18. 0.3.010265 GR 0.1998.1500.121.O.0 RPO.O. 0.1.0.1500.121.0.0. 184.108.40.206.0.3.PL3 .7.O. .O. 0.1.121.7.121.O. O8LAMBDA=6.0.0508.0.0.O.O.3.0 RPO.1998. 1500 .0.3.121.3.010265 GW 3.0.0 RPO .7.0. 0.3. 121.O.1. 20 .0.5MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 10.3.0 RPO .0.5O.1609. 0.0.3O. 0. 121.121.121.O.10. .1500.1609. 1500 .10.Defense Technical Information Center .1. 121.0 EN CM GEOMETRY CM CM FREQUENCY CM CM.121.20.-0.3. 0.1.60. 0. 0.2.40 .220.127.116.11.O.0.1500.0 RP1.8MHZ WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 78.3 PLO .0508.3.0508.3. 0.0.121.0.121.010265 GEO0 FR 0. 0. 0. .1.80.0.O.0. 93911 : 12 ( RADIUS R=. 0.1S00.O. 0.0 RPO.0.1.10.121.5 GN 2.-.-.1 CM WIRE CM GROUND(O) :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL-~WIRES ELEVATED .0.1500.1.3.2.50. .18.104.22.168.1.121. 0.1500.0.0.1.003 *CM i9 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0.003 PL3. 3. 0.2.0 RP1.0. 0 . RPO.1.0. .1500.121.1.70. 0.3.0.0.0 EN CM GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES CM BURIED 2" =.
3.0. RPO. 19. 1. O8LAMBDA=22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.0. .01.1500.0 RPO.0.7. 0526.3.0 RPO.0 RPO.188.8.131.52.10.60. 0.1.1609.1.6.O RP1.0 RPO.0.-1.0.010265 GW 4.010265 GW 4. 62.0. 0.1.0 RPO.121. 0.0. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.110.3 PL3.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0.121.121.010265 GR 0.3 PLO.0.0.3158.1.7. 18.104.22.168. 0. .1.0.80V.010265 GW 3.0 RP1.0 RP1.0. 0.0.3. 0. 0.10.0 RPO . 1500.0.1500.322.214.171.1241. 9473M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 126.96.36.1990. 0..121. 939M CM WIRE #112-( RADIUS R=.0.20. 0.0.0. 0.3058.0526. 0. 0. .2.0.0 60 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0 RP0.1.1500.01.121.0.188.8.131.52.121.0. 0.Defense Technical Information Center .0 RPO.0 RPO. 0.CE GW 1. 80 .0.0.0 RPO.0.3158.0 PL3. 0.0.0. 62.3184.108.40.206.1500.0.6.8 GN 2.3 PLO.0.0 RP1.1500.8MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 78. 0. 220.127.116.11.1.0. 0.0. 60.0. 218.104.22.168.6.0.1609.1.1.3.22.214.171.124.0.1. 19.1.10.010265 GW 3.0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED .121.0.1500.0.0.1.7.3158.3 PL3. 0.121.0. 0.3. 0.-10.003 EX 0. .126.96.36.199.10.1500.50.3.1500.1500.0.0.1.0.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) -EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.0.0.6.0.010265 GEO0 FR 0.40.1. 0.0.3. 3058.3.0.121.188.8.131.52.8 GN 2.15 GW 2.-184.108.40.20668.10.3. 0.1500.1. 0.6.30.121.6. 7368.0.1. 0. .6.1.26. .1.0.0. RPO.0.0. 0.003 EX 0.1609.0 RPO. . 1500.1.50.3.3158.0 RPO.0.0. 0.0 PL3 .1. 0. 0.2.0 RPO. 3158M CM FREQUENCY 3.2.0 RPO.0. 0.0.3. 0.2. 62..0.0.0.1500.1.0. .1500. 0.4 GW 2.0.010265 GR 0. 2.-220.127.116.11. *.003 CE GW 1.0.1609.0.0.0.18.104.22.1682.121.
1500. 3158. 1. 3.0 RPO.422.214.171.124. 12 11500. 0.0 RP1. 1500.2 GN 2.O.0. 0.0.0. 3328.30 GW 2. 3328M CH CM FREQUENCY 126.96.36.199.3158M CM FREQUENCY :3.1. 785M C11 WIRE #112 ( RADIUS R=. .188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.0.-i. 939M :1#12 ( RADIUS R=. 1.0. 3058..1O.1500.010265 GW 4.0.0.010265 GW 220.127.116.11.1500.3 PLO .0. .010265 GW 3.0 EN CH GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES ELEVATED .0.0.010265 GW 3.121.0. 0.0.3.0 RPO. 0.30. .18.104.22.168. 0.3 PL3.Defense Technical Information Center .0.0.0.0.10. .0.121. 0.10.0.1.0102651 ) CM GROUND(0) EPSILON =10 SIGMA=.003 CE GW 22.214.171.124.0.1.0 RPO.10.0.003 61 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense . 9473M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 18.0 RPO .0. 0. 0.1.0.0 EN CH GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED .0.5.10.0. 0.0 RPO .0.3.0.121.3. 19.1500. 0.0 RPO. 0.1500. .7..3158.0 RPO. 0. 0.-1.3.1609.33126.96.36.199.010265 GR 0.80.0 RPO. 10.0. . 3158.121.1. 62.7. 66M WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) CM CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 11. .010265 GE 0 FR 0.0. 0.6.0 PL3 .8MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 188.8.131.52. 0.33184.108.40.206.3.0 RPO.0.0.6.219220.127.116.11. 0. 0.2.0.0.18.104.22.168.O8LAMBDA=6.121.0 RP1. 62.13. 70.0.010265M ) CM WIRE CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.26.RPO. 0. 121.3228.1500. 0. 0.0. 0. .1.0 RPO.1500.3.20.010265 GR 0.121.003 EX 0.60.1.1.1.003 CE GW 1.0522.214.171.124.8 GN 2. 0. 0.0. O8LAMBDA=3.3j1609. 0. 0.1500.3.3. 0. 73126.96.36.199.0.1.1500.2MHZ =41.0.3. 0.0.4 GW 2.010265 GE 0 FR 0.1.1.10.6.0.01.121.10. 2192. 7478.I. 0.
0.1SOO.40.1. 0.121.1500.121. 2MHZ -62 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .2.0 RPO.0.3-.2 GN 188.8.131.52 RP1.0.80. 184.108.40.2060.1500.1.01.0.220.127.116.11. 3328M CM FREQUENCY :18.104.22.168.1. 0.70.121.1500.0.2.13.3. . 0.3 PLO.003 EX 0.0.0. 0.0.0.O.22.214.171.124.10. 0.0 RPO. 0.-1.0.50. 62. SIGMA=.003 CE GW 1.3.0 RPO.2.3.2MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 41.1609.20.3.0.1609.1500.60.O.Defense Technical Information Center .1500.3.0.121.EX 0.2.0 PL3.121. 010265K ) CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10.121.0 EIN CM GEOMETRY CM CiM CM FREQUENCY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES ELEVATED .0. 0. 0.1.3 PLO . O8LAMBDA=3.1.3. 0.121. 0.1609. 0.0.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0 RP126.96.36.199 RPO.0.0.121.010265 GW 4.0.65 GW 3.0.3 PL3.1. 2192.121.1500.0-. O8LAMBDA=3. 0.1500.0.121.2. 0.1.1. 0.1500.1500.1.80.0 RP188.8.131.52.2. 0.121. 33184.108.40.206.O.0.1.1.010265 GR 0.66M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 11.121.1500.3. 3328M 220.127.116.11. 0.3. 0. 62.1.1..3. 0.0 PL3.2.0 RP1.1.-i.18.104.22.168.3.0.1500.0.0.0.0 RPO.22.214.171.124. 0.10.0.0.1. .0 RPO.0. 0.0.121.0.126.96.36.199 RPO.0.1500.0.1.0.50.40.0. 3228.0.O.188.8.131.52.0. 0.0 RPO.0.3. 0.121.0 EN CM GEOMETRY : QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED .3. 0. 0.0 RPO. 7478..10.415.1500.0 RPO.0. 0.01.1.1500.121.20. .184.108.40.206.1500.0.121.0.3 PL3 .0 RPO.0.0.0 RPO.0. .0. 10.0 RPO.0.0 RPO.220.127.116.11.15 GW 2.0.0. 0.3.1.1500.10.0 RPO.0.3.1. 785M CM WIRE :1#12 ( RADIUS R=.3. 3328. 62.0.3:3328.121.0.0102.0 RPO.1609.1.0 RPO.0.0 RPO.1.0.0.
0. 0.121.0. 0.6.1. 010265M ) CM GROUND(0) EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.0.0.0.0 RPO. O8LAMBDA=1.0. 0. 0.3..121.0. 5.010265 GW 3.1609.0.7.0 RPO.0.0.3.121.3 PL3.20.0. 0.010265 GR 0. 6801.0.2.0 RPO.40. 2192.01.60.1500.1.418.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2817.2126.96.36.199.0 RPO.0 RPO.1500.010265 GW 188.8.131.52 GN 184.108.40.206. 6901.1609.70. 10.121.0.1500. 6901.1.459M CM WIRE #12 ( RADIUS R=.3 PLO .1500.1.-i.010265 GE 0 FR 0.3 PL3 .0 RPO.0.7.0.0.0 PL3 . 0.121.0.1500.0.3 PLO.220.127.116.11.121. 0.0 RPO.0.0.0. .010265 GE 0 FR 0.1.0 RPO.1.0.1500. 0.0.O.3328. .0.2.60.0.1.Defense Technical Information Center .O.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.0.2 GN 2.-126.96.36.199.0.121.2.0.0. 0.121.4 GW 2.01.30 GW 2.0. 0.80.0.3.1609.0. 785M CM WIRE :#12 ( RADIUS R-. 690111 CM FREQUENCY 14. 0. .0.3. . .010265 GW 3.0 RPO.1O.10. 0.0 RPO.O. 0.0.7478. 0.0.0.0 EIN CM4 GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CH WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED .188.8.131.52.0 RP1.003 CE GW 1.0 63 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .3.CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 41.O. 0.2. 12681 CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 184.108.40.206.3. 0.0. .66M1 CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 220.127.116.11.0 RP1. 62-.1500. 0.3.10.121.1.3.1500.1.1.0.1500.O.0.3. 62.0 RPO.18.104.22.168.0.0.0.0.3328.121. 0.1. 22.214.171.1240. 3058. .3.1500.6.0.10.O RPO.3328. 01026511 ) CM GROUND(O) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.1.7. 0. 62.5O.121.1. 0.0.6901. 62.0 RP1.0.1. 2MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 2-1.010265 GR 0.1. 9718.0 RP126.96.36.199..0.1.1609.0.1. 0.O0.0 PL188.8.131.52.0.70. .0.010265 GW 184.108.40.2060.3.0.0.0.O.0.2.3.1.003 EX 0. 0.003 CE GW 1.003 EX 0.
0.121.121.0. 6801.0. 0. 0. .121.0102651-.220.127.116.11.O.0.010265 GR 0. .0.0.0.6.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.5. 0.1. 0.0.0.7.121.0.6901M 14. 0.1500.O8LAMBDA=1.121.1500.0.50.0.O8LAMBDA=1.2 GN 2.3.:.3.3.50.O.01.3 PLO.1500. 1.0. 0.10.3.6901M CM FREQUENCY 14.0 RPO.0. 2MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 21.1500.1.3.0 RPO.010265 GW 3.0 RPO. 2817.121. 0.0. 6901.0 RPO.Defense Technical Information Center . .0.14.2.003 GW GR GW GW 1.121.1500.3. 62.1.010265 GW 4.1.1500.1.O.0 RPO.1500.1.0.1.0 RPO.3.1500.010265 0.1.0.6901.1.1O.0.O. 9718.104.22.168.1.40.O RP22.214.171.124. 0.0 EN CM CM CH CM CM CM CMi CM CE GEOMETRY FREQUENCY WIRE GROUND(0) QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES ELEVATED .0 RPO. 0.0.2.121.1500.121. .0.1.15 GW 2.10.60. 0.6901. 6901.3.0 RPO.0.0.') EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.30 2.1.1. 0.70. 0.1.121.O.1609.0 RPO.0 RPO. .010265 GE 0 FR 0.0 RPO.0.1.0. 0.1.30.010265 64 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .0.1.10.0. 0.0. 0.O.6901. .003 CE GW 1.0 RPl. 0.7.-i.121. 1500 .3.121. 5. 0.2.2.121.0.0.3.0.. 0. 1268M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) =6. 2MHZ WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 126.96.36.1999M CM WIRE #112 ( RADIUS R=.3 PL188.8.131.52 PL3.0. 0.1500.6.121.003 EX 0.0.121.RPO.1609.2817.0. 0.-6901.1500.3.0.0 RPO. 0.1.3.0.0 EN CM GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED . 0.1500.0 RPO.1500.3.0. 0.1.3.10. 62.3. 0.0.30.459M #112 ( RADIUS 'D.0. 2192.010265 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.0.O.0.3.10.0.1500. 97-18. . 0.40 .0 RPO.0.0.0. 1268M WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 6.0.O.0.0. 0.0. 5. 0.0.121. 6801.1.
GW 4,3, 0,0,0, 0,0,-i. 2192, .010265 GE 0 FR 0,0,0,0,14.2 GN 2,0,0,0,10,.003 EX 0,42,1,01,1,0 PL3,2,1,0 RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,0.0,0,3,1609.3 PL3 ,2,2,0 RP1,1,121,0,7.62,0.0,0,3,1609.3 PLO,0,0,0 RPO,1,121,1500,80,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,70,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,60,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,50,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,40,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,30,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,20,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,10,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,0,0. 0,0,3,0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED . O8LAMBDA=1. 1268M CM FREQUENCY : 21. 3MHZ GM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 14. 0845M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 4. 385M CM WIRE :#12 ( RADIUS R=.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMAM. 003 CE GW 1,10, 0,0,1. 1268, 3.5211,0,1. 1268, .010265 GR 0,4 GW 2,10, 0,0,1. 1268, 0,0,4. 6479, .010265 GW 3,1, 0,0,1. 1168, 0,0,0, .010265 GW 4,4, 0,0,0, 0,0,-1.2192, .010265 GE 0 FR 0,0,0,0,21.3 GIN 2,0,0,0,10,.003 EX 0,2,1,01,1,0 PL3,2, 1,0 RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,0. O,0,-3,1609. 3 PL3,2,2,0 RP1,1,121,O,7. 62,0.0,0,3,1609.3 PLO,O,O0, 0 RPO,1,121,1500,80,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,-1,121,1500,70,0. 0,9,3,0 RPO,1, 121,1503,60,0.0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1S0O,5O,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1-,121,1500,40,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,i,121,1500,30,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,-1,121,1500,20,O. 0,0-,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,1O,O. 0,0-,3,0 RPO ,1, 121, 1500,0 ,0. 0,0, 3,0 EN
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CM GEOMETRY : QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL, WIRES CM ELEVATED . O8LAM'BDA=1. 1268M CM FREQUENCY : 21. 3MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 14. 0845M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 4.385M CM WIRE : #12 ( RADIUS R=.010265M ) CM GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=. 003 CE GW 1,5, 0,0,1.1268, 3.5211,0,1.1268, .010265 GR 0,15 GW 2,10, 0,0,1. 1268, 0,0,4.6479, .010265 GW 3,1, 0,0,1. 1168, 0,0,0, .010265 GW 4,4, 0,0,0, 0,0,-i. 2192, .010265 GE 0 FR 0,0,0,0,21.3 GN 2,0,0,0,10,.003 EX 0,2,1,01,1,0 PL3,2,1,O RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,0.0,0,3,1609.3 PL3,2,2,O RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,0.0,0,3,1609.3PLO, 0,0,0 RPO,1,1Z-1,-1500,80,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,70,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,60,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,50,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,40,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,30,0. 0,0,3,0 RP0,1,12Z1,1500,20,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121-,1500,1O,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1-,121,1500,O,0. 0,0,3,0 EN CM GEOMETRY :QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE CM WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED . O8LAMBDA=1. 1268M CM FREQUENCY :21.3MHZ CM WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 14. 0845M CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 4.385M CM WIRE :#12 ( RADIUS R=. 010265M ) CH GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=. 003 CE GW 1,5, 0,0,1. 1268, 3.5211,0,1. 1268, .010265 GR 0,30 GW 2,10, 0,0,1. 1268, 0,0,4.6479, .010265 GW 3,1, 0,0,1. 1168, 0,0,0, .010265 GW 4,4, 0,0,0, 0,0,-1.2192, .010265 GE 0 FR 0,-0,0,.0,21. 3 GN 2,0,0,0,10,.003 EX 0,2,-1,01,1,0 PL3,2,1,O RP1,1,121,O,7. 62,0.0,0,3,1609.3 PL3,2,2,0 RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,0.0,0,3,1609.3
Courtesy of the Department Of Defense - Defense Technical Information Center
PLO, ,,0, 0 RPO,1,121,1500,80,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,70,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,60,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO ,1, 121, 1500 ,50, 0. 0 ,,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,40,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,30,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO ,1, 121, 1500, 20,0. 0,0,30 RPO,1, 121, 1500, 10, 0.0 ,,3, RPO,1,121,1500,O,0. 0,0,3,0 EN CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CE GW GR GW GW GW GE
:QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 4 RADIAL WIRES ELEVATED . O8LAIIBDA=. 8421M FREQUENCY :28.5MHZ WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 10. 5263M WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 3.299M WIRE :1#12 ( RADIUS R=.010265M ) GROUND(0) :EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=. 003
1,10, 0,0,.8421, 2.6316,0,.8421, .010265 0,4 2,10, 0,0,.8421, 0,0,3.4737, .010265 3,1, 0,0,.8321, 0,0,0, .010265 4,5, 0,0,0, 0,0,-1.2192, .010265 0 0,0,0,0,28.5 GN 2,0,0,0,10,.003 EX 0,2,1,01,1,0 PL3,2, 1,0 RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,-0.0,0,3,1609.3 PL3,2,2,0 RP1,1,121,0,7. 62,0. 0,0,3,1609.3 PLO,O,O,O RPO,1,121,1500,80,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,70,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,60,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,50,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,40,0. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,30,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,20,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,1O,O. 0,0,3,0 RPO,1,121,1500,O,O. 0,0,3,0 EN CM GEOMETRY CM CH CIM FREQUENCY CM CMil CM~ WIRE CM GROUND(0) CE QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 15 RADIAL WIRES ELEVATED 08LAMBDA=. 8421M 28. 5MHZ WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) = 10. 526311 WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 3.299M #12 ( RADIUS R=. 010265M ) EPSILON = 10 SIGMA=.003
Courtesy of the Department Of Defense - Defense Technical Information Center
0.0.0 RPO.0.10.0.1S00.0..0.10.1..121.121. 8421M CM 28. 0.0 .0.0. . 003 CM GROUND(0) CE GW 1.1500..0.121. 0.121.5. 0.0 RP1.8321.010265 GW 4. 0. 0.-4718.104.22.168.-1.60.010265 GW 3. 0.0. 5 GN 2.-121.8421.20. 22.214.171.124.7.1500.1.0- 68 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .121-. 0.0.010265M ) EPSILON =10 SIGMA=. 0.1.0.0.1.3.1. 121.1.0. 0.0.0 RPO.0.1500.1. 0.0 RPO.121.0. 62.-126.96.36.199 RPO.0 PL3 . 0.1.2. 0.3. .5O.0.1.0.GW 1..2..188.8.131.52 PLO.1609.1500.0. 0. 0.60. 0.1-.1.-i.121.0. 62. 0.121.1.10.5. 5MHZ CM FREQUENCY = 10. 2.0. 8421.8421.0. 2192..3.1.299M CM WIRE #112 ( RADIUS-R=.1.3 PLO.0.121.0.0.5 GN 184.108.40.206. 2192-.0. 2.1. 5263M WAVELENGTH (FOR SKY WAVES) CM CM WAVELENGTH (FOR GROUND WAVES) = 3.0.1500.3. 220.127.116.11.70..121.0.1. .10. 0.010265 GR 0. 0.3.3.121.0.0.3.0.010265 GW 3. 0.0. 62.6316.15 GW 2.0 RP1.8321.1. 18.104.22.168 RPO.0.1O.1500.1609. 1.0.0.003 EX 0. 0.0.121.1.0 RPO.1500.10.7.80.8421.2 .0.0.0 RPO.1609.010265 GE 0 FR 0.1.0 EN CM GEOMETRY QUARTER WAVELENGTH MONOPOLE WITH QUARTER WAVELENGTH 30 RADIAL WIRES CM ELEVATED .121. .0 RPO.0.010265 GW 4.3.0 RPO.0. 1500.0.1.0.22.214.171.124.1500.0.0 RPO.126.96.36.199.0.1500. 0.0. O8LAMBDA=.3.0.3 PL3 .28.1.010265 GE 0 FR 0.0.0. 0.10.3.121. 0.0 RP1. 188.8.131.52 RP1.0.1500.O.0.50.1500. 0.0.47184.108.40.206O RPO.8421.1609.0 RPO.121.0 RPO.0.30..0. .0.2.0.7.0.0 RPO.0.0.003 EX 0.121.28.1500.1500. .80.Defense Technical Information Center .01.0.0.2. 8421.5.3.O.0 RPO.0.0.O. .0.0.30 GW 2.1500.0.1.0..2.3.0.01.3.0 PL3. 0. 0.3 PL3. 0.6316.0.1500. 0.0 RPO. 0. 0.30.3.0 RPO . . 0.0.7.1.010265 GR 0.. 0.
1.0.3.Defense Technical Information Center .1500.O. 0.0.RPO.0 EN 69 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .121.
CA 93943-5000 Director. Denizalti Filosu K. CA 93943-5000 Penn State University ATTN: J. PA 16802 U. 5. Research Administration. Breakail. 6. Chairman. No:13 Kiziltoprak. 7. AZ 85613-5300 Nedim KATAL Kuyubasi sok. K. ASB-SET-P) Ft.S. I. 10.KOCAELI .uachuca.INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST No. Jauregui. Code EC/Ab Monterey. 8. Virginia 22304-6145 2 3 3 3. CA 93943-5000 Naval Postgraduate School Dr.Defense Technical Information Center .ligi . Code 012 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. Library. Code EC:Ja Monterey. CSSL 211 EE East University Park. Richard W. Cimen Apt. S. CA 93943-5000 Naval Postgraduate School Prof. Utgm. 70 Courtesy of the Department Of Defense .ISTANBUL . Army Information Systems Engineering and Integration Center ATTN: Commander (Janet McDonald. Code 0142 Naval Postgraduate School 2 Monterey. Adler. CA 93943-5002 2.TURKEY Gurkan TURKES Dz. Code EC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. 4. -I 9. Kd. Copies 1.TURKEY Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria.Golcuk .
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