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Signaling Signaling System No. 7 (SS7)
Signaling System No. 7 (SS7)
Copyright (C) Siemens AG 1999
Issued by the Information and Communication Network Group Hofmannstraße 51 D-81359 München Technical modifications possible. Technical specifications and features are binding only insofar as they are specifically and expressly agreed upon in a written contract.
Signaling System No. 7 (SS7)
Reason for Update
Details: Chapter/Section Chap. 1 to Chap. 3 Chap 3.2.2 / 1st topic / 1st paragraph Reason for Update Editorial revision and formal changes Addition: Address
Issue Number 2 Date of issue Reason for Update
Editorial revision and formal changes, technical modifications
Signaling System No. 7 (SS7)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional levels . 11 12 13 16 17 17 18 20 21 24 26 28 29 33 38 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 5 . . . . . .1 3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . Message transfer part (MTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISDN user part (ISUP) .1. . 7 Signaling network . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reception of a signal unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission of a signal unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . .2. .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .Information Signaling Signaling System No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All pages are issue 2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Structure of SS7 . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . Contents 1 2 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. User parts (UP) . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 (SS7) This document consists of a total of 41 pages. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Transaction capabilities application part (TCAP) . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. Signaling connection control part (SCCP) . . . . . . . . .3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal units . . . Addressing of the signal units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signaling network management .3. . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . Correction of transmission errors . . . . . . . Functions .1. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 6 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 .
In analog communication networks. to a number of new services and facilities.Information Signaling Signaling System No. Faultfree operation is guaranteed with the channel-associated signaling systems in analog communication networks. The information can no longer be economically transported by the conventional channel-associated signaling systems. processor-controlled communication networks. For this reason. text or images). channel-associated signaling systems have so far been used to carry the control information. speech. The ITU-T (formerly CCITT) has therefore specified the signaling system no. even during existing calls – use of the signaling links for transferring user data also – used on various transmission media: cable (copper. The amount and variety of the control information to be transferred is accordingly larger. due. 7 (SS7). data services and other services – suitable for service-speciﬁc communication networks and for the integrated services digital network (ISDN) – high performance and ﬂexibility along with a future-oriented concept which will meet new requirements – high reliability for message transfer – signaling on separate signaling links. 7 (SS7) 1 Introduction Communication networks generally connect two subscriber terminating equipment units together via several line sections for message network node (e. for instance. optical ﬁber). SS7 is optimized for application in digital networks. satellite (up to 2 satellite links) – use of the transfer rate of 64 kbit/s typical in digital networks – used also for lower bit rates and for analog signaling links if necessary – automatic supervision and control of the signaling network (signaling links + signaling points) A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 7 . Control information has to be transferred between the network nodes for call control and for the use of features. the bit rate of the circuits is therefore exclusively for communication – signaling links always available. processor-controlled communication networks. Such networks offer a considerably larger scope of performance as compared with the analog communication networks.g. a more efficient signaling system is required in digital. It is characterized by the following main features: – internationally standardized (national variations possible) – suitable for the national and international/intercontinental network level – suitable for various communication services such as telephony. but the systems do not meet the requirements in digital. data. radio relay. text services.
One signaling link can convey the signaling messages for many circuits.1). One or more levels of signaling transfer points are possible in a signaling network. 2. in SS7 the signaling messages are sent via separate signaling links (see Fig. 2. The signaling points and the signaling links form an independent signaling network which is overlaid over the circuit network. The signaling transfer points switch signaling messages received to another signaling transfer point or to a signaling point on the basis of the destination address. The SS7 signaling links connect signaling points in a communication network. A signaling transfer point can be integrated in a signaling point (e. SN Circuits SN Signaling link terminal Signaling link Signaling link terminal Control Control Fig.1 Signaling via a common channel signaling link 8 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . In a communication network these are primarily the network nodes. All signaling points in the signaling network are identified by means of a code within the framework of a corresponding numbering plan and can therefore be directly addressed in a signaling message.g. No call processing of the signaling messages occurs in a signaling transfer point. Signaling points A distinction is made between: – signaling points (SP) and – signaling transfer points (STP) The signaling points are the sources (originating points) and the sinks (destination points) of signaling traffic. according to the size of the network.Signaling System No. in an network node) or can form a node of its own in the signaling network. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 2 Signaling network In contrast to the standard channel-associated signaling.
A channel of an existing transmission link (e.3). The routing of the signaling links between two signaling points can differ. In other words. 2. Generally. 7 (SS7) Signaling links A signaling link consists of a signaling data link (two data channels operating together in opposite directions at the same data rate) and its transfer control functions. In the case of failure of a signaling link.2). In the associated mode of signaling (see Fig. functions of the SS7 ensure that the signaling traffic is rerouted to fault-free alternative routes.2 Associated mode of signaling Signaling point B In the quasi-associated mode of signaling (see Fig. All the signaling links between two signaling points are combined in a signaling link set. more than one signaling link exists between two signaling points in order to provide redundancy. Signaling point A Signaling point B Circuit group (with quasi-associated signaling A-C-B) Signaling links Circuit group (with associated signaling) Signaling point C/ Signaling transfer point Fig. Signaling point A Circuit group Signaling link Fig. as the various signaling links can be used for several destinations. the circuit group connecting the signaling point A directly with the signaling point B.Information Signaling Signaling System No.3 Circuit group (with associated signaling) Example of the quasi-associated mode of signaling A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 9 . 2. the signaling link and the circuit group run along different routes. the signaling link is routed together with the circuit group belonging to the link. This mode of signaling is recommended when the capacity of the traffic relation between the signaling points A and B is heavily utilized. the signaling link is directly connected to signaling points which are also the terminal points of the circuit group.g. For this mode the signaling for the circuit group is carried out via one or more defined signaling transfer points. Signaling modes Two different signaling modes can be used in the signaling network for SS7. a pulse code modulation system with 30 channels (PCM30) link) can be used as the signaling data link. This signaling mode is favorable for traffic relations with low capacity utilization. 2. 2.
64 kbit/s digital or 4. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling Signaling routes The route defined for the signaling between an originating point and a destination point is called the signaling route. error correction – adjacent trafﬁc relations 10 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . diverting the signaling trafﬁc to alternative routes in the event of faults. assignment of the addresses to signaling points – signaling data links e. selection of the signaling transfer points. Network structure The signaling network can be designed in different ways because of the two signaling modes. signaling type (end bloc or overlap).g.Signaling System No.8 kbit/s analog – safety requirements load sharing between signaling links. on the following points: – signaling network mode of signaling. The signaling traffic between two signaling points can be distributed over several different signaling routes. operational and organizational aspects must be considered in the planning of the signaling network for SS7. for example. Planning aspects Economic. All signaling routes between two signaling points are combined in a signaling group. The worldwide signaling network is divided into two levels that are functionally independent of each other: an international level with an international network and a national level with many national networks. An administration should also have discussions with the other providers at an early stage before SS7 is introduced into international routing in order to make decisions. Each network has its own numbering plans for the signaling points. It can be constructed either with a uniform mode of signaling (associated or quasi-associated) or with a mixed mode (associated and quasi-associated).
data service. level 3 Signaling link functions. Levels 1 to 3 are allotted to the message transfer part while the user parts form level 4. ISDN). level 4 SCCP. level 2 Message transfer part Signaling data link functions. the processing of facilities as well as administration and maintenance functions for the circuits. 7 (SS7) 3 Structure of SS7 The signaling functions in SS7 are distributed among the following parts: • Message transfer part (MTP) • User parts (UP) The message transfer part (MTP) represents a user-neutral means of transport for messages between the users. 3. In this way.g. level1 Fig. the user parts control the set-up and release of circuit connections.1). Each user part (UP) encompasses the functions. protocols and coding for the signaling via SS7 for a specific user type (e.1 Functional levels of SS7 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 11 . The term user is applied here for all functional units which use the transport capability of the message transfer part.Information Signaling Signaling System No. The functions of the message transfer part and the user parts of SS7 are divided into 4 levels (see Fig. ISUP. level 4 Examples of the user parts Signaling network functions. 3.
2).1 Message transfer part (MTP) (ITU-T.g. 3. Messages to be transferred from one user part to another are given to the message transfer part (see Fig.2 Message exchange between two signaling points with SS7 12 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . duplication or sequence alteration and without any bit errors. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3. Recommendations Q.701 to Q. ISUP) Signaling point B User message Signaling data link Signal unit User message Message transfer part Message transfer part MTP component User information Address MTP component User message Fig. 3.g. Signaling point A Circuits User part (e.707) The message transfer part (MTP) is used in SS7 by all user parts as a transport system for message exchange. The message transfer part ensures that the messages reach the addressed user part in the correct order without information loss. ISUP) User part (e.Signaling System No.
.1. The flag is also used for the purpose of alignment. In order to clearly separate them from one another. 3. There are three different types of signal units (see Fig.3): – message signal units (MSU) With message signal units. 7 (SS7) 3. several consecutive flags can be sent. The bit pattern of a flag is 01111110. F CK SIF SIO LI FIB FSN BIB BSN F Message signal unit F CK SF LI FIB FSN BIB BSN F Link status signal unit F CK LI FIB FSN BIB BSN F Fill-in signal unit Direction of transfer Fig.3 Flag (F) The signal units are of varying length.Information Signaling Signaling System No.messages from user parts (level 4) and messages from the signaling network management (level 3).g. for the alignment). In addition to the message it also contains control information for the message exchange. the message transfer part transfers user messages. 3. A signal unit is formed by the functions of level 2. each signal unit begins and ends with a flag. – link status signal units (LSSU) LSSUs contain information for the operation of the signaling link (e. i. Format of the various signal units A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 13 . The closing flag of one signal unit is usually also the opening flag of the next signal unit. in the event of overloading of the signaling link. – ﬁll-in signal units (FISU) FISUs are used to maintain the acknowledgement cycle and quality control when no user messages are to be sent in one of the two directions of the signaling link.e.1 Signal units The message transfer part transports messages in signal units of varying length. However.
The length indicator field contains different values according to the type of signal unit: – 0 = ﬁll-in signal unit – 1 or 2 = link status signal unit – greater than 2 = message signal unit. The maximum value in the length indicator field is 63 even if the signal information field contains more than 62 octets. it is possible to calculate the exact length of the message signal unit). It indicates whether a signal unit is being sent for the first time or whether it is being retransmitted. On the receive side it is used for supervision of the correct order for the signal units and for safeguarding against transmission errors. Backward indicator bit (BIB) The backward indicator bit (BIB) is needed during general error correction (see Correction of transmission errors).(The message signal unit is invalid for longer message signal units. Length indicator (LI) The length indicator (LI) gives the number of octets (one octet = 8 bits) between the length indicator field and the check-bit field. However. and is used to differentiate between the three signal units. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling Backward sequence number (BSN) The backward sequence (BSN) number is used as an acknowledgment carrier within the context of error control. 14 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . Forward indicator bit (FIB) The forward indicator bit (FIB) is needed during general error correction. faulty signal units and the backward sequence number are requested to be retransmitted for error correction. It contains the forward sequence number of a signal unit in the opposite direction whose reception is being acknowledged. With this bit. The numbers 0 to 127 are available for the forward sequence number. Forward sequence number (FSN) A forward sequence number (FSN) is assigned consecutively to each signal unit to be transmitted.Signaling System No. A series of signal units can also be acknowledged with one backward sequence number.
It contains the service indicator and the network indicator.Information Signaling Signaling System No. Signal information field (SIF) The signal information field (SIF) only exists in message signal units. The format and the coding of the user message are separately defined for each user part. The signal unit is acknowledged as either positive or faulty on the basis of the check. Check bits (CK) The check bits (CK) are formed on the transmission side from the contents of the signal unit and are added to the signal unit as redundancy. On the receive side. It contains the actual user message as well as the addresses. The message transfer part evaluates both items of information. the message transfer part can determine with the check bits whether the signal unit was transferred without any errors. It informs the message transfer part which user part has sent the message and which user part is to receive it. 7 (SS7) Service information octet (SIO) The service information octet (SIO) only exists in message signal units. It contains status indications for the signaling links for the alignment of the transmit and receive directions. The maximum length of the signalling information field is 272 octets. A service indicator is assigned to each user of the message transfer part. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 15 . The network indicator indicates whether the traffic is national or international. Status field (SF) The status field (SF) only exists in link status signal units.
It consists of the following (see Fig.2 Addressing of the signal units The routing label of a signal unit is transported in the signal information field (SIF).4 Routing label of a message signal unit 16 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 .4): – destination point code (DPC) – originating point code (OPC) – signaling link selection (SLS) A code is assigned to each signaling point in the signaling network according to a numbering plan. The contents of the signaling link selection determine the signaling route along which the message is to be transmitted. The destination point code in a message signal unit identifies the signaling point to which this message is to be transferred. enables a message to be identified as being for national or international traffic. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3. 3. for example. Using the service indicator. 3. In this way. the signaling link selection is used for load sharing on the signaling links between two signaling points. The network indicator.1.Signaling System No. The service information octet (SIO) contains additional address information. Link status signal units and fill-in signal units require no routing label as they are only exchanged between level 2 of adjacent message transfer parts. The message transfer part uses the code for message routing. the destination message transfer part identifies the user part for which the message is intended. Address User information SLS OPC DPC Signal information field (SIF) Fig. The originating point code specifies the signaling point from which the message originates.
A distinction is made between the two following functional areas: – message handling. In addition.3 Functions The message transfer part is responsible for transmitting and receiving signal units. or to the correct user part – signaling network management.1 Functional levels Level 1 (signaling data link) defines the physical. for the signaling network management and for the alignment. after disruption of the signaling data link Level 3 (signaling network) defines the interworking of the individual signaling links. directing the messages to the desired signaling link. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 17 . Level 2 (signaling link) defines the functions and procedures for a correct exchange of user messages via a signaling link.Information Signaling Signaling System No. with functions of other levels and with corresponding functions of other signaling points. Its functions are spread over the functional levels 1. Level 1 represents the bearer for a signaling link.8 kbit/s) can also be used via modems as a signaling data link. control of the message trafﬁc.3.1. i. 7 (SS7) 3. 2 and 3. The following functions must be carried out in level 2: – delimitation of the signal units by ﬂags – elimination of superﬂuous ﬂags – error detection using check bits – error correction by retransmitting signal units – error rate monitoring on the signaling data link – restoration of fault-free operation. for example. 3. analog channels (preferably with a bit rate of 4.e. i. In a digital network. by means of changeover of signaling links if a fault is detected and changeback to normal operation after the fault is corrected The various functions of level 3 operate with one another.1. electrical and functional characteristics of a signaling data link and the access units. for example.e. 64-kbit/s channels are generally used as signaling data links. for correcting transmission errors.
The check-bit and flag generator transfers a complete message signal unit to level 1. service information octet. On the receive side. and then transfers the message to the appropriate signaling link (level 2). it analyzes the destination point code and the signaling link selection in the routing label of the user message. Check bit and flag generator The check bit and flag generator (level 2) generates check bits for safeguarding against transmission errors for the message signal unit and sets the flag for separating the signal units.3. destination point code. the user messages are monitored before the flag is added to see if five consecutive ones (1) appear in the message. the zero following the five 1s is then automatically removed and the user message thereby regains its original coding. the backward sequence number and the backward indicator bit as an acknowledgment for the last received message signal unit are included. the message signal unit is sent on the signaling data link. 3. signaling data link selection. To do this. A zero (0) is automatically inserted after five consecutive 1s. 18 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . Only then are they deleted. The processing of a user message to be transmitted in the message transfer part begins in level 3 (see Fig. In addition. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3.Signaling System No. All message signal units to be transmitted are stored in the retransmission buffer until their fault-free reception is acknowledged by the receive side.2 Transmission of a signal unit The transmission of a message signal unit is described here as an example. Transmission control The transmission control (level 2) assigns the next forward sequence number and the forward indicator bit to the user message.5). The transmission control simultaneously enters the part of the message signal unit formed so far in the transmission and retransmission buffers. In order that any section of code identical to the flag (01111110) occurring by chance is not mistaken for the flag. The user sends the following separate parameter to the message transfer part for transmission: originating point code. Message routing The message routing (level 3) determines the signaling link on which the user message is to be transmitted. as well as user data/message. In level 1.1.
Information Signaling Signaling System No. alignment and error detection MTP level 1 Fig. 7 (SS7) UP level 4 ISUP other UP MTP level 3 Signaling message handling Message distribution Signaling network management Signaling traffic management Message routing Message discrimination Signaling route management Signaling link management MTP level 2 Signaling link status control Error rate monitoring other signaling links Transmission control. transmission buffer. 3.5 Signaling data link Distribution of functions in the message transfer part A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 19 . retransmission buffer Control for the initial alignment Check bit and flag generator Receive control Flag.
Alignment detection The alignment detection (level 2) monitors the synchronism of the transmit and receive sides with the bit pattern of the flags.Signaling System No. It first determines whether the user message is to be delivered to one of the immediately connected user parts or to be transferred to another signaling link (quasi-associated message). error detection (level 2) checks whether the signal unit was correctly received. The bit sequence between two flags corresponds to one signal unit. The signaling link status control then takes the signaling link out of service and sends a report to level 3. the receive control transfers the user message to level 3 and causes the reception of the message signal unit to be positively acknowledged. the receive control detects a transmission error and causes all messages received since the last correctly received message to be retransmitted (see Correction of transmission errors). This preselection is achieved in the message discrimination by evaluation of the destination point code. If the forward sequence number of the transferred message signal unit does not agree with that expected. in order to keep a continuous check on the error rate on the receive side of the signaling link. and delivers the user message there. Message discrimination The message discrimination (level 3) accepts the correctly received user message. A fault-free signal unit is transferred to the receive control. The message distribution evaluates the service information octet (SIO). thereby determining the user part concerned. where it is treated as a user message to be transmitted. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3.3. Flag detection Flag detection (level 2) examines the received bit stream for flags.1. Receive control The receive control (level 2) checks whether the transferred signal unit contains the expected forward sequence number and the expected forward indicator bit. The reception of a faulty signal unit is reported to error rate monitoring. If a specified error rate is exceeded. Message distribution If a received user message is intended for one of the connected user parts (signaling point). this is reported to the signaling link status control by error rate monitoring.3 Reception of a signal unit The bit stream along a signaling data link is received in level 1 and transferred to level 2. A user message which only passes through a signaling point (signaling transfer point) is transferred by the message discrimination to the message routing. If this is the case and if it is a message signal unit. it is transferred to the message distribution (level 3). 20 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . Error detection Using the check bits also transmitted. while a faulty signal unit is discarded.
For a positive acknowledgement. the backward indicator bit is the inverse of the backward indicator bit in the previous acknowledgement. the receive control on the originating side requests the transmission control to stop the transmission of new signal units and to retransmit the negatively acknowledged message signal unit. all message signal units from the received faulty message signal unit onwards are specifically requested to be retransmitted. For the preventive cyclic retransmission method. Basic error correction method The basic error correction method is applied for signaling links with small propagation delays (<15 ms. In the case of a negative acknowledgment.Information Signaling Signaling System No. terrestrial links). A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 21 . For this method.6). For a negative acknowledgement. the receive control on the originating side causes the corresponding message signal unit (or a sequence of message signal units) in the retransmission buffer to be deleted. transmission errors must be reduced to a minimum. It functions with both positive and negative acknowledgements. Then all further message signal units still in the retransmission buffer are retransmitted in the order they were first transmitted. 3. When a positive acknowledgment is received. The forward indicator bit is inverted for the retransmitted message signal units and for all later newly transmitted message signal units with regard to the message signal units transmitted before the error. all the message signal units in the retransmission buffer are cyclically retransmitted as a preventive measure. the backward indicator bit has the same value as the backward indicator bit in the previous acknowledgement (see Fig. on the other hand.g. Only then does it resume evaluation of the message signal units. In SS7 two methods exist for this purpose: • basic error correction method • preventive cyclic retransmission (PCR) error correction method Both methods are based on retransmitting received faulty message signal units. The receive control at the destination recognizes the retransmitted message signal units by the forward indicator bit (FIB). The error correction takes place in level 2. After detecting a transmission error the receive control on the destination side discards all incoming message signal units until it receives the negatively acknowledged message signal unit correctly. This ensures that user messages do not overtake one another.3.1. 7 (SS7) 3. e.4 Correction of transmission errors As signal mutilations in the signaling can bring about faulty reactions particularly in call processing. an acknowledgement comprises the backward sequence number (BSN) and the backward indicator bit (BIB). For the basic error correction method.
If. As in the case of basic error correction. The backward indicator bit and the forward indicator bit are not required for this method. The smaller the load. automatic error correction occurs. It is dependent on the usage of the signaling link (on average approx. 22 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . the PCR method works only with positive acknowledgments. when the receive control on the originating side receives an acknowledgement it causes the corresponding message signal unit (or a sequence of message signal units) in the retransmission buffer to be deleted. e. The retransmitted message signal units are then accepted. Thus. satellite links). The acknowledgment for correctly received message signal units consists of the backward sequence number only.Signaling System No. it continues to acknowledge the last correctly received message signal unit and waits until it receives the faulty message signal unit correctly by cyclic retransmission. To keep the format of the signal units almost identical for both error correction methods. processed and acknowledged on the destination side until the retransmission has reached the first transmission of new signal units. with the preventive cyclic retransmission method. instead. the backward and forward indicator bits receive a fixed value and are transmitted with every signal unit without alteration. 20%). with the preventive cyclic retransmission method. The retransmission of the message signal units does not first occur on request after a transmission error. long terrestrial links. all the message signal units in the retransmission buffer are cyclically retransmitted as a preventive measure whenever no new message signal units are available for transmission. the greater the free capacity for retransmitting the message signal units.g. Unlike the basic error correction method. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling Preventive cyclic retransmission (PCR) error correction method The preventive cyclic retransmission error correction method is applied for signaling links with large propagation delays (≥15 ms. the receive control at the destination detects a transmission error.
3.6 Transmission control Acknowledgment cycle for the basic error correction procedure in normal operation A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 23 .Information Signaling Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) Signaling equipment at the origin Transmission control MSU number 36 BSN BIB FSN FIB CK 1 36 1 11 F CK Signaling data link Signaling equipment at the destination Receive control BSN BIB FSN FIB 1 35 1 10 F CK 1 34 1 9 F Retransmission buffer 36 1 35 1 34 1 33 1 32 1 Retransmission buffer 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 F 32 1 11 1 FIB FSN BIB CK F 33 1 12 1 CK F 34 1 13 1 FIB FSN BIB CK BSN BSN MSU number 13 Receive control Fig.
Management messages are transferred in message signal units like user messages. For the interworking with other signaling points the signaling network management uses the transport function of the message transfer part. It receives the messages concerning the alignment and status of the individual signaling links. the signaling network management exchanges messages and control instructions with the signaling links of level 2. it initiates the appropriate actions in order to maintain the signaling operation to the signaling destinations involved.Signaling System No. In cooperation with the signaling traffic management. messages concerning the failure or reavailability of signaling routes or the overloading of signaling transfer points.5 Signaling network management The signaling network management is a function of level 3. The signaling network management contains the following three function blocks: • signaling link management • signaling route management • signaling trafﬁc management Signaling link management The signaling link management controls and monitors the individual signaling links. the management messages have their own service indicator. Signaling route management The signaling route management controls and monitors the operability of signaling routes. or concerning operating irregularities and effects any change in status which may be necessary. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3.1. 24 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . for example. including initial alignment and automatic realignment of signaling links after failures or alignment losses due to persistent faults. If necessary. To this end. For discrimination. the signaling link management controls the putting into service of signaling links. It exchanges messages with the signaling route management in the adjacent signaling transfer points for this purpose. The signaling route management receives. It controls the operation and the interworking of the individual signaling links in the signaling network. sends messages to the user parts and works together with the signaling network management in adjacent signaling points. the signaling link management transfers messages to the signaling traffic management or receives instructions from there. In addition.3.
the signaling trafﬁc management reverses the effect of the changeover – rerouting when a signaling point can no longer be reached on a normal route. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 25 . during emergency alignment – modifying the message routing on failure of signaling routes – exchanging management messages with the signaling trafﬁc management in adjacent signaling points. The signaling traffic management accomplishes its functions by – receiving messages from the signaling link and signaling route managements – sending control instructions to the signaling link and signaling route managements – directly accessing the signaling links. It also controls the load distribution on the signaling links and signaling routes. e.g. the signaling trafﬁc management diverts the signaling trafﬁc to a predeﬁned alternative route When overloading occurs. 7 (SS7) Signaling traffic management The signaling traffic management controls the diversion of the signaling traffic from faulty signaling links or signaling routes to fault-free signaling links or signaling routes. To achieve this it can initiate the following actions: – changeover on failure of a signaling link the signaling trafﬁc management switches the signaling trafﬁc from the failed signaling link to a fault-free signaling link – changeback when a signaling link becomes available again after a fault has been corrected.Information Signaling Signaling System No. the signaling traffic management sends messages to the users in its own signaling point in order that they reduce the load. The management also informs the adjacent signaling points of the overloading in its own signaling point and requests them to also reduce the load.
the initial alignment can be repeated. when a non-aligned standby signaling link has to be put into service. With the transition to normal service both ends of the signaling link first send fill-in signal units (FISU) until the first message signal unit (MSU) is to be transmitted.6 Alignment For fault-free transmission of user messages via a signaling link it is necessary for the transmit and receive directions to operate at the same rate. The proving period is drastically reduced (to 0. Several stages are provided for the initial alignment. 3. the initiation side also sends SIN indications.Signaling System No. For this purpose. It reports the result of the proving period to level 3. 26 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . This is the start of the proving period for the signaling link. Emergency alignment can be applied. while the initiation comes from level 3. SIE status indications are then sent in place of SIN status indications.3. If the proving period yields a negative result. The status indications are transmitted in link status signal units. The opposite side receives these signals and replies to them with SIN status indications. After receiving the first SIN status indication.5 s for a signaling link with 64 kbit/s) and the requirements for the error rate are lessened.7). The alignment is done by exchanging status indications.1. 3.1 out of alignment normal alignment emergency alignment out of service Alignment status indication Explanation At the start of the initial alignment the control for the alignment on the initiation side causes the transmission control to send SIO status indications (see Fig. The alignment itself all takes place in level 2.1). for example. The initial alignment control records any signal errors occurring during the proving period (8. 3. Status indication SIO SIN SIE SIOS Tab. an initial alignment is carried out when putting a signaling link into service. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3. The initial alignment can also be carried out in emergency form if necessary.2 s for a signaling link with 64 kbit/s) and decides whether the link can be released for normal service. The initiation of the initial alignment is possible from either end of the signaling link. Each stage is assigned a special type of status indication (see Tab.
e. but it is recovered immediately with the next correct signal unit received and its corresponding flags. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 27 . following successful initial alignment the signaling link is able to send or receive fill-in signal units but. The maintenance of the alignment is ensured by the flags between the signal units on the basis of their bit patterns. The alignment can be lost for a few signal units at most. 7 (SS7) Signaling point A Transmission control Receive control Signaling point B Receive control Transmission control Status: out of service SIO SIO not aligned SIO SIN aligned proving period SIN SIN SIN SIN FISU MSU SIO SIN SIN SIN SIN SIN SIN SIN SIN FISU MSU service Status: out of service not aligned aligned proving period service Signaling data link Fig. link status signal units containing SIOS are sent instead of the fill-in signal units. If a signaling link is taken out of service due to an overly large signal error rate. errors in level 3. for other reasons.7 Exchange of signal units during initial alignment In the event that. no message signal units can be processed. an attempt is first made to put the signaling link into service again with the initial alignment. 3.Information Signaling Signaling System No.g. Level 3 detects errors by testing the aligned signaling link before message signal units are transmitted (signaling link test). In this way the signaling link is taken out of service again and the alignment procedure is restarted.
SS7 can be adapted to all requirements due to the modular structure. The TCAP communicates directly with the SCCP. because the intermediate service part (ISP) is empty. The Transaction capabilities application part (TCAP) is an application signaling protocol (OSI layer 7. the mobile user part (MUP) is Siemens' own specification for the mobile telephone network. Expansion for future applications is also possible. is used by applications such as the mobile application part (MAP). The TCAP. Each SS7 user can specify its own user part. MUP TCAP SCCP Message transfer part (MTP) Fig.2 User parts (UP) Each user part (UP) provides the functions for using the message transfer part for a particular user type.8 shows the users of the message transfer part as well as their relationship to one another and to the message transfer part. The following user parts are currently specified by the ITU-T: • ISDN user part (ISUP) • Signaling connection control part (SCCP) Fig. application layer).Signaling System No. with its services. 3. 3. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3.g. SS7 users TCAP users ISUP Other MTP users e. for example.8 Message transfer part users 28 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 .
– Address complete message (ACM) The calling network node is informed with the ACM that the terminating network node was reached.767) The ISDN user part (ISUP) covers the signaling functions for the control of calls. Message types for the call set-up (examples): – Initial address message (IAM) The IAM is the ﬁrst message sent to the next network node during call set-up. 7 (SS7) 3. The circuit identification code (CIC) assigns the message to a specific circuit. Message signal unit Signal information field (SIF) Optional part Variable mandatory part Fixed mandatory part Message type Circuit identification code (CIC) Routing label in the MTP part Direction of transmission Fig. – Subsequent address message (SAM) The SAM transports the digits which were not yet contained in the IAM. 3. The ISUP can use SCCP functions for end-to-end signaling.1 ISDN user part (ISUP) (ITU-T. the originating point code and the signaling link selection. The ISUP has interfaces to the message transfer part and the signaling connection control part (SCCP) for the transport of message signal units.Information Signaling Signaling System No.2. The message type defines the function and the format of an ISUP message. for the processing of services and features and for the administration of circuits in ISDN.9 shows the general structure of an ISUP message for link-by-link transmission.761 to Q.9 ISUP message The routing label comprises the destination point code. There are different message types for the call set-up. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 29 . the call release and the administration of circuits. 3. Structure of an ISUP message Fig. Recommendations Q. A circuit identification code is permanently assigned to each circuit. It is used for seizing a circuit and contains all information necessary for routing to the terminating network node.
– Unblocking message (UBL) The UBL is used for canceling a block on a circuit. the parameters that can be transmitted in the optional part are specified for the message. An example of one such parameter for the IAM is: the directory number or at least part of the number which is required for routing to the terminating network node. Examples for the IAM are: – directory number of the calling party – parameters for the message type (e. Message types for call release (examples): – Release message (REL) The REL initiates the release of a circuit connection.Signaling System No.g. 64 kbit/s end-to-end) – the requirements for the signaling system (e. After the transmission or reception of the RLC the circuit is released and becomes available for a new call set-up. It also includes the cause of the failure of the call set-up. – Release complete message (RLC) With the RLC the disconnection of the set-up of a circuit is indicated and the reception of the RLC is acknowledged. The fixed mandatory part of the ISUP message contains parameters which must be present for a certain message type and which have a fixed length. ISUP end-to-end) – the type of the calling party (ISDN subscriber = normal subscriber) The variable mandatory part of the ISUP message contains parameters of variable length. These may be parameters of fixed or variable length. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling – Answer message (ANM) The ANM informs the calling network node that the called party has answered.g. The call charge registration normally begins with the ANM. If a message has an optional part.g. Message types for the administration of circuits (examples): – Blocking message (BLO) The BLO is used for blocking a circuit. connection via a satellite link) – the requirements for the transmission link (e. Any unsuccessful circuit connection set-up is likewise released with REL. parameters for: – the type of connection (e.g. for example. closed user group) – user information 30 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . For the IAM these are.
The terminating network node analyses the dialing information contained in the IAM and waits. SAMs arriving at the transit network node after the IAM has been sent are forwarded unchanged by the ISUP.Information Signaling Signaling System No. For the telephone service. the ringing tone is disconnected and the call is switched through. a call set-up and a call release are described in more detail. After successful routing. 7 (SS7) Signaling procedures As examples of signaling procedures for the ISUP. With a subsequent address message (SAM) the ISUP transfers the subsequent digits. 3. the transit network node seizes an idle circuit and the ISUP sends an IAM to the terminating network node. Call set-up begins after a sufficient number of digits from the calling party have arrived in the originating network node. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 31 . The IAM from the ISUP in the transit network node contains all dialing information that has arrived up to that time (from the IAM received and from the following SAM if it has also arrived). the ringing tone is sent via the circuit from the terminating network node to the called party if the called party is free. The initial address message (IAM) contains all the digits that have already arrived. When all information is present. which then starts call charge registration. if necessary. the called line is determined. With the address complete message (ACM) the terminating network node informs the originating network node that the call set-up was successful up to the terminating network node. The first message sent by the ISUP in the originating network node for setting up a call is the IAM (see Fig. its status interrogated and an authorization check is carried out for the service requested.10). After receiving the IAM the transit network node carries out routing. First of all the routing is completed and an idle circuit is seized. Afterwards the ISUP in the terminating network node sends the answer message (ANM) to the originating network node. When the called party answers. for further digits arriving with SAM.
11 Release of an ISDN call 32 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 .Signaling System No. transfer of the dialing information Fig. 3.10 Set-up of an ISDN call Call release can be initiated by the calling party or by the called party. Each REL received is acknowledged with the release complete message (RLC) as soon as the circuit concerned is released. 3. 3. The transit network node immediately transfers the REL to the appropriate end network node.11). For this purpose the ISUP in the initiating network node sends the release message (REL) to the transit network node (see Fig. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling Calling party Originating network node IAM *) SAM SAM IAM Transit network node Terminating network node Called party Ringing ACM ACM ANM ANM Answer *) Start of call set-up. Calling party Originating network node Transit network node Called party Terminating network node Release of the circuit REL REL RLC RLC Release of the circuit Fig.
such as data banks.Information Signaling Signaling System No. INAP) for which the message is intended. The SCCP possesses its own routing function. The SCCP can use the following as address parameters: – the destination point code – a global title – a subsystem number The destination point code is simply given over to the MTP. IN application part. With logical signaling connection an exchange of messages between two SCCP users is possible. The combination of the SCCP and the message transfer part is called the network service part (NSP).716) The signaling connection control part (SCCP) is used as a supplement to the message transfer part. The SCCP provides two types of message transfer: – without logical signaling connection (connectionless) – with logical signaling connection (connection-oriented) Without logical signaling connection an SCCP user can send single messages to other SCCP users. contains digits or other forms of address information that are not customary in the signaling network.711 to Q. The messages to the other SCCP user can thus be directly addressed.2 Signaling connection control part (SCCP) (ITU-T. The subsystem number identifies a user function. A logical signaling connection arises through the mutual network node of the originating point codes between the SCCPs in the signaling points of the signaling relation. for example. It provides additional functions for the transfer of messages between network nodes and between network nodes and other signaling points. For this reason. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 33 . however. is that the SCCP can send messages via the MTP network. in an incoming message it identifies the SCCP user (e. the SCCP must first determine the destination point code for the transfer of the message to the destination (global title translation).g. The global title.2. Recommendations Q. What is important here. 7 (SS7) 3. From the point of view of the message transfer part the SCCP is a user with its own service indicator. which then carries out routing.
whereby optional parameters are allowed (for segmentation). 34 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . – unidata service (UDTS) A transmitting SCCP is informed with the UDTS message that a UDT message could not be conveyed to the destination. The user must already have requested this feature (Return option). dependent on the type of message transfer. The message type defines the function and the format of an SCCP message. It is used for the protocol classes 0 and 1. It is used for the protocol classes 0 and 1 – extended unidata (XUDT) Signaling information is sent in a connectionless mode. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling Structure of an SCCP message An SCCP message consists of: – a routing label – a message type – ﬁxed mandatory part – variable mandatory part – optional part Message signal unit Signal information field (SIF) Optional part Variable mandatory part Fixed mandatory part Message type Routing label in the MTP part Direction of transmission Fig.Signaling System No. The following message types exist for connectionless message transfer: – unidata (UDT) SCCP messages are sent to a destination with the UDT message. 3. – extended unidata service (XUDTS) Signaling information received from an XUDT message is sent back to its originating point if the XUDTS was not able to reach the destination. Different message types are used. The SCCP determines the destination point code from the address parameters contained in the user information. the originating point code and the signaling link selection.12 SCCP message The routing label consists of the destination point code.
The CR message can be sent as either a message on its own or together with another message. Message types for the call set-up of a logical signaling connection: – connection request (CR) The far-end signaling point of a signaling relation is informed with the CR message that a logical signaling connection is to be set up. ISUP. for the release of a logical signaling connection and for the message transfer. For the CR message these are.Information Signaling Signaling System No. and the reception of SCCP messages can be conﬁrmed by the opposite side. Message types for the release of a logical signaling connection: – Released (RLSD) The RLSD message initiates the release of a logical signaling connection. For the CR message these are. Message types for message transfer: – Data form 1 (DT1) SCCP messages can be transferred in both directions with the DT1 message after the set-up of a logical signaling connection. TCAP) The optional part of the SCCP message contains parameters which can occur in every message type. for example: – the local reference – the protocol class used for the message transfer The variable mandatory part of the SCCP message contains parameters of variable length. – Release complete (RLC) The release of a logical signaling connection is conﬁrmed with the RLC message. It is only used in protocol class 3. 7 (SS7) For connection-oriented message transfer there are different message types for the call set-up of a logical signaling connection. depending on the protocol class used. for example: – the directory number of the calling party – user messages to be transferred A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 35 . It can be sent from either end of the connection. – connection conﬁrm (CC) The set-up of a logical signaling connection is conﬁrmed by the distant side with the CC message. SCCP messages can be transferred in both directions after the set-up of a logical signaling connection. – Data form 2 (DT2) With the DT2 message. For the CR message these are. The parameters in question can be of either fixed or variable length. for example: – the directory number of the called party – the identiﬁer of the SCCP user (e.g. The fixed mandatory part of the SCCP message contains parameters which must be present for a certain message type and which have a fixed length. It is only used in protocol class 2.
the SCCP provides the protocol classes 0 and 1: – Protocol class 0 For the protocol class 0 the SCCP messages are sent singly and independently of one another by the message transfer part. This protocol class guarantees for a correct message order.Signaling System No.g. they assign local references to the process for which they set up a logical signaling connection (e. – Protocol class 1 For the protocol class 1 the SCCP messages are sent in the order deﬁned by the user. the SCCPs of the signaling points of the signaling relation concerned send their own originating point codes to one another. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling Signaling procedures The SCCP provides two protocol classes for each type of message transfer. 3. Messages can then be exchanged. In addition. Each SCCP can assign incoming messages to the process concerned by means of the local reference. – Protocol class 3 Protocol class 3 fulﬁlls the same functions as protocol class 2.13 Protocol classes for message transfer via the SCCP For the transfer of connectionless messages. and likewise inform one another. Message transfer with the SCCP connectionless connection-oriented Protocol class 0 Basic method Protocol class 1 Basic method + message sequence control Normal method Protocol class 2 Basic method Protocol class 3 Basic method + flow control Embedded method Fig. 36 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . for using a feature during an existing connection). protocol class 3 contains the option of an error control/check. The SCCP provides protocol classes 2 and 3 for the transfer of connection-oriented messages: – Protocol class 2 For the setting up of a logical signaling connection. In addition.
each network node knows the code number and the local references of the other and messages for the process can be directly addressed to the opposite signaling point. for example. To check the validity. 7 (SS7) Connectionless message transfer is used. and sends it to the transmit side in the CC message together with the signaling point code of the receive side. it sends a connection request (CR) message to the SCCP in the opposite signaling point. This method has the advantage that the SCCP does not have to determine the destination point code. Only the normal method is applied for the protocol class 3. an interrogation message can be sent to a data center and the reply received on the same route. It is particularly suitable for the frequent transmission of short messages. The SCCP on the receive side likewise assigns the process a local reference on reception of a CR message. Connection-oriented message transfer can be used. The following options exist for the protocol class 2 for transferring the CR message: – Normal method The CR message is sent as an independent message to the opposite signaling point. among other things. The SCCP generates a unidata (UDT) message for connectionless message transport from the user data and from the determined address. by ISUP (for the processing of features). The CR message contains. It also transfers the unidata (UDT) message to the message transfer part for transmission to the next destination. An example of an application is the credit card service. In this way. When the SCCP receives a request from a user to set up a logical signaling connection. for example. the local reference and information on the protocol class used. by the TCAP. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 37 .Information Signaling Signaling System No. – Embedded method The CR message is integrated in a message of the ISUP.
775) The transaction capabilities application part (TCAP) supports the exchange of messages between users in different SS7 network nodes (e. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling 3. 38 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . application layer) and communicates directly with the SCCP.g.771 to Q. The user starts the transfer with a special request. and the TCAP sends these to the desired destination singly or in a group according to the user's request.3 Transaction capabilities application part (TCAP) (ITU-T. An assignment between a transmitted message component and any received reply by the TCAP is not possible. A message component can contain. for example: – a call-up of an action which the TCAP user in the remote network node should carry out – a query for data or a state – the reply to an action call-up or a query A TCAP user transfers the message components singly to the TCAP. The following are examples of applications for the TCAP: – reporting the location of a mobile telephone subscriber to the home network node in the mobile telephone network – validity checking and transactions in the credit card service – the network node of non-circuit-related signaling information (ISDN) additional services such as call completion to busy subscriber (CCBS) and completion of calls on no reply (CCNR) in closed user groups (CUG) – the interrogation of operating states or the initiation of actions in remote network nodes for operation and maintenance The TCAP is an application signaling protocol (OSI layer 7. Recommendations Q.2. Two options for the message transfer are available to the TCAP user: – Unstructured dialog A TCAP user transfers single message components to the TCAP. Messages which the TCAP users exchange with each other can comprise one or more individual message components.Signaling System No. in network nodes or in a data base) via signaling links without having to create circuit connections in this context. – Structured dialog The TCAP user sets up a dialog with the remote TCAP user and exchanges messages with this TCAP user during the dialog. The TCAP and its services uses connectionless message transfer. The TCAP then combines all the message components with the same dialog identifier into one complete message and passes this to the SCCP for transfer to the desired destination. whereby associated message components are marked by identical dialog identifiers. The message component and reply can be directly assigned to each other in this way.
The following message types are available to the TCAP user: – Unidirectional This message is used for message transfer in unstructured dialog. – Abort This message is used during structured dialog for terminating a dialog after an error. A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 39 . 3. reports and data are exchanged during a dialog with this message. – Continue Tasks.Information Signaling Signaling System No. The total message length contains the number of octets in the message. – End This message is used during structured dialog for ending a dialog.14 TCAP message Transaction part The message type defines the function of a TCAP message. – Begin This message is used for the beginning of a dialog in structured dialog. 7 (SS7) Structure of a TCAP message A TCAP message comprises – message type – total message length – transaction information element(s) – message component part length – message component/s) SCCP message Optional part TCAP message Message component(s) Message component part length Transaction information element(s) Total message length Message type Message component part Direction of transmission Fig.
for example: – the transaction ID The originating TCAP assigns an ID to a dialog and transfers it to the TCAP at the remote end. The TCAP on the receive side accepts the unidirectional messages and transfers them to the addressed TCAP user. It is contained in a message component with ”invoke”. Reject . It is present in every message component. Some examples of information elements are: Invoke ID . Operation code . Error code . – the abort cause One cause of the abrupt termination of a transaction is an unknown message type or an unknown transaction ID. Problem code .Unsuccessful completion of an operation is reported with ”return error”.This ﬁeld contains supplementary user information. The message component part contains one or more message components. The TCAP user initiates the sending of the message components with identical dialog indicators using a unidirectional request. In this case the TCAP user first delivers the message components to be transferred to the TCAP.The operation code speciﬁes the operation to be carried out. for example. The TCAP forms a unidirectional message from the appropriate message components. They contain. These are identified by a common dialog indicator. This message is then transferred to the SCCP by the TCAP together with the associated address information for transporting to the selected destination.The invoke ID is used as a reference in order to be able to assign results to the correct request for an operation.The problem code speciﬁes the reason for rejection of a message component. Signaling procedures The unstructured dialog permits transfer of one or more message components to a remote TCAP user. The general specifications in the message component part include the message component part length.The error code gives the reason why an operation cannot be carried out. It is present in a message component with ”return error”. Parameter . Return error .A message component is rejected with ”reject” – Component length This ﬁeld contains the number of octets in the message component. – Information elements The information elements are dependent on the component type. 40 A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 . It is contained in a message component with ”reject”.An operation in a remote network node is initiated with “invoke”. Both the address information and the dialog indicator of the message components to be sent are contained in the request. The TCAPs can then assign incoming messages to the corresponding dialog.Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) Information Signaling The transaction information elements only exist for structured dialog.A result is sent with “return result”. Return result . A message component is always similarly structured and contains the following fields: – Component type The following component types are available to the TCAP user: Invoke .
Information Signaling Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) The structured dialog allows a TCAP user to begin a dialog with another TCAP user. to exchange messages with this user during the dialog and to end the dialog. The message can also contain result messages for a previously received request. Message components with further requests for operations. there is no exchange of messages. Message components transferred to the TCAP before the begin request with the corresponding dialog indicator are sent to the desired dialog partner with the begin message. The begin message also contains a transaction identiﬁer which is used during the dialog for assigning message components to the correct dialog. The reason for the termination can also be included in the abort message A30828-X1130-H100-2-7618 41 . basic end: a TCAP user ends the dialog according to requirements and sends an end-message to the current dialog partner. The begin request can be sent to the TCAP before the transfer of message components. and no end-message is sent. The TCAP user can still transfer message components to the remote TCAP user with the end message. The TCAP at the destination receives the begin message and informs the addressed TCAP user of the begin of a new dialog. and sends an abort message to its dialog partner. abort: a TCAP user terminates the dialog because of an error. can be contained in the continue message. – Dialog begin A TCAP user begins a new dialog by sending a begin request to the TCAP. but announces the end of the dialog at the same time. A TCAP user sends a continue message to the TCAP for this purpose. The TCAP transfers the begin message together with the associated address information to the SCCP which sends them to the required destination. – Continuation of the dialog The dialog can be continued by both TCAP users. – Dialog end The following options exist for ending the dialog: pre-arranged end: the TCAP users specify the end of the dialog beforehand. The begin request contains the address information and the dialog indicator for the message components to be exchanged during the dialog. for example.
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