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Green

1. :

(Gauss) , Green
,

, , ,
()

, ,

Green

Green

Stokes (Divergence The-

orem)

, ,
:

2. :

(double in-

tegral) ?

Green :

,
(fundamental theorem of cal-

culus),

C R

, (inverse)

()

: f : [a, b] R

F = f

George Green (1793- 1841)

1828 (electricity)
(magnetism) ,

25

F (x)dx =

f (x)dx = F (b) F (a)


(1)

26 21 4 86 12

Rb

af (x)dx

f (prim-

itive, antiderivative) F
:

(F (x+x)F (x))A
f (x) = lim
x0
x A

F (x + x) F (x)
= lim
x0
x
= F (x)
(3)


[a, b]

(1)
(zero dimension)
() ,
a b

f (x)dx =

F (x)dx

f (x)dx =

F (x)dx = F (b) F (a)

f (x)=F (x)

(conservation law)

3. :

(1) : ,

, (work),

, F (x),

F = (u, v),

(),

(cos , sin ),

?(1)

(cos , sin )

[x, x + x] ,

(F (x+x)F (x)) A ( )
(2)

F = F (cos , sin ) = u cos +v sin


F = F (cos , sin ) = u cos +v sin
(4)
,
cos = sin ,

sin = sin

(5)

Green

Green : C


dx dy
,
,
ds ds


dy dx
(cos , sin ) =
,
ds ds
(cos , sin ) =

R,

F ds =

udx + vdy

P (x, y), Q(x, y)


(6)

F
I

27

P dx+Qdy =

ZZ
R

Q P

)dA
x y


ZZ
x

=

P

(7)

( =)




dA

Q

(9)

(work) F

(current density)

, (approxima-

F ds =

tion) ,
udy vdx

(8)

( =)

(flux)

(analysis)

= R

I. R

C,

R C = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4

4. Green
Green
,

C1 :

a0 x a1 , y = b0

C2 :

x = a1 , b0 y b1

C3 :

a0 x a1 , y = b1

C4 :

x = a0 , b0 y b1

F d~r =

P (x, y)dx+Q(x, y)dy

28 21 4 86 12

a1
a0

a0

+
=

P (x, b0 )dx+

b1

b0

P (x, b1 )dx+

a1

b1

Q(a0 , y)dy

b1

[P (x, b0 ) P (x, b1 )]dx

a0

b1

a1

a1

Q(x, y)dy =

g2 (x)

g1 (x)

Q
dy dx
x

P
Q
dx dy
dx dy
b0 y
a0
a0 x
b0
Z a1 Z b1
Q P
=
(

)dx dy
x
y
a0
b0
=

a1

b0

[Q(a, y) Q(a0 , y)]dy

b0

Q(a, y)dy

P dx + Qdy =

Q P

)dA
x y


ZZ
x

=

R P

b1

II. R

ZZ




dA

Q

Green ,
,
C (recti-

R ={(x, y)|a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x)},

fiable curve), (uni-

C = R

formly convergent)
Green ,
,

1: Green
I

(2xy x2 )dx + (x + y 2)dy

C y = x2
y = x
: C
, Green
P (x, y), Q(x, y)
P (x, y) = 2xy x2 ,

IC

P (x, y)dx
P (x, y)dx+

C1

C3

C2

P (x, y)dx+

Q(x, y) = x + y 2

C4

P (x, g1 (x))dx+
Z

bZ

g2 (x)

g1 (x)

Q P

= 1 2x
x
y

P (x, y)dx

P (x, y)dx

P (x, g2 (x))dx

P
(x, y)dy dx
y

=
=

ZZ
Z

(1 2x)dA

R
1Z x
x2

(1 2x)dy dx =

1
30

Green

29

A=
=

x dy

C
Z 2
0

(a cos )(b cos d)

1
= ab
2

2
0

(1 + cos 2) d = ab

Green ,

Green C
C ()

3: C ,

, ,
:
Q P

=1
x
y

ydx + xdy
x2 + y 2

: (0, 0) C
,

Green
I

P dx + Qdy =

ZZ

P (x, y) =

1 dA = |R|

Q=x

P = y,

Q=0

P = 21 y,

Q = 21 x

Q=

x2

x
+ y2

Green
I

: R C
, :

ydx+xdy
=
x2 + y 2

ZZ

0 dA = 0

, (0, 0) C , (0, 0)
(singularity),

1
y dx + x dy
2 IC
I
= y dx = x dy

|R| =

y
+ y2

x2

Q P

=0
x
y

P , Q :
P = 0,

(0, 0) 6 C

2:

x2
a2

y = b sin ,

0 2

(10)

+ yb2 = 1

:
x = a cos ,

, , (0, 0)
B
R = R B ,

R = C + B

R (0, 0),
;
I

ydx + xdy
=0
x2 + y 2

30 21 4 86 12

R = C + B ,
I

=
=

ydx+xdy
x2 +y 2

),

( sin )( sin d+( cos )( cos d)


( cos )2 +( sin )2

3: C1 , C2

ydx+xdy
=
x2 +y 2

C
2

(
I

(0, 0),

1 d = 2

C1

ydx + xdy I ydx + xdy


=
x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2
C2

,
(deformation)
(polar coordinate) ;
1: 2C
(0, 0) , 0
(0, 0),

= tan1

(integrand)

(winding number),
d =

(circulation)
2: C

y
x

ydx + xdy
x2 + y 2

B ,

(homo-

C() ,

topy theory), Green

2,

(simply connected re-

gion),

2,

(winding number)

= 1

= 0

= 1

Green

Green

, R C

P (x, y) dy Q(x, y) dx
F ds,

dy dx
,
ds ds

31

(14)


, Cx = x(t), y = y(t)

P (x, y),

F (x, y) = (P (x, y), Q(x, y))

(11)

P (x, y)y ,
P (x + x, y)y , x

, C

(flux), C
, x

[P (x + x, y) P (x, y)]y
xy

si ()

x 0, P/x y
Q/y
P
x

+ Q
R
y
ZZ 
R

P
Q
dxdy
+
x
y


(15)

(),
C (),
Pi (x, y)si cos i i
x ,

Riemann x
I

P (x, y) cos(, x) ds

(12)

y
I

Q(x, y) cos(, y) ds

P dy Qdx

ZZ 
R

P
Q
dxdy
+
x
y


(16)

Green
(13)

....
...
...
..

[P (x, y) cos(, x)+Q(x, y) cos(, y)]ds

P (x, y) y

P (x+x, y)

..
...
..
....

[P (x, y)

dy
dx
Q(x, y) ] ds
ds
ds

x+x

32 21 4 86 12

5. Green

curlF, F

(9) (16) ,
:
F (x, y) = (P (x, y), Q(x, y)) = P~i + Q~j
()

? R (x0 , y0)
, r ,
1
F (x0 , y0)~k = lim 2 F ds
r0 r
C
I
1
F (x0 , y0 ) = lim 2 F ds (22)
r0r
C
I

(circuladx dy
,
=
ds ds
()


dy dx
=
,
ds ds
()


(17)

),
, (18), (19) , (22)
( Green )

1: F = = (x , y ), (vec-

F (curl)

curlF = F =


~ ~
i j


x y


P Q
!

Q P

x
y

tion), (

tor) F (scalar) (gra-

~k

~k

dient) (21)

ds = ds
C
C
ZZ
ZZ
=
dA =
dA (23)
I

(18)

(potential func-

(divergence)
P
Q
divF = F =
+
x
y

tion)
(19)
==

Green ((9), (16))


I

F d~r =
I

F ds =

F ds =

ZZ

F ~kdA

ZZ

F dA

(20)

(24)

Laplace ,

2: F = uv,

(21)

Green
, (work)
(flux), (20), (21)
, Stokes
(Divergence Theorem)

2
2
+
x2 y 2

F = (uv) = u(v)+vu
(21) Green
v
ds
C
ZZ
[uv + u v] dA (25)
=
I

Green

33

u, v , Green

(integration by



I u


C
u


v


ds

v




ZZ
u v

dA


R u v

part)

6.

(26)

3: Green

(potential function)F = ,
(total differential)

(differencial forms),

P dx + Q dy

d~r = P dx + Qdy
= x dx + y dy

F d~r = d~r = d

(30)

(integrand)
(first order differential form)

P = x

Q = y ,

Py = Qx

(exact)
L = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy (27)
:
L (total differential)
dL = dP dx + dQdy

, , ~r
~a, ~b ,
Z

= (Px dx + Py dy)dx

~b

~a

+(Qx dx + Qy dy)dy
= (Qx Py )dxdy

(28)

Green
(differential form)
I

ZZ

Q P

x
y

L=

ZZ

dL

, Green F = ,
C1 , C2 ~a, ~b
C

F d~r =
=

dxdy

ZZ1

F d~r

C2

F d~r

() ~k dxdy = 0

(29)

(31)

():

P dx + Q dy

d~r = (~b) (~a)

C1

F d~r =

C2

F d~r

(path-independent),

, () ~a

34 21 4 86 12

~b () ,

F ~r(t1 ) ~r(t2 )

() ,
,
F (conservative),
F ,
(~x) (~a) =

~
x

~a

d~r =

~
r (t2 )

~
r (t1 )

F d~r

t2

t1
t2

F (~r(t))

d~r(t)
dt
dt

d~v
~v (t)dt
dt
t1
Z t2

1
d 
|~v (t)|2 dt
= m
2 t1 dt
1
1
= m |~v (t2 )|2 m |~v (t1 )|2 (35)
2
2
=

~
x

~a

W=

F d~r
(32)

1
m|~v (t)|2
2

(kinetic energy),

(35) , :

F , F = ,
:
W = (t2 ) + (t1 )

(36)

(32)
1
(t1 ) + m|~v(t1 )|2
2
1
= (t2 ) + m|~v(t2 )|2
2

(37)

(potential energy),

(37) (conservation of
~r(t) = (x(t), y(t))

energy)

, :
!

d~r
dx dy
~v (t) =
=
,
dt
dt dt
!
d2 x d2 y
d2~r
,
~a(t) = 2 =
dt
dt2 dt2

:
,
(33)

m, F

d2~r
F = m~a = m 2
dt

(divergence)
, :
, 0 ,
0 ,

(34)

(x(t), y(t)) = (, ),

Green

~v(t) =

dx dy
,
dt dt

= (u, v), t

0 t , 0
t , ? (
)

dV0 = dxdy =

(38)

J(t) Jacobian
J(t) =



(x, y)




(, )


x


y



dV0
=

dVt

y
=

!
y
=

v x v y
+
x
y
v x v y
+
x y

J(t) t

(dV0 dVt )
(x, y)
dd
(, )
= J(t)dd = J(t)dVt

d
dt
d
dt

35

(39)

dJ dtd x

=
dt y

d x
dt
y

x
x

d y d y
dt dt



u x
y u x
u y
x + u

+
y x
y
=

y
y





x
x


+ v x v y v x v y

+ y x + y
x



u x u x x
x

x x
= y y + v y vy


y y






x
x


v x
u x


=
y y +
y y
x
y




!

u v
J(t) = ~v J(t)
+
x y

J(t) ;
Euler:

0 t ,
J(t) , J, J 1 6= 0,
( 0 < J < ):
(total differential)
d
dt

dx
x
=

dt
u x u y
u
=
+
=

x
y

Euler (Euler expansion formula),


J(t) = et(~v) J(0)

(41)

~v > 0 J(t) > J(0)


~v = 0 J(t) = J(0)
~v < 0 J(t) < J(0)

d
dt

d ln J
dJ
= ( ~v )J
= ~v (40)
dt
dt

u x u y
x
=
+

x y

pressible) :

(incom-

36 21 4 86 12

, ()

:
3
I

F d~r =
=

udx + vdy

C
ZZ

(vx uy )dA

7. Green
:
:

F = (u, v) C
,

(simply connected domain), f

vx uy = curlF ~k = F ~k


~ ~ ~
i j k


= ~k
x

u

y z

v 0

Cauchy : R

F d~r =

ZZ

1
|R|

,
I

F d~r

f (z)dz = 0

(42)

C R Jordan

(vx uy )dA

R P0 (x0 , y0 ) ,
I

R (single value)

: f = u + iv, z = x + iy
()
I

f (z)dz =
=

(u+iv)d(x+iy)

IC

udxvdy+i

vdx+udy

f
curlF ~k = F ~k
1 I
F d~r
= lim
RP0 |R| C
1 ZZ
= lim
( F ~k)dA
RP0 |R|
R

u, v ,

F F ( (x0 , y0)

Green

)
R

v
u
+i
x
y
u
v
i
=
x
y

f (z) =

(udxvdy) =

ZZ

v u
dx dy

x y

Green
I

(vdx+udy) =

ZZ

u v
dx dy

x y

Cauchy-Riemann (f )
v
u
v
u
=
,
=
x
y
y
x
,
I

f (z)dz = 0

37


(compensated compactness method)

,
( (div-curl
lemma))

(40) Green :

, Cauchy :
I

=
=

IC

IC
C

: (x, y) 7 (z, z)

f(z)dz

(u iv)d(x + iy)
udx + vdy + i

vdx + udy

= (work) + i(flux)

= x + iy

z =

x iy

(43)

( (9),(16))
C

f(z) dz

=
!

v u
dA

y
R x
!
ZZ
u v
+i
dA
+
y
R x
ZZ

ZZ

f F = (u, v)
, ,
F = (u, v)
f f , Cauchy
- Riemann :

= (v)y

= (v)x

F =u
curlF = v

x +vy = 0

x uy = 0

1
(z
2i

z)

(46)

z


=i

1
2
1
2

=
z

=
z

 x

i y

+ i y

(47)

= xx + yy = 4

(curlF+i F )dA (F=(u, v)) (44)

Laplace

= 21 (z + z)

(chain rule)

Green
I

(differentiable function), f = u iv ,
1

f
(u iv)
= 2i
+i
2i
z
2 x
y
= (vx uy ) + i(ux + vy )
!

= curlF +i F (F = (u, v)) (48)


(differential form)

(45)

d[f dz] =

f
f
dz dz +
d
z dz
z
z

38 21 4 86 12

f
d
z dz
z
f
(dx idy) (dx + idy)
=
z
f
(49)
= 2i dxdy
z
=

Green: f = f (z, z)

f(z)dz
= 2i

f () =

1 Z f (z)
dz
2i R z
1 ZZ f / z
dz d
z
+
2i R z

ZZ

C = R, R Green

: 3

f (analytic function)

,
Cauchy - Riemann :
ux = vy

uy = vx

(52)

Cauchy

f
dx dy
ZZR z
dx dy = 0
= 2i
f

f (z)dz = 2i

ZZ

: Green Cauchy

R = R B ()
R = R B = C B

f
= (vx uy ) + i(ux vy ) = 0
2i
z

(53)

Cauchy

f
dx dy

C
R z
ZZ
f
d
z dz (50)
=

R z
I
ZZ
f
f (z)dz = 2i
dx dy

C
R z
ZZ
f
=
d
z dz (51)

R z

Cauchy : f C 1 (R),

f (z)
z
F f 1
=
=
z z z
Green (50)
I
ZZ
F
d
z dz
F (z)dz =

R
R z

I
I
f (z)
f (z)
dz
dz
C z
B z
ZZ
f 1
d
z dz
(54)
=
z
R z
F (z) =

0
I
f (z)
dz 2if ()
B z

(55)

Green

39

Cauchy (53)

(homogeneous solution),
d
z dz = 2idx dy = 2irdr d
1
d
z dz = 2idr d
(56)
|z |
(55) Cauchy (

(nonhomogeneous
solution), Cauchy (53)

(58)
f () =

0)
1
f (z)
f () =
dz
2i C z
ZZ
f / z
1
dz d
z
+
2i R z
I

1
f (z)
dz
2i R z
ZZ
h
1
dz d
z (58)
+
2i R z
Z


-:
f C (R),

(Several Complex Variables)

Cauchy-Riemann
u
= f (z, z)
z

ZZ
1
f (z, z)
u() = v() +
dz d
z
2i R z
(59)

, , Kerzman-

v() (analytic func-

Stein ,

tion)

1: Caucly
, ,
, 1978
Kerzman Stein

2: f (analytic function),

f
z

= 0,

Caucly , , R
, f (),
C = R ,
(representation theorem)
Cauchy-Riemann

f
z

=0

Cauchy , ,

=?
z z z0

1
=0
z z z0

z 6= z0

1
= c(zz0 )(
z z0 )
z zz0
= c(xx0 )(yy0)

()
f
=h
z

, ,

(57)

c , z0 = 0
1
z
= lim
, >0
z 0 z
z + 2

40 21 4 86 12

z
1
|z|2

(
)
=

z z
z + 2
|z|2 + 2 (|z|2 + 2 )2
2
=
(|z|2 + 2 )2

Bernoulli:
1
P + |w|2 = constant
2
(+ =)

xy -
(simply connected domain)

1
dz d
z
z
R2 z
ZZ
 z 
= lim
dz d
z
0
z
z + 2
R2 z
ZZ
2
= lim
dz d
z
2
0
R2 (|z| + 2 )2
ZZ
2
dxdy
= lim 2i
2
0
R2 (|z| + 2 )2
Z
2rdr
= lim 2i
= 2i
2
0
(r + 1)2
0

c=

ZZ

C = {z = z(s) = x(s)+iy(s), 0 s L}

, C

dy
dx
+i
ei(s)
ds
ds
dy
dx
=
i
= iei(s)
(61)
ds
ds

= z (s) =

w = u + iv

1
= 2i(z z0 )(
z z0 )
z z z0

(60)

1
1
2i zz0

(43)
I

(fundamental so-

lution)
1 Z Z f (z, z)
dz d
z
2i R z
= () + ()

u() = v() +

:
,
, ,
, , (steady
two-dimensional flow of an incompressible, irrotational, inviscid fluid)
Bernoulli ,
, :

(62)

=
=

IC

IC

wdz

udx + vdy + i

w ds+i

vdx + udy

w ds

= (circulation)
+i(expansion)

(63)

C ,
,
(, , ,
) C
(
) C (momentun
flux),
Z

[P + w(w )]ds = 0

(64)

Green

, P ,
dz = ei ds,

1
1
(P + |w|2 )dz+
2
2
C

1
P + |w|2 =
2

i = ei ,

1
i + wei )
iw = (we
2
(65)
I

41

w 2 d
z = 0 (65)

(homogene-

1. (I, II, III);


(1970)

ous) =, w ,

2. The Cauchy Transform, Potential The-

w 2 , Cauchy

ory and Conformal Mapping; Steven R.

Bell; CRC PRESS (1992).


Z

w 2 dz = 0

w 2 d
z=0

1
(P + |w|2 )dz = 0
2
C

4. Complex Variables; G. Polya and G.

(66)

Morera P +
1
|w|2 ,
2

sis(I, II); R. Courant and F. John;


Springer-Verlag (1989)

(66)
I

3. Introduction to Calculus and Analy-

Green (51)

Latta; John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1974)


5. Vector and Tensor Analysis; 2nd ed., E.
C. Young; Marcel Dekker, Inc. (1993)

, (realvalued analytic function) ,