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COURSE OF

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Temperature can be described as the property of an object that describes its hotness and coldness. A condition of a body by virtue of which heat is transferred to or from other bodies. Heat transfer takes place to equalize the temperature of two connected systems.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

The law that is used in temperature measurement is known as zeroth law of thermodynamics. This law states: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system then they all are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Temperature scales in common use are Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales. K = 0C + 273.15
0F

= (1.8) 0C + 32

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

A liquid in glass thermometer measures temperature by virtue of the thermal expansion of a liquid. These thermometers are used for temperature measurements from -200 to 750 0C. They are contact type thermometers.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

This thermometer consists of a glass bulb (1), which is connected with a glass capillary tube (2).

A scale (3) in degree Celsius or Fahrenheit is placed behind the capillary tube.

The bulb, capillary tube and the scale are placed in a glass tube (4) to protect them against the damage.

A thermometric liquid (5) fills the bulb and a part of the capillary tube.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Advantages
They are simple in design. They are relatively highly

accurate

in

temperature measurement.

Disadvantages
They are delicate and can be easily break. Low visibility of the scale Not capable of distance transmission of a

measuring signal Impossible to repair High values of time lag


Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

This device consists of strips of two different metals A and B, bonded together. The physical phenomena employed in a bimetallic temperature sensor is the differential thermal expansion of two metals. When temperature changes the composite strip bends into a curved strip with the higher coefficient metal on the outside of the curve

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

The figure shows the construction and response of bimetallic sensor to an input signal. Iron-nickel alloy is often used as one of the metals as low expansion metal to increase sensitivity.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

A plain bimetallic strip is somewhat insensitive, but the sensitivity is improved by using a longer strip in helix format as shown in figure. One end of the helix is attached to the casing and the other end which is free is connected to the pointer which sweeps over circular dial graduated in degrees of temperature.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Bimetallic to 550 0C.

strips

are

usually

employed in the range of -30 0C

Inaccuracies of the order of 0.5 to 0.7 % of full scale deflection.

Bimetal elements find a wide range of applications, mainly of the On-Off type (thermostats) in domestic oven, electric iron, refrigerators.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Advantages
They are low in cost. Stable operation over extended period of

time No maintenance expenses.

Disadvantages
The main disadvantage is the inability to

measure rapidly changing temperatures due to its high thermal inertia.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Based on the principle of fluid expansion due to an increase in the pressure in a given volume of the temperature measuring system. As the temperature rise, the pressure of the gas changes and push the mercury in the vertical column to rise to the height h which can be calibrated in terms of temperature

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Figure illustrates a simple constant volume gas thermometer. This apparatus is fragile, difficult to use and restricted to the laboratory.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

It has a relatively large metal bulb (often stainless steel) instead of a glass. The necessary parts are bulb, tube, pressure sensing gauge and some sort of filling medium. Pressure thermometer are

Liquid filled Gas filled Vapor filled


Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

The principle of resistance temperature detectors (RTD) is based on the variation of electrical resistance of metals with temperature. For this purpose several metals are used, namely platinum, copper, nickel. When temperature increases the resistance of these metals increases. Temperature function of resistance for metals in a narrow temperature interval can be expressed by a relationship: R = R0 [1 + a(T - T0]
Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

For metals this coefficient is positive. Relationship between resistance of nickel, platinum and copper RTD and temperature. Platinum RTDs are used for temperature measurements from -220 to 850 C, copper RTD- from -50 to 150 C and Nickel RTD- from -215 to 320 C.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Figure below shows the assembly of RTD.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

For measurements of resistance of RTDs several methods are used. Among them the most widely used is a method employing a Wheatstone bridge. In this case RTD is connected to the bridge by two connecting cables (conductors).

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

If semiconductors or heat-treated metallic oxides (oxides of cobalt, copper, iron, tin, titanium, etc) are used as the materials for producing temperature sensitive elements, then these temperature transducers are called thermistors (the name is derived from the term of thermally sensitive resistor). These oxides are compressed into the shape from the specially formulated powder. After that, the oxides are heat-treated to recrystallise them. As the result of this treatment the ceramic body becomes dense. The lead-wires are then attached to this sensor for maintaining electrical contact.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

The size can range from extremely small bead, thin disc, thin chip or wafer to a large sized rod as shown below:

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

The figure shows relationship between temperature and resistance for a thermistor:

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Thermistors have negative thermal coefficient of electrical resistance. When temperature increases the electrical resistance of thermistor decreases. They have a greater resistance change compared with RTDs in a given temperature range. Operating range of thermistor lies between -100 and 300 C Fairly low cost and high sensitivity.

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus

Prepared By: MUHAMMAD MOEEN SULTAN

Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore, KSK Campus