APA Style Essentials http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?

doc_id=796 Last modified March 15, 2006 Douglas Degelman, Ph.D., and Martin Lorenzo Harris, Ph.D. Vanguard University of Southern California APA Publication Manual The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed., 2001) provides a comprehensive reference guide to writing using APA style, organization, and content. To order a copy of the Publication Manual online, go to http://www.apa.org/books/4200060.html. To view "PDF" docume nts referenced on this APA Style Essentials page, you need Adobe Acrobat Reader. To download the free A crobat Reader, go to http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html.

The purpose of this document is to provide a common core of elements of APA styl e that all members of an academic department can adopt as minimal standards for any assignment that specifies APA style. This Web document is itself not a model of APA style. For an example of a complete article formatted according to APA style, go to http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedfiles/faculty/ddegelman/prayer.pdf. For an ex ample of an undergraduate research proposal, go to http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedfiles/faculty/ddegelman/psychpro posal.pdf. To download a Microsoft Word template of an APA-style paper, go to http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedFiles/Facu lty/DDegelman/psychapa.doc I. General Document Guidelines A. Margins: One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right) B. Font Size and Type: 12-pt. font (Times Roman or Courier are acceptable typefa ces) C. Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstrac t, body of the document, references, appendixes, footnotes, tables, and figure captions. D. Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right margin) E. Paragraph Indentation: 5-7 spaces F. Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the paper on the first line of every page (except Figures), beginning with the title page. G. Manuscript Page Header: The first two or three words of the paper title appea r five spaces to the left of the page number on every page (except Figures), beginning with the title page. Manus cript page headers are used to identify manuscript pages during the editorial process. Using most word processors, the manuscript page header and page number can be inserted into a header, which then automatica lly appears on all pages. H. Active voice: As a general rule, use the active voice rather than the passive voice. For example, use "We

Abstract: The abstract is a one-paragraph. centered on the l ine following the author(s). author affiliation(s). self-contained summary of the mo st important elements of the paper. author(s). Order of Pages: Title Page. D. Example of APA-formatted Title Page: http://www.predicted that .. Author(s): Uppercase and lowercase letters. Paper Title: Uppercase and lowercase letters.edu/uploadedFiles/psyc hology/abstract. and running head . Appendixes.. Format: The abstract (in block format) begins on the line following the Abstr act heading. Figure Captions. Key Elements: Paper title. E. Pagination: The abstract begins on a new page (page 2). Figures II.pdf III. Footnotes . Title Page A. G. F. Abstract. centered on the line following th e title. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of p ublished articles. Running head: The running head is typed flush left (all uppercase) following the words "Running head:" on the line below the manuscript page header. All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words. Heading: Abstract (centered on the first line below the manuscript page heade r) C." I. Tables." rather than "It was predicted that .vanguard. C. The abstract should not exceed 120 words. Body. References.edu/uploadedFiles/ps ychology/titlepage. It should not exceed 50 characters. B. Pagination: The Title Page is page 1. B. i ncluding punctuation and spacing.. Example of APA-formatted Abstract: http://www. Institutional affiliation: Uppercase and lowercase letters..pdf . D. A. centered on the page.vanguard.

both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses. the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Consider th e following example: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some typ es of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner. Main headings (when the paper has either one or two levels of headings) use c entered uppercase and lowercase letters (e. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. separated by semicolons. and Procedure as subsections of the Method section). Results. In turn. Discussion. 1987. and References). 1990. many empirical research articles utilize Method. Title: The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centere d on the first line below the manuscript page header. For an example of APA-formatted headings.. Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages. uppercase and lowercase letters (e. go to http://www. Headings: Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. a nd References headings. A. Maton & Pargament.g. & Allen. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sent ence. 1991. Paloma & . Consider the following example: Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin d osage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition. Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3).edu/uploadedFiles/psycholog y/headings. Participants. 2.pdf 1.g.vanguard. Results. C. the Method section often has subheadings of Participants. Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of headings) are italicized and us e flush left. Text citations: Source material must be documented in the body of the paper b y citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. Koenig. Method. Body A. 1991. Apparatus. B. For example. V. Apparatus.. D. Levin & Vanderpool. L arson.IV.] B. The underlying principle is that ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. [Note: and is used when multiple authors are identifi ed as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Introduction: The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line foll owing the paper title. and P rocedure. the d ifference was not statistically significant. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence. Compare this to the example in the following s ection. Discussion.

February 12. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When a source that has six or more authors is cited. F. When that source is cited again. D. 1978) claimed . and telephone in terviews). & Jenkins. surname. Payne. When a source that has two authors is cited. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read ("Grayson" in the following example) that is cited in a source that you have read ("Murzynski & Degelman" in the following example). Because a personal communication is no t "recoverable" information. For the text citation . 1991. G. they are ordered alphabetically by first authors' surnames." are used. Payne et al. include initials. Bergin. 1991).. To cite a personal communication (including letters.. 1991). it is not included in the References section. the first author's surname and "et al . [Note: & is used when multiple a uthors are identified in parenthetical material. . & Jenkins. Consider the following example: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some typ es of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne." are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list: Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman. all authors are included the first time the source is cited. Bielema. or five authors is cited. Skinner (personal communication. When a source that has three. Bielema. use the following format: B. Ber gin. Note also that when several sources are ci ted parenthetically.Pendleton. emails.] C. (1991) showed that ... the first author's surna me and "et al. and as exact a date as possible. E. both authors are included every time the source is cited. F. 1996) identified four components of b ody language that were related to judgments of vulnerability. four.

chapter. 1988. B." for remaining authors. When there are seven or more authors. VII. use the author-date format.d. with a period followin . B. abounding in love to all who call to you (Psal m 86:5. had fewer cardiac arrests. To cite the Bible. Quotations: When a direct quotation is used. p. A. lis t the first six and then use "et al. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation mar ks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. always include the author. Heading: References (centered on the first line below the manuscript page hea der) C. Changes in Americans' views of gender status differences have been documented (G ender and Society. required less diur etic and antibiotic therapy. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. year . with each line indented five spaces from the left margin. [Note: No entry in the References list is need for the B ible. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. New International Version). A. identify the version used. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors.). Most reference entrie s have three components: 1. If no date is provided. Consider the following example: You are forgiving and good. the title o f the document begins the reference. Example: Patients receiving prayer had "less congestive heart failure. The first time the B ible is cited in the text. and page number as part of the citation.d.] VI. provide the book. 829). Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source. To cite a Web document. n. usi ng surnames and initials. References: All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). had fewer episodes of pneumonia. If no author is identifie d. Commas separate all authors. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation ma rks) apart from the surrounding text. O Lord. If no author is identified. use "n. Consider the following examples: Degelman and Harris (2000) provide guidelines for the use of APA writing style. use the first few words of the title in place of the author. in block format.H. and verse. and were le ss frequently intubated and ventilated" (Byrd." in place of the date. I. Pagination: The References section begins on a new page. 2.

city of publication. 26. Notable people in psychology of religion. F. E. L. D. 3. publisher (for book). D. APA style essentials.htm 5.psywww. Official APA "Electronic Reference Formats : http://www. (2000).).d.html . 2.apastyle. M. from Vanguard University. Stand-alone Web document (no date) Nielsen. M. Department of Psychology Web site: http://www. Examples of sources 1.. titles and volume numbers of periodicals. Italicize titles of books.trinity. pages (for journal article ) or title. & Degelman. J. Web document on university program or department Web site Degelman. Body language of women and judgments of vu lnerability to sexual assault. 3. no date) Gender and society.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.ht ml F. from http://www. Bo ston: Allyn and Bacon. (1996)..vanguard.). Retrieved December 3. Book Paloutzian.edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/r eferences. Retrieved Augus t 3. Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed. volume.d. D.aspx?doc_id=796 4.vanguard. Stand-alone Web document (no author.g the closing parenthesis. 2001.pdf E.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr. 2001. 20 00. Example of APA References: http://www. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. use "n." in parentheses followin g the authors. Journal article Murzynski. journal. 1617-1626.). (n. from http://www. (1996).org/elecref. & Harris. Retrieved May 18. R.d.edu/~mkearl/gender. If no publication date is given. (n. Source Reference: Includes title.

Re ligion and mental health (pp. 7. 20. (1992). Washington. B. etc. Pagination: Each Appendix begins on a separate page. Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping.html 9. Schumaker (Ed. F.. B. D. from ProQuest da tabase. 168-172. A. Journal article from database Hien. Spring).. D. 70-84).Journal article. 8. 503-522.. VIII. C. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders American Psychiatric Association. Appendix is centered on the first lin e below the manuscript page header. D. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. from http://ecrp. Format: Indent the first line of each footnote 5-7 spaces and number the foon otes (slightly above the line) as .). Heading: If there is only one appendix. Pagination: Footnotes begin on a separate page. (1990). D. A. (2000). from P sycINFO database. Abstract retrieved July 23. (2000). DC: Author. Internet-only journal Bergen. T.edu/uploadedFiles/psyc hology/appendix. K.6. A closer look at the drug abuse-maternal aggres sion link. New York: Oxford University Press.). Retrieved February 1. Footnotes: Content footnotes are occasionally used to support substantive in formation in the text. Format: Indent the first line 5-7 spaces. C.vanguard. Early Childhood Research & Practice. 2004. 2000. (2002. 4(1). D.uiuc. Example of APA-formatted Appendix: http://www. Religion and sexual adjustment. Abstract from secondary database Garrity.pdf IX. & Honeyman. If there is more than one appendix. 10. & Degelman. Article or chapter in an edited book Shea. use Appendix A (or B or C. In J.edu/v4n1/bergen. Heading: Footnotes is centered on the first line below the manuscript page he ader. text revision). Do uble-space and type the appendix title (centered in uppercase and lowercase letters). Retrieved May 20.. J. The role of pretend play in children's cognitive deve lopment. Diagnostic and statistical manual of m ental disorders (4th ed. Appendixes: A common use of appendixes is to present unpublished tests or to describe complex equipment or stimulus materials. 15. 2001. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

or other illustrations (other than tables). capitalizing only the first letter of the first wor d and any proper nouns. See the Publication Manual (2001.vanguard.pdf XI. pp. D. A. Douglas Degelman at ddegelman@vanguard. B.vanguard. Example of APA-formatted Footnotes: http://www. The Figures that follow the Figure Captions page do NOT have page numbers or manuscript page headers. p hotographs. Double-space and type Figure 1.pdf X. Figure Captions and Figures: A common use of Figures is to present graphs. . (or 2 or 3. All rights reserved. etc. C. Tables: A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses (such as ANOVA).they are identified in the text. on a single page.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/DDegelman/psychfigure.pdf Copyright © 2000-2006 Douglas Degelman and Martin Harris. Example of APA-formatted Tables: http://www.edu/uploadedFiles/psy chology/footnote. Aut horized use includes printing or photocopying for personal or educational use the content of this document. etc. Pagination: The Figure Captions page is the final numbered page of the paper. followed by the caption for the figure (not italicized). captions for the figures that follow. pp.) is typed flush left on the first line belo w the manuscript page header. Figure Captions provide. B. Double-space and type the table title flush left (italicized in uppercase and lo wercase letters). Pagination: Each Table begins on a separate page. For f urther information contact Dr.edu/uploadedFiles/psycho logy/table2. Heading for Figure Captions: Figure Caption(s) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. Heading: Table 1 (or 2 or 3. C. Example of APA-formatted Figure Caption and Figure: http://www. A. Ta bles must be referred to in the text.vanguard.edu. See the Publication Manual (2001. 176-201) for detailed examples.) italicized and flush l eft. 147-176) for detailed examples.

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