The Rights of Man and the Eighteenth Century

The Enlightenment

 5 Age of Enlightenment  5.1 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Pre-Kantian Thought From Montaigne to Descartes The concept of ‘‘race’’ is a modern one, and the sustained study of it in the United States emerged when proponents of the institution of slavery needed scientists to defend that institution from religious abolitionists, who called for the unity of God’s children, and from Enlightenment critics, who called for liberty, fraternity, and equality of man. During the early colonial experience in North America, ‘‘race’’ was not a term that was widely employed. Notions of difference were often couched in religious terms, and comparisons between ‘‘heathen’’ and ‘‘Christian,’’ ‘‘saved’’ and ‘‘unsaved,’’ and ‘‘savage’’ and ‘‘civilized’’ were used to distinguish African and indigenous peoples from Europeans. Beginning in 1661 and continuing through the early eighteenth century, ideas about race began to circulate after Virginia and other colonies started passing legislation that made it legal to enslave African servants and their children. The Social Contract 1 From Hobbes to Locke

The Kantian Revolution Kant The first use of the term "anthropology" in English to refer to a natural science of humanity was apparently in 1593, the first of the "logies" to be coined.[27] It took Immanuel Kant 25 years to write one of the first major treatises on anthropology, his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View.[28] Kant is not generally considered to be a modern anthropologist, however, as he never left his region of Germany nor did he study any cultures besides his own, and in fact, describes the need for anthropology as a corollary field to his own primary field of philosophy.[29] He did, however, begin teaching an annual course in anthropology in 1772. Anthropology is thus primarily an Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment endeavor. Most scholars[citation needed] consider modern anthropology as an outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment, a period when Europeans attempted systematically to study human behavior, the known varieties of which had been increasing since the 15th century as a result of the first European colonization wave. The traditions of jurisprudence, history, philology, and sociology then evolved into something more closely resembling the modern views of these disciplines and informed the development of the social sciences, of which anthropology was a part. Developments in the systematic study of ancient civilizations through the disciplines of Classics and Egyptology informed both archaeology and eventually social anthropology, as did the study of East and South Asian languages and cultures.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who encouraged the examination of man’s inner self rather than making inferences about the inner self based upon the exterior physical self.[28] In 1775, Kant published Of the Different Human Races which proposed natural or purposive causes of variation, as opposed to mechanical law or a product of chance. He distinguished four fundamental races: Whites, Blacks, Kalmuck, and Hindustanic, and attributed the variation to differences in environment and climate, such as the air and sun, but clarified by saying that the variation served a purpose and was not purely superficial. Kant argued that human beings were equipped with the same seeds (Keime) and the natural predispositions or characteristics (Anlagen) that were expressed were dependent upon climate and served a purpose due to the circumstance. After this process had occurred, it was also irreversible. Therefore, race could not be undone by changes in climate. “Whichever germ was actualized by the conditions, the other germs would retire into inactivity." Kant wrote On the Different Races of Man (Über die verschiedenen Rassen der Menschen, 1775), as an

attempted scientific classification of human races. Kant stated: The yellow Indians do have a meagre talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people.[29] Lord Kames Lord Kames was a polygenist, he believed God had created different races on earth in separate regions. In his book Sketches on the History of Man in 1734 Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so that the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.[30]

Friedrich Hegel

Friedrich Hegel Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) presented a strong evolutionist account of history in the Lectures on the Philosophy of History (Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Weltgeschichte, 1837) chronicling the development of the historical Geist (Spirit) through serial realisations of Volkgeister (Folk Spirits). Hegel's philosophy of history was explicitly biased towards Europe, especially the Prussian state, conceived as the ultimate historical achievement, i.e. the End of History. In his chapter on the "Geographical Foundings of Universal History" Hegel said that "each People represented a particular degree of the development of the Spirit", thus forming a "nation"; however, that nationalism is not based upon racial (physical) particularities, rather it concerns the historico–geographic site where the Geister unfold. Informed by Montesquieu's theory of climatologic influence upon cultural mores and law Hegel developed in The Spirit of the Laws (1748), contrasting historical peoples with ahistoric savages: It is true that climate has influence, in that sense that neither the warm zone, nor the cold zone, are favourable to the liberty of man, and to the apparition of historical peoples.[31] Unsurprisingly, Hegel thus favoured the Geist in temperate zones, and finally wrote an account of "universal history" chronicling the Oriental World, the Greek Antiquity, the Roman, the Christian World, and the Prussian World.[32] In the same Lectures he said that "America is the country of the future", yet "philosophy does not concern itself with prophecies", but with history.[33] Hegel’s philosophy, like that of Kant, cannot be reduced to evolutionist statements, nevertheless, it justified European imperialism until the First World War (1914–18). Likewise, some of Montesquieu’s œuvre justified "scientifically-ground" Negro inferiority consequent to the climate’s influence. Hegel declared that: Africa is no historical part of the world." Hegel further claimed that blacks had no "sense of personality; their

remains sunk in itself. in which he attempted to differentiate various types of people scientifically. studying the language. There was a tendency in late 18th century Enlightenment thought to understand human society as natural phenomena that behaved according to certain principles and that could be observed empirically. culture. and artifacts of European colonies was not unlike studying the flora and fauna of those places.spirit sleeps. his value-laden judgments that Europeans were ‘‘governed by laws’’ while Africans were ‘‘governed by caprice’’ reinforced ideas that European society was the apex of Christian civilization (Linnaeus 1997 [1735]. . and thus parallels the compact. Herder Programs of ethnographic study originated in this era as the study of the "human primitives" overseen by colonial administrations. makes no advance. In some ways. physiology.[34] The Rise of the Biological Sciences From Schleirmacher to Herder In 1735 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus completed his first edition of Systema Naturae.13). He identified humans as a single species within the primate family and did not explicitly rank types of people within a hierarchy. undifferentiated mass of the African continent. p. However.

government as far back as 1775. Darwin thus used Descent of Man to disprove the polygenist thesis and end the debate between polygeny and monogeny once and for all. In 1789. all noted polygenists. who held that all races came from a common ancestor. such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey. Darwin." which is central to the discipline. At the same time. Although the bureau. Charles Darwin and Race Though Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory was set forth in 1859 upon publication of On the Origin of Species. this work was largely absent of explicit reference to Darwin’s theory applied to man. who had come from a family with strong abolitionist ties. Darwin’s theory of evolution had been thought to be compatible with the polygenist thesis (Stepan 1982). and advocates of polygeny. similar agencies had existed in the U. This is opposite to the idea of monogenism. in 1871. the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers such as Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey whose work formed the basis for the culture concept which is central to the discipline. The Descent of Man. the United States Congress placed Native American relations within the newly-formed War Department. Agassiz and Broca. (see later) whose work formed the basis for the "culture concept. when a trio of Indian agencies were created by the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were among the early commissioners. and Selection in Relation to Sex. Darwin’s publication of this book occurred within the heated debates between advocates of monogeny. the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers. Darwin also used it to disprove other . Noted Darwin biographers Adrian Desmond and James Moore argue that Darwin’s writings on evolution were not only influenced by his abolitionist tendencies. which posits a single origin of humanity. which was called the Office of Indian Affairs. who held that the races were separately created.At the same time. had experienced and was disturbed by cultures of slavery during his voyage on the Beagle years earlier. but also his belief that non-white races were equal in regard to their intellectual capacity as white races. Polygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages (polygenesis).S. was formed in 1824. however. By the late 1860s. who were charged with negotiating treaties with Native Americans and obtaining their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. This application by Darwin would not become explicit until the publication of his second great book on evolution. a belief which had been strongly disputed by scientists such as Morton.

and to have defeated the scientific racism practiced by Morton. for example. common ancestor and 2. that the biological similarities between the different races were “too great” for the polygenist thesis to be plausible. and 2. But it would be an endless task to specify the numerous points of difference. Darwin concluded. Furthermore.hypotheses about racial difference that had persisted since the time of ancient Greece. as four (Kant). eight (Agassiz). Though the idea of sexual selection had appeared in earlier works by Darwin. by mere accident acquire characteristics shared by many apes. when carefully compared and measured. according to Darwin. that differences in skin color and body constitution occurred because of differences of geography and climate. it was not until 1914 that sexual selection received serious consideration as a racial theory by naturalist thinkers.)That all human beings.e. but partly in their intellectual faculties” (The Descent of Man. in acclimatization and in liability to certain diseases. The races differ also in constitution.) Phenotypic racial differences are superficially selected. Darwin sought to demonstrate that the physical characteristics that were being used to define race for centuries (i. Broadly speaking. Because. Their mental characteristics are likewise very distinct. differ much from each other . eleven . regardless of race share a single. and that these standards reflected important physical characteristics sought in mates.) The preference for some color or another. Knott. for example. seven (Hunter). Agassiz et. for the possession of the other sex”. and yet there is the greatest possible diversity amongst capable judges whether he should be classed as a single species or race. and have no survival value. He also used the idea of races to argue for the continuity between humans and animals. Given these two beliefs. The mechanism Darwin developed is known as sexual selection. it was not until the late 1860s when it received full consideration (Stepan 1982). Darwin noted the great difficulty naturalists had in trying to decide how many "races" there actually were: Man has been studied more carefully than any other animal. the form and capacity of the skull. any characteristic that did not have survival value could not have been naturally selected. Sexual selection consisted of two types for Darwin: 1. generally the males. the relative proportions of all parts of the body.) The physical struggle for a mate. Darwin asserted that the differing human races (insofar as race was conceived phenotypically) had arbitrary standards of ideal beauty. Al. or as two (Virey). some believe Darwin to have established monogenism as the dominant paradigm for racial ancestry. chapter VII). as three (Jacquinot). typically by females of a given species. he devised another hypothesis for the development and persistence of these characteristics. six (Buffon). five (Blumenbach). Darwin defined sexual selection as the “struggle between individuals of one sex. and even the convolutions of the brain. Nevertheless he stated: : “The various races. skin color and facial features) were superficial and had no utility for in the texture of hair. 1. chiefly as it would appear in their emotion. In The Descent of Man. as well as notions that there existed a natural racial hierarchy that reflected inborn differences and measures of value between the different human races. noting that it would be highly implausible that man should. the capacity of the lungs. Darwin’s attitudes of what race was and how it developed in the human species are attributable to two assertions.

[3] Robert Argod a navy sailor wrote a book in which he claimed Polynesian mythology supported polygenesis. created three different races of man separately out of clay: one black. For example the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate in his Letter to a Priest wrote that he believed Zeus made multiple creations of man and women. or as sixty-three. polygenists do not accept this position because they believe it does not explain why there is such a big variation of human races. [edit] Origins Many oral traditions feature polygenesis in their creation stories. Khonvoum. Polygenists cite scientific evidence from racial variations in skin colour. and that it is hardly possible to discover clear distinctive characters between them. twenty-two (Morton). In early classical and medieval geography the idea of polygenism surfaced because of the suggested possibility of there being inhabitants of the antipodes (Antichthones). [edit] Main beliefs Most Christians have taught monogenism that a single mating pair named Adam and Eve gave birth to all of humanity. This diversity of judgment does not prove that the races ought not to be ranked as species.e complexion) to the Ethiopians. and one red. Polygenists view the racial differences between each race to be too great to accept that all men derive from the same stock. There have been a number of polygenist theories. He therefore could not imagine such difference in physical attributes as having originated from common ancestry. fifteen (Bory St. that the Polynesian peoples and later Asiatic people had originated from the Antarctica. according to Burke. Julian had noticed that the Germanics and Scythians (northern nations) were different in their bodies (i.(Pickering). one white. so maintained separate creations for different races. separate from the other races. both are attempts to solve the race origin problems of monogenism. sixty (Crawfurd). the two most popular are biblical creationist polygenism and polygenist evolution. polygenists believe this to be biological impossible.[1] The idea is also found in some ancient Greek and Roman literature. but it shews that they graduate into each other. stature. See (Ainu creation myth). Those who support polygenism cite the existence of interspecies hybrids such as mules in rebuttal to the argument that human races must belong to a single species because they can interbreed. for example Bambuti mythology and other creation stories from the pygmies of Congo state that the supreme God of the pygmies. sixteen (Desmoulins).[2] In his Against the Galilaens Julian presented his reasoning for this belief.[5][6] .[4] The religion of the Ainu people claims that the ancestors of the Ainu people arrived on earth from the skys separate from the other races. polygenists do not believe that Adam and Eve being one race could give birth to all of the races on earth. These inhabitants were considered by some to have separate origins because of their geographical extremity. Vincent). head shape and size to prove that the only logical scientific explanation for different races is separate origins.

who argued that Africans are descended from apes because of their skin colour. CoAdamism claims that there was more than one Adam or small group of men created at the same time in different places across the earth.[8] PreAdamism claims there were already races of man living prior to the creation of Adam. George Gliddon. In all these Gardens of Eden. a CoAdamist. According to Nott there are no verses in the Bible which support monogenism and that the only passage the monogenists use is Acts 17:26. such as Negros and Asians. who theorised a different origin for the Native Americans. were not featured in the Bible or the Table of Nations outlined in Genesis 10 because when the Hebrews wrote the Bible they had no knowledge of any other races' existence except their own. Louis Agassiz.[10] Lucilio Vanini was a polygenist. while other races did not. Biblical polygenists believe there is no way that racial variations in skin colour.[11][12] Giordano Bruno (1548 – 1600). but according to Nott the monogenists are wrong in their interpretation of this verse because the "one blood" of Paul's sermon only includes the nations he knew existed. stature.[edit] Polygenism and the Bible Biblical polygenists (creationists) believe that human races have been created separately in different zones by God. who in his books claimed that the writers of the Bible had no knowledge of any races except themselves and their immediate neighbors. like other species. half the Adams and Eves will not eat the fruit of knowledge. and therefore that the different races were separately created. together with fauna specific to those regions. fixed in form. Biblical polygenists claim the Bible was written in just a single region of the world and that the Hebrews who wrote the Bible could not have known about anything or anyone outside their own region. head shape and size could have developed over six thousand or even (if one did not literally interpret the Bible) thirty or forty thousand years. with a Garden of Eden on each one. believed that there was an infinite number of Gardens of Eden: I can imagine an infinite number of worlds like the Earth. and that the Bible does not concern the whole of the earth's population. But half of infinity is infinity. so an infinite number of worlds will fall from grace and there will be an infinite number of crucifixions[13] . An example of this is Josiah Clark Nott. he also reported in the book that other atheists supported this position as opposed to the theory of monogenism. Josiah Clark Nott. and half will. In his book De Admirandis Naturae Reginae Deaeque Mortalium Arcanis (1616) he wrote that that only the Negro descends from the monkey and that there are lower and higher levels within humanity (a race hierarchy).[9] Other 16th century advocates of CoAdamism included Thomas Harriot and Walter Raleigh.[7] There are two forms of Biblical polygenism: PreAdamism and CoAdamism. The idea of CoAdamism has been traced back as far as Paracelsus in 1520. They utilize such theories as PreAdamite creation or CoAdamism to explain the existence of different races. which were local. maintained that many of the races on earth. Biblical polygenists believe that the races are. Biblical polygenists such as John William Colenso. By contrast. They believe that each human race was created to survive in its own ecosystem: that each race was placed by God in a specific zoological province.

beautify their houses and gardens. That There Were Other Men Created at the Same time with Adam. polygenism was largely considered heretical. or state of society could not account for racial differences. polygenesis remained an uncommon Biblical interpretation. Lord Kames was a believer in CoAdamism.[14] PreAdamism traces back to Isaac La Peyrère in the 17th century (see Preadamites). In his book Sketches on the History of Man in 1734 Home claimed that the environment. wolves and jackals. historian and philosopher. Voltaire claimed they are both different species: The negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. Voltaire found biblical monogenism laughable. Now here is a lovely image of the Divine Maker: a flat and black nose with little or hardly any intelligence.[18] Charles White's Account of the Regular Gradation in Man in 1799.[21] When comparing Caucasians to Negros. and know the paths of the stars: one needs time for everything. it has been pointed out by some modern scholars that while PreAdamism was strongly rejected by most and deemed heretical.[17] Charles White (physician) was another key advocate of CoAdamism. I. A time will doubtless come when these animals will know how to cultivate the land well. although he used less theology to support his views.[22] Charles Hamilton Smith a naturalist from England was a polygenist. is white in us and black or copper-colored in them. which were separate groups that were still able to interbreed. which nature has spread between the muscles and the skin. climate. viz.[19] In Christianity. provided the empirical science for polygenism.[16] Home believed God had created different races on earth in separate regions. or network. Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer. CoAdamism was not received with the same degree of hostility. so that the races must have come from distinct. he was also a polygenist. White defended the theory of polygeny by refuting French naturalist George Louis de Buffon's interfertility argument—the theory that only the same species can interbreed— pointing to species hybrids such as foxes. An anonymous Biblical paper supporting CoAdamism was published in 1732 entitled Co-adamitae or an Essay to Prove the Two Following. That the Angels did not fall.In 1591 Giordano Bruno argued that because no one could imagine that the Jews and the Ethiopians had the same ancestry. separate stocks. Our wise men have said that man was created in the image of God. He believed each race had separate origins because they were so racially diverse.[20] A major reason for the emergence of Biblical polygenism from around the 18th century was because it became noted that the number of races could not have developed within the commonly-accepted Biblical timeframe. Voltaire brought the subject up in his Essay on the Manner and Spirit of Nations and on the Principal Occurrences in History in 1756 (which was an early work of comparative history). The mucous membrane. as he expressed: It is a serious question among them whether the Africans are descended from monkeys or whether the monkeys come from them. he believed races had been created . however. Until the mid-19th century. then God must have either created separate Adams or Africans were the descendants of preAdamite races.[15] Henry Home. and II. Paradoxes.

who felt that polygenism was incompatible with the doctrine of Original Sin. He published the book The Natural History of the Human Species in 1848. many people could not believe that they had the same ancestry of other races because of the extreme racial differences.[24] Francis Dobbs (1750–1811). Egyptological evidence indicated the existence of remarkable permanent differences in the shape of the skull. In the book he maintained that there had always been three fundamentally distinct human types: The Caucasian. that there was no way in which all the races could have come from the same stock just a few thousand years ago. like many other polygenists he claimed monogenesis was the cause of slavery and racism. discovery. He also referred to the polygenist Samuel George Morton's work in America. that monogenists had interpreted the Bible wrongly. and that all races been created equal by God. later they went back to their own countries to publish books and journals on their findings and claim that the evidence supported polygenism. in common with other biblical polygenists.. overseas exploration (due to the advancement of ships) and increases in trade routes. an eccentric member of the Irish Parliament. believed in a very different kind of biblical polygenism. He was unconvinced that climate could change racial variation and also believed.[25] Polygenism was heavily criticized in the 20th century Roman Catholic Church. Colenso claimed that each race had sprung from a different pair of parents.. colour and physiognomy between different races which are difficult to reconcile with biblical monogenesis.[25] Colenso said “It seems most probable that the human race.the yellow races are not descended from the same man”.[28] John Atkins an English naval surgeon was one of the earliest scientists to be a proponent of the polygenist theory. Colenso believed that racial variation between races was so great.. Colenso pointed to monuments and artifacts in Egypt to debunk monogenist beliefs that all races came from the same stock. John William Colenso a theologian and biblical scholar was a polygenist who believed in CoAdamism. Samuel Kneeland (naturalist) wrote an 84-page introduction to the American edition of the book where he laid out evidence which supports polygenist creationism and that the Bible is entirely compatible with multiple Adams.Negroes. Voltaire in his book 1734 book Traité de métaphysique said “Whites. and especially by Pope Pius XII in the encyclical Humani Generis. In his Concise View from History written in 1800 he maintained that there was a race resulting from a clandestine affair between Eve and the Devil (see Serpent Seed).separately. Many explorers and scientists visited other countries to observe and study different races and write down their findings. bodily form. had really sprung from more than one pair”. For example.[23] Smith’s book was re-printed in America.. [edit] Scientific polygenism During the late 1600's and early 1700's many countries first began to encounter different races from other countries due to colonial expansion. In his book A Voyage to Guinea (1723) he said “I am persuaded that the black and white race have . the Mongolian and the Negro.[26][27] Some polygenists of the 18th century were Voltaire and David Hume. Because of the encounters with different races. Colenso denied that polygenism caused any kind of racist attitudes or practices. as it now exists. Ancient Egyptian representations of races showed exactly how the races looked in his time.

in Germany by ethnographers Christoph Meiners and Georg Forster. with those survivors then living in complete isolation from each other.[30][31] Cuvier insisted that the Caucasian skull was most beautiful.”[28] In the last two decades of the 18th century polygenism was advocated in England by historian Edward Long and anatomist Charles White. is also superior to others by its genius.000 years ago. Polygenism was very popular and most widespread in the 19th century. Cuvier claimed Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that was the original race of mankind.[34] Cuvier's racial studies held the main features of polygenism which are as follows:[35]  Fixity of species  Strict limits on environmental influence  Unchanging underlying type  Anatomical and cranial measurement differences in races  Physical and mental differences between racial worth  Human races are all distinct Scientific Polygenism became popular in France in the 1820s in response to James Cowles Prichard's Researches into the Physical History of Man (1813) which was considered a pioneering work of monogenism. is marked by black complexion. crisped of woolly hair. According to Cuvier the White race was at the top and the black race was at the bottom.[36] In response an entire anthropological school advocating polygenism was set up to counter Prichard's monogenism in France. white. courage and activity.[39] Polygenist schools were later set up in the 1830s and 1840s across Europe. to which the civilised people of Europe belong and which appear to us the most beautiful of all.. yellow and black all which receive marks for their beauty or ugliness of their skull and quality of their civilizations.[37] Key French polygenists of this period included the naturalist Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Louis-Antoine Desmoulins (1796–1828) a student of Georges Cuvier. The projection of the lower parts of the face. He divided humanity into three races. and the thick lips. [38] Anders Retzius a Swedish professor of anatomy was a polygenist. The Scottish anatomist and . with oval face. Cuvier wrote: The Negro race.[32] Cuvier wrote regarding Caucasians: The white race. evidently approximate it to the monkey tribe: the hordes of which it consists have always remained in the most complete state of barbarism. and in France by Julien Virey..[33] Regarding Negros. and the other two races originated by survivors escaping in different directions after a major catastrophe hit the earth 5. Mongolian (yellow) and the Ethiopian (black).[29] Georges Cuvier the French naturalist and zoologist racial studies influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racialism. straight hair and nose. compressed cranium and a flat nose.sprung from different coloured parents. Cuvier believed there were three distinct races the Caucasian (white). Retzius studied many different skull types from different races. because the skulls were so different from each race he believed that the races had a separate origin.

this was followed by a sequel Indigenous Races of the Earth (1857). Caldwell attacked the position that environment was the cause of racial differences and argued instead that four races. Morton found its similarities striking to Central and South American crania. Hunt dedicated his On the negro's place in nature (1863) to Knox who had died a year before its publication.[41] John Crawfurd a Scottish physician. Pickering published Races of Man and Their Geographical Distribution. they did not migrate from Asia. American Indians supported Morton's conclusions. and colonial administrator was a polygenist. the surgeon Josiah Clark Nott and more prominently the paleontologist and geologist Louis Agassiz in the United States.zoologist Robert Knox was considered to be the 'founding father' of scientific polygenism in Britain and he argued in his Races of Man (1850) that racial natures never changed and therefore must have been created separately. and their physical form has remained essentially unchanged in their descendants. and the suitability of each race to the region for which it had been created. As Louis Agassiz backed the pluralists.[42] Charles Caldwell was one of the earliest supporters of polygenism in America. Mongolian. though he was more concerned with establishing white superiority. Numerous articles promoting polygenist views were published in the American Journal of Science and Arts during this time period. he believed that that different races had been created separately by God in specific regional zones for climatic circumstance.[43] Charles Pickering (naturalist) was the librarian and a curator of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Josiah Clark Nott and George Robins Gliddon implied that "Negroes" were a creational rank between "Greeks" and chimpanzees. which enumerated eleven races. Caucasian. polygenism received mainstream public approval and wide exposure during the 1840s-1860's. Monogenist debates across America. In 1843. he studied the geography of where different races were located. All had contributed to a major ethnological work of 738 pages entitled Types of Mankind which was published in 1854[44] and was a great success. he traveled to Africa and India to research human races. American Indian. confirming his belief that the American Indian nations had a common and indigenous origin. and advocates of the polygenism school became known as pluralists. In 1848. whilst some white archaeologists supported Morton others such as William Pidgeon did not accept Morton's conclusions because at the time some white archaeologists such as Pidgeon could not believe that Native Americans had created the archaeological . created separately by God.[40] A colleague of Knox.[46] Both Squier and Gliddon demonstrated for Morton the permanence of racial characteristics. Polygenism came into mainstream scientific thought in America in the mid 19th century due to the work of several corresponding natural scientists such as Samuel George Morton and Charles Pickering as well as Egyptologist George Gliddon. Indigenous Races of the Earth (1857). James Hunt. Both these works sparked the first formal Polygenist vs. was also an early author who promoted polygenism in Britain. Morton’s polygenism explicitly stated the Mound Builders were an American Indian race of great antiquity. were four different species.[45] The archeologist Ephraim George Squier helped Morton’s polygenism by excavating an ancient cranium from the midwestern mounds and sending a drawing of it to Morton. and African.

[48] Morton's work gained more support because his work was considered to be evidence of true objective science unlike others such as Pidgeon.remains they saw around them. Pidgeon's book was revealed mostly to be a hoax.[52] Unlike Josiah Nott. He was a prime advocate of polygeny. Lewis later revealed that Pidgeon had fabricated most of his research. as well as those of Gliddon and Nott. in opposition to the abolitionist Ethnological Society. the argument continued for a number of years. But as Darwin did not address man's origin directly at this stage. occupied America first and that The Mound Builders were not Native Americans. mapping mounds where none existed.[54] The notion that races were separate and came together by hybridism. John Thurnam an English psychiatrist. The Anthropologicals had the Confederate agent Henry Hotze permanently on their council. Oliver Wendell Holmes praised Morton for "The severe and cautious character" of his works. archaeologist. which "from their very nature are permanent data for all future students of ethnology". God he believed had created several different zoological provinces with different races in them. Both Thurnam and Davis were polygenists. rather than being variations from a common stock. Gliddon. and distorted much of the rest of it. and specialised in comparative anatomy of fishes and whales.[50] Agassiz's theory developed some support amongst Christians.[47] In the book Pidgeon attempts to prove that a vanished race. and ethnologist with Dr. Davis and Thurnam believed that the proofs of polygenism were to be found in studying the skull types . Joseph Barnard Davis published a work in two volumes under the title of Crania Britannica in 1865 it was a very important work for Craniometry. An essay of Agassiz promoting this theory with maps of the zoological zones was attached as a preface to Types of Mankind in collaboration with Morton. Dr. which was translated into English as The Plurality of the Human Race in 1864 by the Anthropological Society. Pouchet made contributions in several scientific fields. He claimed his views had nothing to do with politics. culturally superior to and existing earlier than the American Indians. and changing the arrangement of existing mound groups to suit his needs. Georges Pouchet the French naturalist and anatomist was a polygenist. Joseph Barnard Davis was a collector of racial crania he had a collection of over 1700 specimens.[56] Because of the differences of the crania of each race.[51] Christian fundamentalists however who held to Young Earth Creationism and strict monogenism (i.e everyone on earth from Adam and Eve) attacked his views.[49] By 1850 Agassiz had developed a unique form of CoAdamism. instead William Pidgeon wrote a book called Traditions of Dee-Coo-Dah and Antiquarian Researches in 1858. with the creation of the Anthropological Society of London in 1863 in the shadow of the American civil war. Morton won his reputation as the great data-gatherer and objectivist of American Science. and was the author of an anthropological work titled De la Pluralité des Races Humaines (1858).[53] Agassiz was never a supporter of slavery. the slave-owner from Alabama. Nott and others. which Agassiz opposed till his death. but also fauna and animals specific to those regions. The famed archaeologist Theodore H.[55] The two societies did not heal their differences until they merged in 1871 to form the Anthropological Institute. received its death knell with the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species in 1859. and he often wrote articles in Christian magazines claiming his views on polygenism were compatible with the bible.

Agassiz still stuck to his scientific form of polygenist creationism and denounced the idea of evolution. this was shown in the work Hermann Klaatsch and F.[62] In his work The Descent of Man (1871) Charles Darwin and some of his supporters argued for the monogenesis of the human species. Even after Darwin's book was published. he claimed are greater than those between two species of ape.[59] In an unusual blend of contemporary evolutionary thinking and pre-Adamism the theistic evolutionist and geologist Alexander Winchell argued in his 1878 book Adamites and Preadamites for the pre-Adamic origins of the human race on the basis that the Negroes were too racially inferior to have developed from the Biblical Adam. In Chapter VII of his lectures of man (1864) he compared the Negro to the White race whom he described as “two extreme human types”. This even included many students of Agassiz. Polygenist evolution views however continued into the early 20th century.[61] Shaler continued to believe in polygenism. This can be traced back to Karl Vogt in 1864. Crookshank. The difference between them. [edit] Polygenist evolution Polygenist evolution is the belief that humans evolved independently from separate species of apes. and still found support amongst prominent scientists. Because each race had a different size and type of skull then the only logical explanation is separate origins.[64] In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters. Henry Fairfield Osborn for example in his The Origin and Evolution of Life (1916) claimed blacks and whites both evolved off different primates. Ernst Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist and polygenist August Schleicher. The prominent French anthropologist Paul Broca by 1878 had also converted from creationist polygenism to accepting a form of polygenist evolution. Winchell also believed that the laws of evolution operated according to the will of God. This is known as the single-origin hypothesis.[58] Karl Vogt believed that the Negro was related to the ape. G. Polygenist evolution allowed polygenists to link each race to an altogether different ape. including Nathaniel Shaler who had studied under Agassiz at Harvard. Darwin even dedicated a chapter of his The Descent of Man in attempt to refute the polygenists and support common ancestry for all races. in which several different language . seeing the common origin of all humans as essential for evolutionary theory. and this proves that Negros are a separate species from the Whites.[57] Davis also wrote Thesaurus craniorum: catalogue of the skulls of the various races of man in 1875.[63] Alfred Russell Wallace influenced polygenist evolution he claimed that the physical differences in races must have occurred at such a remote time in the past before humans had any intelligence. but believed the different races evolved from different primates. However by the late 19th century most scientific polygenists had abandoned Agassiz's creationism and began to embrace polygenist forms of evolution. The differentiation into separate races with distinct physical traits must have happened so soon after humans had just appeared on earth that for all practical purposes all races had always been distinct. when natural selection was still operative on human bodies.[60] Before Darwin published his theory of evolution and common descent in his Origin of Species (1859) scientific theories or models of Polygenism (such as Agassiz's) were strictly creationist.of different races. He believed the White race was a separate species to Negros.

humans had evolved as separate species.The Beginning Was the End.groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen. while those that were locally adaptive.[66] In 1971 The Beginning Was the End was published by Oscar Kiss Maerth which argued different races sprung from different types of ape. This is contrary to popular theories of human evolution that have one superior race displacing other races. genes that were generally adaptive (such as those for intelligence and communication) would flow relatively rapidly from one part of the world to the other. Neo-evangelical theistic evolutionist John Stott wrote in his 1984 book Understanding the Bible: ‘My acceptance of Adam and Eve as historical is not incompatible with my belief that several forms of preAdamic ‘hominid’ seem to have existed for thousands of years previously. The Weidenreich Theory states that human races have evolved independently in the Old World from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens sapiens. was not very popular when it was presented in the mid-1960s.[65] Ernst Haeckel claimed that Negros have stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race which is evidence that Negros are connected to apes because when apes stop climbing in trees they hold on to the trees with their toes. Haeckel compared Negros to “four-handed” apes. The book is considered to be pseudoscience. which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. would not.. Eve. but these two theories differ significantly in that Coon's candelabra model involves no gene flow between populations (so truly independent evolutions for races of humans) while the multiregional hypothesis is based on the idea of massive amounts of gene flow between human populations. Teilhard did not believe in the creation of the Biblical first man.[67] [edit] Modern adherents . Pierre Teilhard de Chardin the French philosopher believed in polygenist evolution. he taught that there were many 'First Parents' who evolved from primates at one time. and.. while at the same time there was gene flow between the various populations. A vocal proponent of the Weidenreich theory was Carleton Coon. Adam and the first woman. of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. It is conceivable that God created Adam out of one of them. Haeckel also believed Negros were savages and that Whites were the most civilised. I think you may even call some of them Homo sapiens".[59] "The different human races developed from different breeds of ape. which could be subdivided into races. According to the Weidenreich Theory. the work of the paleoanthropologist Carleton Coon was the closest to what can be perhaps considered a "modern" polygenism by positing that the individual races of the earth separately evolved into modern Homo sapiens.the following eight pages show starling resemblances between types of ape and different human races" . called the candelabra theory. 1971. under the influence of each main branch of languages. Franz Weidenreich originated the "Weidenreich Theory of Human Evolution" which is a form of polygenist evolution. This hypothesis. It is often confused with the multiregional hypothesis. Haeckel divided human beings into ten races. In the late 20th century. These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man.

[68]  Several minor Christian groups still embrace Biblical polygenism (Preadamism or Coadamism). therefore. Hegel and Marx Most 19th-century social theorists. who naturalistically attributed civilizational primacy to the white races who gained sensitivity and intelligence via the refinement consequent to living in the rigorous North climate. apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians. and out of it all came their high civilization.[69] [edit] See also  Multiregional hypothesis  Polygenesis (linguistics)  Historical definitions of race  Monogenesis Man as an Instinctual Being Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860). Institutionally. A tenet of Raëlism holds that the different races of humans were created by separate teams of extraterrestrial scientists. This they had to do in order to make up for the parsimony of nature. is fairer in colour than the rest. viewed non-European societies as windows onto the pre-industrial human past. and there gradually became white. and misery. including anthropologists. had to develop all their intellectual powers. were brought about by the climate. the Brahmins. and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. and has. and even with many dark peoples. which.[35] Romantics Smith. or race. and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need. for example. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention. evidently immigrated. because those tribes that emigrated early to the north. want. the ruling caste. in their many forms. to wit: The highest civilization and culture. are found exclusively among the white races. the Inca. anthropology emerged from the development of natural history (expounded by authors such as Buffon) .

physiology. the turn of the twentieth. and post-1965. It was for this reason. The Social Contract2: Montesquieu and Rousseau The Age of Revolutions: All Men are Created Equal but Some are more Equal than Others Immigration into the United States Main article: History of immigration to the United States American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: the colonial period. races. and it would be wrong to see anthropology as merely an extension of colonial rule and European chauvinism. 18th. Thus studying the language. and ethnicities to the United States. 19th and 20th centuries. This is also why the material culture of 'civilized' nations such as China have historically been displayed in fine arts museums alongside European art while artifacts from Africa or Native North American cultures were displayed in Natural History Museums with dinosaur bones and nature dioramas. since its relationship to imperialism was and is complex. . During the seventeenth century. Curatorial practice has changed dramatically in recent years.that occurred during the European colonization of the 17th. culture. Each period brought distinct national groups. for instance.typically people living in European colonies. This was the study of human beings . Institutionally anthropology emerged from natural history (expounded by authors such as Buffon). and artifacts of European colonies was more or less equivalent to studying the flora and fauna of those places. that Lewis Henry Morgan could write monographs on both The League of the Iroquois and The American Beaver and His Works. the mid-nineteenth century.

000 Englishmen migrated to Colonial America. Ethiopian. and he argued that all other varieties degenerated from Caucasians. in which he divided the human race into separate and unequal varieties. It was Blumenbach who provided the four basic racial categories that people still grapple with in the early twenty-first century: Caucasian. as self-evident. . Blumenbach viewed Europeans as the most advanced. The American Constitution and Racism The same year that Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence and claimed.000 people a year. ‘‘that all men are created equal’’ Johann Blumenbach published On the Natural Varieties of Mankind. it was expanded to include blacks in the 1860s and Asians in the 1950s. immigration was fewer than 8.[12] The 1790 Act limited naturalization to "free white persons".[14] including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. Malayan).[11] The mid-nineteenth century saw mainly an influx from northern Europe. Despite his claims about the unity of humanity. Historians estimate that less than one million immigrants—perhaps as few as 400.000—crossed the Atlantic during the 17th and 18th centuries. post-1965 mostly from Latin America and Asia.[10] Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants.approximately 175. and American (he later added a fifth category. Mongolian.[13] In the early years of the United States. the early twentieth-century mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe.

Enlightenment scientists helped to shift the discussion of human difference from the ecclesiastical to the natural world. only men of the ‘‘superior’’ white race were considered fully capable. freedom. are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind. p. the fraternity of those who were equal and free was exclusive: women. History of ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RACE AND RACISM 93 idea that all people had inalienable rights and a stake in maintaining racial inequality found scientific categories of race useful because those who were deemed racially inferior were also deemed incapable of shouldering the responsibilities of citizenship and thus did not qualify for rights and privileges—rights and privileges were contingent upon the responsibilities of citizenship. and the insane were always excluded from the rights and privileges of citizenship and equality under the law. turned to the language of ethnology to advance the notion ‘‘that the blacks. and could not be citizens. children. 68). 84). and liberty could not be reconciled with the institution of slavery and the acquisition of indigenous land. scientific racism flourished in the wake of the French and American revolutions. People who had a stake in maintaining the Anthropology. In Europe. Indeed. p. Stated differently. in Notes on the State of Virginia. the lofty ideals of equality. meanwhile.’’ Jefferson was clear that one should and could clearly rank the races and keep them ‘‘as distinct as nature . while members of inferior races and all women were not equal. For example. In fact. In North America. these ideals did not square with colonialism and anti-Semitism. but this did little to reduce institutional racism. Thomas Jefferson. did not have liberty. or made distinct by time and circumstances. whether originally a distinct race. not free. and many began to turn to the science of ethnology to exclude nonwhite men as well (Fredrickson 2002.which he believed was ‘‘the most handsome and becoming’’ type (Blumenbach 1997 [1776].

such as Plato . of which he determined five. physiologist and anthropologist. EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC BELIEFS The earliest written records about human size date from about 3500 BCE in Sumeria. on average.has formed them’’ (1996 [1781]. for this essentially echoes the current biocultural view of the causes of variation in human body size and shape. This entry provides an overview of anthropometry and its relationship with ‘‘race’’ and racism. one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history. Anthropometry is the scientific study of variation in the size and shape of the human body. Despite using race to justify inequality. and stature. and cultural conditions that foster better nutrition and health tend to be. Groups of people growing and developing under social. p. The philosophers of the ancient Greeks. The Sumerians were thus surprisingly astute.’’ of a single creation of all humanity. and consequently monogenism did not necessarily support arguments for the abolition of slavery and the sovereignty of indigenous nations. Several texts from this period mention a positive relationship between health. most enlightenment thinkers still believed in the doctrine of ‘‘monogenetic origins. this view may seem commonsensical. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician. taller and have longer arms and legs than groups of people growing up under less favorable sociocultural conditions. Although beliefs in monogenism were neither coherent nor consistent. ideas of human unity did not of themselves imply equality. economic. whose teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to classification of what he called human races. After more than a century of scientific research.143). Anthropometric data have been used both to justify the belief in human biological ‘‘races’’ and to discredit this erroneous belief. but it has not always been so. social status.

considered living people and their cultures to be imperfect copies of an ideal type of physical human being and sociocultural system. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840). The variation in body size and shape among various cultures was seen to be a consequence of the degree of imperfection within different societies.and Aristotle (c. Blumenbach believed that the living people of Georgia were the closest to the original form of the primordial Caucasian type.’’ of fundamental biological divisions of humankind. so as to distinguish them and establish their relations to each other’’ (Topinard 1881. 350 BCE). Anthropometry . 212). The Greeks of ancient Athens believed that they were closest to the ideal. they accepted the unity of all humankind. a device for measuring stature and the length of body parts such as arms and legs. In 1881. The Dutch physician Petrus Camper (1722–1789) and his followers measured various angles of the facial bones to determine the race and sex of skulls. p. the study of the skull. Elsholtz was interested in testing the notion of the Greek physician Hippocrates (460?–357 BCE) that differences in body proportion were related to various diseases. One of these was named the ‘‘Caucasian race. However. who also invented an anthropometer. MODERN ANTHROPOMETRY The term ‘‘anthropometry’’ was coined by Johann Sigismund Elsholtz (1623-1688). the Greeks did not believe in the concept of ‘‘race. Rather.’’ based on skulls from the Caucasus Mountains region of Georgia. with European Caucasians being the next closest to the original. Another line of racial investigation was craniology.’’ based on a visual inspection of skull shape and size. a German naturalist and anthropologist. the French anthropologist Paul Topinard (1830–1911) applied anthropometry to the study of human ‘‘races. and that the people of other societies were less perfect. identified five ‘‘races.

graduating from the latter 1775 with his M. studied medicine at Jena and then Göttingen. University of Göttingen. and were potentially good members of society. were depended on geography and nutrition and custom. His classification of Mongolian race included all East Asians and some Central Asians. later founded on crania research (description of human skulls). etc. in 1821 was made a knight-commander of the Guelphic Order. In 1812 he was appointed secretary to the Royal Society of Sciences at Göttingen. 1790–1828). cranial profile. In 1813. His later works included Institutiones Physiologicae (1787). He considered American Indians to be part of the American (Indigenous peoples) race. re-issued with changings of the title-page in 1776). which is considered one of the most influential works in the development of subsequent concepts of "human races. He included the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa in the Negro or black race. and in 1831 was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at Paris."[1][2] He was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine and inspector of the museum of natural history in Göttingen in 1776 and ordinary professor in 1778. or black race  the American or red race. first published in 1775. from other individual Africans as Europeans differ from Europeans'.. Furthermore he concluded that Africans .[2] [edit] Blumenbach's racial classification system Blumenbach's five races. in 1816 became Obermedizinalrat. Blumenbach divided the human species into five races in 1779. thesis De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Variety of Mankind. In 1835 he retired. he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. and called them (1793/1795):  the Caucasian race or white race  the Mongolian or yellow race  the Malayan or brown race  the Ethiopian. as he considered them to be part of the Malay race. and Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie (1805). This was a founding work for other scientists in the field of craniometry. In celebration of his doctoral jubilee (1825) traveling scholarships were founded to assist talented young physicians and naturalists. Blumenbach argued that physical characteristics like skin color.D. Further anatomical study led him to the conclusion that 'individual Africans differ as much.Johann Friedrich Blumenbach was born at Gotha. Blumenbach's work included his description of sixty human crania (skulls) published originally in fascicules as Decas craniorum (Göttingen. Blumenbach died in Göttingen in 1840. He did not think they were inferior to the Caucasian race. Blumenbach excluded peoples of Southeast Asian islands and Pacific Islanders from his definition in 1779. or even more.

Lawrence. since it was the oldest available name for the Common Chimpanzee. Platypus had already been shown to be used for the scientific name for a genus of Ambrosia beetles so Blumenbach's scientific name for the genus was used. In Opinion 1368 the ICZN Commission decided in 1985 that Blumenbach's view should be followed. He gave the scientific name Ornithorhynchus paradoxus to the animal not knowing that George Shaw had given it the name Platypus anatinus. Comte de Buffon were believers in the . and in 1779 he discussed this Linnean name and concluded correctly that Linnaeus had been dealing with two species. poets.[7] Blumenbach knew that Linnaeus had already established a name Homo troglodytes for a badly known primate. excluding humans. Prichard. However. from out of which you would not easily expect to obtain off-hand such good authors. the Commission did not know that Blumenbach had already mentioned this name in his dissertation. Huxley and William Flower are good examples of his influence on human biology.[3] "Finally. I am of opinion that after all these numerous instances I have brought together of negroes of capacity. [edit] Study of the chimpanzee In his dissertation Blumenbach mentioned a name Simia troglodytes with a short description for the Common Chimpanzee.[6] [edit] Study of natural history Blumenbach wrote a manual of natural history entitled Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. This dissertation was printed and appeared in September 1775. must carry Blumenbach's name comined with the date 1776. which were. none of them was a chimpanzee. and on the other hand. The public print of his dissertation appeared in 1776. and that by consequence the name Homo troglodytes could not be used.[9] [edit] Degeneration theory Blumenbach and other monogenists such as Georges-Louis Leclerc."[4] These ideas were far less influential. as the Negro. 12 editions and some translations.were not inferior to the rest of mankind 'concerning healthy faculties of understanding. Dieterich in 1779/1780. currently known as Pan troglodytes. be used for this species. and that his Simia troglodytes as published by Blumenbach in 1779 shall be the type species of the genus Pan and.[5] Blumenbach's work was used by many biologists and comparative anatomists in the nineteenth century who were interested in the origin of races: Wells. a human and an orangutan. philosophers. and thereby attached itself so closely to the most civilized nations of the earth. it would not be difficult to mention entire well-known provinces of Europe. [edit] Study of the platypus Blumenbach was also one of the first scientists to study the anatomy of the platypus. It was published first in Göttingen by J. Blumenbach was one of the first scientists to understand the identities of the different species of primates. there is no so-called savage nation known under the sun which has so much distinguished itself by such examples of perfectibility and original capacity for scientific culture. C. Following the rules of the ICZN Code the scientific name of one of the most well-known African animals. and correspondents of the Paris Academy. His ideas were adopted by other researchers and encouraged scientific racism. orangutans and chimpanzees (gorillas were not known to Europeans at this time). but only for internal use in the University of Göttingen and not for providing a public record.[8] However. excellent natural talents and mental capacities'.

and the Chinese were fair skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns protected from environmental factors. After the end of the Second World War (1939–45) and the occurrence of the Holocaust. in the second half of the 19th century. and used in justifying white European imperialism. craniometry.[1] This is not the same as using scientific findings and the scientific method to investigate differences among the humans and argue that there are races. scientific racism has been criticized as obsolete. he claimed Negroid pigmentation arose because of the result of the heat of the tropical sun. anthropometry. such as in The Bell Curve (1994). claiming that scientific evidence shows significant evolutionary differences among human races and . while the cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos. and as historically used to support or validate racist world-views."degeneration theory" of racial origins. an early practitioner of scientific racialism as well as Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring who concluded from autopsies that Africans were an inferior race. and caused untold suffering. in fabricating anthropologic typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races that are claimed to be superior or inferior.[2] Beginning in the later 20th century." However. [12] He also wrote three essays claiming non-white peoples are capable of excelling in arts and sciences in reaction against racialists of his time who believed they couldn't. Scientific racism was thus most common during the New Imperialism period (ca. and other disciplines.[11] Blumenbach did not consider his "degeneration theory" as racist and sharply criticized Christoph Meiners. In recent years. the statement acknowledged that different human races exist. 1880 to 1930. In biological classification differences between animal groups are investigated without necessarily claiming that one group is superior to others. For all practical social purposes ‘race’ is not so much a biological phenomenon as a social myth. 1880s–1914).[3] The term "scientific racism" is pejorative as applied to contemporary theories. scientific racism is often used more narrowly as a synonym for the contemporary and historical theories that employ anthropology (notably physical anthropology). based upon belief in the existence and significance of racial categories and a hierarchy of superior and inferior races. it has taken a heavy toll in human lives. specifically in a historical context of ca. especially in UNESCO's antiracist statement "The Race Question" (1950): "The biological fact of race and the myth of ‘race’ should be distinguished. Racism or racial supremacy is the additional claim that some races are superior to other races.[10] He believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. The myth of 'race' has created an enormous amount of human and social damage. scientific racism in theory and action was formally denounced. Blumenbach claimed that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors such as the sun and poor dieting—for instance.[13]  Scientific racism  Craniometry Scientific racism is the use of scientific techniques to sanction the belief in racial superiority or racism. However.

that all races.ethnic groups. "scientific racism". In the 17th century. for example. His views were described as both as "disturbing" and "amusing" and were rejected by the scientific community. Origins of scientific racism See also: Race (historical definitions) Homo monstrosus Patagonian giants: Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Océanie (Voyage to the South Pole. and (ii) the indigenous Gallo-Roman race (the political Third Estate populace). ca. did not understand "race" as biologically immutable. the contrary of modern nationalism.and 18th-century interpretations of natural history excluded the concept of evolution. physicist.[6] During the Enlightenment period. intelligence. His theoretic racialism was distinct from the biologic facts manipulated in 19thcentury scientific racism. that is. In his time. He studied reported stories of parents' giving birth to different coloured albinos. the historian Henri de Boulainvilliers (1658–1722) divided the French as two races: (i) the aristocratic "French race" descended from the invader Germanic Franks. they may prefer terms such as "race realism" or "racialism". In these . but as a contemporary (racist) cultural construct. by Jules Dumont d'Urville Robert Boyle In the 18th century. Adam and Eve. no matter how diverse. ethnography. and he believed that Adam and Eve were originally white and that Caucasians could give birth to different coloured races. he sought scientific legitimation by basing his racialist distinction on the historical existence of genetically and linguistically distinguished Germanic and Latinspeaking peoples in France. Henri de Boulainvilliers. such as The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland. and in Oceania).[5] Recent authors consider their work to be scientific and dispute use of the term "racism". The Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest. and inventor. 12th c. Boyle believed in monogenism. and race subjects. concepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular. race and intelligence. have been accused of scientific racism for publishing articles on controversial interpretations of human evolution.). founded as an explicitly "race-conscious" publication. Cultural relativism) An early scientist who studied race was Robert Boyle. archaeology. criticizes studies claiming to establish a connection between. chemist. 17th. (cf. His racialist account of French history was not entirely mythical: despite "supporting" hagiographies and epic poetry. a 17th century natural philosopher. Critics argue that such works are motivated by racist presumptions unsupported by available evidence. and argues that this promotes the idea of "superior" and "inferior" human races. racialist written works proposed geographically based "scientific" differences among "the races". came from the same source.[4] The pejorative label. a believer in the "right of conquest". Publications such as the Mankind Quarterly. language. notably. mythology.

incorrectly identified as simian creatures. He theorized that the survivors lived in complete isolation from each other and developed separately. while polygenism is the idea that each race has a separate origin. Georges Cuvier Georges Cuvier Georges Cuvier (1769–1832) the French naturalist and zoologist racial studies influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racialism. the animal-reared Juvenis lupinus hessensis (Hessian wolf boy). the satyr. the White race was at the top. (ii) the Asiaticus. and the black race was at the bottom. inventive mind. In Amoenitates academicae (1763). of stubborn character. Linnaeus presented the Homo anthropomorpha (Anthropomorphic man) race of mythologic. Carl Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus. 1739) Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). the physician. but faint-hearted Homo monstrosus (Monstrous man) sub-races: the Patagonian giant. the Asiaticus race were yellow-skinned. He divided humanity into three races: white. based upon geographic origin and skin color. to which the civilised people of Europe belong and . and easily distracted. and the Monstrosus were mythologic human sub-races. a European. of gentle character. relaxed. (iii) the Africanus. such as the troglodyte.[10] Cuvier wrote about Caucasians (Europeans): The white race. and of negligent character. and bellicose. and the phoenix. (iv) the Europeanus. humanoid creatures. Scheffel. and (v) the Monstrosus. the Africanus were black-skinned. and the monorchid Khoikhoi (Hottentot). According to Cuvier. (J. He thought Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that was the original race of mankind.[8][9] Cuvier thought the Caucasian skull was the most beautiful shape. In Systema Naturae (1767). the Dwarf of the Alps.[7] The sub-races were the "four-footed. hairy" Homo feralis (Feral man). the Europeanus were white-skinned.theories of racial origins. he established five human-race taxa: (i) the Americanus. yellow and black.000 years ago. H. unlike the characterimbalanced colored people. with oval face. the hydra. and the other two races arose by survivors' escaping in different directions after a major catastrophe hit the earth 5. and zoologist. and angered easily. straight hair and nose. the Juvenis hannoveranus (Hannoverian boy). who established the taxonomic bases of binomial nomenclature for fauna and flora. Mongolian (yellow) and the Ethiopian (black). and the agile. botanist. Each race possessed innate physiognomic characteristics: the Americanus were red-skinned. and rated each for the beauty or ugliness of the skull and quality of their civilizations. Cuvier believed there were three distinct races the Caucasian (white). monogenism contends that all races have a single origin. the Puella campanica (Wild-girl of Champagne). whereas. was a pioneer researcher in biologically defining "human race". avaricious. mute.

[12] Blumenbach and Buffon Johan Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Blumenbach from Germany and Georges-Louis Leclerc. the concept that all races have a single origin. They believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken. They thought the Chinese relatively fair skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns and were protected from environmental factors. Meiner studied the physical. The projection of the lower parts of the face. Buffon thought that skin colour could change in a single lifetime. Ethiopian. is also superior to others by its genius. courage and activity. He thought that over time because of the sun. crisped of woolly hair. mental and moral characteristics . all belonging to a single species: Caucasian. They also believed in the "Degeneration theory" of racial origins. such as the sun and poor dieting. They suggested cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos.[15] John Hunter John Hunter (1728–1793). Blumenbach said: I have alotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men. or "black"..[16] Christoph Meiners Christoph Meiners Christoph Meiners (1747–1810) was a polygenist. They both said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors. is marked by black complexion.[11] Regarding Negros. compressed cranium and a flat nose. He was a very early practitioner of scientific racialism. and the thick lips. Cuvier wrote: The Negro race. said that originally the Negroid race was White at birth. which he believed was evidence that their ancestors were originally White. a Scottish surgeon. Mongolian. Believing in mongenism. Comte de Buffon from France were believers in monogenism.[14] Georges-Louis Leclerc. depending on the conditions of climate and diet.. there are five races. evidently approximate it to the monkey tribe: the hordes of which it consists have always remained in the most complete state of barbarism. the people turned dark skinned.which appear to us the most beautiful of all. he believed that each race had a separate origin. and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. Comte de Buffon believed humanity was only 6000 years old (the time since Adam). and Malay. Many scientific racialists pointed out at the time that it would have been difficult for races to change so markedly in genotype and phenotype in such a short period of time.[13] According to Blumenbach.[13] They thought Negroid pigmentation arose because of the heat of the tropical sun. Hunter also said that blisters and burns would likely turn white on a Negro. American.. Buffon said that food and the mode of living could make races degenerate and distinguish them from the original Caucasian race.

and said they fed off any kind of “foul offal”. and they were able to conquer various parts of the world.[18] Meiners said the Negro felt less pain than any other race and lacked in emotions. mode of living and lack of morals. their recovery from wounds that would be fatal for more sensitive peoples. the more can they tolerate extreme pain or the rapid alteration of heat and cold. Meiners wrote that the Negro had thick nerves and thus was not sensitive like the other races. different types of food or modes of life. He thought they consumed very much alcohol.[20] Meiners wrote that the most noblest race was the Celts. delicate and soft is their body. Meiners claimed the Negro was the most unhealthy race on earth because of the Negro's poor diet. the more they lack adaptability. "less sensitive and content with eating rough food”. and not only that. without noticeable ill effects. he studied the sexology of each race. half way through the burning the Negro asked to smoke a pipe and smoked it like nothing was happening while he continued to be burned alive. He considered ugly races to be inferior. Meiners split mankind into two divisions. He said they could not adapt to different climate. Meiners also claimed the skin of an American is thicker than an ox. barely any animal feeling” he described a story where a Negro was condemned to death by being burned alive. Meiners studied the anatomy of the Negro and came to the conclusion that the Negro have bigger teeth and jaws than any other race. were more sensitive to heat and cold and their delicacy is shown by the way they are selective about what they eat.. the they are exposed to illnesses. Meiners studied the diet of the Americans. then making them roll in the snow. Meiners claimed Slavs are an inferior race.[17] According to Meiners: The more intelligent and noble people are by nature. but the less sensitive are their bodies.of each race. the less they possess the capacity and disposition towards virtue. In Meiners' book The Outline of History of Mankind. which he labelled the "beautiful White race" and the "ugly Black race". the more rapidly. he said that a main characteristic of race is either beauty or ugliness. he went as far to say that the Negro has “no human. and that when exposed to such new conditions. whilst only the White Europeans have it just right. he described stories of Slavs eating poisonous fungi without coming to any harm. sensitive. He said that the dark ugly peoples were distinct from the white beautiful peoples by their "sad" lack of virtue and their "terrible vices". Meiners claimed the skull of the Negro was larger but the brain of the Negro was smaller than any other race. they lapse into a “deadly melancholy”. and built a race hierarchy based on his findings. He thought only the White race (excluding Slavs) to be beautiful. immoral and animal like.. He claimed that their medical techniques were also backwards: he used as an example their heating sick people in ovens.[19] Meiners also claimed the "Americans" (by which he meant American Indians) were an inferior stock of people. He claimed that the African Negroids have unduly strong and perverted sex drives. Voltaire . on the other hand. the more adaptable. He believed their skulls were so think that the blades of Spanish swords shattered on them.[21] In Meiners' large work entitled Researches on the Variations in Human Nature (1815). and the more they can partake of the worst and most indigestible foods . as the Negro are all carnivores.

[24] Ebenezer Sibly Ebenezer Sibly an English physician and astrologer wrote a book called Universal System of Natural History in 1794 in the book he claimed that the White Race was the first on earth he said “We must consider white as the stock whence all others have sprung.Voltaire Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer. Voltaire found biblical monogenism laughable. or network. is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.[26] Some Anti-Racist Voices Several Enlightenment scholars. as he expressed: It is a serious question among them whether the Africans are descended from monkeys or whether the monkeys come from them. in the first age of the world no black nation was to be found on the face of the earth. A time will doubtless come when these animals will know how to cultivate the land well. Now here is a lovely image of the Divine Maker: a flat and black nose with little or hardly any intelligence.[23] John Mitchell The colonial American doctor John Mitchell took up a study of climate and race and wrote a book in 1744 called An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates in the book he claimed that the first race on earth had been a brown and reddish colour. historian and philosopher. Adam and Eve and all their posterity. however. till the time of the deluge were white.” Sibly believed that no humans had reached Africa till after the dispersal from Babel. he said "that an intermediate tawny colour found amongst Asiatics and Native Amerindians" had been the “original complexion of mankind” and that others races came about by the original race spending generations in different climates. The mucous membrane. which nature has spread between the muscles and the skin. that the continents first inhabitants had been white and that Africans had become dark only as a result of the actions of the climate there over successive generations. he was also a polygenist. Voltaire claimed they are both different species: The negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. beautify their houses and gardens. used the language of ethnology and scientific methods in an . Our wise men have said that man was created in the image of God.[22] When comparing Caucasians to Negros. He believed each race had separate origins because they were so racially diverse. and know the paths of the stars: one needs time for everything.

which was caused by tropical climates. 240). passionately argued that blacks and whites shared innate characteristics. For example. which he called "negroidism. Benjamin Rush. Rush believed non-whites were really white underneath but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. whites should not intermarry with them. by the same token..’’ explaining that it would be ‘‘a useless labor to attempt it’’ (1810 [1787]." and that it might be cured. for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. a Presbyterian minister and the president of Princeton University.attempt to prove that racial differences were inconsequential and that it was a fool’s errand to rank the races and view racial differences in terms of inferior and superior. Samuel Stanhope Smith (1751–1819). for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'. However."[27] .. in the essay Smith claimed that Negro pigmentation was nothing more than a huge freckle that covered the whole body as a result of an oversupply of bile.[25] He persuasively documented how ‘‘it is impossible to draw the line precisely between the various races. Benjamin Rush Benjamin Rush a Founding Father of the United States and a physician proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease. was certain that science and Christianity both demonstrated the ‘‘original and natural equality of all mankind’’ (1987 [1798]. p. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks]. p. Samuel Stanhope Smith Samuel Stanhope Smith wrote an essay titled Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species in 1787. attempts must be made to cure the disease. 686). a prominent Philadelphia physician who signed the Declaration of Independence.

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