WEAVING

INTRODUCTION

Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Typically weaving machine is called as looms. In Weaving

Shuttle Handloom  Ground looms  Back strap looms  Frame looms  Right heddle looms  Floor loom  Table loom o Power loom  Automatic  Semi Automatic Shuttleless o Rapier Looms (cam, dobby, jacquard)  Narrow width  widerwidth o Airjet Looms o Waterjet Looms o Projectile looms o Multiphase Looms

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The back strap looms and frame looms fall under this type. Back strap Looms They are well recognized for their portability. Table looms are desirable for their portability and are great for those who wish to learn to weave but don't want to spring for a full floor loom. The loom was made of rods and panels fastened at the right angles to construct a form similar to a box to make it more handy and manageable. Ground Looms Horizontal ground looms permit the warp threads to be chained between a couple of rows of dowels. Floor Looms • Floor looms are much more complex machines with multiple moving parts. They can be used to create longer and more elaborate fabrics. The weft threads are manually shoved into position or pushed through a rod that also becomes the shuttle. notably. This type of loom is being utilized even until now due to its economy and portability. The weaver needs to bend forward to perform the task easily. including counterbalance looms. with its heddles attached in the harness. the gap between warp threads in order for the woof to easily traverse the whole warp right away. Thus. Raising and lowering each warp thread one by one is needed in the beginning. The one end of this loom type is secured around the waist of the weaver and the other end is attached around a fixed thing like door.Different Types of Looms Hand Looms The first and original loom was vertically twist-weighted types. more portable versions of the floor looms. lifting the harness also lifts half of the threads and letting down the harness also drops the same threads. They can create a lot of the same fabrics as the floor loom and come in similar variations -.but the fabric created is on a much smaller scale. In this way. where threads are hung from a wooden piece or branch or affixed to the floor or ground. This one normally features one harness. Pressure applied can be customized by just bending back. or tree. Floor looms come in variations that can be used for everything from hand weaving to industrial weaving. The yarn or thread goes in an alternate manner all the way through a heddle and in the gap between the heddles. Table Looms • Table looms are basically smaller.most often the jack loom -. and countermarch looms. stake. pit looms with warp chained over a ditch are invented to let the weaver have his or her legs positioned below and leveled with the loom. Specialized looms have been created to make textile patterns. jack looms. Frame Looms Frame looms almost have the similar mechanisms that ground looms hold. Many types of floor looms have been developed. . Strands leading through the gaps between the heddles stay in position. It is done by inserting a piece of rod to create a shack. Rigid heddle Looms These are the crisscross manifold loom types. jacquard.

great attention was paid to increasing productivity of the machine. .Process Chart: Yarn from Spinning Section ↓ Yarn Preparation ↓ ↓ Warp Preparation ↓ Winding (Cone. Bobbin) ↓ Warping ↓ Sizing/ Dressing (Jute) ↓ Drafting/ Drawing ↓ Denting ↓ Looming ↓ |---------Weaving---------| ↓ Weft Preparation ↓ Winding (Pirn.00.000 and the basic loom had almost developed to the machine we know today. the number had increased to some 1.000 looms in operation in some 32 mills in the north of England. as a result England became world's richest industrial power. In just over 10 years from that date. Fortunately steam power was available by 1765. Also between 1819 and 1842 the average speed of the powerloom had increased from 60 to 140 picks per minute with the rise on productivity. Soon powerlooms were driven by steam and most of the wooden parts were replaced with iron. To help achieve the increase in productivity. Cheese. Cheese) ↓ Creeling Development in Powerloom Earlier version of powerloom was run by two men. Flange. After the steam engine and cast iron in early 1800. William Radeliffe patented a dressing frame in 1803 for sizing and drying the warp threads prior to winding on to a weavers beam. Spool. Cone. Cop. Fast development in the loom took place and by 1821 there were over 50.

a weaver could operate to about four. 90% of the American looms were automatic compared with only 5% in Britain. so that by 1930. The Northrop Automatic looms quickly came to use in America. This mechanism enabled the weaver to tend 16 looms. James Northrop. . an English man who emigrated to America and worked for the Draper Corporation. Developments in Automatic Loom Traditional looms then were stopped every few minutes in order to replace the empty weft pirns or cop in the shuttle and this limited the number of looms. completed an automatic weft transfer system which replaced the weft pirn in the shuttle without slowing or stopping the loom in 1889.A loom from the 1890s with a dobby head.

All attempts were concentrated to studying various factors affecting speed of the loom and the loom with higher speed were made available. This results in following disadvantages 1. productivity of these machines will continue to be limited as long as their fundamental constructions involved the use of shuttle propulsion.e. The various shuttleless looms that have been developed over a period of about 50 years can be classified into various groups. If the loom speed is increased from 200 to 300 picks per minute. Vincent has shown that the power required for picking is proportional to the cube of the loom speed.Similar developments took place elsewhere also. 3. 2. The dynamic problems created by the picking and checking mechanism and the inherent process of pirn winding for shuttle looms had encouraged the loom makers to develop alternative means of weft insertion in which heavy shuttle is not projected forwards and backwards across the width of the loom. the power requirement would increase by a factor of (3/2)3 i. Because of superior energy in shuttle. thus rendering it liable to frequent failure. Limitations of Shuttle Looms Despite the relatively high speed and efficiencies in loom with conventional picking. more productivity and efficiency were essential to overcome increasing labor costs in Western countries. greater strain is again imposed on the checking mechanism. Ruti. Greater strain imposed on the picking mechanism. After World War II. It was also realised that more productivity is the key to reducing manufacturing costs of the loom. In Japan also. * Projectile Looms * Rapier Looms * Fluid Jet Looms * Multiphase Looms . 4. Greater amount of noise and vibration. Toyoda. The movement of shuttle will be more difficult to control and there will be a greater possibility of its ejection from the loom. Tsudakoma.4 times approximately. It is customary to refer these looms as shuttleless looms. 3. Sakamoto. a major loom maker of Switzerland manufactured automatic bobbin changing Northrop loom in 1898. etc also developed shuttle looms with automatic weft transfer.

etc. Electronic warp stop motion. Microprocessor controls with digital display. To increase productivity of the loom. . Automatic pick finding. etc.cam. dobby and jacquard (mechanical and electronic). COMMON FEATURES IN ALL SHUTTLELESS MACHINES: Several essential features found common with all shuttleless machines are listed below ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  Higher speed Wider width. Electronic monitoring of weft yarn flight.Multi phase Loom Projectile loom Rapier Loom Air Jet Loom DEVELOPMENTS IN SHUTTLELESS MACHINES The emphasis on productivity and quality has developed the weaving technology very much and as a result the working hours required to weave fabric from loom have been reduced from about 20 to 0. Development of accessories such as dobby. Majority of the developments are taking place on the shuttleless looms in the following directions : 1. Quick style change. 4. 3. jacquards. consumes less energy and have lower maintenance cost. Electronic take-up and let-off. and in the last 50 years there has been a reduction of 95% in operative hours per standard unit produced. the newer looms are simple in design. the motions are more reliable. Application of electronic control mechanisms to increase automation 5. Shedding systems. To make the looms more flexible for different kinds of fabric.25 during the last 125 years. In addition to these. To reduce the down time for changing style. 2.

¬  ¬  ¬  Low noise and vibration. Production Rate of Various Types of Loo ms W ft e e wid th Spe d in ins rtion e Rate(pick s rpm per minute) Loo m Type Projectile Sulzer Ruti P710 0 P720 0 Rigid Rapier Dornier Fl exible Rapier Somet Su lzer Ruti Air Jet Su lzer Ruti Picanol Omni Tsudakoma Dornier Linear Multiphase Elite x Drum type Multiphase Su lzer M830 0 ¬ Available in cm 190 -54 0 190 -54 0 150 -40 0 32 0 43 0 46 0 1100 -120 0 150 0 100 0 165 -41 0 110 -28 0 up to 30 0 190 -38 0 150 -34 0 43 0 55 0 32 5 75 0 80 0 100 0 60 0 130 0 120 0 160 0 180 0 220 0 252 0 About 19 0 1100 -160 0 2000 -300 0 19 0 17 0 323 0 243 0 6088 (Plain) 4118 (Twill) . Tension free weft supply by weft accumulators. Microprocessor control lubrication system.

which relieves extra tension in weft while inserting. time. The braking force and the braking duration are programmable. Program can be given for each pick. The system had the disadvantage of higher energy consumption due to the usage of compressed air in picking which accounts for 60% of total energy consumption. 2. Today. The system is freely programmable and operated by servo controller. 4) K3 Synthetic projectile can be used for weaving of delicate yarns. 4 and 6 colours can be used in weft direction. 7) LED display at signal pole for machine speed. etc. The device is driven by stepper motor. practically (an Indian condition) at 1200 rpm the machine works or wider machine can attain a WIR of 2500 mpm.DEVELOPMENTS IN PROJECTILE MACHINES 1) COLOUR SELECTION: ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  1 X 1. 6) Speed has been increased upto 1400 mpm (470 rpm). 5) The no. projectile arrival machine stop. No limitations on feeder position shifting. of heald shafts operable by cam motion is extended to 14. Due to improvement in many related mechanisms. 8) Automatic weft brake repair motion enables shifting of feed package to a reserved one in the event of weft break between package and accumulator. no stopping of machine which increases the machine efficiency. 3) Pre-acceleration to weft yarn is given by compressed air. which helps in monitoring of process. DEVLOPMENTS IN AIRJET WEAVING The Air jet weaving machine continues to dominate as the machines of very high speeds. 2) ELECTRONIC WEFT BRAKER: This device keeps a uniform tension on weft. angle of .

The weft yarn requires higher pressure at later part of its flight. The developments in picking related systems have helped in expanding the horizon of weft material and count. which reduces machine down time. b. Advantages: a. c. It reduces the nozzle pressure Saving in energy Also use of wider weft count range. o o Independent pressure tanks make it possible to set weft insertion pressures at optimal levels. That means. c. the major limitations of the system are being attended and scope for applicability has been increasing. . this makes a significant contribution to energy conservation. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: ϖ Modification In Weft Insertion System: The multi nozzles are divided into two zones and connected directly with separate tanks.The machine makers claim a reduction in energy by about 10% (Sulzer. b. e. o o The weft insertion. o o All settings regarding picking is done by microprocessor keyboard. the two main nozzles are arranged in series so called tandem nozzles. The yarn colour selection upto 6 or 8 beyond which demand is very rare. Somet ) in their latest models. d. e. making effective for super high-speed operation accommodating yarns with low breaking strength. which guarantees optimum weft insertion conditions. also uses newly developed nozzles. a. and this separation has helped greatly in optimization of pressure in duration of Jet opening. ϖ  Tandem Nozzles: In tandem nozzles. d. Low pressure weft insertion to occur. based on a precise electronic control that includes ATC (automatic timing control).

With APC (Automatic pick controller). thereby reduction in weft breaks. 2. variations in the travel timing of weft yarn. Advantages: 1. ϖ  Tapered Tunnel Reed: A tapered shape has also been applied to the tunnel selection of reed blade. 2. ϖ  Automatic Pick Controller: For smoother working. b. The weft insertion is more stable and requires less air. c.ϖ  Tapered Sub-Nozzles: It consists of a tapered hole to prevent air dispersion. the arrival time will be delayed and this would be beyond the capacity of such a correction system. ¬  ¬  It instantly corrects the main nozzle’s air pressure for timing control It adjusts automatically nozzle air jet pressure. ϖ  Electronic Braking System: One of the serious drawback of Airjet picking was tension peak in weft when brake is applied. a. b. The electronic braking system can precisely control braking time and brake stroke. It stabilizes air injection angles during weft insertion. all machines have weft arrival time sensing and correction of pressure at nozzles but when package is changed from empty to full package. c. . which significantly reduces tension pick. Advantages: a. 1. which compensates for during full cheese changes. It helps in preventing air dispersion. The weft insertion is more stable and requires less air. this problem is attended. It enables stable weft insertion with lower air volumes.

Thus the total motion of heald shaft can be independently programmed. Style changing time is saved. They have been making inroads to heavy fabrics (900 gsm) and also shedding off the known drawback of higher weft waste. now the selfThe weft cutter is electronically controlled and operated by steeper motor threading by pneumatic system is done. this eliminates auxiliary selvedge and weft waste is zero.ϖ  OTHER DEVELOPMENTS: ¬  ¬  Weft feeder threading is comparatively time consuming and. The system can work upto 850 rpm. SPECIAL DEVELOPMENTS: The design improvement in Rapier gripper permits handling wide range of yarns without any need for changes. in which the heald shaft is maintaining constant tension during shedding and beating. this yielded fewer moving parts. cutter can easily adapt to any cutting time to the accuracy of 1°. Having independent motor drives. The machine owes its speed. DEVELOPMENTS IN RAPIER WEAVING: The Rapier machines are emerging as weaving machines of the future. fewer gears. By this. directly controlled by Servo Motor. flexibility and low energy consumption to a combination of high technology and economic design. fewer oil seals and no timing belts i. Style changes can be executed ‘Exceptionally rapidly’. ¬  with the help of mechanopneumatic tucking device can hold the weft at both selvedges firmly during beating and then tuck-in. They are not far off from Airjet in production (Speed) rate (up to 1500mpm or 600 to 800 rpm) without scarifying their special status of flexibility. there are fewer elements to . ¬  ¬  almost every machine manufacturer supplies positive easing motion for There is a new shedding concept introduced.e.

BENEFITS: Fewer filling breaks. This reduces the setting time to zero. Fewer machine stops. the keyboard of microprocessor. The settings can be adopted for each filling yarn. PFL (Programmable Filling Lamellae): It controls the filling brake ensures a current yarn tensions at any time during insertion cycle. and breakage.  FEATURES: ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬   ¬  ¬  Lower peak tension in filling yarn. which are prone to wear.influence fabric quality. which significantly reduces the The machine can always work at optimum weaving speed in function of conventional clutch and brake configuration. As a result of which the filling tip is stretched correctly. card or with production computer with bi-directional communication. . less need for resetting and reduce maintenance. electronically via Speed setting is easy to copy to other machine either with electronic set Automatic pick finding becomes faster. The PFL thus significantly reduces the peak tension of the pick at the end of the insertion and decrease the tendency of pick to bounce back in the shed. down times for repairing filling and warp breakages. It has been designed to slow down the filling at the end of insertion. The PFL can be installed for each channel between the prewinder and entry of fixed main nozzle. Reduced tendency of filling to bounce back. Inserted pick can be stretched more easily. Adjustments are done by means of machine keyboard and display. SUMO MOTOR ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  saving on energy consumption of more than 10% in comparison with Machine speed setting is done accurately and completely. quality of the yarn. and fabric construction. the number of frames. There are no toothed belts.

which avoids unnecessary filling breakages. The quick step-filling presenter operates with independent modules.¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  Better fabric quality. Warp changes can be replaced by style changes. Fewer personal required for warp and article changes in weave room. the back rest and the supports. several extra modules and warpy modules transporter are also required. with the warp beam. Additionally this unique system makes it possible to carry out all article related settings on the warp side outside the weaving shed. This is achieved by swapping the whole back part of split frame. Higher productivity of machine and staff. Each consists of electronically controlled stepper motor with presenter needle and the system . enabling the load on the tying and drawing-in equipment to be balanced instead of having two bottlenecks. The key to the operation is the split frame design. before the style change. Weaker filling yarn can be used.  FEATURES: ¬  ¬  ¬  ¬  Reduce machine down time. Interference losses due to simultaneous stops are practically non-existent. Correct setting of filling waste length and consequently less waste. the warp stop motion the harness and the reed. QUICK STEP FILLING PRESENTER: The filling can be presented at low tension.  QSC (Quick Style Change): - With quick style change just one person can carry out a style change in less than 30min. QSC not only reduce labor requirement but also result in efficient planning of warp and style changes.

handles up to 8 colours. They are mounted in front of harness so all harness remain available for fabric pattern.  ADVANTAGES: ¬  It is monitored by weaving machine microprocessor so timing for presenting for filling yarn is perfectly synchronized with machine speed and weave pattern. ELSY (False Selvedge Device): The unique ELSY full leno false selvedge motion is electronically driven by individual stepper motor. No pick wheel required. weaver can decide himself when breakage must be repaired. So result of resetting can be checked immediately. The filling presenter also provides ideal position for re threading. but continues to weave. PSO (Prewinder Switch Off): PSO is the system by which the machine does not stop immediately after a bobbin breakage. When machine starts. ELECTRONIC TAKE-UP AND LET-OFF MOTION: It plays important role. until the weaver is available to repair breakage. the selvedge system automatically comes to original position. The accuracy of settings make it easy . This only Rapier machine that allows selvedge crossing to be programmed on microprocessor independently of shed crossing even while machine is in operation. Required pick density can be programmed on microprocessor keyboard. Consequently the waiting period for intervation of weaver reduced to zero. The weaver is informed by flashing orange light that the machine carries PSO action. The easiest position of rethreading can be set by a simple push button. The weaver can enter colour pattern through microprocessor keyboard or at jacquard control unit. The modules of quickstep are interchangeable. for this Piezo-Electric filling detector is used. ¬  ¬  ¬  The course of filling yarn is low and remains constant.

It is outstanding since automatic pick finder is not driven by separate motor but monitored by hydraulic system.to adjust pick density of fabric with optimum fabric weight and minimum yarn consumptions. MULTIPHASE WEAVING MACHINE: The Sulzer Ruti M8300 Multiphase weaving machine has introduced a new concept to the principle of multiphase weaving. The electronic link between let-off and take-up is an additional tool to manage the fabric marks. ensures trouble free operation of let-off system and improve fabric quality. FDEI (Filling Detection At The End Of Insertion): When weaving ‘lively’ yarns. At filling breaks. Warp beam driven by electric let off motion through separate drive wheel that stays on loom. rebounding fillings and prevent faults in fabric at right end. By ETU make it possible to weave fabric having various pick densities. The phase wise shed formation is along the warp direction instead of weft direction and 4 weft yarns are inserted simultaneously. FEATURES: ϖ  Shed Formation: - . The transfer position of filling yarn in center of fabric is always correct even after changing the cloth for new style. In this way a two speed slow motion become a standard luxury to the weaver. the machine stops and only the harness are moved automatically to free the broken pick for removal of weaver. use FDEI system. It checks the presence of filling at the end of insertion. The system detects short picks.

 Weft insertion: The channel in the shed forming elements guide in insertion of .The warp yarns pass over rotating weaving rotor and shed forming elements select and lift warp yarn for shed formation. The weave selection is made possible. rotation of rotor and movement of warp positioners help in selection and formation of shed by controlling the motion of warp positioner. The curve shape of the elements.

Esakkimuthu o Spinning .Manju.TEXNOCRATZ. The weft is inserted by nozzles are similar to Airjet weaving. Many machines are in operations since 1997. The beat-up comb then catches the weft and beats up.Saravana o Weaving . ϖ  Beat-Up: The combs located behind shed forming element perform the function of conventional reed. I have assigned the task for each of you with deadline. It is time that we proclaim the initiation of our new Project . The weft measuring. Looking forward the activities pending. Additional nozzles between shed forming elements further support the weft. Technology o Wet Spinning o Solution Spinning Properties o Physical Prop Lustre Chemical Prop     Strength o • Reactivity etc Applications .Kalimuthu o Garments . Anton Web Design .Fibers ---Tree Start--Fibers • • • • Introduction o Intro o Classification Science o o Molecular Structure Theory of Entropy etc.com.Manju o Textile Data . by the name of www. I request everyone of you to participate in the related activities.Manju Content Writing: o Fiber Science & Wet Processing . cutting. My suggestion is below: Example . sensing and controlling are similar to air jet machines. Four wefts are inserted at a time. I have planned to launch our website on the coming new year 1-Jan 2012. Hi All. the warp beams up to 1600mm diameter can be used.Anton. which rises after insertion of weft. Please review this and confirm: • • • Domain Registration & Web Hosting . The lower shed.weft. Saravana Please decide the Tree structure for organising the textile content. clamping. The modular design concept adopted has helped to change warp beam within 20 min. Kalimuthu.98 and this might be the machine for mass production in future. Esakki. The inclusion of batching motion for cloth winding has reduced change intervals. which will later become a supplement of our FABYAR Inc. lift the weft out of channel over the entire weaving width.texnocratz.

o o • Market Clothing’s Industrial Textiles Cost per Kg Percentage o o --TREE END-- Confirm your participation by replying this mail. .

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