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AP Chem Bonding notes from Princeton guide Coulomb's Law - all bonds occur b/c of electrostatic attractions.

- atoms stick together to form molecules and molecules stick together to form liquids or solids b/c the negatively charged electron of on atom is attracted to the positively charged nucleus of another atom. -bigger charges mean stronger bonds; smaller charges mean weaker bonds. - charges close together (smaller ion/ionic radius)= stronger bonds; charges far apart (bigger ion/ ionic radius)= weaker bonds. Ionic Compounds - held together by electrostatic attractions of (+) and (-) charge ions in a lattice structure - metal and nonmetals - one atom gives up electrons and becomes a positively charged ion while another atom accepts it and becomes a negatively charged ion. Ionic Solid - strong; have high melting and boiling point - electrons do not move around the lattice = poor conductors of electricity Ionic Liquid - ions are free to move = conduct electricity Covalent Bonds - two atoms share electrons Polarity - the more electronegative atom in a molecule exerts a stronger pull on the electrons in the bond- not enough to make the bond ionic, but enough to keep the electrons on one side of the molecule more than the other side. = dipole molecule Dipole Moment - measures the polarity of a molecule: the larger the dipole moment= more polar molecule - the greater the charge and greater distance between the charges= greater value of dipole moment.

at one point. a given molecule may have more electrons on one side than the other = instantaneous polarity= very weak dipole.occur between neutral.most are very hard. .tend to be gasses at room temp.Dipole Forces .melt and boil at extremely low temp . .(+) end attracted to (-) end containing an extremely electronegative element . so molecules with larger dipole moments tend to have higher melting and boiling points. . melt and boil at very low temp . polar molecules: positive end attracted to the negative end .  allow the positively charged nuclei to be closer to the negatively charged electrons = increase of attractive forces. London Dispersion . Van Der Waals Forces Dipole.all metals except Mercury are solid at room temperature -most have high boiling and melting points .gives up its lone electron to a bond and leaves it's positive side unshielded * water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid b/c its hydrogen bonds force the molecules in ice to form a crystal structure. which keeps them farther apart than they are in liquid form.occur between neutral.most are gasses and liquids at room temp.the smaller the nuclei= the stronger the bond.weak. malleable and ductile cause of the freedom of movement in electrons .Metallic Bonds . .molecules with greater polarity= greater dipole-dipole attraction.higher melting and boiling points .electrons are delocalized and can move freely= very good conductor of heat and electricity. non polar molecules .random motion of electrons on atoms within molecules= very weak attractions . Hydrogen Bonds .

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