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# TEST - Principles of PDH Multiplexing

1.

Select all the CEPT bit rates among those listed below. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 1,5 2 9,6 8 34 6 45 140 Mbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s

2.

In a 2Mbit/s signal, it is possible to transmit 30 user channels. How many channels can be transmitted in a 140Mbit/s signal ? a. b. c. d. e. 1800 1880 1920 2020 2100

3.

Which block of bits in a PDH signal is responsible for the synchronization On the multiplex receive side ? a. b. c. d. e. Justification opportunity bits (JB) Tributary bits (TB) Service bits (D+N) Frame Alignment Signal (FAS) Justification control bits (CB)

4.

Which method is used for PDH multiplexing ? a. b. c. d. Byte-by-byte multiplexing Bit-by-bit multiplexing Word-by-word multiplexing Frame-by-frame multiplexing

5.

A 2 Mbit/s signal shall be accessed in a 140 Mbit/s signal. How many demultiplex operations have to be carried out ? a. b. c. d. none one two three

## TEST - Characteristic of SDH multiplexing

1. Which is the smallest transmission module in the SDH and what capacity does it have a) b) c) d) e) SDH-1 STM-1 PTM-1 STM-1 ISDN (155 Mbit/s) (140 Mbit/s) (155 Mbit/s) (155 Mbit/s) ( 64 kbit/s)

2.

## Which of the frames below corresponds to an STM ?

PTR

SOH SOH

PTR SOH

SOH

SOH

PTR PTR

PTR SOH

SOH

SOH PTR

SOH SOH

SOH PTR

3.

How many bytes does the payload block of the STM-1 frame contain ? a) 2430 byte b) 2349 byte c) 2239 byte d) 81 byte e) 72 byte

4.

Which multiplex technique is used in the SDH ? a) b) c) d) Byte-by byte multiplexing Bit-by bit multiplexing 5 bit / 6 bit multiplexing Any multiplex technique

5.

How many telephone channels can theoretically be transmitted in an STM-16 signal if there is one 140 Mbit/s signal per STM-1 frame ? a) 1920 b) 7680 c) 10350 d) 25670 e) 30720

TEST - Mapping

1.

Which of the information bits listed below are n o t transmitted in a container ? a) b) c) d) e) D- and N- bits Fixed Justification Bits Service Bits Overhead Bits Justification Opportunity Bits

2.

## Which Containers are recommended for CEPT signals ? a) b) c) d) e) C4 C3 C2 C 12 C 11

3.

Which is the difference between the Virtual Container VC and the Container C ? a) b) c) d) e) Container = Virtual Container = Virtual Container = There is no difference Virtual Container = Virtual container + Path Overhead Container + Section Overhead Container + Path Overhead STM-1 + Container

4.

In which case is the Null Poiter Indication transmittedin the TUG-3 ? a) When a 34 Mbit/s PDH signal is transmitted in the TUG3 b) When 21 x 2 Mbit/s PDH signals are transmitted in the TUG3

5.

How many 34 Mbit/s signals can be transmitted in a VC-4 signal at maximum ? a) b) c) d) e) one two three four five

6.

What is the difference between an AU-4 and an STM-1 ? a) b) c) d) f) AU-4 = STM-1 AU-4 = STM-1 STM-1 = POH STM-1 = AU-4 There is no difference + + + + POH SOH SOH SOH

7.

Which of the signals listed below can be found in a VC-4 ? a) 1 x 140 Mbit/s b) 3 x 34 Mbit/s c) 63 x 2 Mbit/s d) 2 x 34 Mbit/s + 21 x 2 Mbit/s

8.

Describe the precise path of a two Mbit/s signal into tha STM-1. a) b) c) d) e) C3 VC3 TU3 TUG3 VC4 AU4 STM1 C12 VC12 TU12 TUG2 TUG3 VC4 AU4 STM1 C12 VC12 TU12 TUG12 VC4 AU4 STM1 C4 VC4 AU4 STM1 C12 VC12 TU12 TUG3 VC4 AU4 STM1

TEST - Pointer

1.

Where can you find the AU-4 pointer in the STM-1 frame ? a) b) c) d) In one of the two SOH blocks In the AU-4 pointer block In the Payload There is no AU-4 poiter in the STM-1 frame

2.

## How many TU-3 pointer bytes can be found in a VC-4 ? a) only 6

H1 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 H1 H2 H3 H1

b)

c)

H1 H2 H3 H3

H1 H1 H1

d)

H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3

3.

Which of the 9 AU pointer bytes are used for the AU-4 pointer ?

H1 Y

Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

4.

What kind of information can be found in the H1 and H2 byte of the AU-4 pointer ? a) b) c) d) e) New Data Flag D-Bit 10 Bit pointer value N Bit SS Bits (= beginning of a new pointer value) (= display for a major alarm) (= address of a VC-4) (= display for a minor alarm) (= type of VC-4 contents)

5.

What is the H3 byte of the TU-3 ponter used for ? a) Service channel b) Pointer address c) Signaling d) H3 Byte is meaningless e) Negative Justification

6.

Which of the numbers below are valid addresses for a VC-4 a) 27 e) 33 b) 782 f) 720 c) 25 g) 5,3 d) 0 h) 783

7)

Which pointers are active during the transmission of a 2 Mbit/s signal ? a) b) c) d) e) AU-4 pointer TU-3 pointer TUG-3 pointer TUG-2 pointer TU-2 pointer f) g) h) i) j) SOH pointer VC-4 pointer VC-12 pointer TU-12 pointer No pointer is used

8)

How many TU-12 pointer bytes are used for the transmission of 21 x 2 Mbit/s ? a) 4 b) 42 c) 84 d) 64

1.

Which of the following functions are fulfilled by an averhead ? a) b) c) d) Error monitoring Positive justification Frame alignment Path trace

2.

Can the path trace vary on the individual line sections ? Section Section
REG 1 REG 2

Section
MUX 2

140 Mbit/s

MUX 1

140 Mbit/s

3.

What is the difference between RSOH and MSOH ? a) Only regenerators can access the RSOH b) In every STM-1 frame, the MSOH is transmitted twice, whereas the RSOH is transmitted only once. c) All SDH multiplexers and regenerators can access the RSOH; the MSOH is accessed only by multiplexers.

4.

The bytes B1, B2 and B3 serve to. ? a) report back errors b) detect errors by means of the parity code c) transmit order-wire channels

5.

Which of the statements below relating to the POH of the VC-12 are correct ? a) Every multiframe VC-12 has a POH b) Only the first VC-12 container in the VC-4 contains a POH c) Every VC-12 transmits the entire POH

6.

What is the C2 byte in the POH of the VC-4 ? a) b) c) d) e) Frame alignment signal STM-1 frame alignment User/application channel Signal identification (ID) Path status / trace

7.

Pick from the statement below the information contained in a VC-3 (as per C byte) a) b) c) d) 3 x 34 Mbit/s 1 x 34 Mbit/s TUG with ANSI signals 1 x 140 Mbit/s

8.

Which of the bytes listed below can be contained in a VC-12 POH ? a) d) g) j) J1 B3 Z6/Z7 K1/K2 b) e) h) k) C1 J2 V1/V2 D1-D12 c) f) i) l) C2 F1 V5 S1

9.

How many STM-1 frames are required to trnsmit the entire VC-12 POH ? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5

TEST - MONITORING

1. What is the maximum number of bit errors which can be counted in the B1 byte during one second a) b) c) d) e) 128.000 640 512.000 32.000 64.000

## 2. Which byte is used for bit error monitoring on multiplex sections ? a) b) c) B1 B2 B3

3. In which direction is Section AIS transmitted ? a) b) c) In the forward direction In the backward direction In both directions

4. What purpose does FEBE serve ? a) b) c) d) It indicates errors to the receiver. It indicates to the transmitter that a BER grater than 10 exp 6 was detected FEBE has no function; it is merely used to verify the local LED It prevents the AIS from being forwarded

5. Which tipe of FERF exist ? a) b) c) d) Regenerator FERF Section FERF Path FERF PDH FERF

TEST - RESULTS

## TEST - Characteristic of SDH multiplexing 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) TEST - Mapping 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a; c a; b; d c b c d a; b; c; d b d E b a e

TEST - Pointer 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) TEST - Overhead 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) TEST - Monitoring 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) e b a b b; c a; c; d (no) c b a d b; c e; g; I d b d H1; H2; H3,H3,H3 a; c; e e a; b; d; e; f a; i c