A2 Chemistry Revision Notes

Retention time is the time between injection and emergence Aldehyde + NaBH4  Alcohol A stereoisomer is a molecule with the same structural formula but different special arrangement. it represents the most abundant fragment A Zwitter ion is a molecule with both a + and – charges The conditions for esterification are conc H2SO4 and reflux . Delocalized pi electrons are electrons spread over more then two atoms where the p orbital overlap sideways The molecular ion peak is the peak caused by the unfragmented molecule A base peak is the peak with the greatest relative intensity.An arene is an aromatic hydrocarbon An RF value is the distance travelled by the solute divided by the distance travelled by the solvent front.

The nitration of benzene is important in the pharmaceutical and dye industries A curly arrow represents the movement of a pair of electrons to form or break a covalent bond To make an azo dye you first have to react an aromatic amine with HNO2 and HCl at a temperature below 10oc. this forms a dizonium salt. To make Tolens reagent you mix silver nitrate and ammonia Hydrolysis is the splitting of a compound with a reaction with a water molecule To get a pure stereoisomer use a stereo specific chiral catalyst Primary amines can act as bases because the loan pair of electrons on the N can be donated to a H+ to form a dative covalent bond The evidence that led scientists to doubt the model proposal by kekule are all C-C are the same length. This then undergoes a coupling reaction with phenol in alkali conditions. the ∆ H of hydrogenation is less exothermic then expected and benzene only reacts with a halogen at high temp or in the presence of a halogen carrier An alpha amino acid is an amino acid with both the NH2 and the COOH on the same carbon .

Because cyclohexane and phenol have a higher electron density they can induce a dipole on the halogen molecule whereas benzene can’t induce a dipole on the halogen molecule Polyester can be readily hydrolysed by hot alkali and acid Polymers with a C=O are more likely to be degradable then polymers with only single bonds because the double bonds absorb radiation and the double bond breaks A halogen carrier allows benzene to be halogenated by inducing a permanent dipole on the halogen molecule If a silver mirror is formed when carrying out the Tolens reagent test the compound tested was an aldehyde The Ag+ is reduced to a Ag and the aldehyde is oxidised to a carboxylic acid when the Tolens reagent test is carried out on an aldehyde . however in phenol the loan pair from the O are delocalised into the ring therefore increasing has a higher electron density then benzene. Radio waves is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that is used for NMR spectroscopy Phenol and cyclohexane both react more readily with halogens compound compared with benzene. This is because in benzene the pi electrons are delocalised over the ring. In cyclohexane the pi electrons are localised between two carbons so also has a higher electron density then benzene.Thin layer chromatography works on the basis that the compounds adsorbing to the stationary phase.

pharmaceuticals and cleaning agents and detergents A shorthand notation for fatty acids consists of two numbers separated by a colon. The first one represents the number of carbons and the second represents the number of double bonds. The general formula for an amino acid is RCH(NH2)COOH TMS gives a peak at 0 in NMR SO4 has a charge of 2- Benzene goes through substitution because it maintains the stability of the molecule If K were added to liquid phenol you would observe effervescence and the K would disappear Phenol is used in the production of azo dyes.5. Example: CH3CHCHCH2CHCHCH2CH2CHCHCH2COOH 12:3 (2. If there are any double bonds numbers in brackets will follow to indicate on what carbons the double bonds occur.To distinguish between compounds using precipitates you would recrystalise the precipitate to purify it then measure the melting point of the purified precipitate and compare to know values.9) .

A simple triglyceride is when the three fatty acids connected to the triol are the same. A mixed triglyceride is when the three fatty acids are different .


.Trans – hex – 3 – ene Cis – hex – 3 – ene NO3 has a charge of -1 NO2+ is called a nitronium ion Tetrahydridoborate is NaBH4 CH3CH2CH2NH3+Cl.is called popyleammonium chloride When turning a normal amino acid into a Zwitter ion the functional groups on the R group don’t change Acid Hydrolysis is always HCl Examples of polyesters are Terylene and Poly (lactic acid) Examples of polyamides are Kevlar and Nylon – 6.6 A mobile phase is a phase that moves A stationary phase is a phase that does not move A solid stationary phase separates the components by adsorption.

CDCl3 is an example. not all reactants react and mechanical loss. In gas chromatography the stationary phase is a liquid or a inert solid support. Deutered solvents are used because they do not give a signal in proton NMR. D2O is used to exchange with protons in OH and NH. airport security and space probes. General formula CnH2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n+2O CnH2nO CnH2nO2 CnH2n-6 Compound Alkane Alkene Alcohol Aldehyde / Ketone Carboxylic acid / Ester Benzene compound . loss into atmosphere. this aids the identification of OH and NH protons Reasons for not getting 100% yield are: side reactions occur. The mobile phase is the gas GCMS is used in drug detection. Different components have different solubility’s The stationary phase in the TLC is Silica gel on an inert solid support and the mobile phase is a liquid solvent.A liquid stationary phase separates the components by relative solubility. environmental analysis.


conc HNO3.Moles Density Volume HCl + NaNO2  HNO2 + NaCl + NO2 + HCl CH3Cl  + HNO3  jl.k + H2O Conditions :conc H2SO4. reflux and temperature 50oc + Cl Cl2  + HCl Conditions : FeCl3 OH NaOH  O-Na+ + H2O + .

reflux Alkali hydrolysis CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OOCCH2CH2CH3 + NaOH  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OH + CH3CH2CH2COO-Na+ Conditions: NaOH (aq) . reflux Carbonyl + [H]  Alcohol Conditions: NaBH4. HCl. reflux CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 + HNO3  CH3CH2CH2CH2NH3+NO3- .NO2 + 6[H]  NH2 + 2 H2O Conditions : Sn. reflux Ketone + 2.4 – DNPH  Orange Precipitate Cl2 H+ + + FeCl3 FeCl4-   Cl+ + FeCl4HCl FeCl3 + CH3CH2CH2COOH + CO2 + H2O + MgCO3  (CH3CH2CH2COO-)2Mg2+ Acid hydrolysis CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OOCCH2CH2CH3 + H2O  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OH + CH3CH2CH2COOH Conditions: HCl (aq) .

H2SO4. relfux CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + [O]  CH3CH2CH2CHO + H2 O Conditions: K2Cr2O7. reflux HNO3 C6H6 H+ + + H2SO4 + NO2+ HSO4-   NO2+ C6H5NO2 + HSO4+ H+ + H2 O  H2SO4 CH3CH(NH3+)COOH2O + NaOH  CH3CH(NH2)COO-Na+ + 2 OH 2 Na  2 OH-Na+ + H2 + .CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 + CHl  CH3CH2CH2CH2NH3+Cl– Halogeno alkane NH4+Halogen- + 2NH3  Amine + Conditions: Ethanol CH3CH2CH2CH2OH H2O + 2[O]  CH3CH2CH2COOH + Conditions: K2Cr2O7. H2SO4. distil CH3COHCH2CH3 + [O]  CH3CHOCH2CH3 + H2O Conditions: K2Cr2O7. H2SO4.

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