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# Homework #1 Due date: Sep.

29 (Thu) in class
1. Consider a system consisting of two objects A and B. Initially A and B have
temperature T
A
and T
B
, and heat capacities and independent of temperature.
This system is put to work so that it can provide work W, until both reaches a final
temperature T
F
, where T
A
> T
F
> T
B
.
(a) Find the maximum mechanical work that can be extracted from this system.
(b) Obtain the equilibrium temperature reached after all the work in (a) was extracted.
2. In certain system, the internal energy E is related to the entropy S, particle number
N, and the volume V through
.
Show that the system satisfies the ideal gas law independently of the value of the
constant d.
3. A bubble of 5.00 mole of helium is submerged at a certain depth in liquid water
when the water (and thus the helium) undergoes a temperature increase T of 20 at
constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium is monoatomic and ideal.
(using R (gas constant)=8.30 J/mole/K)
(a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the increase and
expansion?
(b) What is the change E
int
in the internal energy of the helium during the
temperature increase?
(c) How much work W is done by helium as it expands against the pressure of the
surrounding water during the temperature increase?
4. (a) During each cycle, a Carnot engine removes 100 J of energy from a reservoir at
400 K, does work, and exhausts heat to a reservoir at 300 K. Compute the entropy
change of each reservoir for each cycle.
(b) During each cycle, a heat engine with a second-law efficiency of 60% removes 100
J from a reservoir at 400 K, does work, and exhausts heat to a reservoir at 300 K.
Compute the entropy change of each reservoir for each cycle. (Using the Carnot
efficiency calculated in (a))
(c) What is the cause of the difference between a) and b)

5. Consider an arbitrary heat engine that operates between two thermal masses, each of
which has the same finite, temperature-independent heat capacity . The two thermal
masses have initial temperatures and , where and the engine operates
until both thermal masses reaches the same final temperature .
(a) Give the argument that shows .
(b) What is the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from the engine?
6. Consider an ideal gas consisting of N non-interacting molecules. Suppose that the
specific heat of the gas is given by (5/2)Nk
B
if its volume V is fixed. Here, k
B
is the
Boltzmann constant.
(a) Find the entropy, S(T,V), of the gas at temperature T and volume V. Assume that
the entropy is zero at T=0.
(b) Find the free energy F(T,V) of the gas at temperature T and volume V.
(c) Find the enthalpy H(T,P) of the gas at temparature T and pressure P.
7. Consider an ideal gas of non-interacting point particles.
(a) When the gas is compressed or expanded adiabatically, the pressure P and the
volume V satisfy the relation PV

## = constant. Obtain the exponent .

(b) When the gas undergoes the Carnot cycle between temperatures T
1
and T
2
(T
1
>
T
2
), derive the ideal energy conversion efficiency which is defined as the ratio W/Q
1
,
where W is the work done by the gas during one Carnot cycle and Q
1
is the heat
absorbed by the gas during one Carnot cycle.
8. A weightless and frictionless piston divides a thermally insulated cylinder into two
equal parts. One part contains one mole of an ideal gas with adiabatic exponent (or
IV

## = constant), the other is evacuated. The initial gas temperature is 1

0
. Now the
piston is released and the gas fills the whole volume of the cylinder. Then the piston is
slowly displaced back to the initial position. Find the increment of (a) the internal
energy and (b) the entropy of the gas resulting from these two processes.
Initial condition :

piston
1
0
, V, j 0 1
0
, V, j 0