GAUGE

THEORY
FOR
FIBER
BUNDLES
Peter W. Michor
Mailing address: Peter W. Michor,
Institut f¨ ur Mathematik der Universit¨at Wien,
Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Wien, Austria.
E-mail michor@awirap.bitnet
1980 Mathematics subject classification 53-02, 53C05, 53C10, 58-02, 58D05, 58A35
Extended version of a series of lectures held at the Institute of Physics
of the University of Napoli, March 28 — April 1, 1988
Typeset by A
M
S-T
E
X
1
Table of contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1. Notations and conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Calculus of smooth mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Calculus of holomorphic mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Calculus of real analytic mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Infinite dimensional manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Manifolds of mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Diffeomorphism groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8. The Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis Bracket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
9. Fiber Bundles and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles . . . . . . . . . . 44
11. Principal and Induced Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
12. Holonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
13. The nonlinear frame bundle of a fiber bundle . . . . . . . . 81
14. Gauge theory for fiber bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
15. A classifying space for the diffeomorphism group . . . . . . 86
16. A characteristic class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
17. Self duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
List of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2
Introduction
Gauge theory usually investigates the space of principal connections
on a principal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) and its orbit space under the
action of the gauge group (called the moduli space), which is the group
of all principal bundle automorphisms of P which cover the identity
on the base space M. It is the arena for the Yang-Mills-Higgs equa-
tions which allows (with structure group U(1) SU(2)) a satisfactory
unified description of electromagnetic and weak interactions, which was
developed by Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg. This electro-weak the-
ory predicted the existence of massive vector particles (the intermediate
bosons W
+
, W

, and Z), whose experimental verification renewed the
interest of physicists in gauge theories.
On the mathematical side the investigation of self dual and anti self
SU(2)-connections on 4-manifolds and of their image in the orbit space
led to stunning topological results in the topology of 4-manifolds by
Donaldson. The moduli space of anti self dual connections can be com-
pleted and reworked into a 5 dimensional manifold which is a bordism
between the base manifold of the bundle and a simple manifold which
depends only on the Poincar´e duality form in the second dimensional
homology space. Combined with results of Freedman this led to the
discovery of exotic differential structures on R
4
and on (supposedly all
but S
4
) compact algebraic surfaces.
In his codification of a principal connection [Ehresmann, 1951] be-
gan with a more general notion of connection on a general fiber bundle
(E, p, M, S) with standard fiber S. This was called an Ehresmann con-
nection by some authors, we will call it just a connection. It consists
of the specification of a complement to the vertical bundle in a differen-
tiable way, called the horizontal distribution.
One can conveniently describe such a connection as a one form on
the total space E with values in the vertical bundle, whose kernel is
the horizontal distribution. When combined with another venerable no-
tion, the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket for vector valued differential forms
(see [Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis, 1956]) one obtains a very convenient way to
describe curvature and Bianchi identity for such connections. Parallel
transport along curves in the base space is defined only locally, but one
may show that each bundle admits complete connections, whose paral-
lel transport is globally defined (theorem 9.10). For such connections
one can define holonomy groups and holonomy Lie algebras and one
may prove a far-reaching generalization of the Ambrose Singer theorem:
A complete connection tells us whether it is induced from a principal
connection on a principal fiber bundle (theorem 12.4).
Introduction 3
A bundle (E, p, M, S) without structure group can also be viewed as
having the whole diffeomorphism group Diff(S) of the standard fiber
S as structure group, as least when S is compact. We define the non
linear frame bundle for E which is a principle fiber bundle over M with
structure group Diff(S) and we show that the theory of connections on
E corresponds exactly to the theory of principal connections on this non
linear frame bundle (see section 13). The gauge group of the non lin-
ear frame bundle turns out to be just the group of all fiber respecting
diffeomorphisms of E which cover the identity on M, and one may con-
sider the moduli space Conn(E)/ Gau(E). There is hope that it can be
stratified into smooth manifolds corresponding to conjugacy classes of
holonomy groups in Diff(S), but this will be treated in another paper.
The diffeomorphism group Diff(S) for a compact manifold S admits
a smooth classifying space and a classifying connection: the space of all
embeddings of S into a Hilbert space
2
, say, is the total space of a princi-
pal bundle with structure group Diff(S), whose base manifold is the non
linear Grassmanian of all submanifolds of
2
of type (diffeomorphic to)
S. The action of Diff(S) on S leads to the (universal or classifying) as-
sociated bundle, which admits a classifying connection: Every S-bundle
over M can be realized as the pull back of the classifying bundle by a
classifying smooth mapping from M into the non linear Grassmanian,
which can be arranged in such a way that it pulls back the classifying
connection to a given one on E — this is the Narasimhan-Ramadas
procedure for Diff(S).
Characteristic classes owe their existence to invariant polynomials on
the Lie algebra of the structure group like characteristic coefficients of
matrices. The Lie algebra of Diff(S) for compact S is the Lie algebra
X(S) of vector fields on S. Unfortunately it does not admit any invari-
ants. But there are equivariants like X →L
X
ω for some closed form ω
on S which can be used to give a sort of Chern-Weil construction of char-
acteristic classes in the cohomology of the base M with local coefficients
(see sections 16 and 17).
Finally we discuss some self duality and anti self duality conditions
which depend on some fiberwise structure on the bundle like a fiberwise
symplectic structure.
This booklet starts with a short description of analysis in infinite
dimensions along the lines of Fr¨olicher and Kriegl which makes infinite
dimensional differential geometry much simpler than it used to be. We
treat smoothness, real analyticity and holomorphy. This part is based on
[Kriegl-Michor, 1990b] and the forthcoming book [Kriegl-Michor]. Then
we give a more detailed exposition of the theory of manifolds of mappings
and the diffeomorphism group. This part is adapted from [Michor, 1980]
4 Introduction
to the use of the Fr¨olicher-Kriegl calculus. Then we present a careful
introduction to the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket, to fiber bundles and
connections, G-structures and principal connection which emphasizes
the construction and recognition of induced connections.
The material in the rest of the book, from section 12 onwards, has
been published in [Michor, 1988]. The version here is much more detailed
and contains more results.
The material in this booklet is a much extended version of a series
of lectures held at the Institute of Physics of the University of Napoli,
March 28 – April 1, 1988. I want to thank G. Marmo for his hospitality,
his interest in this subject, and for the suggestion to publish this booklet.
Wien, August 6, 1990 P. Michor
5
1. Notations and conventions
1.1. Definition. A Lie group G is a smooth manifold and a group
such that the multiplication µ : G G → G is smooth. Then also the
inversion ν : G →G turns out to be smooth.
We shall use the following notation:
µ : GG →G, multiplication, µ(x, y) = x.y.
λ
a
: G →G, left translation, λ
a
(x) = a.x.
ρ
a
: G →G, right translation, ρ
a
(x) = x.a.
ν : G →G, inversion, ν(x) = x
−1
.
e ∈ G, the unit element.
If g = T
e
G is the Lie algebra of G, we use the following notation:
Ad
G
: G →Aut
Lie
(g) and so on.
1.2. Let : G M → M be a left action, so
ˇ
: G → Diff(M) is a
group homomorphism. Then we have partial mappings
a
: M → M
and
x
: G →M, given by
a
(x) =
x
(a) = (a, x) = a.x.
For any X ∈ g we define the fundamental vector field ζ
X
= ζ
M
X

X(M) by ζ
X
(x) = T
e
(
x
).X = T
(e,x)
.(X, 0
x
).
Lemma. In this situation the following assertions hold:
(1) ζ : g →X(M) is a linear mapping.
(2) T
x
(
a
).ζ
X
(x) = ζ
Ad(a)X
(a.x).
(3) R
X
0
M
∈ X(GM) is -related to ζ
X
∈ X(M).
(4) [ζ
X
, ζ
Y
] = −ζ
[X,Y ]
.
1.3. Let r : M G → M be a right action, so ˇ r : G → Diff(M)
is a group anti homomorphism. We will use the following notation:
r
a
: M →M and r
x
: G →M, given by r
x
(a) = r
a
(x) = r(x, a) = x.a.
For any X ∈ g we define the fundamental vector field ζ
X
= ζ
M
X

X(M) by ζ
X
(x) = T
e
(r
x
).X = T
(x,e)
r.(0
x
, X).
Lemma. In this situation the following assertions hold:
(1) ζ : g →X(M) is a linear mapping.
(2) T
x
(r
a
).ζ
X
(x) = ζ
Ad(a
−1
)X
(x.a).
(3) 0
M
L
X
∈ X(M G) is r-related to ζ
X
∈ X(M).
(4) [ζ
X
, ζ
Y
] = ζ
[X,Y ]
.
6
2. Calculus of smooth mappings
2.1. The traditional differential calculus works well for finite dimen-
sional vector spaces and for Banach spaces. For more general locally
convex spaces a whole flock of different theories were developed, each of
them rather complicated and none really convincing. The main difficulty
is that the composition of linear mappings stops to be jointly continuous
at the level of Banach spaces, for any compatible topology. This was
the original motivation for the development of a whole new field within
general topology, convergence spaces.
Then in 1982, Alfred Fr¨olicher and Andreas Kriegl presented inde-
pendently the solution to the question for the right differential calculus
in infinite dimensions. They joined forces in the further development
of the theory and the (up to now) final outcome is the book [Fr¨olicher-
Kriegl, 1988], which is the general reference for this section. See also the
forthcoming book [Kriegl-Michor].
In this section I will sketch the basic definitions and the most impor-
tant results of the Fr¨olicher-Kriegl calculus.
2.2. The c

-topology. Let E be a locally convex vector space. A
curve c : R → E is called smooth or C

if all derivatives exist and
are continuous - this is a concept without problems. Let C

(R, E) be
the space of smooth functions. It can be shown that C

(R, E) does
not depend on the locally convex topology of E, only on its associated
bornology (system of bounded sets).
The final topologies with respect to the following sets of mappings
into E coincide:
(1) C

(R, E).
(2) Lipschitz curves (so that ¦
c(t)−c(s)
t−s
: t ,= s¦ is bounded in E).
(3) ¦E
B
→ E : B bounded absolutely convex in E¦, where E
B
is
the linear span of B equipped with the Minkowski functional
p
B
(x) := inf¦λ > 0 : x ∈ λB¦.
(4) Mackey-convergent sequences x
n
→ x (there exists a sequence
0 < λ
n
¸∞ with λ
n
(x
n
−x) bounded).
This topology is called the c

-topology on E and we write c

E for the
resulting topological space. In general (on the space T of test functions
for example) it is finer than the given locally convex topology, it is not
a vector space topology, since scalar multiplication is no longer jointly
continuous. The finest among all locally convex topologies on E which
are coarser than c

E is the bornologification of the given locally convex
topology. If E is a Fr´echet space, then c

E = E.
2. Calculus of smooth mappings 7
2.3. Convenient vector spaces. Let E be a locally convex vector
space. E is said to be a convenient vector space if one of the following
equivalent (completeness) conditions is satisfied:
(1) Any Mackey-Cauchy-sequence (so that (x
n
−x
m
) is Mackey con-
vergent to 0) converges. This is also called c

-complete.
(2) If B is bounded closed absolutely convex, then E
B
is a Banach
space.
(3) Any Lipschitz curve in E is locally Riemann integrable.
(4) For any c
1
∈ C

(R, E) there is c
2
∈ C

(R, E) with c

1
= c
2
(existence of antiderivative).
2.4. Lemma. Let E be a locally convex space. Then the following
properties are equivalent:
(1) E is c

-complete.
(2) If f : R
k
→E is scalarwise Lip
k
, then f is Lip
k
, for k > 1.
(3) If f : R →E is scalarwise C

then f is differentiable at 0.
(4) If f : R →E is scalarwise C

then f is C

.
Here a mapping f : R
k
→ E is called Lip
k
if all partial derivatives
up to order k exist and are Lipschitz, locally on R
n
. f scalarwise C

means that λ ◦ f is C

for all continuous linear functionals on E.
This lemma says that a convenient vector space one can recognize
smooth curves by investigating compositions with continuous linear func-
tionals.
2.5. Smooth mappings. Let E and F be locally convex vector spaces.
A mapping f : E → F is called smooth or C

, if f ◦ c ∈ C

(R, F) for
all c ∈ C

(R, E); so f

: C

(R, E) → C

(R, F) makes sense. Let
C

(E, F) denote the space of all smooth mapping from E to F.
For E and F finite dimensional this gives the usual notion of smooth
mappings: this has been first proved in [Boman, 1967]. Constant map-
pings are smooth. Multilinear mappings are smooth if and only if they
are bounded. Therefore we denote by L(E, F) the space of all bounded
linear mappings from E to F.
2.6. Structure on C

(E, F). We equip the space C

(R, E) with the
bornologification of the topology of uniform convergence on compact
sets, in all derivatives separately. Then we equip the space C

(E, F)
with the bornologification of the initial topology with respect to all map-
pings c

: C

(E, F) →C

(R, F), c

(f) := f ◦ c, for all c ∈ C

(R, E).
2.7. Lemma. For locally convex spaces E and F we have:
(1) If F is convenient, then also C

(E, F) is convenient, for any
8 2. Calculus of smooth mappings
E. The space L(E, F) is a closed linear subspace of C

(E, F),
so it also convenient.
(2) If E is convenient, then a curve c : R → L(E, F) is smooth if
and only if t →c(t)(x) is a smooth curve in F for all x ∈ E.
2.8. Theorem. Cartesian closedness. The category of convenient
vector spaces and smooth mappings is cartesian closed. So we have a
natural bijection
C

(E F, G)

= C

(E, C

(F, G)),
which is even a diffeomorphism.
Of coarse this statement is also true for c

-open subsets of convenient
vector spaces.
2.9. Corollary. Let all spaces be convenient vector spaces. Then the
following canonical mappings are smooth.
ev : C

(E, F) E →F, ev(f, x) = f(x)
ins : E →C

(F, E F), ins(x)(y) = (x, y)
( )

: C

(E, C

(F, G)) →C

(E F, G)
( )

: C

(E F, G) →C

(E, C

(F, G))
comp : C

(F, G) C

(E, F) →C

(E, G)
C

( , ) : C

(F, F

) C

(E

, E) →C

(C

(E, F), C

(E

, F

))
(f, g) →(h →f ◦ h ◦ g)

:

C

(E
i
, F
i
) →C

(

E
i
,

F
i
)
2.10. Theorem. Let E and F be convenient vector spaces. Then the
differential operator
d : C

(E, F) →C

(E, L(E, F)),
df(x)v := lim
t→0
f(x +tv) −f(x)
t
,
exists and is linear and bounded (smooth). Also the chain rule holds:
d(f ◦ g)(x)v = df(g(x))dg(x)v.
2. Calculus of smooth mappings 9
2.11. Remarks. Note that the conclusion of theorem 2.8 is the starting
point of the classical calculus of variations, where a smooth curve in a
space of functions was assumed to be just a smooth function in one
variable more.
If one wants theorem 2.8 to be true and assumes some other obvious
properties, then the calculus of smooth functions is already uniquely
determined.
There are, however, smooth mappings which are not continuous. This
is unavoidable and not so horrible as it might appear at first sight. For
example the evaluation E E

→ R is jointly continuous if and only if
E is normable, but it is always smooth. Clearly smooth mappings are
continuous for the c

-topology.
For Fr´echet spaces smoothness in the sense described here coincides
with the notion C

c
of [Keller, 1974]. This is the differential calculus
used by [Michor, 1980], [Milnor, 1984], and [Pressley-Segal, 1986].
A prevalent opinion in contemporary mathematics is, that for infinite
dimensional calculus each serious application needs its own foundation.
By a serious application one obviously means some application of a hard
inverse function theorem. These theorems can be proved, if by assuming
enough a priori estimates one creates enough Banach space situation for
some modified iteration procedure to converge. Many authors try to
build their platonic idea of an a priori estimate into their differential
calculus. I think that this makes the calculus inapplicable and hides the
origin of the a priori estimates. I believe, that the calculus itself should
be as easy to use as possible, and that all further assumptions (which
most often come from ellipticity of some nonlinear partial differential
equation of geometric origin) should be treated separately, in a setting
depending on the specific problem. I am sure that in this sense the
Fr¨olicher-Kriegl calculus as presented here and its holomorphic and real
analytic offsprings in sections 2 and 3 below are universally usable for
most applications.
10
3. Calculus of holomorphic mappings
3.1. Along the lines of thought of the Fr¨olicher-Kriegl calculus of smooth
mappings, in [Kriegl-Nel, 1985] the cartesian closed setting for holomor-
phic mappings was developed. The right definition of this calculus was
already given by [Fantappi´e, 1930 and 1933]. I will now sketch the ba-
sics and the main results. It can be shown that again convenient vector
spaces are the right ones to consider. Here we will start with them for
the sake of shortness.
3.2. Let E be a complex locally convex vector space whose underlying
real space is convenient – this will be called convenient in the sequel.
Let D ⊂ C be the open unit disk and let us denote by C
ω
(D, E) the
space of all mappings c : D →E such that λ ◦ c : D →C is holomorphic
for each continuous complex-linear functional λ on E. Its elements will
be called the holomorphic curves.
If E and F are convenient complex vector spaces (or c

-open sets
therein), a mapping f : E → F is called holomorphic if f ◦ c is a holo-
morphic curve in F for each holomorphic curve c in E. Obviously f is
holomorphic if and only if λ◦f : E →C is holomorphic for each complex
linear continuous functional λ on F. Let C
ω
(E, F) denote the space of
all holomorphic mappings from E to F.
3.3. Theorem of Hartogs. Let E
k
for k = 1, 2 and F be complex
convenient vector spaces and let U
k
⊂ E
k
be c

-open. A mapping f :
U
1
U
2
→ F is holomorphic if and only if it is separably holomorphic
(i. e. f( , y) and f(x, ) are holomorphic for all x ∈ U
1
and y ∈ U
2
).
This implies also that in finite dimensions we have recovered the usual
definition.
3.4 Lemma. If f : E ⊃ U → F is holomorphic then df : U E → F
exists, is holomorphic and C-linear in the second variable.
A multilinear mapping is holomorphic if and only if it is bounded.
3.5 Lemma. If E and F are Banach spaces and U is open in E, then
for a mapping f : U →F the following conditions are equivalent:
(1) f is holomorphic.
(2) f is locally a convergent series of homogeneous continuous poly-
nomials.
(3) f is C-differentiable in the sense of Fr´echet.
3. Calculus of holomorphic mappings 11
3.6 Lemma. Let E and F be convenient vector spaces. A mapping
f : E → F is holomorphic if and only if it is smooth and its derivative
is everywhere C-linear.
An immediate consequence of this result is that C
ω
(E, F) is a closed
linear subspace of C

(E
R
, F
R
) and so it is a convenient vector space if F
is one, by 2.7. The chain rule follows from 2.10. The following theorem
is an easy consequence of 2.8.
3.7 Theorem. Cartesian closedness. The category of convenient
complex vector spaces and holomorphic mappings between them is carte-
sian closed, i. e.
C
ω
(E F, G)

= C
ω
(E, C
ω
(F, G)).
An immediate consequence of this is again that all canonical struc-
tural mappings as in 2.9 are holomorphic.
12
4. Calculus of real analytic mappings
4.1. In this section I sketch the cartesian closed setting to real ana-
lytic mappings in infinite dimension following the lines of the Fr¨olicher-
Kriegl calculus, as it is presented in [Kriegl-Michor, 1990a]. Surprisingly
enough one has to deviate from the most obvious notion of real analytic
curves in order to get a meaningful theory, but again convenient vector
spaces turn out to be the right kind of spaces.
4.2. Real analytic curves. Let E be a real convenient vector space
with dual E

. A curve c : R →E is called real analytic if λ ◦ c : R →R
is real analytic for each λ ∈ E

. It turns out that the set of these curves
depends only on the bornology of E.
In contrast a curve is called topologically real analytic if it is locally
given by power series which converge in the topology of E. They can be
extended to germs of holomorphic curves along R in the complexification
E
C
of E. If the dual E

of E admits a Baire topology which is compatible
with the duality, then each real analytic curve in E is in fact topological
real analytic for the bornological topology on E.
4.3. Real analytic mappings. Let E and F be convenient vector
spaces. Let U be a c

-open set in E. A mapping f : U → F is called
real analytic if and only if it is smooth (maps smooth curves to smooth
curves) and maps real analytic curves to real analytic curves.
Let C
ω
(U, F) denote the space of all real analytic mappings. We
equip the space C
ω
(U, R) of all real analytic functions with the initial
topology with respect to the families of mappings
C
ω
(U, R)
c

−→C
ω
(R, R), for all c ∈ C
ω
(R, U)
C
ω
(U, R)
c

−→C

(R, R), for all c ∈ C

(R, U),
where C

(R, R) carries the topology of compact convergence in each de-
rivative separately as in section 2, and where C
ω
(R, R) is equipped with
the final topology with respect to the embeddings (restriction mappings)
of all spaces of holomorphic mappings from a neighborhood V of R in
C mapping R to R, and each of these spaces carries the topology of
compact convergence.
Furthermore we equip the space C
ω
(U, F) with the initial topology
with respect to the family of mappings
C
ω
(U, F)
λ

−→C
ω
(U, R), for all λ ∈ F

.
It turns out that this is again a convenient space.
4. Calculus of real analytic mappings 13
4.4. Theorem. In the setting of 4.3 a mapping f : U → F is real
analytic if and only if it is smooth and is real analytic along each affine
line in E.
4.5. Theorem Cartesian closedness. The category of convenient
spaces and real analytic mappings is cartesian closed. So the equation
C
ω
(U, C
ω
(V ), F)

= C
ω
(U V, F)
is valid for all c

-open sets U in E and V in F, where E, F, and G
are convenient vector spaces.
This implies again that all structure mappings as in 2.9 are real ana-
lytic. Furthermore the differential operator
d : C
ω
(U, F) →C
ω
(U, L(E, F))
exists, is unique and real analytic. Multilinear mappings are real an-
alytic if and only if they are bounded. Powerful real analytic uniform
boundedness principles are available.
14
5. Infinite dimensional manifolds
5.1. In this section I will concentrate on two topics: Smooth partitions
of unity, and several kinds of tangent vectors. The material is taken
from [Kriegl-Michor, 1990b].
5.2. In the usual way we define manifolds by gluing c

-open sets in
convenient vector spaces via smooth (holomorphic, real analytic) diffeo-
morphisms. Then we equip them with the identification topology with
respect to the c

-topologies on all modeling spaces. We require some
properties from this topology, like Hausdorff and regular (which here is
not a consequence of Hausdorff).
Mappings between manifolds are smooth (holomorphic, real analytic),
if they have this property when composed which any chart mappings.
5.3. Lemma. A manifold M is metrizable if and only if it is paracom-
pact and modeled on Fr´echet spaces.
5.4. Lemma. For a convenient vector space E the set C

(M, E) of
smooth E-valued functions on a manifold M is again a convenient vector
space. Likewise for the real analytic and holomorphic case.
5.5. Theorem. Smooth partitions of unity. If M is a smooth
manifold modeled on convenient vector spaces admitting smooth bump
functions and | is a locally finite open cover of M, then there exists a
smooth partition of unity ¦ϕ
U
: U ∈ |¦ with carr/supp(ϕ
U
) ⊂ U for all
U ∈ |.
If M is in addition paracompact, then this is true for every open cover
| of M.
Convenient vector spaces which are nuclear admit smooth bump func-
tions.
5.6. The tangent spaces of a convenient vector space E. Let
a ∈ E. A kinematic tangent vector with foot point a is simply a pair
(a, X) with X ∈ E. Let T
a
E = E be the space of all kinematic tangent
vectors with foot point a. It consists of all derivatives c

(0) at 0 of
smooth curves c : R → E with c(0) = a, which explains the choice of
the name kinematic.
For each open neighborhood U of a in E (a, X) induces a linear map-
ping X
a
: C

(U, R) → R by X
a
(f) := df(a)(X
a
), which is continu-
ous for the convenient vector space topology on C

(U, R), and satisfies
X
a
(f g) = X
a
(f) g(a) + f(a) X
a
(g), so it is a continuous derivation
over ev
a
. The value X
a
(f) depends only on the germ of f at a.
5. Infinite dimensional manifolds 15
An operational tangent vector of E with foot point a is a bounded
derivation ∂ : C

a
(E, R) → R over ev
a
. Let D
a
E be the vector space
of all these derivations. Any ∂ ∈ D
a
E induces a bounded derivation
C

(U, R) →R over ev
a
for each open neighborhood U of a in E. So the
vector space D
a
E is a closed linear subspace of the convenient vector
space

U
L(C

(U, R), R). We equip D
a
E with the induced convenient
vector space structure. Note that the spaces D
a
E are isomorphic for all
a ∈ E.
Example. Let Y ∈ E

be an element in the bidual of E. Then for
each a ∈ E we have an operational tangent vector Y
a
∈ D
a
E, given by
Y
a
(f) := Y (df(a)). So we have a canonical injection E

→D
a
E.
Example. Let : L
2
(E; R) →R be a bounded linear functional which
vanishes on the subset E

⊗ E

. Then for each a ∈ E we have an
operational tangent vector ∂
2

[
a
∈ D
a
E given by ∂
2

[
a
(f) := (d
2
f(a)),
since
(d
2
(fg)(a)) =
= (d
2
f(a)g(a) +df(a) ⊗dg(a) +dg(a) ⊗df(a) +f(a)d
2
g(a))
= (d
2
f(a))g(a) + 0 +f(a)(d
2
g(a)).
5.7. Lemma. Let ∈ L
k
sym
(E; R)

be a bounded linear functional which
vanishes on the subspace
k−1

i=1
L
i
sym
(E; R) ∨ L
k−i
sym
(E; R)
of decomposable elements of L
k
sym
(E; R). Then defines an operational
tangent vector ∂
k

[
a
∈ D
a
E for each a ∈ E by

k

[
a
(f) := (d
k
f(a)).
The linear mapping → ∂
k

[
a
is an embedding onto a topological direct
summand D
(k)
a
E of D
a
E. Its left inverse is given by ∂ → (Φ → ∂((Φ ◦
diag)(a+ ))). The sum

k>0
D
(k)
a
E in D
a
E is a direct one.
5.8. Lemma. If E is an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, all opera-
tional tangent space summands D
(k)
0
E are not zero.
5.9. Definition. A convenient vector space is said to have the (borno-
logical) approximation property if E

⊗ E is dense in L(E, E) in the
bornological locally convex topology.
The following spaces have the bornological approximation property:
R
(N)
, nuclear Fr´echet spaces, nuclear (LF)spaces.
16 5. Infinite dimensional manifolds
5.10 Theorem. Tangent vectors as derivations. Let E be a conve-
nient vector space which has the approximation property. Then we have
D
a
E = D
(1)
a
E

= E

. So if E is in addition reflexive, each operational
tangent vector is a kinematic one.
5.11. The kinematic tangent bundle TM of a manifold M is constructed
by gluing all the kinematic tangent bundles of charts with the help of the
kinematic tangent mappings (derivatives) of the chart changes. TM →
M is a vector bundle and T : C

(M, N) →C

(TM, TN) is well defined
and has the usual properties.
5.12. The operational tangent bundle DM of a manifold M is con-
structed by gluing all operational tangent spaces of charts. Then π
M
:
DM →M is again a vector bundle which contains the kinematic tangent
bundle TM embeds as a splitting subbundle. Also for each k ∈ N the
same gluing construction as above gives us tangent bundles D
(k)
M which
are splitting subbundles of DM. The mappings D
(k)
: C

(M, N) →
C

(D
(k)
M, D
(k)
N) are well defined for all k including ∞ and have the
usual properties.
Note that for manifolds modeled on reflexive spaces having the borno-
logical approximation property the operational and the kinematic tan-
gent bundles coincide.
17
6. Manifolds of mappings
6.1. Theorem. Manifold structure of C

(M, N). Let M and N be
smooth finite dimensional manifolds. Then the space C

(M, N) of all
smooth mappings from M to N is a smooth manifold, modeled on spaces
C

(f

TN) of smooth sections of pullback bundles along f : M → N
over M.
A careful description of this theorem (but without the help of the
Fr¨olicher-Kriegl calculus) can be found in [Michor, 1980]. I include a
proof of this result here because the result is important and the proof is
much simpler now with the help of the Fr¨olicher Kriegl-calculus.
Proof. Choose a smooth Riemannian metric on N. Let exp : TN ⊇
U →N be the smooth exponential mapping of this Riemannian metric,
defined on a suitable open neighborhood of the zero section. We may
assume that U is chosen in such a way that (π
N
, exp) : U →N N is a
smooth diffeomorphism onto an open neighborhood V of the diagonal.
For f ∈ C

(M, N) we consider the pullback vector bundle
M
N
TN f

TN
π

N
f
−−−−→ TN
f

π
N
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
π
N
M
f
−−−−→ N.
Then C

(f

TN) is canonically isomorphic to the space C

f
(M, TN) :=
¦h ∈ C

(M, TN) : π
N
◦ h = f¦ via s → (π

N
f) ◦ s and (Id
M
, h) ← h.
We consider the space C

c
(f

TN) of all smooth sections with compact
support and equip it with the inductive limit topology
C

c
(f

TN) = inj lim
K
C

K
(f

TN),
where K runs through all compact sets in M and each of the spaces
C

K
(f

TN) is equipped with the topology of uniform convergence (on
K) in all derivatives separately. For f, g ∈ C

(M, N) we write f ∼ g
if f and g agree off some compact subset in M. Now let
U
f
:= ¦g ∈ C

(M, N) : (f(x), g(x)) ∈ V for all x ∈ M, g ∼ f¦,
u
f
: U
f
→C

c
(f

TN),
u
f
(g)(x) = (x, exp
−1
f(x)
(g(x))) = (x, ((π
N
, exp)
−1
◦ (f, g))(x)).
18 6. Manifolds of mappings
Then u
f
is a bijective mapping from U
f
onto the set ¦s ∈ C

c
(f

TN) :
s(M) ⊆ f

U¦, whose inverse is given by u
−1
f
(s) = exp ◦(π

N
f) ◦s, where
we view U →N as fiber bundle. The set u
f
(U
f
) is open in C

c
(f

TN)
for the topology described above.
Now we consider the atlas (U
f
, u
f
)
f∈C

(M,N)
for C

(M, N). Its
chart change mappings are given for s ∈ u
g
(U
f
∩ U
g
) ⊆ C

c
(g

TN) by
(u
f
◦ u
−1
g
)(s) = (Id
M
, (π
N
, exp)
−1
◦ (f, exp ◦(π

N
g) ◦ s))
= (τ
−1
f
◦ τ
g
)

(s),
where τ
g
(x, Y
g(x)
) := (x, exp
g(x)
(Y
g(x)
))) is a smooth diffeomorphism
τ
g
: g

TN ⊇ g

U →(g Id
N
)
−1
(V ) ⊆ MN which is fiber respecting
over M.
Smooth curves in C

c
(f

TN) are just smooth sections of the bundle
pr

2
f

TN → R M, which have compact support in M locally in R.
The chart change u
f
◦ u
−1
g
= (τ
−1
f
◦ τ
g
)

is defined on an open subset
and obviously maps smooth curves to smooth curves, therefore it is also
smooth.
Finally we put the identification topology from this atlas on the space
C

(M, N), which is obviously finer than the compact open topology and
thus Hausdorff.
The equation u
f
◦ u
−1
g
= (τ
−1
f
◦ τ
g
)

shows that the smooth structure
does not depend on the choice of the smooth Riemannian metric on
N.
6.2. Lemma. Smooth curves in C

(M, N). Let M and N be
smooth finite dimensional manifolds.
Then the smooth curves c in C

(M, N) correspond exactly to the
smooth mappings ˆ c ∈ C

(RM, N) which satisfy the following property:
(1) For each compact interval [a, b] ⊂ R there is a compact subset
K ⊂ M such that the restriction ˆ c[([a, b] (M¸ K)) is constant.
Proof. Since R is locally compact property (1) is equivalent to
(2) For each t ∈ R there is an open neighborhood U of t in R and
a compact K ⊂ M such that the restriction ˆ c[(U (M ¸ K)) is
constant.
Since this is a local condition on R and since smooth curves in C

(M, N)
locally take values in charts as in the proof of theorem 6.1 it suffices to
describe the smooth curves in the space C

c
(E) of sections with compact
support of a vector bundle (E, p, M, V ). It is equipped with the inductive
limit topology
C

c
(E) = inj lim
K
C

K
(E),
6. Manifolds of mappings 19
where K runs through all compact subsets of M, and where C

K
(E)
denotes the space of sections of E with support in K, equipped with the
compact C

-topology (the topology of uniform convergence on compact
subsets, in all derivatives separately). Since this injective limit is strict
(each bounded subset is contained and bounded in some step) smooth
curves in C

c
(E) locally factor to smooth maps in C

K
(E) for some K.
Let (U
α
, ψ
α
: E →U
α
V ) be a vector bundle atlas for E. Then
C

K
(E) ÷ s →(pr
2
◦ ψ
α
◦ s[U
α
)
α

α
C

(U
α
, V )
is a linear embedding onto a closed linear subspace of the product, where
the factor spaces on the right hand side carry the topology used in 2.6.
So a curve in C

K
(E) is smooth if and only if each its ”coordinates” in
C

(U
α
, V ) is smooth. By cartesian closedness 2.8 this is the case if and
only if their canonically associates are smooth R U
α
→ V . these fit
together to a smooth section of the pullback bundle pr

2
E →RM with
support in R K.
6.3. Theorem. C
ω
-manifold structure of C
ω
(M, N). Let M and N
be real analytic manifolds, let M be compact. Then the space C
ω
(M, N)
of all real analytic mappings from M to N is a real analytic manifold,
modeled on spaces C
ω
(f

TN) of real analytic sections of pullback bun-
dles along f : M →N over M.
The proof is a variant of the proof of 6.1, using a real analytic Rie-
mannian metric. It can also be found in [Kriegl-Michor, 1990a].
6.4. Theorem. C
ω
-manifold structure on C

(M, N). Let M and
N be real analytic manifolds, with M compact. Then the smooth mani-
fold C

(M, N) with the structure from 6.1 is even a real analytic man-
ifold.
Proof. For a fixed real analytic exponential mapping on N the charts
(U
f
, u
f
) from 6.1 for f ∈ C
ω
(M, N) form a smooth atlas for C

(M, N),
since C
ω
(M, N) is dense in C

(M, N) by [Grauert, 1958, Proposition
8]. The chart changings u
f
◦ u
−1
g
= (τ
−1
f
◦ τ
g
)

are real analytic: this
follows from a careful description of the set of real analytic curves into
C

(f

TN). See again [Kriegl-Michor, 1990a] for more details.
6.5 Remark. If M is not compact, C
ω
(M, N) is dense in C

(M, N)
for the Whitney-C

-topology by [Grauert, 1958, Prop. 8]. This is not
the case for the T-topology from [Michor, 1980], in which C

(M, N)
is a smooth manifold. The charts U
f
for f ∈ C

(M, N) do not cover
C

(M, N).
20 6. Manifolds of mappings
6.6. Theorem. Smoothness of composition. If M, N are fi-
nite dimensional smooth manifolds, then the evaluation mapping ev :
C

(M, N) M →N is smooth.
If P is another smooth manifold, then the composition mapping
comp : C

(M, N) C

prop
(P, M) →C

(P, N)
is smooth, where C

prop
(P, M) denote the space of all proper smooth map-
pings P →M (i.e. compact sets have compact inverse images). This is
open in C

(P, M).
In particular f

: C

(M, N) → C

(M, N

) and g

: C

(M, N) →
C

(P, N) are smooth for f ∈ C

(N, N

) and g ∈ C

prop
(P, M).
The corresponding statement for real analytic mappings is also true,
but P and M have to be compact.
Proof. Using the description of smooth curves in C

(M, N) given in 6.2
we immediately see that (ev ◦(c
1
, c
2
)) = ˆ c
1
(t, c
1
(t)) is smooth for each
smooth (c
1
, c
2
) : R →C

(M, N) M, so ev is smooth as claimed.
The space of proper mappings C

prop
(P, M) is open in the manifold
C

(P, M) since changing a mapping only on a compact set does not
change its property of being proper. Let (c
1
, c
2
) : R → C

(M, N)
C

prop
(P, M) be a smooth curve. Then we have (comp ◦(c
1
, c
2
))(t)(p) =
ˆ c
1
(t, ˆ c
2
(t, p)) and one may check that this has again property (1), so it
is a smooth curve in C

(P, N). Thus comp is smooth.
The proof for real analytic manifolds is similar.
6.7. Theorem. Let M and N be smooth manifolds. Then the infinite
dimensional smooth vector bundles TC

(M, N) and C

c
(M, TN) ⊂
C

(M, TN) over C

(M, N) are canonically isomorphic. The same
assertion is true for C
ω
(M, N), if M is compact.
Proof. Here by C

c
(M, TN) we denote the space of all smooth mappings
f : M → TN such that f(x) = 0
π
M
f(x)
for x / ∈ K
f
, a suitable compact
subset of M (equivalently, such that the associated section of the pull
back bundle (π
M
◦ f)

TN →M has compact support).
One can check directly that the atlas from 6.1 for C

(M, N) induces
an atlas for TC

(M, N) which is equivalent to that for C

(M, TN) via
some natural identifications in TTN. This is carried out in great detail
in [Michor, 1980, 10.19].
6.8. Theorem. Exponential law. Let / be a (possibly infinite
dimensional) smooth manifold, and let M and N be finite dimensional
smooth manifolds.
6. Manifolds of mappings 21
Then we have a canonical embedding
C

(/, C

(M, N)) ⊆ C

(/M →N),
where the image in the right hand side consists of all smooth mappings
f : /M →N which satisfy the following property
(1) For each point in / there is an open neighborhood | and a
compact set K ⊂ M such that the restriction f[(| (M¸ K)) is
constant.
We have equality if and only if M is compact.
If M and N are real analytic manifolds with M compact we have
C
ω
(/, C
ω
(M, N)) = C
ω
(/M, N)
for each real analytic (possibly infinite dimensional) manifold.
Proof. This follows directly from the description of all smooth curves in
C

(M, N) given in the proof of 6.6.
22
7. Diffeomorphism groups
7.1. Theorem. Diffeomorphism group. For a smooth manifold
M the group Diff(M) of all smooth diffeomorphisms of M is an open
submanifold of C

(M, M), composition and inversion are smooth.
The Lie algebra of the smooth infinite dimensional Lie group Diff(M)
is the convenient vector space C

c
(TM) of all smooth vector fields on
M with compact support, equipped with the negative of the usual Lie
bracket. The exponential mapping Exp : C

c
(TM) → Diff

(M) is the
flow mapping to time 1, and it is smooth.
For a compact real analytic manifold M the group Diff
ω
(M) of all real
analytic diffeomorphisms is a real analytic Lie group with Lie algebra
C
ω
(TM) and with real analytic exponential mapping.
Proof. It is well known that the space Diff(M) of all diffeomorphisms
of M is open in C

(M, M) for the Whitney C

-topology. Since the
topology we use on C

(M, M) is finer, Diff(M) is an open submani-
fold of C

prop
(M, M). The composition is smooth by theorem 6.6. To
show that the inversion inv is smooth, we consider a smooth curve
c : R →Diff(M) ⊂ C

(M, M). Then the mapping ˆ c : RM →M sat-
isfies 6.6.(1) and (inv ◦c)´fulfills the finite dimensional implicit equation
ˆ c(t, (inv ◦c)´(t, m)) = m for all t ∈ R and m ∈ M. By the finite dimen-
sional implicit function theorem (inv ◦c)´is smooth in (t, m). Property
6.6.(1) is obvious. So inv maps smooth curves to smooth curves and is
thus smooth.
This proof is by far simpler than the original one, see [Michor, 1980],
and shows the power of the Fr¨olicher-Kriegl calculus.
By the chart structure from 6.1, or directly from theorem 6.7we see
that the tangent space T
e
Diff(M) equals the space C

c
(TM) of all vec-
tor fields with compact support. Likewise T
f
Diff(M) = C

c
(f

TM)
which we identify with the space of all vector fields with compact support
along the diffeomorphism f. Right translation ρ
f
is given by ρ
f
(g) =
f

(g) = g ◦ f, thus T(ρ
f
).X = X ◦ f and for the flow Fl
X
t
of the vector
field with compact support X we have
d
dt
Fl
X
t
= X ◦ Fl
X
t
= T(ρ
Fl
X
t
).X.
So the one parameter group t →Fl
X
t
∈ Diff(M) is the integral curve of
the right invariant vector field R
X
: f →T(ρ
f
).X = X ◦ f on Diff(M).
Thus the exponential mapping of the diffeomorphism group is given by
Exp = Fl
1
: X
c
(M) → Diff(M). To show that is smooth we consider a
smooth curve in X
c
(M), i. e. a time dependent vector field with com-
pact support X
t
. We may view it as a complete vector field (0
t
, X
t
) on
R M whose smooth flow respects the level surfaces ¦t¦ M and is
smooth. Thus Exp maps smooth curves to smooth curves and is smooth
7. Diffeomorphism groups 23
itself. Again one may compare this simple proof with the original one
in [Michor, 1983, section 4].
Let us finally compute the Lie bracket on X
c
(M) viewed as the Lie
algebra of Diff(M).
Ad(Exp(sX))Y =

∂t
¸
¸
0
Exp(sX) ◦ Exp(tY ) ◦ Exp(−sX)
= T(Fl
X
t
) ◦ Y ◦ Fl
X
−t
= (Fl
X
−t
)

Y, thus

∂t
¸
¸
0
Ad(Exp(tX))Y =

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
X
−t
)

Y
= −[X, Y ],
the negative of the usual Lie bracket on X
c
(M). To understand this
contemplate 1.2.(4).
7.2. Remarks. The group Diff(M) of smooth diffeomorphisms does
not carry any real analytic Lie group structure by [Milnor, 1984, 9.2],
and it has no complexification in general, see [Pressley-Segal, 1986, 3.3].
The mapping
Ad ◦ Exp : C

c
(TM) →Diff(M) →L(C

(TM), C

(TM))
is not real analytic, see [Michor, 1983, 4.11].
For x ∈ M the mapping ev
x
◦ Exp : C

c
(TM) →Diff(M) →M is not
real analytic since (ev
x
◦ Exp)(tX) = Fl
X
t
(x), which is not real analytic
in t for general smooth X.
The exponential mapping Exp : C

c
(TM) → Diff(M) is in a very
strong sense not surjective: In [Grabowski, 1988] it is shown, that
Diff(M) contains an arcwise connected free subgroup on 2

0
generators
which meets the image of Exp only at the identity.
The real analytic Lie group Diff
ω
(M) is regular in the sense of [Milnor,
1984. 7.6], who weakened the original concept of [Omori, 1982]. This
condition means that the mapping associating the evolution operator
to each time dependent vector field on M is smooth. It is even real
analytic, compare the proof of theorem 7.2.
By theorem 6.6 the left action ev : Diff(M) M → M is smooth.
If dimM ≥ 2 this action is n-transitive for each n ∈ N, i. e. for two
ordered finite n-tupels (x
1
, . . . , x
n
) and (y
1
, . . . , y
n
) of pair wise different
elements of M there is a diffeomorphism f ∈ Diff(M) with f(x
i
) = y
i
for each i. To see this connect x
i
with y
i
by a simple smooth curve
c
i
: [0, 1] →M which is an embedding, such that the images are pair wise
disjoint. Using tubular neighborhoods or submanifold charts one can
24 7. Diffeomorphism groups
show that then there is a vector field with compact support X ∈ X
c
(M)
which restricts to c

i
(t) along c
i
(t). The diffeomorphism Exp(X) = Fl
X
1
then maps x
i
to y
i
.
In contrast to this one knows from [Omori, 1978] that a Banach Lie
group acting effectively on a finite dimensional manifold is necessarily
finite dimensional. So there is no way to model the diffeomorphism
group on Banach spaces as a manifold. There is, however, the pos-
sibility to view Diff(M) as an ILH-group (i. e. inverse limit of Hilbert
manifolds) which sometimes permits to use an implicit function theorem.
See [Omori, 1974] for this.
7.3. Theorem. Principal bundle of embeddings. Let M and N
be smooth manifolds.
Then the set Emb(M, N) of all smooth embeddings M →N is an open
submanifold of C

(M, N). It is the total space of a smooth principal
fiber bundle with structure group Diff(M), whose smooth base manifold
is the space B(M, N) of all submanifolds of N of type M.
The open subset Emb
prop
(M, N) of proper (equivalently closed) em-
beddings is saturated under the Diff(M)-action and is thus the total
space of the restriction of the principal bundle to the open submanifold
B
closed
(M, N) of B(M, N) consisting of all closed submanifolds of N of
type M.
In the real analytic case this theorem remains true provided that M
is supposed to be compact, see [Kriegl-Michor, 1990a], section 6.
Proof. Let us fix an embedding i ∈ Emb(M, N). Let g be a fixed Rie-
mannian metric on N and let exp
N
be its exponential mapping. Then let
p : ^(i) → M be the normal bundle of i, defined in the following way:
For x ∈ M let ^(i)
x
:= (T
x
i(T
x
M))

⊂ T
i(x)
N be the g-orthogonal
complement in T
i(x)
N. Then
^(i)
¯
i
−−−−→ TN
p
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
π
N
M −−−−→
i
N
is an injective vector bundle homomorphism over i.
Now let U
i
= U be an open neighborhood of the zero section of ^(i)
which is so small that (exp
N

¯
i)[U : U →N is a diffeomorphism onto its
image which describes a tubular neighborhood of the submanifold i(M).
Let us consider the mapping
τ = τ
i
:= (exp
N

¯
i)[U : ^(i) ⊃ U →N,
7. Diffeomorphism groups 25
a diffeomorphism onto its image, and the open set in Emb(M, N) which
will serve us as a saturated chart,
|(i) := ¦j ∈ Emb(M, N) : j(M) ⊆ τ
i
(U
i
), j ∼ i¦,
where j ∼ i means that j = i off some compact set in M. Then by
[Michor, 1980, section 4] the set |(i) is an open neighborhood of i in
Emb(M, N). For each j ∈ |(i) we define
ϕ
i
(j) : M →U
i
⊆ ^(i),
ϕ
i
(j)(x) := (τ
i
)
−1
(j(x))
Then ϕ
i
= ((τ
i
)
−1
)

: |(i) →C

(M, ^(i)) is a smooth mapping which
is bijective onto the open set
1(i) := ¦h ∈ C

(M, ^(i)) : h(M) ⊆ U
i
, h ∼ 0¦
in C

(M, ^(i)). Its inverse is given by the smooth mapping τ
i

: h →
τ
i
◦ h.
We have τ
i

(h ◦ f) = τ
i

(h) ◦ f for those f ∈ Diff(M) which are near
enough to the identity so that h ◦ f ∈ 1(i). We consider now the open
set
¦h ◦ f : h ∈ 1(i), f ∈ Diff(M)¦ ⊆ C

((M, U
i
)).
Obviously we have a smooth mapping from it into C

c
(U
i
) Diff(M)
given by h →(h◦(p◦h)
−1
, p◦h), where C

c
(U
i
) is the space of sections
with compact support of U
i
→ M. So if we let Q(i) := τ
i

(C

c
(U
i
) ∩
1(i)) ⊂ Emb(M, N) we have
J(i) := |(i) ◦Diff(M)

= Q(i) Diff(M)

= (C

c
(U
i
) ∩1(i)) Diff(M),
since the action of Diff(M) on i is free. Furthermore π[Q(i) : Q(i) →
Emb(M, N)/ Diff(M) is bijective onto an open set in the quotient.
We now consider ϕ
i
◦ (π[Q(i))
−1
: π(Q(i)) → C

(U
i
) as a chart
for the quotient space. In order to investigate the chart change let
j ∈ Emb(M, N) be such that π(Q(i)) ∩ π(Q(j)) ,= ∅. Then there is
an immersion h ∈ J(i) ∩ Q(j), so there exists a unique f
0
∈ Diff(M)
(given by f
0
= p◦ϕ
i
(h)) such that h◦f
−1
0
∈ Q(i). If we consider j ◦f
−1
0
instead of j and call it again j, we have Q(i)∩Q(j) ,= ∅ and consequently
|(i) ∩ |(j) ,= ∅. Then the chart change is given as follows:
ϕ
i
◦ (π[Q(i))
−1
◦ π ◦ (τ
j
)

: C

c
(U
j
) →C

c
(U
i
)
s →τ
j
◦ s →ϕ
i

j
◦ s) ◦ (p
i
◦ ϕ
i

j
◦ s))
−1
.
26 7. Diffeomorphism groups
This is of the form s → β ◦ s for a locally defined diffeomorphism β :
^(j) →^(i) which is not fiber respecting, followed by h →h◦(p
i
◦h)
−1
.
Both composants are smooth by the general properties of manifolds of
mappings. So the chart change is smooth.
We show that the quotient space B(M, N) = Emb(M, N)/ Diff(M) is
Hausdorff. Let i, j ∈ Emb(M, N) with π(i) ,= π(j). Then i(M) ,= j(M)
in N for otherwise put i(M) = j(M) =: L, a submanifold of N; the
mapping i
−1
◦ j : M → L → M is then a diffeomorphism of M and
j = i◦(i
−1
◦j) ∈ i◦Diff(M), so π(i) = π(j), contrary to the assumption.
Now we distinguish two cases.
Case 1. We may find a point y
0
∈ i(M) ¸ j(M), say, which is not a
cluster point of j(M). We choose an open neighborhood V of y
0
in N
and an open neighborhood W of j(M) in N such that V ∩ W = ∅. Let
1 := ¦k ∈ Emb(M, N) : k(M) ∩ V ¦ J := ¦k ∈ Emb(M, N) : k(M) ⊂
W¦. Then 1 is obviously open in Emb(M, N) and 1 is even open in the
coarser compact open topology. Both 1 and J are Diff(M) saturated,
i ∈ J, j ∈ 1, and 1 ∩ J = ∅. So π(1) and π(J) separate π(i) and
π(j) in B(M, N).
Case 2 Let i(M) ⊂ j(M) and j(M) ⊂ i(M). Let y ∈ i(X), say. Let
(V, v) be a chart of N centered at y which maps i(M) ∩ V into a linear
subspace, v(i(M)∩V ) ⊆ R
m
∩v(V ) ⊂ R
n
, where n = dimM, n = dimN.
Since j(M) ⊆ i(M) we conclude that we have also v((i(M) ∪ j(M)) ∩
V ) ⊆ R
m
∩v(V ). So we see that L := i(M)∪j(M) is a submanifold of N
of the same dimension as N. Let (W
L
, p
L
, L) be a tubular neighborhood
of L. Then W
L
[i(M) is a tubular neighborhood of i(M) and W
L
[j(M)
is one of j(M).
7.4. Theorem. Let M and N be smooth manifolds. Then the diffeo-
morphism group Diff(M) acts smoothly from the right on the smooth
manifold Imm
prop
(M, N) of all smooth proper immersions M → N,
which is an open subset of C

(M, N).
Then the space of orbits Imm
prop
(M, N)/ Diff(M) is Hausdorff in the
quotient topology.
Let Imm
free, prop
(M, N) be set of all proper immersions, on which
Diff(M) acts freely. Then this is open in C

(M, N) and is the total
space of a smooth principal fiber bundle
Imm
free,prop
(M, N) →Imm
free,prop
(M, N)/ Diff(M).
This is proved in [Cervera-Mascaro-Michor, 1989], where also the exis-
tence of smooth transversals to each orbit is shown and the stratification
of the orbit space into smooth manifolds is given.
27
8. The Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis Bracket
8.1. In this section let M be a smooth manifold. We consider the graded
commutative algebra Ω(M) =

dimM
k=0

k
(M) of differential forms on
M. The space Der
k
Ω(M) consists of all (graded) derivations of degree k,
i.e. all linear mappings D : Ω(M) →Ω(M) with D(Ω

(M)) ⊂ Ω
k+
(M)
and D(ϕ ∧ ψ) = D(ϕ) ∧ ψ + (−1)
k
ϕ ∧ D(ψ) for ϕ ∈ Ω

(M).
Lemma. Then the space Der Ω(M) =

k
Der
k
Ω(M) is a graded Lie
algebra with the graded commutator [D
1
, D
2
] := D
1
◦ D
2
−(−1)
k
1
k
2
D
2

D
1
as bracket. This means that the bracket is graded anticommutative,
[D
1
, D
2
] = −(−1)
k
1
k
2
[D
2
, D
1
], and satisfies the graded Jacobi identity
[D
1
, [D
2
, D
3
]] = [[D
1
, D
2
], D
3
] + (−1)
[
D
2
, [D
1
, D
3
]] (so that ad(D
1
) =
[D
1
, ] is itself a derivation).
Proof. Plug in the definition of the graded commutator and compute.
From the basics of differential geometry one is already familiar with
some graded derivations: for a vector field X on M the derivation i
X
is
of degree −1, L
X
is of degree 0, and d is of degree 1. Note also that the
important formula L
X
= d i
X
+i
X
d translates to L
X
= [i
X
, d].
8.2. A derivation D ∈ Der
k
Ω(M) is called algebraic if D [ Ω
0
(M) = 0.
Then D(f.ω) = f.D(ω) for f ∈ C

(M, R), so D is of tensorial character
and induces a derivation D
x
∈ Der
k
ΛT

x
M for each x ∈ M. It is
uniquely determined by its restriction to 1-forms D
x
[T

x
M : T

x
M →
Λ
k+1
T

M which we may view as an element K
x
∈ Λ
k+1
T

x
M ⊗ T
x
M
depending smoothly on x ∈ M. To express this dependence we write
D = i
K
= i(K), where K ∈ C


k+1
T

M ⊗ TM) =: Ω
k+1
(M; TM).
We call Ω(M, TM) =

dimM
k=0

k
(M, TM) the space of all vector valued
differential forms.
Theorem. (1) For K ∈ Ω
k+1
(M, TM) the formula
(i
K
ω)(X
1
, . . . , X
k+
) =
=
1
(k+1)! (−1)!

σ∈§
k+
sign σω(K(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σ(k+1)
), X
σ(k+2)
, . . . )
for ω ∈ Ω

(M), X
i
∈ X(M) (or T
x
M) defines an algebraic graded
derivation i
K
∈ Der
k
Ω(M) and any algebraic derivation is of this form.
(2) By i([K, L]´) := [i
K
, i
L
] we get a bracket [ , ]´ on the space

∗−1
(M, TM) which defines a graded Lie algebra structure with the
grading as indicated, and for K ∈ Ω
k+1
(M, TM), L ∈ Ω
+1
(M, TM)
we have
[K, L]´= i
K
L −(−1)
k
i
L
K.
28 8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket
[ , ]´is called the algebraic bracket or also the Nijenhuis-Richard-
son bracket, see [Nijenhuis-Richardson, 1967].
Proof. Since Λ

T

x
M is the free graded commutative algebra generated
by the vector space T

x
M any K ∈ Ω
k+1
(M, TM) extends to a graded
derivation. By applying it to an exterior product of 1-forms one can
derive the formula in (1). The graded commutator of two algebraic
derivations is again algebraic, so the injection i : Ω
∗+1
(M, TM) →
Der
k
(Ω(M)) induces a graded Lie bracket on Ω
∗+1
(M, TM) whose form
can be seen by applying it to a 1-form.
8.3. The exterior derivative d is an element of Der
1
Ω(M). In view of
the formula L
X
= [i
X
, d] = i
X
d + d i
X
for vector fields X, we define
for K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) the Lie derivation L
K
= L(K) ∈ Der
k
Ω(M) by
L
K
:= [i
k
, d].
Then the mapping L : Ω(M, TM) → Der Ω(M) is injective, since
L
K
f = i
K
df = df ◦ K for f ∈ (

(M, R).
Theorem. For any graded derivation D ∈ Der
k
Ω(M) there are unique
K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and L ∈ Ω
k+1
(M; TM) such that
D = L
K
+i
L
.
We have L = 0 if and only if [D, d] = 0. D is algebraic if and only if
K = 0.
Proof. Let X
i
∈ X(M) be vector fields. Then f →(Df)(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) is
a derivation C

(M, R) → C

(M, R), so there is a unique vector field
K(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) ∈ X(M) such that
(Df)(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) = K(X
1
, . . . , X
k
)f = df(K(X
1
, . . . , X
k
)).
Clearly K(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) is C

(M, R)-linear in each X
i
and alternating,
so K is tensorial, K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM).
The defining equation for K is Df = df ◦ K = i
K
df = L
K
f for
f ∈ C

(M, R). Thus D−L
K
is an algebraic derivation, so D−L
K
= i
L
by 8.2 for unique L ∈ Ω
k+1
(M; TM).
Since we have [d, d] = 2d
2
= 0, by the graded Jacobi identity we
obtain 0 = [i
K
, [d, d]] = [[i
K
, d], d] + (−1)
k−1
[d, [i
K
, d]] = 2[L
K
, d]. The
mapping L →[i
L
, d] = L
K
is injective, so the last assertions follow.
8.4. Applying i(Id
TM
) on a k-fold exterior product of 1-forms we see
that i(Id
TM
)ω = kω for ω ∈ Ω
k
(M). Thus we have L(Id
TM
) = ω =
i(Id
TM
)dω −d i(Id
TM
)ω = (k +1)dω −kdω = dω. Thus L(Id
TM
) = d.
8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket 29
8.5. Let K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and L ∈ Ω

(M; TM). Then obviously
[[L
K
, L
L
], d] = 0, so we have
[L(K), L(L)] = L([K, L])
for a uniquely defined [K, L] ∈ Ω
k+
(M; TM). This vector valued form
[K, L] is called the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket of K and L.
Theorem. The space Ω(M; TM) =

dimM
k=0

k
(M; TM) with its usual
grading is a graded Lie algebra. Id
TM
∈ Ω
1
(M; TM) is in the center,
i.e. [K, Id
TM
] = 0 for all K.
L : (Ω(M; TM), [ , ]) →Der Ω(M) is an injective homomorphism
of graded Lie algebras. For vector fields the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket
coincides with the Lie bracket.
Proof. df ◦ [X, Y ] = L([X, Y ])f = [L
X
, L
Y
]f. The rest is clear.
8.6. Lemma. For K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and L ∈ Ω
+1
(M; TM) we have
[L
K
, i
L
] = i([K, L]) −(−1)
k
L(i
L
K), or
[i
L
, L
K
] = L(i
L
K) −(−1)
k
i([L, K]).
This generalizes the usual formula for vector fields.
Proof. For f ∈ C

(M, R) we have [i
L
, L
K
]f = i
L
i
K
df − 0 = i
L
(df ◦
K) = df ◦ (i
L
K) = L(i
L
K)f. So [i
L
, L
K
] − L(i
L
K) is an algebraic
derivation.
[[i
L
, L
K
], d] = [i
L
, [L
K
, d]] −(−1)
k
[L
K
, [i
L
, d]] =
= 0 −(−1)
k
L([K, L]) = (−1)
k
[i([L, K]), d]).
Since [ , d] kills the ”L’s” and is injective on the ”i’s”, the algebraic
part of [i
L
, L
K
] is (−1)
k
i([L, K]).
8.7. The space Der Ω(M) is a graded module over the graded algebra
Ω(M) with the action (ω ∧ D)ϕ = ω ∧ D(ϕ).
Theorem. Let the degree of ω be q, of ϕ be k, and of ψ be . Let the
other degrees be as indicated. Then we have:
[ω ∧ D
1
, D
2
] = ω ∧ [D
1
, D
2
] −(−1)
(q+k
1
)k
2
d
2
(ω) ∧ D
1
. (1)
i(ω ∧ L) = ω ∧ i(L) (2)
ω ∧ L
K
= L(ω ∧ K) + (−1)
q+k−1
i(dω ∧ K). (3)
[ω ∧ L
1
, L
2
]´= ω ∧ [L
1
, L
2
]´− (4)
30 8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket
−(−1)
(q+
1
−1)(
2
−1)
i(L
2
)ω ∧ L
1
.
[ω ∧ K
1
, K
2
] = ω ∧ [K
1
, K
2
] −(−1)
(q+k
1
)k
2
L(K
2
)ω ∧ K
1
(5)
+ (−1)
q+k
1
dω ∧ i(K
1
)K
2
.
[ϕ ⊗X, ψ ⊗Y ] = ϕ ∧ ψ ⊗[X, Y ] (6)

_
i
Y
dϕ ∧ ψ ⊗X −(−1)
k
i
X
dψ ∧ ϕ ⊗Y
_

_
d(i
Y
ϕ ∧ ψ) ⊗X −(−1)
k
d(i
X
ψ ∧ ϕ) ⊗Y
_
= ϕ ∧ ψ ⊗[X, Y ] +ϕ ∧ L
X
ψ ⊗Y −L
Y
ϕ ∧ ψ ⊗X
+ (−1)
k
(dϕ ∧ i
X
ψ ⊗Y +i
Y
ϕ ∧ dψ ⊗X) .
Proof. For (1) , (2) , (3) write out the definitions. For (4) compute
i([ω ∧ L
1
, L
2
]´). For (5) compute L([ω ∧ K
1
, K
2
]). For (6) use (5) .
8.8. Theorem. For K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and ω ∈ Ω

(M) the Lie deriv-
ative of ω along K is given by the following formula, where the X
i
are
vector fields on M.
(L
K
ω)(X
1
, . . . , X
k+
) =
=
1
k! !

σ
sign σ L(K(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σk
))(ω(X
σ(k+1)
, . . . , X
σ(k+)
))
+
−1
k! (−1)!

σ
sign σ ω([K(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σk
), X
σ(k+1)
], X
σ(k+2)
, . . . )
+
(−1)
k−1
(k−1)! (−1)! 2!

σ
sign σ ω(K([X
σ1
, X
σ2
], X
σ3
, . . . ), X
σ(k+2)
, . . . ).
Proof. It suffices to consider K = ϕ⊗X. Then by 8.7.3 we have L(ϕ⊗
X) = ϕ ∧ L
X
−(−1)
k−1
dϕ ∧ i
X
. Now use the usual global formulas to
expand this.
8.9. Theorem. Global formula for the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis
bracket. For K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and L ∈ Ω

(M; TM) we have for the
Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket [K, L] the following formula, where the X
i
are vector fields on M.
[K, L](X
1
, . . . , X
k+
) =
=
1
k! !

σ
sign σ [K(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σk
), L(X
σ(k+1)
, . . . , X
σ(k+)
)]
+
−1
k! (−1)!

σ
sign σ L([K(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σk
), X
σ(k+1)
], X
σ(k+2)
, . . . )
8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket 31
+
(−1)
k
(k−1)! !

σ
sign σ K([L(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σ
), X
σ(+1)
], X
σ(+2)
, . . . )
+
(−1)
k−1
(k−1)! (−1)! 2!

σ
sign σ L(K([X
σ1
, X
σ2
], X
σ3
, . . . ), X
σ(k+2)
, . . . )
+
(−1)
(k−1)
(k−1)! (−1)! 2!

σ
sign σ K(L([X
σ1
, X
σ2
], X
σ3
, . . . ), X
σ(+2)
, . . . ).
Proof. It suffices to consider K = ϕ ⊗ X and L = ψ ⊗ Y , then for
[ϕ ⊗ X, ψ ⊗ Y ] we may use 8.7.6 and evaluate that at (X
1
, . . . , X
k+
).
After some combinatorial computation we get the right hand side of the
above formula for K = ϕ ⊗X and L = ψ ⊗Y .
There are more illuminating ways to prove this formula, see [Michor,
1987].
8.10. Local formulas. In a local chart (U, u) on the manifold M we
put K [ U =

K
i
α
d
α
⊗∂
i
, L [ U =

L
j
β
d
β
⊗∂
j
, and ω [ U =

ω
γ
d
γ
,
where α = (1 ≤ α
1
< α
2
< < α
k
≤ dimM) is a form index,
d
α
= du
α
1
∧ . . . ∧ du
α
k
, ∂
i
=

∂u
i
and so on.
Plugging X
j
= ∂
i
j
into the global formulas 8.2, 8.8, and 8.9, we get
the following local formulas:
i
K
ω [ U =

K
i
α
1
...α
k
ω

k+1
...α
k+−1
d
α
[K, L]´[ U =

_
K
i
α
1
...α
k
L
j

k+1
...α
k+
−(−1)
(k−1)(−1)
L
i
α
1
...α

K
j

+1
...α
k+
_
d
α
⊗∂
j
L
K
ω [ U =

_
K
i
α
1
...α
k

i
ω
α
k+1
...α
k+
+ (−1)
k
(∂
α
1
K
i
α
1
...α
k
) ω

k+2
...α
k+
_
d
α
[K, L] [ U =

_
K
i
α
1
...α
k

i
L
j
α
k+1
...α
k+
−(−1)
k
L
i
α
1
...α


i
K
j
α
+1
...α
k+
−kK
j
α
1
...α
k−1
i

α
k
L
i
α
k+1
...α
k+
+ (−1)
k
L
j
α
1
...α
−1
i

α

K
i
α
+1
...α
k+
_
d
α
⊗∂
j
8.11. Theorem. For K
i
∈ Ω
k
i
(M; TM) and L
i
∈ Ω
k
i
+1
(M; TM) we
have
[L
K
1
+i
L
1
, L
K
2
+i
L
2
] = (1)
= L
_
[K
1
, K
2
] +i
L
1
K
2
−(−1)
k
1
k
2
i
L
2
K
1
_
+i
_
[L
1
, L
2
]´+ [K
1
, L
2
] −(−1)
k
1
k
2
[K
2
, L
1
]
_
.
32 8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket
Each summand of this formula looks like a semidirect product of graded
Lie algebras, but the mappings
i : Ω(M; TM) →End(Ω(M; TM), [ , ])
ad : Ω(M; TM) →End(Ω(M; TM), [ , ]´)
do not take values in the subspaces of graded derivations. We have in-
stead for K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and L ∈ Ω
+1
(M; TM) the following rela-
tions:
i
L
[K
1
, K
2
] = [i
L
K
1
, K
2
] + (−1)
k
1

[K
1
, i
L
K
2
] (2)

_
(−1)
k
1

i([K
1
, L])K
2
−(−1)
(k
1
+)k
2
i([K
2
, L])K
1
_
[K, [L
1
, L
2
]´] = [[K, L
1
], L
2
]´+ (−1)
kk
1
[L
1
, [K, L
2
]]´− (3)

_
(−1)
kk
1
[i(L
1
)K, L
2
] −(−1)
(k+k
1
)k
2
[i(L
2
)K, L
1
]
_
The algebraic meaning of the relations of this theorem and its conse-
quences in group theory have been investigated in [Michor, 1989b]. The
corresponding product of groups is well known to algebraists under the
name ”Zappa-Szep”-product.
Proof. Equation (1) is an immediate consequence of 8.6. Equations (2)
and (3) follow from (1) by writing out the graded Jacobi identity, or as
follows: Consider L(i
L
[K
1
, K
2
]) and use 8.6 repeatedly to obtain L of
the right hand side of (2). Then consider i([K, [L
1
, L
2
]´]) and use again
8.6 several times to obtain i of the right hand side of (3).
8.12. Corollary (of 8.9). For K, L ∈ Ω
1
(M; TM) we have
[K, L](X, Y ) = [KX, LY ] −[KY, LX]
−L([KX, Y ] −[KY, X])
−K([LX, Y ] −[LY, X])
+ (LK +KL)[X, Y ].
8.13. Curvature. Let P ∈ Ω
1
(M; TM) be a fiber projection, i.e.
P ◦ P = P. This is the most general case of a (first order) connection.
We may call ker P the horizontal space and imP the vertical space of the
connection. If P is of constant rank, then both are sub vector bundles
of TM. If imP is some primarily fixed sub vector bundle or (tangent
bundle of) a foliation, P can be called a connection for it. Special cases
of this will be treated extensively later on. For the general theory see
[Michor, 1989a] The following result is immediate from 8.12.
8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket 33
Lemma. We have
[P, P] = 2R + 2
¯
R,
where R,
¯
R ∈ Ω
2
(M; TM) are given by R(X, Y ) = P[(Id −P)X, (Id −
P)Y ] and
¯
R(X, Y ) = (Id −P)[PX, PY ].
If P has constant rank, then R is the obstruction against integra-
bility of the horizontal bundle ker P, and
¯
R is the obstruction against
integrability of the vertical bundle imP. Thus we call R the curvature
and
¯
R the cocurvature of the connection P. We will see later, that for a
principal fiber bundle R is just the negative of the usual curvature.
8.14. Lemma. General Bianchi identity. If P ∈ Ω
1
(M; TM) is a
connection (fiber projection) with curvature R and cocurvature
¯
R, then
we have
[P, R +
¯
R] = 0
[R, P] = i
R
¯
R +i ¯
R
R.
Proof. We have [P, P] = 2R + 2
¯
R by 8.13 and [P, [P, P]] = 0 by the
graded Jacobi identity. So the first formula follows. We have 2R =
P ◦ [P, P] = i
[P,P]
P. By 8.11.2 we get i
[P,P]
[P, P] = 2[i
[P,P]
P, P] − 0 =
4[R, P]. Therefore [R, P] =
1
4
i
[P,P]
[P, P] = i(R+
¯
R)(R+
¯
R) = i
R
¯
R+i ¯
R
R
since R has vertical values and kills vertical vectors, so i
R
R = 0; likewise
for
¯
R.
8.15. Naturality of the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket. Let f :
M → N be a smooth mapping between manifolds. Two vector val-
ued forms K ∈ Ω
k
(M; TM) and K

∈ Ω
k
(N; TN) are called f-related
or f-dependent, if for all X
i
∈ T
x
M we have
(1) K

f(x)
(T
x
f X
1
, . . . , T
x
f X
k
) = T
x
f K
x
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
).
Theorem.
(2) If K and K

as above are f-related then i
K
◦ f

= f

◦ i
K
:
Ω(N) →Ω(M).
(3) If i
K
◦ f

[ B
1
(N) = f

◦ i
K
[ B
1
(N), then K and K

are
f-related, where B
1
denotes the space of exact 1-forms.
(4) If K
j
and K

j
are f-related for j = 1, 2, then i
K
1
K
2
and i
K

1
K

2
are f-related, and also [K
1
, K
2
]´and [K

1
, K

2
]´are f-related.
(5) If K and K

are f-related then L
K
◦ f

= f

◦ L
K
: Ω(N) →
Ω(M).
34 8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket
(6) If L
K
◦ f

[ Ω
0
(N) = f

◦ L
K
[ Ω
0
(N), then K and K

are
f-related.
(7) If K
j
and K

j
are f-related for j = 1, 2, then their Fr¨olicher-
Nijenhuis brackets [K
1
, K
2
] and [K

1
, K

2
] are also f-related.
Proof. (2) By 8.2 we have for ω ∈ Ω
q
(N) and X
i
∈ T
x
M:
(i
K
f

ω)
x
(X
1
, . . . , X
q+k−1
) =
=
1
k! (q−1)!

σ
sign σ (f

ω)
x
(K
x
(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σk
), X
σ(k+1)
, . . . )
=
1
k! (q−1)!

σ
sign σ ω
f(x)
(T
x
f K
x
(X
σ1
, . . . ), T
x
f X
σ(k+1)
, . . . )
=
1
k! (q−1)!

σ
sign σ ω
f(x)
(K

f(x)
(T
x
f X
σ1
, . . . ), T
x
f X
σ(k+1)
, . . . )
= (f

i
K
ω)
x
(X
1
, . . . , X
q+k−1
)
(3) follows from this computation, since the df, f ∈ C

(M, R) sep-
arate points. (4) follows from the same computation for K
2
instead of
ω, the result for the bracket then follows 8.2.2.
(5) The algebra homomorphism f

intertwines the operators i
K
and
i
K
by (2), and f

commutes with the exterior derivative d. Thus f

intertwines the commutators [i
K
, d] = L
K
and [i
K
, d] = L
K
.
(6) For g ∈ Ω
0
(N) we have L
K
f

g = i
K
d f

g = i
K
f

dg and
f

L
K
g = f

i
K
dg. By (3) the result follows.
(6) The algebra homomorphism f

intertwines L
K
j
and L
K

j
, so also
their graded commutators which equal L([K
1
, K
2
]) and L([K

1
, K

2
]), re-
spectively. Now use (6) .
8.16. Let f : M →N be a local diffeomorphism. Then we can consider
the pullback operator f

: Ω(M; TM) →Ω(M; TM), given by
(1) (F

K)
x
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) = (T
x
f)
−1
K
f(x)
(T
x
f X
1
, . . . , T
x
f X
k
).
Clearly K and f

K are then f-related.
Theorem. In this situation we have:
(2) f

[K, L] = [f

K, f

L].
(3) f

i
K
L = i
f

K
f

L.
(4) f

[K, L]´= [f

K, f

L]´.
(5) For a vector field X ∈ X(M) and K ∈ Ω(M; TM) the Lie
derivative L
X
K =

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
X
t
)

K satisfies L
X
K = [X, K], the
Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis-bracket.
8. Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket 35
We may say that the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket, [ , ]´, etc. are
natural bilinear concomitants.
Proof. (2) – (4) are obvious from 8.16. (5) Obviously L
X
is R-linear,
so it suffices to check this formula for K = ψ ⊗ Y , ψ ∈ Ω(M) and
Y ∈ X(M). But then
L
X
(ψ ⊗Y ) = L
X
ψ ⊗Y +ψ ⊗L
X
Y
= L
X
ψ ⊗Y +ψ ⊗[X, Y ]
= [X, ψ ⊗Y ] by 8.7.6.
8.17. Remark. At last we mention the best known application of the
Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket, which also led to its discovery. A vector
valued 1-form J ∈ Ω
1
(M; TM) with J ◦ J = −Id is called a nearly
complex structure; if it exists, dimM is even and J can be viewed as a
fiber multiplication with

−1 on TM. By 8.12 we have
[J, J](X, Y ) = 2([JX, JY ] −[X, Y ] −J[X, JY ] −J[JX, Y ]).
The vector valued form
1
2
[J, J] is also called the Nijenhuis tensor of J.
For it the following result is true:
A manifold M with a nearly complex structure J is a complex man-
ifold (i.e., there exists an atlas for M with holomorphic chart-change
mappings) if and only if [J, J] = 0. See [Newlander-Nirenberg, 1957].
36
9. Fiber Bundles and Connections
9.1. Definition. A (fiber) bundle (E, p, M, S) consists of manifolds E,
M, S, and a smooth mapping p : E →M; furthermore each x ∈ M has
an open neighborhood U such that E [ U := p
−1
(U) is diffeomorphic to
U S via a fiber respecting diffeomorphism:
E [ U
ψ
−−−−→ U S
p
¸
¸
_
pr
1
¸
¸
_
U U
E is called the total space, M is called the base space or basis, p is a
surjective submersion, called the projection, and S is called standard
fiber. (U, ψ) as above is called a fiber chart.
A collection of fiber charts (U
α
, ψ
α
), such that (U
α
) is an open cover
of M, is called a (fiber) bundle atlas. If we fix such an atlas, then
ψ
α
◦ψ
β
−1
(x, s) = (x, ψ
αβ
(x, s)), where ψ
αβ
: (U
α
∩U
β
)S →S is smooth
and ψ
αβ
(x, ) is a diffeomorphism of S for each x ∈ U
αβ
:= U
α
∩ U
β
.
We may thus consider the mappings ψ
αβ
: U
αβ
→ Diff(S) with values
in the group Diff(S) of all diffeomorphisms of S; their differentiability is
a subtle question, which will be discussed in 13.1 below. In either form
these mappings ψ
αβ
are called the transition functions of the bundle.
They satisfy the cocycle condition: ψ
αβ
(x) ◦ ψ
βγ
(x) = ψ
αγ
(x) for x ∈
U
αβγ
and ψ
αα
(x) = Id
S
for x ∈ U
α
. Therefore the collection (ψ
αβ
) is
called a cocycle of transition functions.
Given an open cover (U
α
) of a manifold M and a cocycle of transition
functions (ψ
αβ
) we may construct a fiber bundle (E, p, M, S) similarly as
in the following way: On the disjoint union

α
¦α¦U
α
S we consider
the equivalence relation:
(α, x, s) ∼ (β, y, t) if and only if x = y and ψ
αβ
(y, t) = s.
The quotient space then turns out to be a fiber bundle, and we may use
the mappings ψ
α
([(α, x, s)]) := (x, s) as a bundle atlas whose cocycle of
transition functions is exactly the one we started from.
9.2. Lemma. Let p : N → M be a surjective submersion (a fibred
manifold) such that p
−1
(x) is compact for each x ∈ M and let M be
connected. Then (N, p, M) is a fiber bundle.
Proof. We have to produce a fiber chart at each x
0
∈ M. So let (U, u) be
a chart centered at x
0
on M such that u(U)

= R
m
. For each x ∈ U let
ξ
x
(y) := (T
y
u)
−1
.u(x), then ξ
x
∈ X(U), depending smoothly on x ∈ U,
9. Connections on general fiber bundles 37
such that u(Fl
ξ
x
t
u
−1
(z)) = z + t.u(x), so each ξ
x
is a complete vector
field on U. Since p is a submersion, with the help of a partition of unity
on p
−1
(U) we may construct vector fields η
x
∈ X(p
−1
(U)) which depend
smoothly on x ∈ U and are p-related to ξ
x
: Tp.η
x
= ξ
x
◦ p. Thus
p ◦ Fl
η
x
t
= Fl
ξ
x
t
◦p and Fl
η
x
t
is fiber respecting, and since each fiber is
compact and ξ
x
is complete, η
x
has a global flow too. Denote p
−1
(x
0
)
by S. Then ϕ : U S → p
−1
(U), defined by ϕ(x, y) = Fl
η
x
1
(y), is
a diffeomorphism and is fiber respecting, so (U, ϕ
−1
) is a fiber chart.
Since M is connected, the fibers p
−1
(x) are all diffeomorphic.
9.3. Let (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bundle; we consider the fiber linear
mapping Tp : TE → TM and its kernel ker Tp =: V E which is called
the vertical bundle of E. The following is special case of 8.13.
Definition A connection on the fiber bundle (E, p, M, S) is a vector
valued 1-form Φ ∈ Ω
1
(E; V E) with values in the vertical bundle VE such
that Φ ◦ Φ = Φ and ImΦ = V E; so Φ is just a projection TE →V E.
Then ker Φ is of constant rank, so ker Φ is a sub vector bundle of TE,
it is called the space of horizontal vectors or the horizontal bundle and
it is denoted by HE Clearly TE = HE ⊕ V E and T
u
E = H
u
E ⊕ V
u
E
for u ∈ E.
Now we consider the mapping (Tp, π
E
) : TE → TM
M
E. Then
(Tp, π
E
)
−1
(0
p(u)
, u) = V
u
E by definition, so (Tp, π
E
) [ HE : HE →
TM
M
E is fiber linear over E and injective, so by reason of dimensions
it is a fiber linear isomorphism: Its inverse is denoted by
C := ((Tp, π
E
) [ HE)
−1
: TM
M
E →HE →TE.
So C : TM
M
E →TE is fiber linear over E and is a right inverse for
(Tp, π
E
). C is called the horizontal lift associated to the connection Φ.
Note the formula Φ(ξ
u
) = ξ
u
−C(Tp.ξ
u
, u) for ξ
u
∈ T
u
E. So we can
equally well describe a connection Φ by specifying C. Then we call Φ
the vertical projection and χ := id
TE
− Φ = C ◦ (Tp, π
E
) will be called
the horizontal projection.
9.4. Curvature. If Φ : TE → V E is a connection on a fiber bundle
(E, p, M, S), then as in 8.13 the curvature R of Φ is given by
2R = [Φ, Φ] = [Id −Φ, Id −Φ] = [χ, χ] ∈ Ω
2
(E; V E).
We have R(X, Y ) =
1
2
[Φ, Φ](X, Y ) = Φ[χX, χY ], so R is an obstruc-
tion against integrability of the horizontal subbundle. Since the vertical
bundle V E is integrable, by 8.14 we have the Bianchi identity [Φ, R] = 0.
38 9. Connections on general fiber bundles
9.5. Pullback. Let (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bundle and consider a
smooth mapping f : N → M. Since p is a submersion, f and p are
transversal and thus the pullback N
(f,M,p)
E exists. It will be called
the pullback of the fiber bundle E by F and we will denote it by f

E.
The following diagram sets up some further notation for it:
f

E
p

f
−−−−→ E
f

¸
¸
_
p
¸
¸
_
N −−−−→
f
M
Proposition. In the situation above we have:
(1) (f

E, f

p, N, S) is again a fiber bundle, and p

f is a fiber wise
diffeomorphism.
(2) If Φ ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) is a connection on the bundle E, the vector val-
ued form f

Φ, given by (f

Φ)
u
(X) := T
u
(p

f)
−1
.Φ.T
u
(p

f).X
for X ∈ T
u
E, is again a connection on the bundle f

E. The
forms f

Φ and Φ are p

f-related in the sense of 8.15.
(3) The curvatures of f

Φ and Φ are also p

f-related: R(f

Φ) =
f

R(Φ).
Proof. (1). If (U
α
, ψ
α
) is a fiber bundle atlas of (E, p, M, S) in the sense
of 9.1, then (f
−1
(U
α
), (f

p, pr
2
◦ψ
α
◦p

f)) is visibly a fiber bundle atlas
for (f

E, f

p, N, S), by the formal universal properties of a pullback.
(2) is obvious. (3) follows from (2) and 8.15.6.
9.6. Flat connections. Let us suppose that a connection Φ on the
bundle (E, p, M, S) has zero curvature. Then by 9.4 the horizontal bun-
dle is integrable and gives rise to the horizontal foliation. Each point
u ∈ E lies on a unique leaf L(u) such that T
v
L(u) = H
v
E for each
v ∈ L(u). The restriction p [ L(u) is locally a diffeomorphism, but in
general it is neither surjective nor is it a covering onto its image. This
is seen by devising suitable horizontal foliations on the trivial bundle
pr
2
: RS
1
→S
1
.
9.7. Local description of connections. Let Φ be a connection on
(E, p, M, S). Let us fix a fiber bundle atlas (U
α
) with transition functions

αβ
), and let us consider the connection (ψ
α
)
−1
)

Φ ∈ Ω
1
(U
α
S; U
α

TS), which may be written in the form
((ψ
α
)
−1
)

Φ)(ξ
x
, η
y
) =: −Γ
α

x
, y) +η
y
for ξ
x
∈ T
x
U
α
and η
y
∈ T
y
S,
9. Connections on general fiber bundles 39
since it reproduces vertical vectors. The Γ
α
are given by
(0
x
, Γ
α

x
, y)) := −T(ψ
α
).Φ.T(ψ
α
)
−1
.(ξ
x
, 0
y
).
We consider Γ
α
as an element of the space Ω
1
(U
α
; X(S)), a 1-form on
U
α
with values in the infinite dimensional Lie algebra X(S) of all vector
fields on the standard fiber. The Γ
α
are called the Christoffel forms of
the connection Φ with respect to the bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
).
Lemma. The transformation law for the Christoffel forms is
T
y

αβ
(x, )).Γ
β

x
, y) = Γ
α

x
, ψ
αβ
(x, y)) −T
x

αβ
( , y)).ξ
x
.
The curvature R of Φ satisfies

−1
α
)

R = dΓ
α
+ [Γ
α
, Γ
α
]
X(S)
.
The formula for the curvature is the Maurer-Cartan formula which
in this general setting appears only in the level of local description.
Proof. From ψ
α
◦ (ψ
β
)
−1
(x, y) = (x, ψ
αβ
(x, y)) we get that
T(ψ
α
◦ (ψ
β
)
−1
).(ξ
x
, η
y
) = (ξ
x
, T
(x,y)

αβ
).(ξ
x
, η
y
)) and thus:
T(ψ
−1
β
).(0
x
, Γ
β

x
, y)) = −Φ(T(ψ
−1
β
)(ξ
x
, 0
y
)) =
= −Φ(T(ψ
−1
α
).T(ψ
α
◦ ψ
−1
β
).(ξ
x
, 0
y
)) =
= −Φ(T(ψ
−1
α
)(ξ
x
, T
(x,y)

αβ
)(ξ
x
, 0
y
))) =
= −Φ(T(ψ
−1
α
)(ξ
x
, 0
y
)) −Φ(T(ψ
−1
α
)(0
x
, T
(x,y)
ψ
αβ

x
, 0
y
)) =
= T(ψ
−1
α
).(0
x
, Γ
α

x
, ψ
αβ
(x, y))) −T(ψ
−1
α
)(0
x
, T
x

αβ
( , y)).ξ
x
).
This implies the transformation law.
For the curvature R of Φ we have by 9.4 and 9.5.3

−1
α
)

R((ξ
1
, η
1
), (ξ
2
, η
2
)) =
= (ψ
−1
α
)

R[(Id −(ψ
−1
α
)

Φ)(ξ
1
, η
1
), (Id −(ψ
−1
α
)

Φ)(ξ
2
, η
2
)] =
= (ψ
−1
α
)

Φ[(ξ
1
, Γ
α

1
)), (ξ
2
, Γ
α

2
))] =
= (ψ
−1
α
)

Φ
_

1
, ξ
2
], ξ
1
Γ
α

2
) −ξ
2
Γ
α

1
) + [Γ
α

1
), Γ
α

2
)]
_
=
= −Γ
α
([ξ
1
, ξ
2
]) +ξ
1
Γ
α

2
) −ξ
2
Γ
α

1
) + [Γ
α

1
), Γ
α

2
)] =
= dΓ
α

1
, ξ
2
) + [Γ
α

1
), Γ
α

2
)]
X(S)
.
40 9. Connections on general fiber bundles
9.8. Theorem. Parallel transport. Let Φ be a connection on a
bundle (E, p, M, S) and let c : (a, b) → M be a smooth curve with 0 ∈
(a, b), c(0) = x.
Then there is a neighborhood U of E
x
¦0¦ in E
x
(a, b) and a
smooth mapping Pt
c
: U →E such that:
(1) p(Pt(c, t, u
x
)) = c(t) if defined, and Pt(c, u
x
, 0) = u
x
.
(2) Φ(
d
dt
Pt(c, t, u
x
)) = 0
c(t)
if defined.
(3) Reparametrisation invariance: If f : (a

, b

) → (a, b) is smooth
with 0 ∈ (a

, b

), then Pt(c, f(t), u
x
) = Pt(c ◦ f, t, Pt(c, u
x
, f(0)))
if defined.
(4) U is maximal for properties (1) and (2).
(5) The parallel transport is smooth as a mapping
C

(R, M)
(ev
0
,M,p)
E R ⊃ U
Pt
−→E,
where U is its domain of definition.
(6) If X ∈ X(M) is a vector field on the base then the parallel trans-
port along the flow lines of X is given by the flow of the horizontal
lift CX of X:
Pt(Fl
X
(x), t, u
x
) = Fl
CX
t
(u
x
).
Proof. We first give three different proofs of assertions (1) – (4).
First proof. In local bundle coordinates Φ(
d
dt
Pt(c, u
x
, t)) = 0 is an ordi-
nary differential equation of first order, nonlinear, with initial condition
Pt(c, u
x
, 0) = u
x
. So there is a maximally defined local solution curve
which is unique. All further properties are consequences of uniqueness.
Second proof. Consider the pullback bundle (c

E, c

p, (a, b), S) and the
pullback connection c

Φ on it. It has zero curvature, since the horizontal
bundle is 1-dimensional. By 9.6 the horizontal foliation exists and the
parallel transport just follows a leaf and we may map it back to E, in
detail: Pt(c, u
x
, t) = p

c((c

p [ L(u
x
))
−1
(t)).
Third proof. Consider a fiber bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
) as in 9.7. Then
ψ
α
(Pt(c, ψ
−1
α
(x, y), t)) = (c(t), γ(y, t)), where
0 =
_

−1
α
)

Φ
_ _
d
dt
c(t),
d
dt
γ(y, t)
_
= −Γ
α
_
d
dt
c(t), γ(y, t)
_
+
d
dt
γ(y, t),
so γ(y, t) is the integral curve (evolution line) through y ∈ S of the
time dependent vector field Γ
α
_
d
dt
c(t)
_
on S. This vector field visibly
9. Connections on general fiber bundles 41
depends smoothly on c. Clearly local solutions exist and all properties
follow.
(5). By the considerations of section 6 it suffices to show that Pt
maps a smooth curve
(c
1
, c
2
, c
3
) : R →U ⊂ C

(R, M)
(ev
0
,M,p)
E R
to a smooth curve in E. We use the description of the smooth curves
in C

(R, M) from 6.2 and see that the ordinary differential equation
considered in the first proof then just depends on some parameters more.
By the theory of ordinary differential equations the solution is smooth
in this parameters also, which we then set equal.
(6) is obvious from the definition.
9.9. Lemma. Let Φ be a connection on a bundle (E, p, M, S) with
curvature R and horizontal lift C. Let X ∈ X(M) be a vector field on
the base.
Then for the horizontal lift CX ∈ X(E) we have
L
CX
Φ =

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

Φ = [CX, Φ] = −
1
2
i
CX
R.
Proof. From 8.16.(5) we get L
CX
Φ =

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

Φ = [CX, Φ]. From
8.11.(2) we have
i
CX
R = i
CX
[Φ, Φ]
= [i
CX
Φ, Φ] −[Φ, i
CX
Φ] + 2i
[Φ,CX]
Φ
= −2Φ[CX, Φ]
The vector field CX is p-related to X and Φ ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) is p-related
to 0 ∈ Ω
1
(M; TM), so by 8.15.(7) the form [CX, Φ] ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) is also
p-related to 0 = [X, 0] ∈ Ω
1
(M; TM). So Tp.[CX, Φ] = 0, [CX, Φ] has
vertical values, and [CX, Φ] = Φ[CX, Φ].
9.10. A connection Φ on (E, p, M, S) is called a complete connection,
if the parallel transport Pt
c
along any smooth curve c : (a, b) → M is
defined on the whole of E
c(0)
(a, b). The third proof of theorem 9.8
shows that on a fiber bundle with compact standard fiber any connection
is complete.
The following is a sufficient condition for a connection Φ to be com-
plete:
There exists a fiber bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
) and complete Riemann-
ian metrics g
α
on the standard fiber S such that each Christoffel
form Γ
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
, X(S)) takes values in the linear subspace of
g
α
-bounded vector fields on S
42 9. Connections on general fiber bundles
For in the third proof of theorem 9.8 above the time dependent vector
field Γ
α
(
d
dt
c(t)) on S is g
α
-bounded for compact time intervals. So by
continuation the solution exists over c
−1
(U
α
), and thus globally.
A complete connection is called an Ehresmann connection in [Greub
- Halperin - Vanstone I, p 314], where it is also indicated how to prove
the following result.
Theorem. Each fiber bundle admits complete connections.
Proof. Let dimM = m. Let (U
α
, ψ
α
) be a fiber bundle atlas as in
9.1. By topological dimension theory [Nagata, 1965] the open cover
(U
α
) of M admits a refinement such that any m + 2 members have
empty intersection. Let U
α
) itself have this property. Choose a smooth
partition of unity (f
α
) subordinated to (U
α
). Then the sets V
α
:= ¦ x :
f
α
(x) >
1
m+2
¦ ⊂ U
α
form still an open cover of M since

f
α
(x) = 1
and at most m + 1 of the f
α
(x) can be nonzero. By renaming assume
that each V
α
is connected. Then we choose an open cover (W
α
) of M
such that W
α
⊂ V
α
.
Now let g
1
and g
2
be complete Riemannian metrics on M and S,
respectively (see [Nomizu - Ozeki, 1961] or [Morrow, 1970]). For not
connected Riemannian manifolds complete means that each connected
component is complete. Then g
1
[U
α
g
2
is a Riemannian metric on
U
α
S and we consider the metric g :=

f
α
ψ

α
(g
1
[U
α
g
2
) on E.
Obviously p : E →M is a Riemannian submersion for the metrics g and
g
1
. We choose now the connection Φ : TE → V E as the orthonormal
projection with respect to the Riemannian metric g.
Claim: Φ is a complete connection on E.
Let c : [0, 1] → M be a smooth curve. We choose a partition 0 = t
0
<
t
1
< < t
k
= 1 such that c([t
i
, t
i+1
]) ⊂ V
α
i
for suitable α
i
. It suffices
to show that Pt(c(t
i
+ ), t, u
c(t
i
)
) exists for all 0 ≤ t ≤ t
i+1
− t
i
and
all u
c(t
i
)
∈ E
c(t
i
)
, for all i — then we may piece them together. So
we may assume that c : [0, 1] → V
α
for some α. Let us now assume
that for some (x, y) ∈ V
α
S the parallel transport Pt(c, t, ψ
α
(x, y)) is
defined only for t ∈ [0, t

) for some 0 < t

< 1. By the third proof of 9.8
we have Pt(c, t, ψ
α
(x, y)) = ψ
α
(c(t), γ(t)), where γ : [0, t

) → S is the
maximally defined integral curve through y ∈ S of the time dependent
vector field Γ
α
(
d
dt
c(t), ) on S. We put g
α
:= (ψ
−1
α
)

g, then (g
α
)
(x,y)
=
(g
1
)
x
(

β
f
β
(x)ψ
βα
(x, )

g
2
)
y
. Since pr
1
: (V
α
S, g
α
) →(V
α
, g
1
[V
α
)
is a Riemannian submersion and since the connection (ψ
−1
α
)

Φ is also
given by orthonormal projection onto the vertical bundle, we get
∞> g
1
-length
t

0
(c) = g
α
-length(c, γ) =
_
t

0
[(c

(t),
d
dt
γ(t))[
g
α
dt =
9. Connections on general fiber bundles 43
=
_
t

0
_
[c

(t)[
2
g
1
+

β
f
β
(c(t))(ψ
αβ
(c(t), −)

g
2
)(
d
dt
γ(t),
d
dt
γ(t)) dt ≥

_
t

0
_
f
α
(c(t)) [
d
dt
γ(t)[
g
2
dt ≥

m+ 2
_
t

0
[
d
dt
γ(t)[
g
2
dt.
So g
2
-lenght(γ) is finite and since the Riemannian metric g
2
on S is
complete, lim
t→t
γ(t) =: γ(t

) exists in S and the integral curve γ can
be continued.
44
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
10.1. Definition. Let G be a Lie group and let (E, p, M, S) be a fiber
bundle as in 9.1. A G-bundle structure on the fiber bundle consists of
the following data:
(1) A left action : G S → S of the Lie group on the standard
fiber.
(2) A fiber bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
) whose transition functions (ψ
αβ
)
act on S via the G-action: There is a family of smooth map-
pings (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ
→ G) which satisfies the cocycle condition
ϕ
αβ
(x)ϕ
βγ
(x) = ϕ
αγ
(x) for x ∈ U
αβγ
and ϕ
αα
(x) = e, the unit
in the group, such that ψ
αβ
(x, s) = (ϕ
αβ
(x), s) = ϕ
αβ
(x).s.
A fiber bundle with a G-bundle structure is called a G-bundle. A fiber
bundle atlas as in (2) is called a G-atlas and the family (ϕ
αβ
) is also
called a cocycle of transition functions, but now for the G-bundle.
To be more precise, two G-atlases are said to be equivalent (to de-
scribe the same G-bundle), if their union is also a G-atlas. This trans-
lates as follows to the two cocycles of transition functions, where we
assume that the two coverings of M are the same (by passing to the
common refinement, if necessary): (ϕ
αβ
) and (ϕ

αβ
) are called coho-
mologous if there is a family (τ
α
: U
α
→ G) such that ϕ
αβ
(x) =
τ
α
(x)
−1

αβ
(x).τ
β
(x) holds for all x ∈ U
αβ
.
In (2) one should specify only an equivalence class of G-bundle struc-
tures or only a cohomology class of cocycles of G-valued transition func-
tions. From any open cover (U
α
) of M, some cocycle of transition func-
tions (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ
→ G) for it, and a left G-action on a manifold S,
we may construct a G-bundle by gluing, which depends only on the
cohomology class of the cocycle. By some abuse of notation we write
(E, p, M, S, G) for a fiber bundle with specified G-bundle structure.
Examples: The tangent bundle of a manifold M is a fiber bundle
with structure group GL(n). More general a vector bundle (E, p, M, V )
is a fiber bundle with standard fiber the vector space V and with GL(V )-
structure.
10.2. Definition. A principal (fiber) bundle (P, p, M, G) is a G-bundle
with typical fiber a Lie group G, where the left action of G on G is just
the left translation.
So by 10.1 we are given a bundle atlas (U
α
, ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→U
α
G) such
that we have ϕ
α
ϕ
−1
β
(x, a) = (x, ϕ
αβ
(x).a) for the cocycle of transition
functions (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ
→G). This is now called a principal bundle atlas.
Clearly the principal bundle is uniquely specified by the cohomology
class of its cocycle of transition functions.
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 45
Each principal bundle admits a unique right action r : P G → P,
called the principal right action, given by ϕ
α
(r(ϕ
−1
α
(x, a), g)) = (x, ag).
Since left and right translation on G commute, this is well defined. As
in 1.3 we write r(u, g) = u.g when the meaning is clear. The principal
right action is visibly free and for any u
x
∈ P
x
the partial mapping
r
u
x
= r(u
x
, ) : G → P
x
is a diffeomorphism onto the fiber through
u
x
, whose inverse is denoted by τ
u
x
: P
x
→ G. These inverses together
give a smooth mapping τ : P
M
P → G, whose local expression is
τ(ϕ
−1
α
(x, a), ϕ
−1
α
(x, b)) = a
−1
.b. This mapping is also uniquely deter-
mined by the implicit equation r(u
x
, τ(u
x
, v
x
)) = v
x
, thus we also have
τ(u
x
.g, u

x
.g

) = g
−1
.τ(u
x
, u

x
).g

and τ(u
x
, u
x
) = e.
10.3. Lemma. Let p : P → M be a surjective submersion (a fibred
manifold), and let G be a Lie group which acts freely on P such that the
orbits of the action are exactly the fibers p
−1
(x) of p. Then (P, p, M, G)
is a principal fiber bundle.
Proof. Let the action be a right one by using the group inversion if nec-
essary. Let s
α
: U
α
→P be local sections (right inverses) for p : P →M
such that (U
α
) is an open cover of M. Let ϕ
−1
α
: U
α
G → P[U
α
be given by ϕ
−1
α
(x, a) = s
α
(x).a, which is obviously injective with in-
vertible tangent mapping, so its inverse ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→ U
α
G is a
fiber respecting diffeomorphism. So (U
α
, ϕ
α
) is already a fiber bun-
dle atlas. Let τ : P
M
P → G be given by the implicit equation
r(u
x
, τ(u
x
, u

x
)) = u

x
, where r is the right G-action. τ is smooth by
the implicit function theorem and clearly τ(u
x
, u

x
.g) = τ(u
x
, u

x
).g.
Thus we have ϕ
α
ϕ
−1
β
(x, g) = ϕ
α
(s
β
(x).g) = (x, τ(s
α
(x), s
β
(x).g)) =
(x, τ(s
α
(x), s
β
(x)).g) and (U
α
, ϕ
α
) is a principal bundle atlas.
10.4. Remarks. In the proof of Lemma 10.3 we have seen, that a
principal bundle atlas of a principal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) is already
determined if we specify a family of smooth sections of P, whose domains
of definition cover the base M.
Lemma 10.3 can serve as an equivalent definition for a principal bun-
dle. But this is true only if an implicit function theorem is available, so
in topology or in infinite dimensional differential geometry one should
stick to our original definition.
From the Lemma itself it follows, that the pullback f

P over a smooth
mapping f : M

→M is again a principal fiber bundle.
10.5. Homogeneous spaces. Let G be a Lie group with Lie algebra g.
Let K be a closed subgroup of G, then by a well known theorem K is a
closed Lie subgroup whose Lie algebra will be denoted by /. There is a
46 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
unique structure of a smooth manifold on the quotient space G/K such
that the projection p : G → G/K is a submersion, so by the implicit
function theorem p admits local sections.
Theorem. (G, p, G/K, K) is a principal fiber bundle.
Proof. The group multiplication of G restricts to a free right action
µ : GK →G, whose orbits are exactly the fibers of p. By lemma 10.3
the result follows.
For the convenience of the reader we discuss now the best know ho-
mogeneous spaces.
The group SO(n) acts transitively on S
n−1
⊂ R
n
. The isotropy
group of the ”north pole” (0, . . . , 0, 1) is the subgroup
_
1 0
0 SO(n −1)
_
which we identify with SO(n − 1). So S
n−1
= SO(n)/SO(n − 1) and
(SO(n), p, S
n−1
, SO(n −1)) is a principal fiber bundle. Likewise
(O(n), p, S
n−1
, O(n −1)),
(SU(n), p, S
2n−1
, SU(n −1)),
(U(n), p, S
2n−1
, U(n −1)), and
(Sp(n), p, S
4n−1
, Sp(n −1)) are principal fiber bundles.
The Grassmann manifold G(k, n; R) is the space of all k-planes con-
taining 0 in R
n
. The group O(n) acts transitively on it and the isotropy
group of the k-plane R
k
¦0¦ is the subgroup
_
O(k) 0
0 O(n −k)
_
,
therefore G(k, n; R) = O(n)/O(k) O(n−k) is a compact manifold and
we get the principal fiber bundle (O(n), p, G(k, n; R), O(k) O(n −k)).
Likewise
(SO(n), p,
˜
G(k, n, R), SO(k) SO(n −k)),
(U(n), p, G(k, n, C), U(k) U(n −k)), and
(Sp(n), p, G(k, n, H), Sp(k) Sp(n −k)) are principal fiber bundles.
The Stiefel manifold V (k, n, R) is the space of all orthonormal k-
frames in R
n
. Clearly the group O(n) acts transitively on V (k, n, R)
and the isotropy subgroup of (e
1
, . . . , e
k
) is 1O(n−k), so V (k, n, R) =
O(n)/O(n −k) is a compact manifold and we get a principal fiber bun-
dle (O(n), p, V (k, n, R), O(n − k)) But O(k) also acts from the right
on V (k, n, R), its orbits are exactly the fibers of the projection p :
V (k, n, R) → G(k, n, R). So by lemma 10.3 we get a principal fiber
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 47
bundle (V (k, n, R), p, G(k, n, R), O(k)). Indeed we have the following
diagram where all arrows are projections of principal fiber bundles, and
where the respective structure groups are written on the arrows:
(a)
O(n)
O(n−k)
−−−−−→ V (k, n, R)
O(k)
¸
¸
_
O(k)
¸
¸
_
V (n −k, n, R) −−−−−→
O(n−k)
G(k, n, R),
It is easy to see that V (k, n) is also diffeomorphic to the space ¦ A ∈
L(R
k
, R
n
) : A
t
.A = 1
k
¦, i.e. the space of all linear isometries R
k

R
n
. There are furthermore complex and quaternionic versions of the
Stiefel manifolds.
More examples will be given in sections on jets below.
10.6. Homomorphisms. Let χ : (P, p, M, G) → (P

, p

, M

, G) be
a principal fiber bundle homomorphism, i.e. a smooth G-equivariant
mapping χ : P →P

. Then obviously the diagram
(a)
P
χ
−−−−→ P

p
¸
¸
_ p

¸
¸
_
M −−−−→
¯ χ
M

commutes for a uniquely determined smooth mapping ¯ χ : M →M

. For
each x ∈ M the mapping χ
x
:= χ[P
x
: P
x
→P

¯ χ(x)
is G-equivariant and
therefore a diffeomorphism, so diagram (a) is a pullback diagram.
But the most general notion of a homomorphism of principal bundles
is the following. Let Φ : G → G

be a homomorphism of Lie groups.
χ : (P, p, M, G) → (P

, p

, M

, G

) is called a homomorphism over Φ of
principal bundles, if χ : P →P

is smooth and χ(u.g) = χ(u).Φ(g) holds
in general. Then χ is fiber respecting, so diagram (a) makes again sense,
but it is no longer a pullback diagram in general.
If χ covers the identity on the base, it is called a reduction of the
structure group G

to G for the principal bundle (P

, p

, M

, G

) — the
name comes from the case, when Φ is the embedding of a subgroup.
By the universal property of the pullback any general homomorphism
χ of principal fiber bundles over a group homomorphism can be written
as the composition of a reduction of structure groups and a pullback
48 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
homomorphism as follows, where we also indicate the structure groups:
(b)
(P, G) −−−−→ ( ¯ χ

P

, G

) −−−−→ (P

, G

)
p
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_ p

¸
¸
_
M M −−−−→
¯ χ
M

10.7. Associated bundles. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal bundle and
let : GS →S be a left action of the structure group G on a manifold
S. We consider the right action R : (P S) G → P S, given by
R((u, s), g) = (u.g, g
−1
.s).
Theorem. In this situation we have:
(1) The space P
G
S of orbits of the action R carries a unique
smooth manifold structure such that the quotient map q : PS →
P
G
S is a submersion.
(2) (P
G
S, ¯ p, M, S, G) is a G-bundle, where ¯ p : P
G
S → M is
given by
(a)
P S
q
−−−−→ P
G
S
pr
1
¸
¸
_
¯ p
¸
¸
_
P −−−−→
p
M.
In this diagram q
u
: ¦u¦S →(P
G
S)
p(u)
is a diffeomorphism
for each u ∈ P.
(3) (P S, q, P
G
S, G) is a principal fiber bundle with principal
action R.
(4) If (U
α
, ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→ U
α
G) is a principal bundle atlas with
cocycle of transition functions (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ
→ G), then together
with the left action : GS →S this cocycle is also one for the
G-bundle (P
G
S, ¯ p, M, S, G).
Notation: (P
G
S, ¯ p, M, S, G) is called the associated bundle for the
action : GS →S. We will also denote it by P[S, ] or simply P[S] and
we will write p for ¯ p if no confusion is possible. We also define the smooth
mapping τ : P
M
P[S, ] → S by τ(u
x
, v
x
) := q
−1
u
x
(v
x
). It satisfies
τ(u, q(u, s)) = s, q(u
x
, τ(u
x
, v
x
)) = v
x
, and τ(u
x
.g, v
x
) = g
−1
.τ(u
x
, v
x
).
In the special situation, where S = G and the action is left translation,
so that P[G] = P, this mapping coincides with τ considered in 10.2.
Proof. In the setting of the diagram in (2) the mapping p◦pr
1
is constant
on the R-orbits, so ¯ p exists as a mapping. Let (U
α
, ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→U
α
G)
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 49
be a principal bundle atlas with transition functions (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ

G). We define ψ
−1
α
: U
α
S → ¯ p
−1
(U
α
) ⊂ P
G
S by ψ
−1
α
(x, s) =
q(ϕ
−1
α
(x, e), s), which is fiber respecting. For each orbit in ¯ p
−1
(x) ⊂
P
G
S there is exactly one s ∈ S such that this orbit passes through

−1
α
(x, e), s), since the principal right action is free. Thus ψ
−1
α
(x. ) :
S → ¯ p
−1
(x) is bijective. Furthermore
ψ
−1
β
(x, s) = q(ϕ
−1
β
(x, e), s) =
= q(ϕ
−1
α
(x, ϕ
αβ
(x).e), s) = q(ϕ
−1
α
(x, e).ϕ
αβ
(x), s) =
= q(ϕ
−1
α
(x, e), ϕ
αβ
(x).s) = ψ
−1
α
(x, ϕ
αβ
(x).s),
so ψ
α
ψ
−1
β
(x, s) = (x, ϕ
αβ
(x).s) So (U
α
, ψ
α
) is a G-atlas for P
G
S and
makes it into a smooth manifold and a G-bundle. The defining equation
for ψ
α
shows that q is smooth and a submersion and consequently the
smooth structure on P
G
S is uniquely defined, and ¯ p is smooth by the
universal properties of a submersion.
By the definition of ψ
α
the diagram
(b)
p
−1
(U
α
) S
ϕ
α
×Id
−−−−→ U
α
GS
q
¸
¸
_
Id×
¸
¸
_
¯ p
−1
(U
α
) U
α
S
commutes; since its lines are diffeomorphisms we conclude that q
u
: ¦u¦
S → ¯ p
−1
(p(u)) is a diffeomorphism. So (1), (2), and (4) are checked.
(3) We rewrite the last diagram in the following form:
(c)
p
−1
(U
α
) S q
−1
(V
α
)
λ
α
−−−−→ V
α
G
q
¸
¸
_
pr
1
¸
¸
_
¯ p
−1
(U
α
) V
α
Here V
α
:= ¯ p
−1
(U
α
) ⊂ P
G
S and the diffeomorphism λ
α
is defined
by λ
−1
α

−1
α
(x, s), g) := (ϕ
α
(x, g), g
−1
.s). Then we have
λ
−1
β

−1
α
(x, s), g) = λ
−1
β

−1
β
(x, , ϕ
βα
(x).s), g) =
= (ϕ
−1
β
(x, g), g
−1

βα
(x).s) = (ϕ
−1
α
(x, ϕ
αβ
(x).g), g
−1

αβ
(x)
−1
.s) =
= (λ
−1
α

−1
α
(x, s), ϕ
αβ
(x).g),
so λ
α
λ
−1
β

−1
α
(x, s), g) = (ψ
−1
α
(x, s), ϕ
αβ
(x).g) and we conclude that
(P S, q, P
G
S, G) is a principal bundle with structure group G and
the same cocycle (ϕ
αβ
) we started with.
50 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
10.8. Corollary. Let (E, p, M, S, G) be a G-bundle, specified by a co-
cycle of transition functions (ϕ
αβ
) with values in G and a left action
of G on S. Then from the cocycle of transition functions we may glue a
unique principal bundle (P, p, M, G) such that E = P[S, ].
This is the usual way a differential geometer thinks of an associated
bundle. He is given a bundle E, a principal bundle P, and the G-bundle
structure then is described with the help of the mappings τ and q.
10.9. Equivariant mappings and associated bundles.
1. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle and consider two left
actions of G, : G S → S and

: G S

→ S

. Let furthermore
f : S → S

be a G-equivariant smooth mapping, so f(g.s) = g.f(s) or
f ◦
g
=

g
◦ f. Then Id
P
f : P S → P S

is equivariant for the
actions R : (P S) G → P S and R

: (P S

) G → P S

, so
there is an induced mapping
(a)
P S
Id×f
−−−−→ P S

q
¸
¸
_ q

¸
¸
_
P
G
S
Id×
G
f
−−−−→ P
G
S

,
which is fiber respecting over M, and a homomorphism of G-bundles in
the sense of the definition 10.10 below.
2. Let χ : (P, p, M, G) → (P

, p

, M

, G) be a principal fiber bundle
homomorphism as in 10.6. Furthermore we consider a smooth left action
: G S → S. Then χ Id
S
: P S → P

S is G-equivariant and
induces a mapping χ
G
Id
S
: P
G
S →P

G
S, which is fiber respecting
over M, fiber wise a diffeomorphism, and again a homomorphism of G-
bundles in the sense of definition 10.10 below.
3. Now we consider the situation of 1 and 2 at the same time. We
have two associated bundles P[S, ] and P

[S

,

]. Let χ : (P, p, M, G) →
(P

, p

, M

, G) be a principal fiber bundle homomorphism and let f :
S →S

be an G-equivariant mapping. Then χ f : P S →P

S

is
clearly G-equivariant and therefore induces a mapping χ
G
f : P[S, ] →
P

[S

,

] which again is a homomorphism of G-bundles.
4. Let S be a point. Then P[S] = P
G
S = M. Furthermore let
y ∈ S

be a fixed point of the action

: GS

→S

, then the inclusion
i : ¦y¦ → S

is G-equivariant, thus Id
P
i induces Id
P

G
i : M =
P[¦y¦] →P[S

], which is a global section of the associated bundle P[S

].
If the action of G on S is trivial, so g.s = s for all s ∈ S, then the
associated bundle is trivial: P[S] = M S. For a trivial principal fiber
bundle any associated bundle is trivial.
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 51
10.10. Definition. In the situation of 10.8, a smooth fiber respecting
mapping γ : P[S, ] →P

[S

,

] covering a smooth mapping ¯ γ : M →M

of the bases is called a homomorphism of G-bundles, if the following con-
ditions are satisfied: P is isomorphic to the pullback ¯ γ

P

, and the local
representations of γ in pullback-related fiber bundle atlases belonging to
the two G-bundles are fiber wise G-equivariant.
Let us describe this in more detail now. Let (U

α
, ψ

α
) be a G-atlas
for P

[S

,

] with cocycle of transition functions (ϕ

αβ
), belonging to
the principal fiber bundle atlas (U

α
, ϕ

α) of (P

, p

, M

, G). Then the
pullback-related principal fiber bundle atlas (U
α
= ¯ γ
−1
(U

α
), γ
α
) for
P = ¯ γ

P

as described in the proof of 9.5 has the cocycle of transition
functions (ϕ
αβ
= ϕ

αβ
◦ ¯ γ); it induces the G-atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
) for P[S, ].
Then (ψ

α
◦γ◦ψ
−1
α
)(x, s) = (¯ γ(x), γ
α
(x, s)) and γ
α
(x, ) : S →S

should
be G-equivariant for all α and all x ∈ U
α
.
Lemma. Let γ : P[S, ] → P

[S

,

] be a homomorphism of associated
bundles and G-bundles. Then there is a principal bundle homomorphism
χ : (P, p, M, G) →(P

, p

, M

, G) and a G-equivariant mapping f : S →
S

such that γ = χ
G
f : P[S, ] →P

[S

,

].
Proof. The homomorphism χ : (P, p, M, G) → (P

, p

, M

, G) of princi-
pal fiber bundles is already determined by the requirement that P =
¯ γ

P

, and we have ¯ γ = ¯ χ. The G-equivariant mapping f : S → S

can
be read off the following diagram
(a)
P
M
P[S]
τ
−−−−→ S
χ×
M
γ
¸
¸
_
f
¸
¸
_
P

M
P

[S

] −−−−→
τ

S

,
which by the assumptions is seen to be well defined in the right col-
umn.
So a homomorphism of associated bundles is described by the whole
triple (χ : P → P

, f : S → S

(G-equivariant) , γ : E → E

), such that
diagram (a) commutes.
10.11. Associated vector bundles. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal
fiber bundle, and consider a representation ρ : G → GL(V ) of G on a
finite dimensional vector space V . Then P[V, ρ] is an associated fiber
bundle with structure group G, but also with structure group GL(V ), for
in the canonically associated fiber bundle atlas the transition functions
have also values in GL(V ). So by section 6 P[V, ρ] is a vector bundle.
52 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
If (E, p, M) is a vector bundle with n-dimensional fibers we may con-
sider the open subset GL(R
n
, E) ⊂ L(M R
n
, E), consisting of all
invertible linear mappings, which is a fiber bundle over the base M.
Composition from the right by elements of GL(n) gives a free right ac-
tion on GL(R
n
, E) whose orbits are exactly the fibers, so by lemma 10.3
we have a principal fiber bundle (GL(R
n
, E), p, M, GL(n)). The asso-
ciated bundle GL(R
n
, E)[R
n
] for the banal representation of GL(n) on
R
n
is isomorphic to the vector bundle (E, p, M) we started with, for
the evaluation mapping ev : GL(R
n
, E) R
n
→ E is invariant un-
der the right action R of GL(n), and locally in the image there are
smooth sections to it, so it factors to a fiber linear diffeomorphism
GL(R
n
, E)[R
n
] = GL(R
n
, E)
GL(n)
R
n
→ E. The principal bun-
dle GL(R
n
, E) is called the linear frame bundle of E. Note that local
sections of GL(R
n
) are exactly the local frame fields of the vector bundle
E.
To illustrate the notion of reduction of structure group, we consider
now a vector bundle (E, p, M, R
n
) equipped with a Riemannian met-
ric g, that is a section g ∈ C

(S
2
E

) such that g
x
is a positive def-
inite inner product on E
x
for each x ∈ M. Any vector bundle ad-
mits Riemannian metrics: local existence is clear and we may glue
with the help of a partition of unity on M, since the positive defi-
nite sections form an open convex subset. Now let s

= (s

1
, . . . , s

n
) ∈
C

(GL(R
n
, E)[U) be a local frame field of the bundle E over U ⊂ M.
Now we may apply the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure to
the basis (s
1
(x), . . . , s
n
(x)) of E
x
for each x ∈ U. Since this proce-
dure is real analytic, we obtain a frame field s = (s
1
, . . . , s
n
) of E over
U which is orthonormal with respect to g. We call it an orthonormal
frame field. Now let (U
α
) be an open cover of M with orthonormal frame
fields s
α
= (s
α
1
, . . . , s
α
n
), where s
α
is defined on U
α
. We consider the vec-
tor bundle charts (U
α
, ψ
α
: E[U
α
→ U
α
R
n
) given the orthonormal
frame fields: ψ
−1
α
(x, v
1
, . . . , v
n
) =

s
α
i
(x).v
i
=: s
α
(x).v. For x ∈ U
αβ
we have s
α
i
(x) =

s
β
j
(x).g
βα
j
i
(x) for C

-functions g
αβ
: U
αβ
→ R.
Since s
α
(x) and s
β
(x) are both orthonormal bases of E
x
, the matrix
g
αβ
(x) = (g
αβ
j
i
(x)) is an element of O(n, R). We write s
α
= s
β
.g
βα
for short. Then we have ψ
−1
β
(x, v) = s
β
(x).v = s
α
(x).g
αβ
(x).v =
ψ
−1
α
(x, g
αβ
(x).v) and consequently ψ
α
ψ
−1
β
(x, v) = (x, g
αβ
(x).v). So the
(g
αβ
: U
αβ
→O(n, R)) are the cocycle of transition functions for the vec-
tor bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
). So we have constructed an O(n, R)-structure
on E. The corresponding principal fiber bundle will be denoted by
O(R
n
, (E, g)); it is usually called the orthonormal frame bundle of E. It
is derived from the linear frame bundle GL(R
n
, E) by reduction of the
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 53
structure group from GL(n) to O(n). The phenomenon discussed here
plays a prominent role in the theory of classifying spaces.
10.12. Sections of associated bundles. Let (P, p, M, G) be a princi-
pal fiber bundle and : GS →S a left action. Let C

(P, S)
G
denote
the space of all smooth mappings f : P →S which are G-equivariant in
the sense that f(u.g) = g
−1
.f(u) holds for g ∈ G and u ∈ P.
Theorem. The sections of the associated bundle P[S, ] correspond ex-
actly to the G-equivariant mappings P →S; we have a bijection
C

(P, S)
G

= C

(P[S]).
Proof. If f ∈ C

(P, S)
G
we construct s
f
∈ C

(P[S]) in the follow-
ing way: graph(f) = (Id, f) : P → P S is G-equivariant, since
(Id, f)(u.g) = (u.g, f(u.g)) = (u.g, g
−1
.f(u)) = ((Id, f)(u)).g. So it
induces a smooth section s
f
∈ C

(P[S]) as seen from
(a)
P
(Id,f)
−−−−→ P S
p
¸
¸
_
q
¸
¸
_
M −−−−→
f
s
P[S]
If conversely s ∈ C

(P[S]) we define f
s
∈ C

(P, S)
G
by f
s
:=
τ ◦(Id
P

M
f) : P = P
M
M →P
m
P[S] →S. This is G-equivariant
since f
s
(u
x
.g) = τ(u
x
.g, f(x)) = g
−1
.τ(u
x
, f(x)) = g
−1
.f
s
(u
x
) by 10.4.
The two constructions are inverse to each other since we have f
s(f)
(u) =
τ(u, s
f
(p(u))) = τ(u, q(u, f(u))) = f(u) and s
s(f)
(p(u)) = q(u, f
s
(u)) =
q(u, τ(u, f(p(u))) = f(p(u)).
10.13. Theorem. Consider a principal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) and
a closed subgroup K of G. Then the reductions of structure group from
G to K correspond bijectively to the global sections of the associated
bundle P[G/K,
¯
λ], where
¯
λ : GG/K →G/K is the left action on the
homogeneous space.
Proof. By theorem 10.12 the section s ∈ C

(P[G/K]) corresponds to
f
s
∈ C

(P, G/K)
G
, which is a surjective submersion since the action
¯
λ : GG/K →G/K is transitive. Thus P
s
:= f
−1
s
(¯ e) is a submanifold
of P which is stable under the right action of K on P. Furthermore
the K-orbits are exactly the fibers of the mapping p : P
s
→ M, so by
lemma 10.3 we get a principal fiber bundle (P
s
, p, M, K). The embedding
P
s
→P is then a reduction of structure groups as required.
54 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
If conversely we have a principal fiber bundle (P

, p

, M, K) and a
reduction of structure groups χ : P

→ P, then χ is an embedding
covering the identity of M and is K-equivariant, so we may view P

as a sub fiber bundle of P which is stable under the right action of K.
Now we consider the mapping τ : P
M
P → G from 10.2 and restrict
it to P
M
P

. Since we have τ(u
x
, v
x
.k) = τ(u
x
, v
x
).k for k ∈ K this
restriction induces f : P →G/K by
P
M
P

τ
−−−−→ G
¸
¸
_
p
¸
¸
_
P = P
M
P

/K −−−−→
f
G/K;
and from τ(u
x
.g, v
x
) = g
−1
.τ(u
x
, v
x
) it follows that f is G-equivariant
as required. Finally f
−1
(¯ e) = ¦u ∈ P : τ(u, P

p(u)
) ⊆ K¦ = P

, so the
two constructions are inverse to each other.
10.14. The bundle of gauges. If (P, p, M, G) is a principal fiber bun-
dle we denote by Aut(P) the group of all G-equivariant diffeomorphisms
χ : P →P. Then p ◦ χ = ¯ χ ◦ p for a unique diffeomorphism ¯ χ of M, so
there is a group homomorphism from Aut(P) into the group Diff(M) of
all diffeomorphisms of M. The kernel of this homomorphism is called
Gau(P), the group of gauge transformations. So Gau(P) is the space of
all χ : P →P which satisfy p ◦ χ = p and χ(u.g) = χ(u).g.
Theorem. The group Gau(P) of gauge transformations is equal to the
space C

(P, (G, conj))
G ∼
= C

(P[G, conj]).
Proof. We use again the mapping τ : P
M
P → G from 10.2. For
χ ∈ Gau(P) we define f
χ
∈ C

(P, (G, conj))
G
by f
χ
:= τ ◦ (Id, χ).
Then f
χ
(u.g) = τ(u.g, χ(u.g)) = g
−1
.τ(u, χ(u)).g = conj
g
−1f
χ
(u), so f
χ
is indeed G-equivariant.
If conversely f ∈ C

(P, (G, conj))
G
is given, we define χ
f
: P → P
by χ
f
(u) := u.f(u). It is easy to check that χ
f
is indeed in Gau(P) and
that the two constructions are inverse to each other.
10.15 The tangent bundles of homogeneous spaces. Let G be
a Lie group and K a closed subgroup, with Lie algebras g and /, re-
spectively. We recall the mapping Ad
G
: G → Aut
Lie
(g) from 1.1 and
put Ad
G,K
:= Ad
G
[K : K → Aut
Lie
(g). For X ∈ / and k ∈ K we
have Ad
G,K
(k)X = Ad
G
(k)X = Ad
K
(k)X ∈ /, so / is an invariant
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 55
subspace for the representation Ad
G,K
of K in g,and we have the factor
representation Ad

: K →GL(g//. Then
(a) 0 →/ →g →g// →0
is short exact and K-equivariant.
Now we consider the principal fiber bundle (G, p, G/K, K) and the
associated vector bundles G[g//, Ad

] and G[/, Ad
G,K
].
Theorem. In these circumstances we have
T(G/K) = G[g//, Ad

] = (G
K
(//, p, G/K, g//).
The left action g →T(
¯
λ
g
) of G on T(G/K) coincides with the left action
of G on G
K
g//. Furthermore G[g//, Ad

] ⊕G[/, Ad
G,K
] is a trivial
vector bundle.
Proof. For p : G → G/K we consider the tangent mapping T
e
p : g →
T
¯ e
(G/K) which is linear and surjective and induces a linear isomorphism
T
e
p : g// → T
¯ e
(G/K). For k ∈ K we have p ◦ conj
k
= p ◦ λ
k
◦ ρ
k
−1 =
¯
λ
k
◦ p and consequently T
e
p ◦ Ad
G,K
(k) = T
e
p ◦ T
e
(conj
k
) = T
¯ e
¯
λ
k
◦ T
e
p.
Thus the isomorphism T
e
p : g// → T
¯ e
(G/K) is K-equivariant for the
representations Ad

and T
¯ e
¯
λ : k →T
¯ e
¯
λ
k
.
Now we consider the associated vector bundle G[T
¯ e
(G/K), T
¯ e
¯
λ] =
(G
K
T
¯ e
(G/K), p, G/K, T
¯ e
(G/K)), which is isomorphic to the vec-
tor bundle G[g//, Ad

], since the representation spaces are isomorphic.
The mapping T
¯
λ : GT
¯ e
(G/K) →T(G/K) is K-invariant and therefore
induces a mapping ψ as in the following diagram:
(b)
GT
¯ e
(G/K)
T
¯
λ
−−−−→ T(G/K)
q
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
G
K
T
¯ e
(G/K) −−−−→
ψ
T(G/K)
p
¸
¸
_
π
G/K
¸
¸
_
G/K G/K
This mapping ψ is an isomorphism of vector bundles.
It remains to show the last assertion. The short exact sequence (a)
induces a sequence of vector bundles over G/K:
G/K 0 →G[/, Ad
K
] →G[(, Ad
G,K
] →G[g//, Ad

] →G/K 0
This sequence splits fiber wise thus also locally over G/K, so we obtain
G[g//, Ad

] ⊕G[/, Ad
G,K
]

= G[g, Ad
G,K
] and it remains to show that
G[g, Ad
G,K
] is a trivial vector bundle. Let ϕ : G g → G g be given
56 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
by ϕ(g, X) = (g, Ad
G
(g)X). Then for k ∈ K we have ϕ((g, X).k) =
ϕ(gk, Ad
G,K
(g
−1
)X) = (ak, Ad
G
(g.k.k
−1
)X) = (gk, Ad
G
(g)X). So ϕ is
K-equivariant from the ”joint” K-action to the ”on the left” K-action
and therefore induces a mapping ¯ ϕ as in the diagram:
(c)
Gg
ϕ
−−−−→ Gg
q
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
G
K
g −−−−→
¯ ϕ
G/K g
p
¸
¸
_
pr
1
¸
¸
_
G/K G/K
The map ¯ ϕ is a vector bundle isomorphism.
10.16 Tangent bundles of Grassmann manifolds. From 10.5 we
know that (V (k, n) = O(n)/O(n − k), p, G(k, n), O(k)) is a principal
fiber bundle. Using the banal representation of O(k) we consider the
associated vector bundle (E
k
:= V (k, n)[R
k
], p, G(k, n)). It is called the
universal vector bundle over G(k, n) for reasons we will discuss below in
chapter 11. Recall from 10.5 the description of V (k, n) as the space of
all linear isometries R
k
→ R
n
; we get from it the evaluation mapping
ev : V (k, n) R
k
→R
n
. The mapping (p, ev) in the diagram
(a)
V (k, n) R
k
(p,ev)
−−−−→ G(kn) R
n
q
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
V (k, n)
O(k)
R
k
−−−−→
ψ
G(kn) R
n
is O(k)-invariant for the action R and factors therefore to an embedding
of vector bundles ψ : E
k
→ G(k, n) R
n
. So the fiber (E
k
)
W
over
the k-plane W in R
n
is just the linear subspace W. Note finally that
the fiber wise orthogonal complement E
k

of E
k
in the trivial vector
bundle G(k, n) R
n
with its standard Riemannian metric is isomorphic
to the universal vector bundle E
n−k
over G(n−k, n), where the isomor-
phism covers the diffeomorphism G(k, n) → G(n − k, n) given also by
the orthogonal complement mapping.
Corollary. The tangent bundle of the Grassmann manifold is
TG(k, n) = L(E
k
, E
k

).
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 57
Proof. We have G(k, n) = O(n)/(O(k) O(n−k)), so by theorem 10.15
we get
TG(k, n) = O(n)
O(k)×O(n−k)
so(n)/(so(k) so(n −k)).
On the other hand we have V (k, n) = O(n)/O(n − k) and the right
action of O(k) commutes with the right action of O(n − k) on O(n),
therefore
V (k, n)[R
k
] = O(n)/O(n −k)
O(k)
R
k
= O(n)
O(k)×O(n−k)
R
k
,
where O(n −k) acts trivially on R
k
. Finally
L(E
k
, E
k

) = L
_
O(n)
O(k)×O(n−k)
R
k
, O(n)
O(k)×O(n−k)
R
n−k
_
= O(n)
O(k)×O(n−k)
L(R
k
, R
n−k
),
where the left action of O(k) O(n − k) on L(R
k
, R
n−k
) is given by
(A, B)(C) = B.C.A
−1
. Finally we have an O(k)O(n−k) - equivariant
linear isomorphism L(R
k
, R
n−k
) →so(n)/(so(k)so(n−k)), as follows:
so(n)/(so(k) so(n −k)) =
_
skew
_
_
skew 0
0 skew
_ =
__
0 A
−A 0
_
: A ∈ L(R
k
, R
n−k
)
_

10.17. The tangent group of a Lie group. Let G be a Lie group
with Lie algebra g. We will use the notation from 1.1. First note that
TG is also a Lie group with multiplication Tµ and inversion Tν, given
by the expressions T
(a,b)
µ.(ξ
a
, η
b
) = T
a

b
).ξ
a
+T
b

a
).η
b
and T
a
ν.ξ
a
=
−T
e

a
−1).T
a

a
−1).ξ
a
.
Lemma. Via the isomomorphism Tρ : g G → TG, Tρ.(X, g) =
T
e

g
).X, the group structure on TG looks as follows: (X, a).(Y, b) =
(X+Ad(a)Y, a.b) and (X, a)
−1
= (−Ad(a
−1
)X, a
−1
). So TG is isomor-
phic to the semidirect product gG.
Proof. T
(a,b)
µ.(Tρ
a
.X, Tρ
b
.Y ) = Tρ
b
.Tρ
a
.X +Tλ
a
.Tρ
b
.Y =
= Tρ
ab
.X +Tρ
b
.Tρ
a
.Tρ
a
−1.Tλ
a
.Y = Tρ
ab
(X + Ad(a)Y ).
T
a
ν.Tρ
a
.X = −Tρ
a
−1.Tλ
a
−1.Tρ
a
.X = −Tρ
a
−1.Ad(a
−1
)X.
58 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
Remark. In the left trivialization Tλ : G g → TG, Tλ.(g, X) =
T
e

g
).X, the semidirect product structure looks somewhat awkward:
(a, X).(b, Y ) = (ab, Ad(b
−1
)X +Y ) and (a, X)
−1
= (a
−1
, −Ad(a)X).
10.18. Tangent and vertical bundles.
For a fiber bundle (E, p, M, S) the subbundle V E = ¦ ξ ∈ TE : Tp.ξ =
0 ¦ of TE is called the vertical bundle and is denoted by (V E, π
E
, E).
Theorem. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle with principal
right action r : P G → P. Let : G S → S be a left action. Then
the following assertions hold:
(1) (TP, Tp, TM, TG) is again a principal fiber bundle with principal
right action Tr : TP TG →TP.
(2) The vertical bundle (V P, π, P, g) of the principal bundle is trivial
as a vector bundle over P: V P = P g.
(3) The vertical bundle of the principal bundle as bundle over M is
again a principal bundle: (V P, p ◦ π, M, TG).
(4) The tangent bundle of the associated bundle P[S, ] is given by
T(P[S, ]) = TP[TS, T].
(5) The vertical bundle of the associated bundle P[S, ] is given by
V (P[S, ]) = P[TS, T
2
] = P
G
TS.
Proof. Let (U
α
, ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→ U
α
G) be a principal fiber bundle atlas
with cocycle of transition functions (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ
→ G). Since T is a
functor which respects products, (TU
α
, Tϕ
α
: TP[TU
α
→ TU
α
TG)
is again a principal fiber bundle atlas with cocycle of transition func-
tions (Tϕ
αβ
: TU
αβ
→ TG), describing the principal fiber bundle
(TP, Tp, TM, TG). The assertion about the principal action is obvious.
So (1) follows. For completeness sake we include here the transition
formula for this atlas in the right trivialization of TG:
T(ϕ
α
◦ ϕ
−1
β
)(ξ
x
, T
e

g
).X) =
= (ξ
x
, T
e

ϕ
αβ
(x).g).(δϕ
αβ

x
) + Ad(ϕ
αβ
(x))X)),
where δϕ
αβ
∈ Ω
1
(U
αβ
; g) is the right logarithmic derivative of ϕ
αβ
which
is given by δϕ
αβ

x
) = T(ρ
ϕ
αβ
(x)
−1).T(ϕ
αβ
).ξ
x
.
(2) The mapping (u, X) → T
e
(r
u
).X = T
(u,e)
r.(0
u
, X) is a vector
bundle isomorphism P g →V P over P.
(3) Obviously Tr : TP TG → TP is a free right action which acts
transitive on the fibers of Tp : TP → TM. Since V P = (Tp)
−1
(0
M
),
the bundle V P →M is isomorphic to TP[0
M
and Tr restricts to a free
right action, which is transitive on the fibers, so by lemma 10.3 the result
follows.
10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 59
(4) The transition functions of the fiber bundle P[S, ] are given by the
expression ◦ (ϕ
αβ
Id
S
) : U
αβ
S →GS →S. Then the transition
functions of TP[S, ] are T( ◦ (ϕ
αβ
Id
S
)) = T ◦ (Tϕ
αβ
Id
TS
) :
TU
αβ
TS →TGTS →TS, from which the result follows.
(5) Vertical vectors in TP[S, ] have local representations (0
x
, η
s
) ∈
TU
αβ
TS. Under the transition functions of TP[S, ] they trans-
form as T( ◦ (ϕ
αβ
Id
S
)).(0
x
, η
s
) = T.(0
ϕ
αβ
(x)
, η
s
) = T(
ϕ
αβ
(x)
).η
s
=
T
2
.(x, η
s
) and this implies the result
60
11. Principal and Induced Connections
11.1. Principal connections. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber
bundle. Recall from 9.3 that a (general) connection on P is a fiber
projection Φ : TP → V P, viewed as a 1-form in Ω
1
(P; TP). Such a
connection Φ is called a principal connection if it is G-equivariant for
the principal right action r : P G → P, so that T(r
g
).Φ = Φ.T(r
g
)
and Φ is r
g
-related to itself, or (r
g
)

Φ = Φ in the sense of 8.16, for
all g ∈ G. By theorem 8.15.6 the curvature R =
1
2
.[Φ, Φ] is then also
r
g
-related to itself for all g ∈ G.
Recall from 10.18.2 that the vertical bundle of P is trivialized as
a vector bundle over P by the principal right action. So ω(X
u
) :=
T
e
(R
u
)
−1
.Φ(X
u
) ∈ g and in this way we get a g-valued 1-form ω ∈

1
(P; g), which is called the (Lie algebra valued) connection form of the
connection Φ. Recall from 1.3. the fundamental vector field mapping
ζ : ( →X(P) for the principal right action.
Lemma. If Φ ∈ Ω
1
(P; V P) is a principal connection on the principal
fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) then the connection form has the following two
properties:
(1) ω reproduces the generators of fundamental vector fields, so we
have ω(ζ
X
(u)) = X for all X ∈ g.
(2) ω is G-equivariant, so we have ((r
g
)

ω)(X
u
) = ω(T
u
(r
g
).X
u
) =
Ad(g
−1
).ω(X
u
) for all g ∈ G and X
u
∈ T
u
P. Consequently we
have for the Lie derivative L
ζ
X
ω = −ad(X).ω.
Conversely a 1-form ω ∈ Ω
1
(P, g) satisfying (1) defines a connection Φ
on P by Φ(X
u
) = T
e
(r
u
).ω(X
u
), which is a principal connection if and
only if (2) is satisfied.
Proof. (1). T
e
(r
u
).ω(ζ
X
(u)) = Φ(ζ
X
(u)) = ζ
X
(u) = T
e
(r
u
).X. Since
T
e
(r
u
) : ( →V
u
P is an isomorphism, the result follows.
(2). From T
e
(r
ug
).ω(T
u
(r
g
).X
u
) = ζ
ω(T
u
(r
g
).X
u
)
(ug) = Φ(T
u
(r
g
).X
u
)
and T
e
(r
ug
).Ad(g
−1
).ω(X
u
) = ζ
Ad(g
−1
).ω(X
u
)
(ug) = T
u
(r
g
).ζ
ω(X
u
)
(u) =
T
u
(r
g
).Φ(X
u
) both directions follow.
11.2. Curvature. Let Φ be a principal connection on the principal
fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) with connection form ω ∈ Ω
1
(P; g). We already
noted in 11.1 that the curvature R =
1
2
[Φ, Φ] is then also G-invariant,
(r
g
)

R = R for all g ∈ G. Since R has vertical values we may again define
a g-valued 2-form Ω ∈ Ω
2
(P; g) by Ω(X
u
, Y
u
) := −T
e
(r
u
)
−1
.R(X
u
, Y
u
),
which is called the (Lie algebra-valued) curvature form of the connection.
We take the negative sign here to get the usual connection form as in
[Kobayashi-Nomizu I, 1963].
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 61
We equip the space Ω(P; g) of all g-valued forms on P in a canonical
way with the structure of a graded Lie algebra by
[Ψ, Θ](X
1
, . . . , X
p+q
) =
=
1
p! q!

σ
signσ [Ψ(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σp
), Θ(X
σ(p+1)
, . . . , X
σ(p+q)
)]
g
or equivalently by [ψ ⊗ X, θ ⊗ Y ] := ψ ∧ θ ⊗ [X, Y ]. In particular for
ω ∈ Ω
1
(P; g) we have [ω, ω](X, Y ) = 2[ω(X), ω(Y )].
Theorem. The curvature form Ω of a principal connection with con-
nection form ω has the following properties:
(1) Ω is horizontal, i.e. it kills vertical vectors.
(2) Ω is G-equivariant in the following sense: (r
g
)

Ω = Ad(g
−1
).Ω.
Consequently L
ζ
X
Ω = −ad(X).Ω.
(3) The Maurer-Cartan formula holds: Ω = dω +
1
2
[ω, ω]
g
.
Proof. (1) is true for R by 9.4. For (2) we compute as follows:
T
e
(r
ug
).((r
g
)

Ω)(X
u
, Y
u
) = T
e
(r
ug
).Ω(T
u
(r
g
).X
u
, T
u
(r
g
).Y
u
) =
= −R
ug
(T
u
(r
g
).X
u
, T
u
(r
g
).Y
u
) = −T
u
(r
g
).((r
g
)

R)(X
u
, Y
u
) =
= −T
u
(r
g
).R(X
u
, Y
u
) = T
u
(r
g
).ζ
Ω(X
u
,Y
u
)
(u) =
= ζ
Ad(g
−1
).Ω(X
u
,Y
u
)
(ug) =
= T
e
(r
ug
).Ad(g
−1
).Ω(X
u
, Y
u
), by 1.3.
(3). For X ∈ g we have i
ζ
X
R = 0 by (1) and
i
ζ
X
(dω +
1
2
.[ω, ω]
g
) = i
ζ
X
dω +
1
2
[i
ζ
X
ω, ω] −
1
2
[ω, i
ζ
X
ω] =
= L
ζ
X
ω + [X, ω] = −ad(X)ω +ad(X)ω = 0
So the formula holds for vertical vectors, and for horizontal vector fields
X, Y ∈ C

(H(P)) we have
R(X, Y ) = Φ[X −ΦX, Y −ΦY ] = Φ[X, Y ] = ζ
ω([X,Y ])
(dω +
1
2
[ω, ω])(X, Y ) = Xω(Y ) −Y ω(X) −ω([X, Y ]) = −ω([X, Y ])
62 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
11.3. Lemma. Any principal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) (with paracom-
pact basis) admits principal connections.
Proof. Let (U
α
, ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→U
α
G)
α
be a principal fiber bundle atlas.
Let us define γ
α
(Tϕ
−1
α

x
, T
e
λ
g
.X)) := X for ξ
x
∈ T
x
U
α
and X ∈ g. An
easy computation involving lemma 1.3 shows that γ
α
∈ Ω
1
(P[U
α
; g) sat-
isfies the requirements of lemma 11.1 and thus is a principal connection
on P[U
α
. Now let (f
α
) be a smooth partition of unity on M which is
subordinated to the open cover (U
α
), and let ω :=

α
(f
α
◦ p)γ
α
. Since
both requirements of lemma 11.1 are invariant under convex linear com-
binations, ω is a principal connection on P.
11.4. Local descriptions of principal connections. We consider a
principal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) with some principal fiber bundle atlas
(U
α
, ψ
α
: P[U
α
→U
α
G) and corresponding cocycle (ϕ
αβ
: U
αβ
→G)
of transition functions. We consider the sections s
α
∈ C

(P[U
α
) which
are given by ϕ
α
(s
α
(x)) = (x, e) and satisfy s
α

αβ
= s
β
.
(1) Let Θ ∈ Ω
1
(G, g) be the left logarithmic derivative of the iden-
tity, i.e. Θ(η
g
) := T
g

g
−1).η
g
. We will use the forms Θ
αβ
:=
ϕ
αβ

Θ ∈ Ω
1
(U
αβ
; g).
Let Φ = ζ ◦ω ∈ Ω
1
(P; V P) be a principal connection, ω ∈ Ω
1
(P; g). We
may associate the following local data to the connection:
(2) ω
α
:= s
α

ω ∈ Ω
1
(U
α
; g), the physicists version of the connection.
(3) The Christoffel forms Γ
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
; X(G)) from 9.7, which are
given by (0
x
, Γ
α

x
, g)) = −T(ϕ
α
).Φ.T(ϕ
α
)
−1

x
, 0
g
).
(4) γ
α
:= (ϕ
−1
α
)

ω ∈ Ω
1
(U
α
G; g), the local expressions of ω.
Lemma. These local data have the following properties and are related
by the following formulas.
(5) The forms ω
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
; g) satisfy the transition formulas
ω
α
= Ad(ϕ
−1
βα

β
+ Θ
βα
,
and any set of forms like that with this transition behavior de-
termines a unique principal connection.
(6) γ
α

x
, Tλ
g
.X) = γ
α

x
, 0
g
) +X = Ad(g
−1

α

x
) +X.
(7) Γ
α

x
, g) = −T
e

g
).γ
α

x
, 0
g
) = −T
e

g
).Ad(g
−1

α

x
).
Proof. From the definition of the Christoffel forms we have
Γ
α

x
, g) = −T(ϕ
α
).Φ.T(ϕ
α
)
−1

x
, 0
g
)
= −T(ϕ
α
).T
e
(r
ϕ
α
(x,g)
)ω.T(ϕ
α
)
−1

x
, 0
g
)
= −T
e

α
◦ r
ϕ
α
(x,g)
)ω.T(ϕ
α
)
−1

x
, 0
g
)
= −T
e

g
)ω.T(ϕ
α
)
−1

x
, 0
g
) = −T
e

g

α

x
, 0
g
).
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 63
This is the first part of (7). The second part follows from (6).
γ
α

x
, Tλ
g
.X) = ω(T(ϕ
α
)
−1

x
, 0
g
)) =
= γ
α

x
, 0
g
) +ω(ζ
X

−1
α
(x, g))) = γ
α

x
, 0
g
) +X.
So the first part of (6) holds. The second part is seen from
γ
α

x
, 0
g
) = γ
α

x
, T
e

g
)0
e
) = (ω ◦ T(ϕ
α
)
−1
◦ T(ρ
g
))(ξ
x
, 0
e
) =
= (ω ◦ T(r
g
◦ ϕ
−1
α
))(ξ
x
, 0
e
) = Ad(g
−1
)ω(T(ϕ
−1
α
)(ξ
x
, 0
e
))
= Ad(g
−1
)(s
α

ω)(ξ
x
) = Ad(g
−1

α

x
).
Via (7) the transition formulas for the ω
α
are easily seen to be equivalent
to the transition formulas for the Christoffel forms in lemma 9.7.
11.5. The covariant derivative. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber
bundle with principal connection Φ = ζ ◦ ω. We consider the horizontal
projection χ = Id
TP
−Φ : TP →HP, cf. 9.3, which satisfies χ◦ χ = χ,
imχ = HP, ker χ = V P, and χ ◦ T(r
g
) = T(r
g
◦ χ) for all g ∈ G.
If W is a finite dimensional vector space, we consider the mapping
χ

: Ω(P; W) →Ω(P; W) which is given by


ϕ)
u
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) = ϕ
u
(χ(X
1
), . . . , χ(X
k
)).
The mapping χ

is a projection onto the subspace of horizontal differ-
ential forms, i.e. the space Ω
hor
(P; W) := ¦ψ ∈ Ω(P; W) : i
X
ψ =
0 for X ∈ V P¦. The notion of horizontal form is independent of the
choice of a connection.
The projection χ

has the following properties: χ

(ϕ∧ψ) = χ

ϕ∧χ

ψ,
if one of the two forms has real values; χ

◦χ

= χ

; χ

◦(r
g
)

= (r
g
)

◦χ

for all g ∈ G; χ

ω = 0; and χ

◦ L(ζ
X
) = L(ζ
X
) ◦ χ

. They follow
easily from the corresponding properties of χ, the last property uses
that Fl
ζ(X)
t
= r
exp tX
.
Now we define the covariant exterior derivative d
ω
: Ω
k
(P; W) →

k+1
(P; W) by the prescription d
ω
:= χ

◦ d.
Theorem. The covariant exterior derivative d
ω
has the following prop-
erties.
(1) d
ω
(ϕ ∧ ψ) = d
ω
(ϕ) ∧ χ

ψ + (−1)
deg ϕ
χ

ϕ ∧ d
ω
(ψ).
(2) L(ζ
X
) ◦ d
ω
= d
ω
◦ L(ζ
X
) for each X ∈ g.
(3) (r
g
)

◦ d
ω
= d
ω
◦ (r
g
)

for each g ∈ G.
(4) d
ω
◦ p

= d ◦ p

= p

◦ d : Ω(M; W) →Ω
hor
(P; W).
(5) d
ω
ω = Ω, the curvature form.
(6) d
ω
Ω = 0, the Bianchi identity.
(7) d
ω
◦ χ

−d
ω
= χ

◦ i(R) ◦ d, where R is the curvature.
(8) d
ω
◦ d
ω
= χ

◦ i(R) ◦ d.
64 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
Proof. (1) through (4) follow from the properties of χ

.
(5). We have
(d
ω
ω)(ξ, η) = (χ

dω)(ξ, η) = dω(χξ, χη)
= (χξ)ω(χη) −(χη)ω(chξ) −ω([χξ, χη])
= −ω([χξ, χη]) and
R(ξ, η) = −ζ(Ω(ξ, η)) = Φ[χξ, χη].
(6). We have
d
ω
Ω = d
ω
(dω +
1
2
[ω, ω])
= χ

ddω +
1
2
χ

d[ω, ω]
=
1
2
χ

([dω, ω] −[ω, dω]) = χ

[dω, ω]
= [χ

dω, χ

ω] = 0, since χ

ω = 0.
(7). For ϕ ∈ Ω(P; W) we have
(d
ω
χ

ϕ)(X
0
, . . . , X
k
) = (dχ

ϕ)(χ(X
0
), . . . , χ(X
k
))
=

0≤i≤k
(−1)
i
χ(X
i
)((χ

ϕ)(χ(X
0
), . . . ,

χ(X
i
), . . . , χ(X
k
)))
+

i<j
(−1)
i+j


ϕ)([χ(X
i
), χ(X
j
)], χ(X
0
), . . .
. . . ,

χ(X
i
), . . . ,

χ(X
j
), . . . )
=

0≤i≤k
(−1)
i
χ(X
i
)(ϕ(χ(X
0
), . . . ,

χ(X
i
), . . . , χ(X
k
)))
+

i<j
(−1)
i+j
ϕ([χ(X
i
), χ(X
j
)] −Φ[χ(X
i
), χ(X
j
)], χ(X
0
), . . .
. . . ,

χ(X
i
), . . . ,

χ(X
j
), . . . )
= (dϕ)(χ(X
0
), . . . , χ(X
k
)) + (i
R
ϕ)(χ(X
0
), . . . , χ(X
k
))
= (d
ω


iR)(ϕ)(X
0
, . . . , X
k
).
(8).
d
ω
d
ω
= χ



d = (χ

i
R


d)d by (7)
= χ

i
R
.
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 65
11.6 Theorem. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle with princi-
pal connection ω. Then the parallel transport for the principal connection
is globally defined and g-equivariant.
In detail: For each smooth c : R → M there is a smooth mapping
Pt
c
: R P
c(0)
→P such that the following holds:
(1) Pt(c, t, u) ∈ P
c(t)
, Pt(c, 0) = Id
P
c(0)
, and ω(
d
dt
Pt(c, t, u)) = 0.
(2) Pt(c, t) : P
c(0)
→P
c(t)
is G-equivariant, i.e.
Pt(c, t, u.g) = Pt(c, t, u).g.
(3) For smooth f : R →R we have
Pt(c, f(t), u) = Pt(c ◦ f, t, Pt(c, f(0), u)).
Proof. The Christoffel forms Γ
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
, X(G)) of the connection ω
with respect to a principal fiber bundle atlas (U
α
, ϕ
α
) take values in
the Lie subalgebra X
L
(G) of all left invariant vector fields on G, which
are bounded with respect to any left invariant Riemannian metric on G.
Each left invariant metric on a Lie group is complete. So the connection
is complete by the remark in 9.10.
Properties (1) and (3) follow from theorem 9.8, and (2) is seen as
follows: ω(
d
dt
Pt(c, t, u).g) = Ad(g
−1
)ω(
d
dt
Pt(c, t, u)) = 0 implies that
Pt(c, t, u).g = Pt(c, t, u.g).
11.7. Holonomy groups. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle
with principal connection Φ = ζ ◦ ω. We assume that M is connected
and we fix x
0
∈ M.
In view of developments which we make later in section 12 we de-
fine the holonomy group Hol(Φ, x
0
) ⊂ Diff(P
x
0
) as the group of all
Pt(c, 1) : P
x
0
→P
x
0
for c any piecewise smooth closed loop through x
0
.
(Reparametrizing c by a function which is flat at each corner of c we may
assume that any c is smooth.) If we consider only those curves c which
are nullhomotopic, we obtain the restricted holonomy group Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
).
Now let us fix u
0
∈ P
x
0
. The elements τ(u
0
, Pt(c, t, u
0
)) ∈ G form
a subgroup of the structure group G which is isomorphic to Hol(Φ, x
0
);
we denote it by Hol(ω, u
0
) and we call it also the holonomy group of the
connection. Considering only nullhomotopic curves we get the restricted
holonomy group Hol
0
(ω, u
0
) a normal subgroup Hol(ω, u
0
).
Theorem. 1. We have Hol(ω, u
0
.g) = Ad(g
−1
) Hol(ω, u
0
) and
Hol
0
(ω, u
0
.g) = Ad(g
−1
) Hol
0
(ω, u
0
).
2. For each curve c in M we have Hol(ω, Pt(c, t, u
0
)) = Hol(ω, u
0
)
and Hol
0
(ω, Pt(c, t, u
0
)) = Hol
0
(ω, u
0
).
3. Hol
0
(ω, u
0
) is a connected Lie subgroup of G and the quotient group
Hol(ω, u
0
)/ Hol
0
(ω, u
0
) is at most countable, so Hol(ω, u
0
) is also a Lie
subgroup of G.
66 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
4. The Lie algebra hol(ω, u
0
) ⊂ g of Hol(ω, u
0
) is linearly generated
by ¦Ω(X
u
, Y
u
) : X
u
, Y
u
∈ T
u
P¦. It is isomorphic to the Lie algebra
hol(Φ, x
0
) we considered in 9.9.
5. For u
0
∈ P
x
0
let P(ω, u
0
) be the set of all Pt(c, t, u
0
) for c any
(piecewise) smooth curve in M with c(0) = x
0
and for t ∈ R. Then
P(ω, u
0
) is a sub fiber bundle of P which is invariant under the right
action of Hol(ω, u
0
); so it is itself a principal fiber bundle over M with
structure group Hol(ω, u
0
) and we have a reduction of structure group, cf.
10.6 and 10.13. The pullback of ω to P(ω, u
0
) is then again a principal
connection form i

ω ∈ Ω
1
(P(ω, u
0
); hol(ω, u
0
)).
6. P is foliated by the leaves P(ω, u), u ∈ P
x
0
.
7. If the curvature Ω = 0 then Hol
0
(ω, u
0
) = ¦e¦ and each P(ω, u) is
a covering of M.
8. If one uses piecewise C
k
-curves for 1 ≤ k < ∞ in the definition,
one gets the same holonomy groups.
In view of assertion 5 a principal connection ω is called irreducible
if Hol(ω, u
0
) equals the structure group G for some (equivalently any)
u
0
∈ P
x
0
.
Proof. 1. This follows from the properties of the mapping τ from 10.2
and from the from the G-equivariancy of the parallel transport.
The rest of this theorem is a compilation of well known results, and
we refer to [Kobayashi-Nomizu I, 1963, p. 83ff] for proofs.
11.8. Inducing principal connections on associated bundles.
Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal bundle with principal right action r :
P G → P and let : G S → S be a left action of the structure
group G on some manifold S. Then we consider the associated bundle
P[S] = P[S, ] = P
G
S, constructed in 10.7. Recall from 10.18 that
its tangent and vertical bundle are given by T(P[S, ]) = TP[TS, T] =
TP
TG
TS and V (P[S, ]) = P[TS, T
2
] = P
G
TS.
Let Φ = ζ ◦ω ∈ Ω
1
(P; TP) be a principal connection on the principal
bundle P. We construct the induced connection
¯
Φ ∈ Ω
1
(P[S], T(P[S]))
by the following diagram:
TP TS
Φ×Id
−−−−→ TP TS T(P S)
Tq=q

¸
¸
_ q

¸
¸
_
Tq
¸
¸
_
TP
TG
TS −−−−→
¯
Φ
TP
TG
TS T(P
G
S).
Let us first check that the top mapping Φ Id is TG-equivariant. For
g ∈ G and X ∈ g the inverse of T
e

g
)X in the Lie group TG is denoted
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 67
by (T
e

g
)X)
−1
, see lemma 10.17. Furthermore by 1.3 we have
Tr(ξ
u
, T
e

g
)X) = T
u
(r
g

u
+Tr((O
P
L
X
)(u, g))
= T
u
(r
g

u
+T
g
(r
u
)(T
e

g
)X)
= T
u
(r
g

u

X
(ug).
We may compute
(Φ Id)(Tr(ξ
u
, T
e

g
)X), T((T
e

g
)X)
−1
, η
s
))
= (Φ(T
u
(r
g

u

X
(ug)), T((T
e

g
)X)
−1
, η
s
))
= (Φ(T
u
(r
g

u
) + Φ(ζ
X
(ug)), T((T
e

g
)X)
−1
, η
s
))
= (Φ(T
u
(r
g

u
) +ζ
X
(ug), T((T
e

g
)X)
−1
, η
s
))
= (Tr((Φ Id)ξ
u
, T
e

g
)X), T((T
e

g
)X)
−1
, η
s
))
So the mapping ΦId factors to
¯
Φ as indicated in the diagram, and we
have
¯
Φ ◦
¯
Φ =
¯
Φ from (Φ Id) ◦ (Φ Id) = Φ Id. The mapping
¯
Φ is
fiberwise linear, since Φ Id and q

= Tq are. The image of
¯
Φ is
q

(V P TS) = q

(ker(Tp : TP TS →TM))
= ker(Tp : TP
TG
TS →TM) = V (P[S, ]).
Thus
¯
Φ is a connection on the associated bundle P[S]. We call it the
induced connection.
From the diagram it also follows, that the vector valued forms ΦId ∈

1
(P S; TP TS) and
¯
Φ ∈ Ω
1
(P[S]; T(P[S])) are (q : P S →P[S])-
related. So by 8.15 we have for the curvatures
R
Φ×Id
=
1
2
[Φ Id, Φ Id] =
1
2
[Φ, Φ] 0 = R
Φ
0,

Φ
=
1
2
[
¯
Φ,
¯
Φ],
that they are also q-related, i.e. Tq ◦ (R
Φ
0) = R¯
Φ
◦ (Tq
M
Tq).
By uniqueness of the solutions of the defining differential equation we
also get that
Pt¯
Φ
(c, t, q(u, s)) = q(Pt
Φ
(c, t, u), s).
11.9. Recognizing induced connections. We consider again a prin-
cipal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) and a left action : GS →S. Suppose
that Ψ ∈ Ω
1
(P[S]; T(P[S])) is a connection on the associated bundle
P[S] = P[S, ]. Then the following question arises: When is the connec-
tion Ψ induced from a principal connection on P? If this is the case, we
say that Ψ is compatible with the G-structure on P[S]. The answer is
given in the following
68 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
Theorem. Let Ψ be a (general) connection on the associated bundle
P[S]. Let us suppose that the action is infinitesimally effective, i.e.
the fundamental vector field mapping ζ : g →X(S) is injective.
Then the connection Ψ is induced from a principal connection ω on
P if and only if the following condition is satisfied:
In some (equivalently any) fiber bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
) of P[S] be-
longing to the G-structure of the associated bundle the Christof-
fel forms Γ
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
; X(S)) have values in the sub Lie algebra
X
fund
(S) of fundamental vector fields for the action .
Proof. Let (U
α
, ϕ
α
: P[U
α
→ U
α
G) be a principal fiber bundle atlas
for P. Then by the proof of theorem 10.7 the induced fiber bundle atlas
(U
α
, ψ
α
: P[S][U
α
→U
α
S) is given by
ψ
−1
α
(x, s) = q(ϕ
−1
α
(x, e), s), (1)

α
◦ q)(ϕ
−1
α
(x, g), s) = (x, g.s). (2)
Let Φ = ζ ◦ ω be a principal connection on P and let
¯
Φ be the induced
connection on the associated bundle P[S]. By 9.7 its Christoffel symbols
are given by
Γ
α
¯
Φ

x
, s) = −(T(ψ
α
) ◦
¯
Φ ◦ T(ψ
−1
α
))(ξ
x
, 0
s
)
= −(T(ψ
α
) ◦
¯
Φ ◦ Tq ◦ (T(ϕ
−1
α
) Id))(ξ
x
, 0
e
, 0
s
) by (1)
= −(T(ψ
α
) ◦ Tq ◦ (Φ Id))(T(ϕ
−1
α
)(ξ
x
, 0
e
), 0
s
) by 11.8
= −(T(ψ
α
) ◦ Tq)(Φ(T(ϕ
−1
α
)(ξ
x
, 0
e
)), 0
s
)
= (T(ψ
α
) ◦ Tq)(T(ϕ
−1
α
)(Γ
α
Φ

x
, e)), 0
s
) by 11.4,(3)
= −T(ψ
α
◦ q ◦ (ϕ
−1
α
Id))(0
x
, ω
α

x
), 0
s
) by 11.4,(7)
= −T
e
(
s

α

x
) by (2)
= −ζ
ω
α

x
)
(s).
So the condition is necessary. Now let us conversely suppose that a
connection Ψ on P[S] is given such that the Christoffel forms Γ
α
Ψ
with
respect to a fiber bundle atlas of the G-structure have values in X
fund
(S).
Then unique g-valued forms ω
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
; g) are given by the equation
Γ
α
Ψ

x
) = ζ(ω
α

x
)),
since the action is infinitesimally effective. From the transition formulas
9.7 for the Γ
α
Ψ
follow the transition formulas 11.4.(5) for the ω
α
, so that
they give a unique principal connection on P, which by the first part of
the proof induces the given connection Ψ on P[S].
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 69
11.10. Inducing principal connections on associated vector
bundles. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle and let ρ : G →
GL(W) be a representation of the structure group G on a finite di-
mensional vector space W. We consider the associated vector bundle
(E := P[W, ρ], p, M, W), which was treated in some detail in 10.11.
The tangent bundle T(E) = TP
TG
TW has two vector bundle
structures with the projections
π
E
: T(E) = TP
TG
TW →P
G
W = E,
Tp ◦ pr
1
: T(E) = TP
TG
TW →TM;
the first one is the vector bundle structure of the tangent bundle, the
second one is the derivative of the vector bundle structure on E.
Now let Φ = ζ ◦ ω ∈ Ω
1
(P; TP) be a principal connection on P. We
consider the induced connection
¯
Φ ∈ Ω
1
(E; T(E)) from 11.8. Inserting
the projections of both vector bundle structures on T(E) into the di-
agram in 11.8 one easily sees that the induced connection is linear in
both vector bundle structures: the new aspect is that it is a linear endo-
morphism of the vector bundle (TE, Tp, TM). We say that it is a linear
connection on the associated bundle.
Recall now from 11.8 the vertical lift vl
E
: E
M
E → V E, which is
an isomorphism, pr
1
–π
E
–fiberwise linear and also p–Tp–fiberwise linear.
Now we define the connector K of the linear connection
¯
Φ by
K := pr
2
◦ (vl
E
)
−1

¯
Φ : TE →V E →E
M
E →E.
Lemma. The connector K : TE → E is π
E
–p–fiberwise linear and
Tp–p–fiberwise linear and satisfies K◦vl
E
= pr
2
: E
M
E →TE →E.
Proof. This follows from the fiberwise linearity of the composants of K
and from its definition.
11.11. Linear connections. If (E, p, M) is a vector bundle, a con-
nection Ψ ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) such that Ψ : TE →V E →TE is also Tp–Tp–
fiberwise linear is called a linear connection. An easy check with 11.9
or a direct construction shows that Ψ is then induced from a unique
principal connection on the linear frame bundle GL(R
n
, E) of E (where
n is the fiber dimension of E).
Equivalently a linear connection may be specified by a connector K :
TE → E with the three properties of lemma 11.10. For then HE :=
¦ξ
u
: K(ξ
u
) = 0
p(u)
¦ is a complement to V E in TE which is Tp–fiberwise
linearly chosen.
70 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
11.12. Covariant derivative on vector bundles. Let (E, p, M) be a
vector bundle with a linear connection, given by a connector K : TE →
E with the properties in lemma 11.10.
For any manifold N, smooth mapping s : N → E, and vector field
X ∈ X(N) we define the covariant derivative of s along X by
(1) ∇
X
s := K ◦ Ts ◦ X : N →TN →TE →E.
If f : N → M is a fixed smooth mapping, let us denote by C

f
(N, E)
the vector space of all smooth mappings s : N → E with p ◦ s = f –
they are called sections of E along f. From the universal property of the
pullback it follows that the vector space C

f
(N, E) is canonically linearly
isomorphic to the space C

(f

E) of sections of the pullback bundle.
Then the covariant derivative may be viewed as a bilinear mapping
(2) ∇ : X(N) C

f
(N, E) →C

f
(N, E).
Lemma. This covariant derivative has the following properties:
(3) ∇
X
s is C

(N, R)-linear in X ∈ X(N).
(4) ∇
X
s is R-linear in s ∈ C

f
(N, E). So for a tangent vector
X
x
∈ T
x
N the mapping ∇
X
x
: C

f
(N, E) → E
f(x)
makes sense
and (∇
X
s)(x) = ∇
X(x)
s.
(5) ∇
X
(h.s) = dh(X).s + h.∇
X
s for h ∈ C

(N, R), the derivation
property of ∇
X
.
(6) For any manifold Q and smooth mapping g : Q → N and Y
y

T
y
Q we have ∇
Tg.Y
y
s = ∇
Y
y
(s ◦g). If Y ∈ X(Q) and X ∈ X(N)
are g-related, then we have ∇
Y
(s ◦ g) = (∇
X
s) ◦ g.
Proof. All these properties follow easily from the definition (1).
Remark. Property (6) is not well understood in some differential geo-
metric literature. See e.g. the clumsy and unclear treatment of it in
[Eells-Lemaire, 1983].
For vector fields X, Y ∈ X(M) and a section s ∈ C

(E) an easy
computation shows that
R
E
(X, Y )s : = ∇
X

Y
s −∇
Y

X
s −∇
[X,Y ]
s
= ([∇
X
, ∇
Y
] −∇
[X,Y ]
)s
is C

(M, R)-linear in X, Y , and s. By the method of 7.4 it follows
that R
E
is a 2-form on M with values in the vector bundle L(E, E),
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 71
i.e. R
E
∈ Ω
2
(M; L(E, E)). It is called the curvature of the covariant
derivative.
For f : N → M, vector fields X, Y ∈ X(N) and a section s ∈
C

f
(N, E) along f we obtain

X

Y
s −∇
Y

X
s −∇
[X,Y ]
s = (f

R
E
)(X, Y )s.
11.13. Covariant exterior derivative. Let (E, p, M) be a vector
bundle with a linear connection, given by a connector K : TE →E.
For a smooth mapping f : N →M let Ω(N; f

E) be the vector space
of all forms on N with values in the vector bundle f

E. We can also view
them as forms on N with values along f in E, but we do not introduce
an extra notation for this.
The graded space Ω(N; f

E) is a graded Ω(N)-module via
(ϕ ∧ Φ)(X
1
, . . . , X
p+q
) =
=
1
p! q!

σ
sign(σ) ϕ(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σp
)Φ(X
σ(p+1)
, . . . , X
σ(p+q)
).
It can easily be shown that the graded module homomorphisms H :
Ω(N; f

E) →Ω(N; f

E) (so that H(ϕ∧Φ) = (−1)
deg H. deg ϕ
ϕ∧H(Φ))
are exactly the mappings µ(K) for K ∈ Ω
q
(N; f

L(E, E)), which are
given by
(µ(K)Φ)(X
1
, . . . , X
p+q
) =
=
1
p! q!

σ
sign(σ) K(X
σ1
, . . . , X
σp
)(Φ(X
σ(p+1)
, . . . , X
σ(p+q)
)).
The covariant exterior derivative d

: Ω
p
(N : f

E) →Ω
p+1
(N; f

E) is
defined by (where the X
i
are vector fields on N)
(d

Φ)(X
0
, . . . , X
p
) =
p

i=0
(−1)
i

X
i
Φ(X
0
, . . . ,
´
X
i
, . . . , X
p
)
+

0≤i<j≤p
(−1)
i+j
Φ([X
i
, X
j
], X
0
, . . . ,
´
X
i
, . . . ,
´
X
j
, . . . , X
p
).
Lemma. The covariant exterior derivative is well defined and has the
following properties.
(1) For s ∈ C

(f

E) = Ω
0
(N; f

E) we have (d

s)(X) = ∇
X
s.
(2) d

(ϕ ∧ Φ) = dϕ ∧ Φ + (−1)
deg ϕ
ϕ ∧ d

Φ.
(3) For smooth g : Q →N and Φ ∈ Ω(N; f

E) we have d

(g

Φ) =
g

(d

Φ).
(4) d

d

Φ = µ(f

R
E
)Φ.
72 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
Proof. It suffices to investigate decomposable forms Φ = ϕ ⊗ s for ϕ ∈

p
(N) and s ∈ C

(f

E). Then from the definition we have d

(ϕ⊗s) =
dϕ ⊗ s + (−1)
p
ϕ ∧ d

s. Since by 11.12,(3) d

s ∈ Ω
1
(N; f

E), the
mapping d

is well defined. This formula also implies (2) immediately.
(3) follows from 11.12,(6). (4) is checked as follows:
d

d

(ϕ ⊗s) = d

(dϕ ⊗s + (−1)
p
ϕ ∧ d

s) by (2)
= 0 + (−1)
2p
ϕ ∧ d

d

s
= ϕ ∧ µ(f ∗ R
E
)s by the definition of R
E
= µ(f

R
E
)(ϕ ∧ s).
11.14. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle and let ρ : G →
GL(W) be a representation of the structure group G on a finite dimen-
sional vector space W.
Theorem. There is a canonical isomorphism from the space of P[W, ρ]-
valued differential forms on M onto the space of horizontal G-equivariant
W-valued differential forms on P:
q

: Ω(M; P[W, ρ]) →Ω
hor
(P; W)
G
= ¦ϕ ∈ Ω(P; W) : i
X
ϕ = 0
for all X ∈ V P, (r
g
)

ϕ = ρ(g
−1
) ◦ ϕ for all g ∈ G¦.
In particular for W = R with trivial representation we see that
p

: Ω(M) →Ω
hor
(P)
G
= ¦ϕ ∈ Ω
hor
(P) : (r
g
)

ϕ = ϕ¦
is also an isomorphism. The isomorphism
q

: Ω
0
(M; P[W]) = C

(P[W]) →Ω
0
hor
(P; W)
G
= C

(P, W)
G
is a special case of the one from 10.12.
Proof. Recall the smooth mapping τ : P
M
P → G from 10.2, which
satisfies r(u
x
, τ(u
x
, v
x
)) = v
x
, τ(u
x
.g, u

x
.g

) = g
−1
.τ(u
x
, u

x
).g

, and
τ(u
x
, u
x
) = e.
Let ϕ ∈ Ω
k
hor
(P; W)
G
, X
1
, . . . , X
k
∈ T
u
P, and X

1
, . . . , X

k
∈ T
u
P
such that T
u
p.X
i
= T
u
p.X

i
for each i. Then we have for g = τ(u, u

),
so that ug = u

:
q(uϕ
u
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
)) = q(ug, ρ(g
−1

u
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
))
= q(u

, ((r
g
)

ϕ)
u
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
))
= q(u

, ϕ
ug
(T
u
(r
g
).X
1
, . . . , T
u
(r
g
).X
k
))
= q(u

, ϕ
u
(X

1
, . . . , X

k
)), since T
u
(r
g
)X
i
−X

i
∈ V
u
P.
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 73
By this prescription a vector bundle valued form Φ ∈ Ω
k
(M; P[W]) is
uniquely determined.
For the converse recall the smooth mapping ¯ τ : P
M
P[W, ρ] → W
from 10.7, which satisfies ¯ τ(u, q(u, w)) = w, q(u
x
, ¯ τ(u
x
, v
x
)) = v
x
, and
¯ τ(u
x
g, v
x
) = ρ(g
−1
)¯ τ(u
x
, v
x
).
For Φ ∈ Ω
k
(M; P[W]) we define q

∈ Ω
k
(P; W) as follows. For
X
i
∈ T
u
P we put
(q

Φ)(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) := ¯ τ(u, Φ
p(u)
(T
u
p.X
1
, . . . , T
u
p.X
k
)).
Then q

Φ is smooth and horizontal. For g ∈ G we have
((r
g
)

(q

Φ))
u
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
) = (q

Φ)
ug
(T
u
(r
g
).X
1
, . . . , T
u
(r
g
).X
k
)
= ¯ τ(ug, Φ
p(ug)
(T
ug
p.T
u
(r
g
).X
1
, . . . , T
ug
p.T
u
(r
g
).X
k
))
= ρ(g
−1
)¯ τ(u, Φ
p(u)
(T
u
p.X
1
, . . . , T
u
p.X
k
))
= ρ(g
−1
)(q

Φ)
u
(X
1
, . . . , X
k
).
Clearly the two constructions are inverse to each other.
11.15. Let (P, p, M, G) be a principal fiber bundle with a principal con-
nection Φ = ζ ◦ ω, and let ρ : G → GL(W) be a representation of the
structure group G on a finite dimensional vector space W. We con-
sider the associated vector bundle (E := P[W, ρ], p, M, W), the induced
connection
¯
Φ on it and the corresponding covariant derivative.
Theorem. The covariant exterior derivative d
ω
from 11.5 on P and the
covariant exterior derivative for P[W]-valued forms on M are connected
by the mapping q

from 11.14, as follows:
q

◦ d

= d
ω
◦ q

: Ω(M; P[W]) →Ω
hor
(P; W)
G
.
Proof. Let first f ∈ Ω
0
hor
(P; W)
G
= C

(P, W)
G
, then f = q

s for s ∈
C

(P[W]) and we have f(u) = τ(u, s(p(u))) and s(p(u)) = q(u, f(u))
by 11.14 and 10.12. Therefore Ts.Tp.X
u
= Tq(X
u
, Tf.X
u
), where
Tf.X
u
= (f(u), df(X
u
)) ∈ TW = W W. If χ : TP → HP is the
horizontal projection as in 11.5, we have Ts.Tp.X
u
= Ts.Tp.χ.X
u
=
Tq(χ.X
u
, Tf.χ.X
u
). So we get
(q

d

s)(X
u
) = τ(u, (d

s)(Tp.X
u
))
= τ(u, ∇
Tp.X
u
s) by 11.13,(1)
= τ(u, K.Ts.Tp.X
u
) by 11.12.(1)
74 11. Principal bundles and induced connections
= τ(u, K.Tq(χ.X
u
, Tf.χ.X
u
)) from above
= τ(u, pr
2
.vl
−1
P[W]
.
¯
Φ.Tq(χ.X
u
, Tf.χ.X
u
)) by 11.10
= τ(u, pr
2
.vl
−1
P[W]
.Tq.(Φ Id)(χ.X
u
, Tf.χ.X
u
))) by 11.8
= τ(u, pr
2
.vl
−1
P[W]
.Tq(0
u
, Tf.χ.X
u
))) since Φ.χ = 0
= τ(u, q.pr
2
.vl
−1
P×W
.Tq(0
u
, Tf.χ.X
u
))) since q is fiber linear
= τ(u, q(u, df.χ.X
u
)) = (χ

df)(X
u
)
= (d
ω
q

s)(X
u
).
Now we turn to the general case. It suffices to check the formula for
a decomposable P[W]-valued form Ψ = ψ ⊗ s ∈ Ω
k
(M, P[W]), where
ψ ∈ Ω
k
(M) and s ∈ C

(P[W]). Then we have
d
ω
q

(ψ ⊗s) = d
ω
(p

ψ q

s)
= d
ω
(p

ψ) q

s + (−1)
k
χ

p

ψ ∧ d
ω
q

s by 11.5,(1)
= χ

p

dψ q

s + (−1)
k
p

ψ ∧ q

d

s from above
= p

dψ q

s + (−1)
k
p

ψ ∧ q

d

s
= q

(dψ ⊗s + (−1)
k
ψ ∧ d

s)
= q

d

(ψ ⊗s).
11.16. Corollary. In the situation of theorem 11.15 above we have
for the curvature form Ω ∈ Ω
2
hor
(P; g) and the curvature R
P[W]


2
(M; L(P[W], P[W])) the relation
q

L(P[W],P[W])
R
P[W]
= ρ

◦ Ω,
where ρ

= T
e
ρ : g →L(W, W) is the derivative of the representation ρ.
Proof. We use the notation of the proof of theorem 11.15. By this the-
orem we have for X, Y ∈ T
u
P
(d
ω
d
ω
q

P[W]
s)
u
(X, Y ) = (q

d

d∇s)
u
(X, Y )
= (q

R
P[W]
s)
u
(X, Y )
= τ(u, R
P[W]
(T
u
p.X, T
u
p.Y )s(p(u)))
= (q

L(P[W],P[W])
R
P[W]
)
u
(X, Y )(q

P[W]
s)(u).
11. Principal bundles and induced connections 75
On the other hand we have by theorem 11.5.(8)
(d
ω
d
ω
q

s)
u
(X, Y ) = (χ

i
R
dq

s)
u
(X, Y )
= (dq

s)
u
(R(X, Y )) since R is horizontal
= (dq

s)(−ζ
Ω(X,Y )
(u)) by 11.2
=

∂t
¸
¸
0
(q

s)(Fl
ζ
Ω(X,Y )
−t
(u))
=

∂t
¸
¸
0
τ(u. exp(−tΩ(X, Y )), s(p(u. exp(−tΩ(X, Y )))))
=

∂t
¸
¸
0
τ(u. exp(−tΩ(X, Y )), s(p(u)))
=

∂t
¸
¸
0
ρ(exp tΩ(X, Y ))τ(u, s(p(u))) by 11.7
= ρ

(Ω(X, Y ))(q

s)(u).
76
12. Holonomy
12.1. Holonomy groups. Let (E,p,M,S) be a fiber bundle with a
complete connection Φ, and let us assume that M is connected. We
choose a fixed base point x
0
∈ M and we identify E
x
0
with the standard
fiber S. For each closed piecewise smooth curve c : [0, 1] → M through
x
0
the parallel transport Pt(c, , 1) =: Pt(c, 1) (pieced together over the
smooth parts of c) is a diffeomorphism of S. All these diffeomorphisms
form together the group Hol(Φ, x
0
), the holonomy group of Φ at x
0
, a
subgroup of the diffeomorphism group Diff(S). If we consider only those
piecewise smooth curves which are homotopic to zero, we get a subgroup
Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
), called the restricted holonomy group of the connection Φ at
x
0
.
12.2. Holonomy Lie algebra. In the setting of 12.1 let C : TM
M
E → TE be the horizontal lifting as in 9.3, and let R be the curvature
(9.4) of the connection Φ. For any x ∈ M and X
x
∈ T
x
M the horizontal
lift C(X
x
) := C(X
x
, ) : E
x
→ TE is a vector field along E
x
. For X
x
and Y
x
∈ T
x
M we consider R(CX
x
, CY
x
) ∈ X(E
x
). Now we choose any
piecewise smooth curve c from x
0
to x and consider the diffeomorphism
Pt(c, t) : S = E
x
0
→ E
x
and the pullback Pt(c, 1)

R(CX
x
, CY
x
) ∈
X(S). Let us denote by hol(Φ, x
0
) the closed linear subspace, generated
by all these vector fields (for all x ∈ M, X
x
, Y
x
∈ T
x
M and curves c
from x
0
to x) in X(S) with respect to the compact C

-topology, and
let us call it the holonomy Lie algebra of Φ at x
0
.
12.3. Lemma. hol(Φ, x
0
) is a Lie subalgebra of X(S).
Proof. For X ∈ X(M) we consider the local flow Fl
CX
t
of the horizontal
lift of X. It restricts to parallel transport along any of the flow lines of
X in M. Then for vector fields on M the expression
d
dt
[
0
(Fl
CX
s
)

(Fl
CY
t
)

(Fl
CX
−s
)

(Fl
CZ
z
)

R(CU, CV ) E
x
0
= (Fl
CX
s
)

[CY, (Fl
CX
−s
)

(Fl
CZ
z
)

R(CU, CV )] E
x
0
= [(Fl
CX
s
)

CY, (Fl
CZ
z
)

R(CU, CV )] E
x
0
is in hol(Φ, x
0
), since it is closed in the compact C

-topology and the
derivative can be written as a limit. Thus
[(Fl
CX
s
)

[CY
1
, CY
2
], (Fl
CZ
z
)

R(CU, CV )] E
x
0
∈ hol(Φ, x
0
)
by the Jacobi identity and
[(Fl
CX
s
)

C[Y
1
, Y
2
], (Fl
CZ
z
)

R(CU, CV )] E
x
0
∈ hol(Φ, x
0
),
12. Holonomy 77
so also their difference
[(Fl
CX
s
)

R(CY
1
, CY
2
), (Fl
CZ
z
)

R(CU, CV )] E
x
0
is in hol(Φ, x
0
).
12.4. The following theorem is a generalization of the theorem of Am-
brose and Singer on principal connections.
Theorem. Let Φ be a connection on the fiber bundle (E, p, M, S) and
let M be connected. Suppose that for some (hence any) x
0
∈ M the
holonomy Lie algebra hol(Φ, x
0
) is finite dimensional and consists of
complete vector fields on the fiber E
x
0
Then there is a principal bundle (P, p, M, G) with finite dimensional
structure group G, an irreducible connection ω on it and a smooth action
of G on S such that the Lie algebra g of G equals the holonomy Lie
algebra hol(Φ, x
0
), the fiber bundle E is isomorphic to the associated
bundle P[S], and Φ is the connection induced by ω. The structure group
G equals the holonomy group Hol(Φ, x
0
). P and ω are unique up to
isomorphism.
By a theorem of [Palais, 1957] a finite dimensional Lie subalgebra of
X(E
x
0
) like Hol(Φ, x
0
) consists of complete vector fields if and only if it
is generated by complete vector fields as a Lie algebra.
Proof. Let us again identify E
x
0
and S. Then g := hol(Φ, x
0
) is a finite
dimensional Lie subalgebra of X(S), and since each vector field in it
is complete, there is a finite dimensional connected Lie group G
0
of
diffeomorphisms of S with Lie algebra g, see [Palais, 1957].
Claim 1. G
0
equals Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
), the restricted holonomy group.
Let f ∈ Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
), then f = Pt(c, 1) for a piecewise smooth closed
curve c through x
0
, which is nullhomotopic. Since the parallel transport
is essentially invariant under reparametrization, 9.8, we can replace c by
c ◦ g, where g is smooth and flat at each corner of c. So we may assume
that c itself is smooth. Since c is homotopic to zero, by approximation
we may assume that there is a smooth homotopy H : R
2
→ M with
H
1
[[0, 1] = c and H
0
[[0, 1] = x
0
. Then f
t
:= Pt(H
t
, 1) is a curve in
Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
) which is smooth as a mapping R S →S.
Claim 2. (
d
dt
f
t
) ◦ f
−1
t
=: Z
t
is in g for all t.
To prove claim 2 we consider the pullback bundle H

E → R
2
with the
induced connection H
Φ
. It is sufficient to prove claim 2 there. Let
X =
d
ds
and Y =
d
dt
be the constant vector fields on R
2
, so [X, Y ] = 0.
Then Pt(c, s) = Fl
CX
s
[S and so on. We put
f
t,s
= Fl
CX
−s
◦ Fl
CY
−t
◦ Fl
CX
s
◦ Fl
CY
t
: S →S,
78 12. Holonomy
so f
t,1
= f
t
. Then we have in the vector space X(S)
(
d
dt
f
t,s
) ◦ f
−1
t,s
= −(Fl
CX
s
)

CY + (Fl
CX
s
)

(Fl
CY
t
)

(Fl
CX
−s
)

CY,
(
d
dt
f
t,s
) ◦ f
−1
t,s
=
_
1
0
d
ds
_
(
d
dt
f
t,s
) ◦ f
−1
t,s
_
ds
=
_
1
0
_
−(Fl
CX
s
)

[CX, CY ] + (Fl
CX
s
)

[CX, (Fl
CY
t
)

(Fl
CX
−s
)

CY ]
−(Fl
CX
s
)

(Fl
CY
t
)

(Fl
CX
−s
)

[CX, CY ]
_
ds.
Since [X, Y ] = 0 we have [CX, CY ] = Φ[CX, CY ] = R(CX, CY ) and
(Fl
CX
t
)

CY = C
_
(Fl
X
t
)

Y
_
+ Φ
_
(Fl
CX
t
)

CY
_
= CY +
_
1
0
d
dt
Φ(Fl
CX
t
)

CY dt = CY +
_
1
0
Φ(Fl
CX
t
)

[CX, CY ] dt
= CY +
_
1
0
Φ(Fl
CX
t
)

R(CX, CY ) dt.
Thus all parts of the integrand above are in g and so (
d
dt
f
t,s
) ◦ f
−1
t,s
is in
g for all t and claim 2 follows.
Now claim 1 can be shown as follows. There is a unique smooth curve
g(t) in G
0
satisfying T
e

g(t)
)Z
t
= Z
t
.g(t) =
d
dt
g(t) and g(0) = e; via
the action of G
0
on S the curve g(t) is a curve of diffeomorphisms on S,
generated by the time dependent vector field Z
t
, so g(t) = f
t
and f = f
1
is in G
0
. So we get Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
) ⊆ G
0
.
Claim 3. Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
) equals G
0
.
In the proof of claim 1 we have seen that Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
) is a smoothly
arcwise connected subgroup of G
0
, so it is a connected Lie subgroup by
the results cited in 5.6. It suffices thus to show that the Lie algebra
g of G
0
is contained in the Lie algebra of Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
), and for that
it is enough to show, that for each ξ ∈ g there is a smooth mapping
f : [−1, 1] S →S such that the associated curve
ˇ
f lies in Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
)
with
ˇ
f

(0) = 0 and
ˇ
f

(0) = ξ.
By definition we may assume ξ = Pt(c, 1)

R(CX
x
, CY
x
) for X
x
, Y
x

T
x
M and a smooth curve c in M from x
0
to x. We extend X
x
and Y
x
to vector fields X and Y ∈ X(M) with [X, Y ] = 0 near x. We may also
suppose that Z ∈ X(M) is a vector field which extends c

(t) along c(t):
make c simple piecewise smooth by deleting any loop, reparametrize it
in such a way that it is again smooth (see the beginning of this proof)
12. Holonomy 79
and approximate it by an embedding. The vector fields ξ thus obtained
still generate the finite dimensional vector space g. So we have
ξ = (Fl
CZ
1
)

R(CX, CY ) = (Fl
CZ
1
)

[CX, CY ] since [X, Y ](x) = 0
= (Fl
CZ
1
)
∗ 1
2
d
2
dt
2
[
t=0
(Fl
CY
−t
◦ Fl
CX
−t
◦ Fl
CY
t
◦ Fl
CX
t
)
=
1
2
d
2
dt
2
[
t=0
(Fl
CZ
−1
Fl
CY
−t
◦ Fl
CX
−t
◦ Fl
CY
t
◦ Fl
CX
t
) Fl
CZ
1
),
where we used the well known formula expressing the Lie bracket of two
vector fields as the second derivative of the (group theoretic) commutator
of the flows. The parallel transport in the last equation first follows c
from x
0
to x, then follows a small closed parallelogram near x in M
(since [X, Y ] = 0 near x) and then follows c back to x
0
. This curve is
clearly nullhomotopic, so claim 3 follows.
Step 4. Now we make Hol(Φ, x
0
) into a Lie group which we call G, by
taking Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
) = G
0
as its connected component of the identity.
Then Hol(Φ, x
0
)/ Hol
0
(Φ, x
0
) is a countable group, since the fundamen-
tal group π
1
(M) is countable (by Morse Theory M is homotopy equiv-
alent to a countable CW-complex).
Step 5. Construction of a cocycle of transition functions with values in
G. Let (U
α
, u
α
: U
α
→R
m
) be a locally finite smooth atlas for M such
that each u
α
: U
α
→ R
m
) is surjective. Put x
α
:= u
−1
α
(0) and choose
smooth curves c
α
: [0, 1] → M with c
α
(0) = x
0
and c
α
(1) = x
α
. For
each x ∈ U
α
let c
x
α
: [0, 1] → M be the smooth curve t → u
−1
α
(t.u
α
(x)),
then c
x
α
connects x
α
and x and the mapping (x, t) → c
x
α
(t) is smooth
U
α
[0, 1] →M. Now we define a fiber bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
: E[U
α

U
α
S) by ψ
−1
α
(x, s) = Pt(c
x
α
, 1) Pt(c
α
, 1) s. Then ψ
α
is smooth since
Pt(c
x
α
, 1) = Fl
CX
x
1
for a local vector field X
x
depending smoothly on x.
Let us investigate the transition functions.
ψ
β
ψ
−1
α
(x, s) =
_
x, Pt(c
α
, 1)
−1
Pt(c
x
α
, 1)
−1
Pt(c
x
β
, 1) Pt(c
β
, 1) s
_
=
_
x, Pt(c
β
.C
x
β
.(c
x
α
)
−1
.(c
α
)
−1
, 4) s
_
=: (x, ψ
βα
(x) s), where ψ
βα
: U
βα
→G.
Clearly ψ
βα
: U
βα
S →S is smooth which implies that ψ
βα
: U
βα
→G
is also smooth. (ψ
αβ
) is a cocycle of transition functions and we use it
to glue a principal bundle with structure group G over M which we call
(P, p, M, G). From its construction it is clear that the associated bundle
P[S] = P
G
S equals (E, p, M, S).
Step 6. Lifting the connection Φ to P.
For this we have to compute the Christoffel symbols of Φ with respect
80 12. Holonomy
to the atlas of step 5. To do this directly is quite difficult since we
have to differentiate the parallel transport with respect to the curve.
Fortunately there is another way. Let c : [0, 1] →U
α
be a smooth curve.
Then we have
ψ
α
(Pt(c, t)ψ
−1
α
(c(0), s)) =
=
_
c(t), Pt(c
−1
α
, 1) Pt((c
c(t)
α
)
−1
, 1) Pt(c, t) Pt(c
c(t)
α
, 1) Pt(c
α
, 1)s
_
= (c(t), γ(t).s),
where γ(t) is a smooth curve in the holonomy group G. Now let Γ
α


1
(U
α
, X(S)) be the Christoffel symbol of the connection Φ with respect
to the chart (U
α
, ψ
α
). From the third proof of theorem 9.8 we have
ψ
α
(Pt(c, t)ψ
−1
α
(c(0), s)) = (c(t), ¯ γ(t, s),
where ¯ γ(t, s) is the integral curve through s of the time dependent vector
field Γ
α
(
d
dt
c(t)) on S. But then we get
Γ
α
(
d
dt
c(t))(s) =
d
dt
¯ γ(t, s) =
d
dt
(γ(t).s) = (
d
dt
γ(t)).s,
where
d
dt
γ(t) ∈ g. So Γ
α
takes values in the Lie sub algebra of fun-
damental vector fields for the action of G on S. By theorem 11.9 the
connection Φ is thus induced by a principal connection ω on P. Since
by 11.8 the principal connection ω has the ”same” holonomy group as Φ
and since this is also the structure group of P, the principal connection
ω is irreducible, see 11.7.
81
13. The nonlinear frame bundle of a fiber bundle
13.1. Let now (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bundle and let us fix a fiber bundle
atlas (U
α
) with transition functions ψ
αβ
: U
αβ
S →S. By 6.8 we have
C

(U
αβ
, C

(S, S)) ⊆ C

(U
αβ
S, S) with equality if and only if S
is compact. Let us therefore assume from now on that S is compact.
Then we assume that the transition functions ψ
αβ
: U
αβ
→Diff(S, S).
Now we define the nonlinear frame bundle of (E, p, M, S) as follows.
We consider the set Diff¦S, E¦ :=

x∈M
Diff(S, E
x
) and give it the
infinite dimensional differentiable structure which one gets by applying
the functor Diff(S, ) to the cocycle of transition functions (ψ
αβ
). Then
the resulting cocycle of transition functions for Diff¦S, E¦ gives it the
structure of a smooth principal bundle over M with structure group
Diff(M). The principal action is just composition from the right.
We can consider now the smooth action ev : Diff(S) S → S and
the associated bundle Diff¦S, E¦[S, ev] =
Diff{S,E}×S
Diff(S)
. The mapping
ev : Diff¦S, E¦S →E is invariant under the Diff(S)-action and factors
therefore to a smooth mapping Diff¦S, E¦[S, ev] →E as in the following
diagram:
Diff¦S, E¦ S
pr
−−−−→
Diff{S,E}×S
Diff(S)
ev
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
E ←−−−− Diff¦S, E¦[S, ev].
The bottom mapping is easily seen to be a diffeomorphism. Thus the
bundle Diff¦S, E¦ is in full right the (nonlinear) frame bundle of E.
13.2. Lemma. In the setting of 13.1 the infinite dimensional smooth
manifold Diff¦S, E¦ is a splitting smooth submanifold of Emb(S, E),
with the obvious embedding.
13.3. Let now Φ ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) be a connection on E. We want to lift
Φ to a principal connection on Diff¦S, E¦, and for this we need a good
description of the tangent space T Diff¦S, E¦. With the methods of
[Michor, 1980] one can show that
T Diff¦S, E¦ =
_
x∈M
¦f ∈ C

(S, TE[E
x
) : Tp ◦ f = one point
in T
x
M and π
E
◦ f ∈ Diff(S, E
x
)¦.
Starting from the connection Φ we can then consider ω(f) := T(π
E

f)
−1
◦ Φ◦ f : S →TE →V E →TS for f ∈ T Diff¦S, E¦. Then ω(f) is
a vector field on S and we have
82 13. The nonlinear frame bundle of a fiber bundle
Lemma. ω ∈ Ω
1
(Diff¦S, E¦; X(S)) is a principal connection and the
induced connection on E = Diff¦S, E¦[S, ev] coincides with Φ.
Proof. This follows directly from 11.9. But we also give a direct proof.
The fundamental vector field ζ
X
on Diff¦S, E¦ for X ∈ X(S) is given
by ζ
X
(g) = Tg ◦ X. Then ω(ζ
X
(g)) = Tg
−1
◦ Φ ◦ Tg ◦ X = X since
Tg ◦ X has vertical values. So ω reproduces fundamental vector fields.
Now let h ∈ Diff(S) and denote by r
h
the principal right action. Then
we have
((r
h
)

ω)(f) = ω(T(r
h
)f) = ω(f ◦ h) = T(π
E
◦ f ◦ h)
−1
◦ Φf
.
◦ h
= Th
−1
◦ ω(f) ◦ h = Ad
Diff(S)
(h
−1
)ω(f).
13.4 Theorem. Let (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bundle with compact stan-
dard fiber S. Then connections on E and principal connections on
Diff¦S, E¦ correspond to each other bijectively, and their curvatures are
related as in 11.8. Each principal connection on Diff¦S, E¦ admits a
global parallel transport. The holonomy groups and the restricted holo-
nomy groups are equal as subgroups of Diff(S).
Proof. This follows directly from 11.8 and 11.9. Each connection on E
is complete since S is compact, and the lift to Diff¦S, E¦ of its parallel
transport is the global parallel transport of the lift of the connection, so
the two last assertions follow.
13.5. Remark on the holonomy Lie algebra. Let M be connected,
let ρ = −dω−
1
2
[ω, ω]
X(S)
be the usual X(S)-valued curvature of the lifted
connection ω on Diff¦S, E¦. Then we consider the R-linear span of all
elements ρ(ξ
f
, η
f
) in X(S), where ξ
f
, η
f
∈ T
f
Diff¦S, E¦ are arbitrary
(horizontal) tangent vectors, and we call this span hol(ω). Then by the
Diff(S)-equivariance of ρ the vector space hol(ω) is an ideal in the Lie
algebra X(S).
13.6. Lemma. Let f : S → E
x
0
be a diffeomorphism in Diff¦S, E¦
x
0
.
Then f

: X(S) → X(E
x
0
) induces an isomorphism between hol(ω) and
the R-linear span of all g

R(CX, CY ), X, Y ∈ T
x
M, and g : E
x
)
→E
x
any diffeomorphism.
The proof is obvious. Note that the closure of f

(hol(ω)) is (a priori)
larger than hol(Φ, x
0
) of 12.2. Which one is the right holonomy Lie
algebra?
83
14. Gauge theory for fiber bundles
We fix the setting of section 13. In particular the standard fiber S is
supposed to be compact.
14.1. We consider the bundle Diff¦E, E¦ :=

x∈M
Diff(E
x
, E
x
) which
bears the smooth structure described by the cocycle of transition func-
tions Diff(ψ
−1
αβ
, ψ
αβ
) = (ψ
αβ
)


βα
)

, where (ψ
αβ
) is a cocycle of tran-
sition functions for the bundle (E, p, M, S).
14.2. Lemma. The associated bundle Diff¦S, E¦[Diff(S), conj] is iso-
morphic to the fiber bundle Diff¦E, E¦.
Proof. The mapping A : Diff¦S, E¦ Diff(S) → Diff¦E, E¦, given by
A(f, g) := f ◦g◦f
−1
: E
x
→S →S →E
x
for f ∈ Diff(S, E
x
), is Diff(S)-
invariant, so it factors to a smooth mapping Diff¦S, E¦[Diff(S)] →
Diff¦E, E¦. It is bijective ans admits locally over M smooth inverses,
so it is a fiber respecting diffeomorphism.
14.3. The gauge group Gau(E) of the bundle (E, p, M, S) is by defi-
nition the group of all principal bundle automorphisms of the Diff(S)-
bundle (Diff¦S, E¦ which cover the identity of M. The usual reasoning
gives that Gau(E) equals the space of all smooth sections of the asso-
ciated bundle Diff¦S, E¦[Diff(S), conj] which by 14.2 equals the space
of sections of the bundle Diff¦E, E¦ →M. We equip it with the topol-
ogy and differentiable structure as a space of smooth sections, see 6.1.
Since only the image space is infinite dimensional but admits exponen-
tial mappings (induced from the finite dimensional ones) this makes no
difficulties. Since the fiber S is compact we see from a local (on M) appli-
cation of the exponential law 6.8 that C

(Diff¦E, E¦ →M) →Diff(E)
is an embedding of a splitting closed submanifold.
14.4. Theorem. The gauge group Gau(E) = C

(Diff¦E, E¦) is a
splitting closed subgroup of Diff(E), if S is compact. It has an exponen-
tial mapping which is not surjective on any neighborhood of the identity.
Its Lie algebra consists of all vertical vector fields with compact support
on E, with the negative of the usual Lie bracket.
Proof. The first statement has already been shown before the theo-
rem. A curve through the identity of principal bundle automorphisms
of Diff¦S, E¦ → M is a smooth curve through the identity in Diff(E)
consisting of fiber respecting mappings. the derivative of such a curve is
thus an arbitrary vertical vector field with compact support. The space
of all these is therefore the Lie algebra of the gauge group, with the
negative of the usual Lie bracket.
84 14. Gauge theory for diffeomorphism groups
The exponential mapping is given by the flow operator of such vector
fields. Since on each fiber it is just isomorphic the exponential mapping
of Diff(S), it has all the properties of the latter.
14.5. Remark. If S is not compact we may circumvent the nonlinear
frame bundle, and we may define the gauge group Gau(E) directly as the
splitting closed subgroup of Diff(E) which consists of all fiber respecting
diffeomorphisms which cover the identity of M. The Lei algebra of
Gau(E) consists then of all vertical vector fields on E with compact
support on E.
14.6 The space of connections. Let J
1
(E) →E be the affine bundle
of 1-jets of sections of E → M. We have J
1
(E) = ¦ ∈ L(T
x
M, T
u
E) :
Tp ◦ = Id
T
x
M
, u ∈ E, p(u) = x¦. Then a section of J
1
(E) →E is just
a horizontal lift mapping TM
M
E →TE which is fiber linear over E,
so it describes a connection as treated in 9.2 and we may view the space
of sections C

(J
1
(E) →E) as the space of all connections.
14.7. Theorem. The action of the gauge group Gau(E) on the space
of connections C

(J
1
(E)) is smooth.
Proof. This follows from 6.6
14.8. We will now give a different description of the action. We view
now a connection Φ again as a linear fiber wise projection TE → V E,
So the space of connections is now Conn(E) := ¦Φ ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) : Φ ◦
Φ = Φ, Φ(TE) = V E¦. Since S is compact the canonical isomorphism
Conn(E) → C

(J
1
(E)) is even a diffeomorphism. Then the action of
f ∈ Gau(E) ⊂ Diff(E) on Φ ∈ Conn(E) is given by f

Φ = (f
−1
)

Φ =
Tf ◦ Φ ◦ Tf
−1
. Now it is very easy to describe the infinitesimal action.
Let X be a vertical vector field with compact support on E and consider
its global flow Fl
X
t
.
Then we have
d
dt
[
0
(Fl
X
t
)

Φ = L
X
Φ = [X, Φ], the Fr¨olicher Nijenhuis
bracket, by 8.16(5). The tangent space of Conn(E) at Φ is the space
T
Φ
Conn(E) = ¦Ψ ∈ Ω
1
(E; TE) : Ψ[V E = 0¦. The ”infinitesimal orbit”
at Φ in T
Φ
Conn(E) is ¦[X, Φ] : X ∈ C

c
(V E)¦.
The isotropy subgroup of a connection Φ is ¦f ∈ Gau(E) : f

Φ = Φ¦.
Clearly this just the group of all those f which respect the horizontal
bundle HE = ker Φ. The most interesting object is of course the orbit
space Conn(E)/ Gau(E). If the base manifold M is compact then one
can show that the orbit space is stratified into smooth manifolds, each
one corresponding to a conjugacy class of holonomy groups in Diff(S).
Those strata whose holonomy group groups are up to conjugacy con-
tained in a fixed compact group (like SU(2)) acting on S are diffeo-
morphic to the strata of the usual finite dimensional gauge theory. The
14. Gauge theory for diffeomorphism groups 85
proof of this assertions is quite complicated and will be dealt with in
another paper, see [Gil-Medrano Michor, 1989] for the starting idea.
86
15. A classifying space
for the diffeomorphism group
15.1. Let
2
be the Hilbert space of square summable sequences and
let S be a compact manifold. By a slight generalization of theorem
7.3 (we use a Hilbert space instead of a Riemannian manifold N) the
space Emb(S,
2
) of all smooth embeddings is an open submanifold of
C

(S,
2
) and it is also the total space of a smooth principal bundle
with structure group Diff(S) acting from the right by composition. The
base space B(S,
2
) := Emb(S,
2
)/ Diff(S) is a smooth manifold mod-
eled on Fr´echet spaces which are projective limits of Hilbert spaces.
B(S,
2
) is a Lindel¨of space in the quotient topology and the model
spaces admit bump functions, thus B(S,
2
) admits smooth partitions of
unity. We may view B(S,
2
) as the space of all submanifolds of
2
which
are diffeomorphic to S, a nonlinear analogy of the infinite dimensional
Grassmanian.
15.2. Lemma. The total space Emb(S,
2
) is contractible.
So by the general theory of classifying spaces the base space B(S,
2
)
is a classifying space of Diff(S). I will give a detailed description of the
classifying process in 15.4 below.
Proof. We consider the continuous homotopy A :
2
[0, 1] →
2
through
isometries which is given by A
0
= Id and by
A
t
(a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . ) = (a
0
, . . . , a
n−2
, a
n−1
cos θ
n
(t), a
n−1
sin θ
n
(t),
a
n
cos θ
n
(t), a
n
sin θ
n
(t), a
n+1
cos θ
n
(t), a
n+1
sin θ
n
(t), . . . )
for
1
n+1
≤ t ≤
1
n
, where θ
n
(t) = ϕ(n((n + 1)t −1))
π
2
for a fixed smooth
function ϕ : R →R which is 0 on (−∞, 0], grows monotonically to 1 in
[0, 1], and equals 1 on [1, ∞)].
Then A
1/2
(a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . ) = (a
0
, 0, a
1
, 0, a
2
, 0, . . . ) is in
2
even
and on
the other hand A
1
(a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . ) = (0, a
0
, 0, a
1
, 0, a
2
, 0, . . . ) is in
2
odd
.
The same homotopy makes sense as a mapping A : R

R → R

,
and here it is easily seen to be smooth: a smooth curve in R

is locally
bounded and thus takes locally values in a finite dimensional subspace
R
N
⊂ R

. The image under A then has values in R
2N
⊂ R

and the
expression is clearly smooth as a mapping into R
2N
. This is a variant
of a homotopy constructed by [Ramadas, 1982].
Given two embeddings e
1
and e
2
∈ Emb(S,
2
) we first deform e
1
through embeddings to e

1
∈ Emb(S,
2
even
), and e
2
to e

2
∈ Emb(S,
2
odd
);
then we connect them by te

1
+ (1 − t)e

2
which is a smooth embedding
for all t since the values are always orthogonal.
15. Classifying spaces for diffeomorphism groups 87
15.3. We consider the smooth action ev : Diff(S) S → S and the
associated bundle Emb(S,
2
)[S, ev] = Emb(S,
2
)
Diff(S)
S which we
call E(S,
2
), smooth fiber bundle over B(S,
2
) with standard fiber S. In
view of the interpretation of B(S,
2
) as the nonlinear Grassmannian we
may visualize E(S,
2
) as the ”universal S-bundle” as follows: E(S,
2
) =
¦(N, x) ∈ B(S,
2
)
2
: x ∈ N¦ with the differentiable structure from
the embedding into B(S,
2
)
2
.
The tangent bundle TE(S,
2
) is then the space of all (N, x, ξ, v) where
N ∈ B(S,
2
), x ∈ N, ξ is a vector field along and normal to N in
2
, and
v ∈ T
x

2
such that the part of v normal to T
x
N equals ξ(x). This follows
from the description of the principal fiber bundle Emb(S,
2
) →B(S,
2
)
given in 7.3 combined with 6.7. Obviously the vertical bundle V E(S,
2
)
consists of all (N, x, v) with x ∈ N and v ∈ T
x
N. The orthonormal
projection p
(N,x)
:
2
→ T
x
N defines a connection Φ
class
: TE(S,
2
) →
V E(S,
2
) which is given by Φ
class
(N, x, ξ, v) = (N, x, p
(N,x)
v). It will
be called the classifying connection for reasons to be explained in the
next theorem.
15.4. Theorem. Classifying space for Diff(S). The fiber bundle
(E(S,
2
), pr, B(S,
2
), S) is classifying for S-bundles and Φ
class
is a clas-
sifying connection:
For each finite dimensional bundle (E, p, M, S) and each connection
Φ on E there is a smooth (classifying) mapping f : M →B(S,
2
) such
that (E, Φ) is isomorphic to (f

E(S,
2
), f

Φ
class
). Homotopic maps pull
back isomorphic S-bundles and conversely (the homotopy can be chosen
smooth). The pulled back connection is invariant under a homotopy
H if and only if i(C
class
T
(x,t)
H.(0
x
,
d
dt
))R
class
= 0 where R
class
is the
curvature of Φ
class
.
Since S is compact the classifying connection Φ
class
is complete and
its parallel transport Pt
class
has the following classifying property:
˜
f ◦ Pt
f

Φ
class
(c, t) = Pt
class
(f ◦ c, t) ◦
˜
f,
where
˜
f : E

= F

E(S,
2
) → E(S,
2
) is the fiberwise diffeomorphic
which covers the classifying mapping f : M →B(S,
2
).
Proof. We choose a Riemannian metric g
1
on the vector bundle V E →E
and a Riemannian metric g
2
on the manifold M. We can combine these
two into the Riemannian metric g := (Tp[ ker Φ)

g
2
⊕g
1
on the manifold
E, for which the horizontal and vertical spaces are orthogonal. By the
theorem of Nash there is an isometric imbedding h : E → R
N
for N
large enough. We then embed R
N
into the Hilbert space
2
and consider
88 15. Classifying spaces for diffeomorphism groups
f : M →B(S,
2
), given by f(x) = h(E
x
). Then
E
˜
f=(f,h)
−−−−−→ E(S,
2
)
p
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
pr
M −−−−→
f
B(S,
2
)
is fiberwise a diffeomorphism, so this diagram is a pullback and we have
f

E(S,
2
) = E. Since T(f, h) maps horizontal and vertical vectors to
orthogonal ones, (f, h)

Φ
class
= Φ. If Pt denotes the parallel transport
of the connection Φ and c : [0, 1] →M is a (piecewise) smooth curve we
have for u ∈ E
c(0))
Φ
class ∂
∂t
¸
¸
0
˜
f(Pt(c, t, u)) = Φ
class
.T
˜
f.

∂t
¸
¸
0
Pt(c, t, u)
= T
˜
f.Φ.

∂t
¸
¸
0
Pt(c, t, u) = 0, so
˜
f(Pt(c, t, u)) = Pt
class
(f ◦ c, t,
˜
f(u)).
Now let H be a continuous homotopy M I → B(S,
2
). Then
we may approximate H by smooth mappings with the same H
0
and
H
1
, if they are smooth, see [Br¨ocker-J¨anich, 1973], where the infnite
dimensionality of B(S,
2
) does not disturb. Then we consider the bundle
H

E(S,
2
) → M I, equipped with the connection H

Φ
class
, whose
curvature is H

R
class
. Let ∂
t
be the vector field tangential to all ¦x¦I
on M I. Parallel transport along the lines t → (x, t) with respect
H

Φ
class
is given by the flow of the horizontal lift (H

C
class
)(∂
t
) of ∂
t
.
Let us compute its action on the connection H

Φ
class
whose curvature
is H

R
class
by 9.5.(3). By lemma 9.9 we have

∂t
_
Fl
(H

C
class
)(∂
t
)
t
_

H

Φ
class
= −
1
2
i
(H

C
class
)(∂
t
)
(H

R
class
)
= −
1
2
H

_
i(C
class
T
(x,t)
H.(0
x
,
d
dt
))R
class
_
which implies the result.
15.5. Theorem. [Ebin-Marsden, 1970] Let S be a compact orientable
manifold, let µ
0
be a positive volume form on S with total mass 1. Then
Diff(S) splits smoothly into Diff(S) = Diff
µ
0
(S)Vol(S) where Diff
µ
0
(S)
is the Lie group of all µ
0
-preserving diffeomorphisms and Vol(S) is the
space of all volume forms of total mass 1.
Proof. We show first that there exists a smooth mapping τ : Vol(S) →
Diff(S) such that τ(µ)

µ
0
= µ.
15. Classifying spaces for diffeomorphism groups 89
We put µ
t
= µ
0
+t(µ−µ
0
). We want a smooth curve t →f
t
∈ Diff(S)
with f

t
µ
t
= µ
0
. We have

∂t
f
t
= X
t
◦ f
t
for a time dependent vector
field X
t
on S. Then 0 =

∂t
f

t
µ
t
= f

t
L
X
t
µ
t
+f

t

∂t
µ
t
= f

t
(L
X
t
µ
t
+(µ =
µ
0
)), so L
X
t
µ
t
= µ
0
− µ and consequently
_
S
L
X
t
µ
t
=
_
S

0
− µ) = 0.
So the cohomology class of L
X
t
µ
t
in H
dimS
(S) is zero, and we have
L
X
t
µ
t
= di
X
t
µ
t
+i
X
t
0 = dω for some ω ∈ Ω
dimS−1
(S). Now we choose
ω such that dω = µ
0
− µ and we choose it smoothly depending on µ
by the theorem of Hodge. Then the time dependent vector field X
t
is
uniquely determined by i
X
t
µ
t
= ω since µ
t
is nowhere 0. Let f
t
be the
evolution operator of X
t
and put τ(µ) = f
−1
1
.
Now we may prove the theorem proper. We define a mapping Ψ :
Diff(S) → Diff
µ
0
(S) Vol(S) by Ψ(f) := (f ◦ τ(f

µ
0
)
−1
, f

µ
0
), which
is smooth by sections 6 and 7. An easy computation shows that the
inverse is given by the smooth mapping Ψ
−1
(g, µ) = g ◦ τ(µ).
15.6. A consequence of theorem 15.5 is that the classifying spaces of
Diff(S) and Diff
µ
0
(S) are homotopy equivalent. So their classifying
spaces are also homotopy equivalent.
We now sketch a smooth classifying space for Diff
µ
0
. Consider the
space B
1
(S,
2
) of all submanifolds of
2
of type S and total volume
1 in the volume form induced from the inner product on
2
. It is a
closed splitting submanifold of codimension 1 of B(S,
2
) by the Nash-
Moser inverse function theorem, see [Hamilton, 1982]. This theorem is
applicable if we use
2
as image space, because the modeling spaces are
then tame Fr´echet spaces in his sense. It is not applicable directly for
R

as image space.
15.7. Theorem. Classifying space for Diff
ω
(S). Let S be a com-
pact real analytic manifold. Then the space Emb
ω
(S,
2
) of real analytic
embeddings of S into the Hilbert space
2
is the total space of a real
analytic principal fiber bundle with structure group Diff
ω
(S) and real
analytic base manifold B
ω
(S,
2
), which is a classifying space for the Lie
group Diff
ω
(S). It carries a universal Diff
ω
(S)-connection.
In other words:
(Emb
ω
(S, N)
Diff
ω
(S)
S →B
ω
(S,
2
)
classifies fiber bundles with typical fiber S and carries a universal (gen-
eralized) connection.
The proof is similar to that of 15.4 with the appropriate changes to
C
ω
.
90
16. A characteristic class
16.1. Bundles with fiber volumes. Let (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bun-
dle and let µ be a smooth section of the line bundle Λ
n
V

E →E where
n = dimS, such that for each x ∈ M the n-form µ
x
:= µ[E
x
is a positive
volume form of total mass 1. Such a form will be called a fiber volume on
E. Such forms exist on any oriented bundle with compact oriented fiber
type. We may plug n vertical vector fields X
i
∈ C

(V E) into µ to get
a function µ(X
1
, . . . , X
n
) on E, but we cannot treat µ as a differential
form on E.
16.2. Lemma. Let µ
0
be a fixed volume form on S and let µ be a fiber
volume on the bundle E. Then there is a bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
: E[U
α

U
α
S) such that (ψ
α
[E
x
)

µ
0
= µ
x
for all x ∈ U
α
.
Proof. We start with any bundle atlas (U
α
, ψ

α
: E[U
α
→ U
α
S).
By theorem 15.5 there is a diffeomorphism ϕ
α,x
∈ Diff(S) such that

α,x
)

((ψ

α
)
−1
[¦x¦ S)

µ
x
= µ
0
, and ϕ
α,x
depends smoothly on x.
Then ψ
α
:= (Id
U
α
ϕ
−1
α,x
) ◦ ψ

α
: E[U
α
→ U
α
S is the desired bundle
chart.
16.3. Let now Φ be a connection on (E, p, M, S) and let C : TM
M
E → TE be its horizontal lifting. Then for X ∈ X(M) the flow Fl
CX
t
of its horizontal lift CX respects fibers, so for the fiber volume µ the
pullback (Fl
CX
t
)

µ makes sense and is again a fiber volume on E. We
can now define a kind of covariant derivative by
(a) ∇
Φ
X
µ :=
d
dt
[
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

µ.
In fact ∇
Φ
is a covariant derivative on the vector bundle Ω
n
(p) :=

n
ver
(E) :=

x∈M

n
(E
x
) with its obvious smooth vector bundle struc-
ture, whose standard fiber is the nuclear Fr´echet space Ω
n
(S).
We shall need a description of the convariant derivative ∇
Φ
in terms
of Lie derivatives. So let j : V E →TE be the embedding of the vertical
bundle and let us consider j

: Ω
k
(E) → C


k
V

E). Likewise we
consider Φ

: C


k
V

E) → Ω
k
(E). These are algebraic mappings,
algebra homomorphisms for the wedge product, and satisfy j

◦ Φ

=
Id
C


k
V

E)
. The other composition Φ

◦ j

: Ω
k
(E) → Ω
k
(E) is a
projection onto the image of Φ

.
If X ∈ X(M) is a vector field on M, then the horizontal lift CX ∈
X(E) and X are p-related, i.e. Tp ◦ CX = X ◦ p. Thus the flows are
p-conjugated: p ◦ Fl
CX
t
= Fl
X
t
◦p. So Fl
CX
t
respects the vertical bundle
16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles 91
V E and we have j ◦ Fl
CX
t
= Fl
CX
t
◦j. Therefore we have

Φ
X
µ =

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

µ =

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

j

Φ

µ
(b)
= j
∗ ∂
∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

Φ

µ = j

L
CX
Φ

µ = 0 +j

i
CX


µ,
where L
CX
is the usual Lie derivative. This formula also shows that

Φ
X
µ is C

(M, R)-linear in X, as asserted.
Now let (U
α
, ψ
α
) be a fiber bundle atlas for (E, p, M, S). Put Φ
α
:=

−1
α
)

Φ, a connection on U
α
S → U
α
. Its horizontal lift is given by
C
α
(X) = (X, Γ
α
(X)). Let µ be a fiber k-form on U
α
S, so µ : U
α


k
(S) is just a smooth mapping. Thus we have for x ∈ U
α
(∇
Φ
α
X
µ) =

∂t
¸
¸
0
((Fl
Γ
α
(X)
)

(µ ◦ Fl
X
t
)) (c)
= d
U
α
µ(X) +L
S
Γ
α
(X)
µ
= X(µ) +L
S
Γ
α
(X)
µ
where d
U
α
is the exterior derivative of Ω
k
(S)-valued forms on U
α
, and
where L
S
is the Lie derivative on S.
16.4. Lemma. Let Φ be a connection on the bundle (E, p, M, S) with
curvature R ∈ Ω
2
(E; V E). Then the curvature of the linear covari-
ant derivative ∇
Φ
on the vector bundle (Ω
k
(p), M, Ω
k
(S)) is given by
R(∇
Φ
)(X, Y )µ = L
v
R(CX,CY )
µ, where L
v
denotes the vertical Lie deriv-
ative, on each fiber separately.
Proof. The easiest proof is local. Let (U
α
, ψ
α
) be a fiber bundle atlas for
(E, p, M, S). Put again Φ
α
:= (ψ
−1
α
)

Φ, a connection on U
α
S → U
α
with horizontal lift is given by C
α
(X) = (X, Γ(X)). Let µ be a fiber
k-form on U
α
S, so µ : U
α
→ Ω
k
(S) is just a smooth mapping. Thus
we have for X, Y ∈ X(U
α
), where we write ∇
α
for ∇
Φ
α
,
R(∇
α
)(X, Y )µ = (∇
α
X

α
Y
−∇
α
Y

α
X
−∇
α
[X,Y ]

= ∇
α
X
(Y (µ) +L
S
Γ(Y )
µ) −∇
α
Y
(X(µ) +L
S
Γ(Y )
µ) −[X, Y ](µ) −L
S
Γ[X,Y ]
µ
= X(Y (µ)) +L
S
XΓ(Y )
µ +L
S
Γ(Y )
X(µ) +L
S
Γ(X)
Y (µ) +L
S
Γ(X)
L
S
Γ(Y )
µ
−Y (X(µ)) −L
S
Y Γ(X)
µ −L
S
Γ(X)
Y (µ) −L
S
Γ(Y )
X(µ) −L
S
Γ(Y )
L
S
Γ(X)
µ
−[X, Y ](µ) −L
S
Γ[X,Y ]
µ
= L
S
(XΓ(Y ) −Y Γ(X) −Γ([X, Y ])) µ + [L
S
Γ(X)
, L
S
Γ(Y )

= L
S
_
d
U
α
Γ(X, Y ) + [Γ(X), Γ(Y )]
_
µ
= L
S
(((ψ
−1
α
) ∗ R)(X, Y ))µ.
92 16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles
In this computation we used that L
S
: X(S)Ω
k
(S) →Ω
k
(S) is bilinear
and continuous so that the product rule of differential calculus applies.
The last formula comes from lemma 9.7.
16.5. Definition. The connection Φ on E is called µ-respecting con-
nection if ∇
Φ
X
µ = 0 for all X ∈ X(M).
Lemma.
(1) A connection Φ is µ-respecting if and only if for some (any) bun-
dle atlas (U
α
, ψ
α
) as in lemma 16.2 the corresponding Christoffel
forms Γ
α
take values in the Lie algebra X
µ
0
(S) of divergence free
vector fields on S (i.e. L
X
µ
0
= 0).
(2) There exist many µ-respecting connections.
(3) If Φ is µ-respecting and if R is its curvature, then for X
x
and
Y
x
∈ T
x
M the form i(R(CX
x
, CY
x
))µ is closed in ω
n−1
(E
x
).
Proof. 1. Put Φ
α
:= (ψ
−1
α
)

Φ, a connection on U
α
S → U
α
. Its hor-
izontal lift is given by C
α
(X) = (X, Γ
α
(X)). Thus we have ∇
Φ
α
X
µ
0
=
L
Γ
α
(X)
µ
0
, and this is zero for all X ∈ X(U
α
) if and only if Γ
α


1
(U
α
; X
µ
0
(S)).
2. By the first part µ-respecting connections exist locally and since

Φ
X
is C

(M, R)-linear in X ∈ X(M) we may glue them via a partition
of unity on M.
3. We compute locally in a chart (U
α
, ψ
α
) belonging to a fiber bundle
atlas satisfying lemma 16.2. Then by 1. we have Γ
α
∈ Ω
1
(U
α
; X
µ
0
(S)),
so by lemma 9.7 the local expression of the curvature R
α
= (ψ
−1
α
)

R =
d
U
α
Γ
α
+ [Γ
α
, Γ
α
] is an element of Ω
2
(U
α
; X
µ
0
(S)). But then
d
S
i
S
R
α
(X,Y )
µ
0
= L
S
R
α
(X,Y )
µ
0
= 0.
16.6. We consider the cohomology class [i(R(CX, CY ))µ] ∈ H
n−1
(E
x
)
for X, Y ∈ T
x
M and the finite dimensional vector bundle H
n−1
(p) :=

x∈M
H
n−1
(E
x
) → M. It is described by a cocycle of transition func-
tions U
αβ
→ GL(H
n−1
(S)), x → H
n−1

βα
(x, )), which are locally
constant by the homotopy invariance of cohomology. So the vector bun-
dle H
n−1
(p) → M admits a unique flat linear connection ∇ respecting
the resulting discrete structure group, and the induced covariant exterior
derivative d

: Ω
(
M; H
n−1
(p)) → Ω
k+1
(M; H
n−1
(p)) satisfies d
2

= 0
and defines the De Rham cohomology of M with twisted coefficient do-
main H
n−1
(p).
We may view [i
R
µ] : X
x
, Y
x
→ [i(R(CX
x
, CY
x
))µ] as an element of

2
(M; H
n−1
(p)).
16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles 93
16.7. Lemma.
(1) If γ ∈ C


k
V

E → E) induces a section [γ] : M → H
k
(p)
then we have ∇
X
[γ] = [∇
Φ
X
γ], for any connection Φ on E.
(2) If Φ is a µ-respecting connection on E then d

[i
R
µ] = 0.
Proof. (1). For any bundle atlas (U
α
, ψα) the parallel sections of the
vector bundle H
k
(p) for the unique flat connection respecting the dis-
crete structure group are exactly those which in each local bundle chart
U
α
H
k
(S) are given by the (locally) constant mappings: U
α
→H
k
(S).
Obviously ∇
Φ
X
[γ] := [∇
Φ
X
γ] defines a connection and in the local bun-
dle chart U
α
→H
k
(S) we have

Φ
α
X
γ
α
=
d
dt
[
0
(Fl
(X,Γ
α
(X))
t
)

γ
α
= d
U
α
γ
α
(X) +L
S
Γ
α
(X)
γ
α
,
where d
U
α
is the exterior derivative on U
α
of Ω
k
-valued mappings. But
if [γ] is parallel for the flat connection respecting the discrete structure
group, so [γ
α
] is locally constant, then d
U
α
γ
α
takes values in the space
B
k
(S) of exact forms. And since γ
α
(x) is closed for all x ∈ U
α
the
second summand L
S
Γ
α
(X)
γ
α
= d
S
i
Γ
α
(X)
γ + i
Γ
α
(X)
0 takes values in the
space of exact forms anyhow. So the two connections have the same
local parallel sections, so they coincide.
(2). Let X
0
, X
1
, X
2
∈ X(M). Then we have
d

[i
R
µ](X
0
, X
1
, X
2
) =
=

cyclic
(∇
X
0
([i
R
µ](X
1
, X
2
)) −[i
R
µ]([X
0
, X
1
], X
2
))
=

cyclic
_

X
0
(i
R(CX
1
,CX
2
)
µ) −i
R(C[X
0
,X
1
],CX
2
)
µ
¸
=

cyclic
_
j

L
CX
0
i
R(CX
1
,CX
2
)
Φ

µ −i
R(C[X
0
,X
1
],CX
2
)
µ
¸
=

_
j

i
[CX
0
,R(CX
1
,CX
2
)]
Φ

µ+
+j

i
R(CX
1
,CX
2
)
L
CX
0
Φ

µ −i
R(C[X
0
,X
1
],CX
2
)
µ
¸
=
_

cyclic
j

i
_
[CX
0
, R(CX
1
, CX
2
)] + 0 −R(C[X
0
, X
1
], CX
2
)
_
Φ

µ
¸
,
where we used [i
CX
, L
Z
] = i
[CX,Z]
, that j

Φ

= Id, and that R has
vertical values, which implies
j

i
R(CX
1
,CX
2
)
L
CX
0
Φ

µ = i
R(CX
1
,CX
2
)
j

L
CX
0
Φ

µ
= i
R(CX
1
,CX
2
)

Φ
X
0
µ = 0.
94 16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles
Now we need the Bianchi identity [R, Φ] = 0 from 9.4. Writing out the
global formula 8.9 for the horizontal vector fields CX
i
we get
0 = [R, Φ](CX
0
, CX
1
, CX
2
)
=

cyclic
(−Φ[CX
0
, R(CX
1
, CX
2
)] −R(C[X
0
, X
1
], CX
2
)).
From this it follows that d

[i
R
µ] = 0.
16.8. Definition. So we may define a characteristic class k(E, µ) of
the bundle (E, p, M, S) with fiber volume µ as the class
k(E, µ) := [[i
R
µ]
H
n−1
(p)
]
H
2
(M;H
n−1
(p))
.
16.9. Lemma. The class k(E, µ) is independent of the choice of the
µ-respecting connection.
Proof. Let Φ and Φ

be two µ preserving connections on (E, p, M), and
let C and C

be their horizontal liftings. We put D = C −C

: TM
M
E → V E, which is fiber linear over E, then C
t
= C + tD = (1 −
t)C + tC

is a curve of horizontal lifts which preserve µ. In fact we
have L
D(X
x
)
µ[E
x
= 0 for each X
x
∈ T
x
M. Let Φ
t
be the connection
corresponding to C
t
and let R
t
be its curvature. Then we have
R
t
(C
t
X, C
t
Y ) = Φ
t
[C
t
X, C
t
Y ] = [C
t
X, C
t
Y ] −C
t
[X, Y ]
= R(CX, CY ) +t[CX, DY ] +t[DX, CY ] +t
2
[DX, DY ] −tD[X, Y ].

∂t
¸
¸
0
R
t
(C
t
X, C
t
Y ) = [CX, DY ] + [DX, CY ] + 2t[DX, DY ] −D[X, Y ].

∂t
¸
¸
0
i(R
t
(C
t
X, C
t
Y ))µ = j

_

∂t
¸
¸
0
i(R
t
(C
t
X, C
t
Y ))
_
Φ

µ
= j

_
i
[CX,DY ]
−i
[CY,DX]
+ 2ti
[DX,DY ]
−i
D[X,Y ]
_
Φ

µ
= j

_
[L
CX
, i
DY
] −[L
CY
, i
DX
] + 2t[L
DX
, i
DY
] −i
D[X,Y ]
_
Φ

µ.
= j

_
L
CX
i
DY
−0 −L
CY
i
DX
−i
D[X,Y ]
+ 2t(di
DX
i
DY
−0)
_
Φ

µ.
Here we used that D has vertical values which implies j

i
DY
L
CX
Φ

µ =
i
DY
j

L
CX
Φ

µ = i
DY

Φ
X
µ = 0.
Next we use lemma 16.7.1 to compute the differential of the of the
1-form [i
D
µ] ∈ Ω
1
(M; H
n−1
(p)).
d

[i
D
µ](X, Y ) = ∇
X
[i
D(Y )
µ] −∇
Y
[i
D(X)
µ] −[i
D([X,Y ])
µ]
= [∇
Φ
X
i
D(Y )
µ −∇
Φ
Y
i
D(X)
µ −i
D([X,Y ])
µ]
= [j

(L
CX
i
D(Y )
−L
CY
i
D(X)
−i
D([X,Y ])


µ].
So we get

∂t
¸
¸
0
[i
R
t
µ] = d

[i
D
µ] in the space Ω
2
(M; H
n−1
(p)).
16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles 95
16.10. Remarks. The idea of this class is originally due to [Kainz,
1985].
From the point of view of algebraic topology it is not very interest-
ing since it coincides with the second differential in the Serre spectral
sequence of the fibration E →M of the class corresponding to µ.
16.11. Review of linear connections on vector bundles.
Let (V, p, M, R
n
) be a vector bundle equipped with a fiber metric g. Let
∇ be a linear covariant derivative on E which respects g. Let s = (s
i
)
be a local frame field over U ⊂ M of E: so s
i
∈ C

(E[U) and the s
i
(x)
are a linear basis of E
x
for each x ∈ U.
Then s defines a vector bundle chart ψ : E[U → U R
n
by the
prescription ψ(

s
i
u
i
) = (u
i
) or ψ(s.u) = u. If s

is another frame field,
we have s

i
=

j
s
j
h
j
i
or s

= s.h for a function h ∈ C

(U ∩U

, GL(n)).
For the vector bundle charts we have then ψ

ψ
−1
(x, u) = (x, h(x).u).
We also have Tψ : T(E[U) →TU R
n
R
n
, and for the chart change
we have
T(ψ

◦ ψ
−1
) : T(U ∩ U

) R
n
R
n
→T(U ∩ U

) R
n
R
n
T(ψ

◦ ψ
−1
)(X
x
, v, w) = (X
x
, h(x).v, dh(X
x
).v +h(x).w)
The connection form is defined by ∇
X
s
i
=

j
s
j
ω
j
i
(X) or ∇s = s.ω
for ω ∈ Ω
1
(U, gl(n)) in general and ω ∈ Ω
1
(U, o(n)) if ∇ respects g and
the frame field s is orthonormal. If ∇s

= s

is the connection form for
another frame s

= s.h, we have the transition formula h.ω

= ω.h +dh.
For a general section s.u =

j
s
j
u
j
we have ∇(s.u) = s.ω.u +s.du.
Now we want to express the connection Φ = Φ

∈ Ω
1
(E; V E), the
horizontal lift C : TM
M
E → TE and the connector K = vpr ◦ Φ :
TE → E locally in terms of the connection form (compare with 11.10
and following). Since for a local section x → (x, u(x)) of U R
n
→ U
we have

X
(s.u) = s.(ω(X).u +du(X))
= K ◦ T(s.u) ◦ X by 11.12,
(T(ψ) ◦ T(s.u))(X
x
) = (X
x
, u(x), du(X
x
))
we see that
(ψ ◦ K ◦ T(ψ
−1
))(X
x
, v, w) = (X
x
, ω(X
x
).v +w)
(Tψ ◦ Φ ◦ T(ψ
−1
))(X
x
, v, w) = (0
x
, v, w +ω(X
x
).v)
(Tψ ◦ C ◦ (Id ψ))(X
x
, v) = (X
x
, v, −ω(X
x
).v).
96 16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles
The Christoffel form Γ of Φ with respect to the bundle chart ψ is given
by 9.7
(0
x
, Γ(X
x
, v)) = −T(ψ)ΦT(ψ
−1
)(X
x
, v, 0)
= (0
x
, v, −ω(X
x
).v)
Γ(X
x
, v) = −ω(X
x
).v
Now the curvature R

(X, Y ) = [∇
X
, ∇
Y
] −∇
[X,Y ]
. If we put R

.s =
s.Ω, then we have Ω ∈ Ω
2
(U, gl(n)) and Ω ∈ Ω
2
(U, o(n)) if ∇ respects
g and if s is an orthonormal frame field. Then the curvature form Ω is
given by Ω = dω +ω ∧ ω.
The curvature R =
1
2
[Φ, Φ] ∈ Ω
2
(E; V E) can be written in terms of
the Christoffel forms by 9.7

−1
)

R(X, Y ) = d
U
Γ(X, Y ) + [Γ(X), Γ(Y )]
X(R
n
)
= d(−ω)(X, Y ) −(−ω(X)) ∧ (−ω(Y ))
= −Ω(X, Y ),
since GL(n) acts from the left on R
n
, so the fundamental vector field
mapping is a Lie algebra anti homomorphism.
Let us consider now the unit sphere bundle SE = ¦u ∈ E : g(u, u) =
1¦ in the vector bundle E. If we use an orthonormal frame then ψ :
SE[U →U S
n−1
is a fiber bundle chart. We have
T(U S
n−1
) = ¦(X
x
, v, w) ∈ TU R
n
R
n
: [v[ = 1, v⊥w = 0¦
Φ
local
(X
x
, v, w) = (0
x
, v, w +ω(X
x
).v)
¸v, w +ω(X
x
).v) = ¸v, ω(X
x
).v) = 0,
since ω(X
x
) ∈ o(n). So Φ induces a connection on SE with the same
Christoffel forms (acting on a submanifold now). If we assume that E is
fiber orientable and if we consider the fiber volume µ on SE induced by g,
then these Christoffel forms take values in the Lie algebra of divergence
free vector fields, so the induced connection Φ
SE
is µ-respecting. The
local expression of the curvature of Φ
SE
is again −Ω.
16.12. Lemma. 1. For a fiber orientable vector bundle (E, p, M, R
n
)
with fiber dimension n > 2 and a fiber Riemannian metric g we consider
the induced fiber volume µ on the unit sphere bundle SE. Then the
characteristic class k(SE, µ) = 0.
2. For a complex line bundle (E, p, M) with smooth hermitian metric
g. We consider again the induced fiber volume on the unit sphere bundle
(SE, p, S
1
). Then for the characteristic class we have
k(SE, µ) = −c
1
(E),
16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles 97
the negative of the first Chern class of E.
Proof. 1. This follows from H
n−2
(S
n−1
) = 0.
2. This follows since H
0
(p) = MR, so from 16.8 the class k(SE, µ)
is induced by the negative of the curvature form Ω, which also defines
the first Chern class.
98
17. Self duality
17.1. Let again (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bundle with compact standard
fiber S. By a fiberwise symplectic form ω on E we mean a smooth section
of the vector bundle Λ
2
V

E →E such that ω
x
:= ω E
x
∈ Ω
2
(E
x
) is a
symplectic form on each fiber E
x
. So as in 16.1 we may plug two vertical
vector fields X and Y into ω to get a function ω(X, Y ) on E.
If dimS = 2n, let ω
n
x
= ω
x
∧ ∧ω
x
be the Liouville volume form of
ω
x
on E
x
. We will suppose that each fiber E
x
has total mass 1 for this
fiber volume: we may multiply ω by a suitable positive smooth function
on M.
I do not know whether lemma 16.2 remains true for fiberwise sym-
plectic structures.
17.2. Example. For a compact Lie group G let Ad

: G → GL(g

)
be the coadjoint action. Then the union of all orbits of principal type
(maximal dimension) is the total space of a fiber bundle which bears a
canonical fiberwise symplectic form.
17.3. Let now Φ be a connection on (E, p, M, S) and let ∇ be the as-
sociated covariant derivative on the (infinite dimensional) vector bundle

2
ver
(E) :=

x∈M

2
(E
x
) over M which is given by

X
ω :=
d
dt
[
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

ω
as in 16.3.
Definition. Let ω be a fiberwise symplectic form on E. The connection
Φ on E is called ω-respecting if ∇
X
ω = 0 for all X ∈ X(M).
17.4. Lemma. If dimH
2
(S; R) = 1 then there are ω-respecting con-
nections on E and they form a convex set in the space of all connections.
Proof. Let us first investigate the trivial situation. So e = M S and
the fiberwise symplectic form is given by a smooth mapping ω : M →
Z
2
(S) ⊂ Ω
2
(S) such that ω
x
is a symplectic form for each x. Since
_
S
ω
n
x
= 1 for each x and since α →α
n
is a covering mapping H
2
(S)¸0 =
R¸0 →H
2n
¸0 = R¸0, we see that the cohomology class [ω
x
] ∈ H
2
(S) is
locally constant on M, so ω : M →ω
x
0
+B
2
(S) if M is connected. Thus
d
M
ω : TM →B
2
(M) is a 1-form on M with values in the nuclear vector
space B
2
(S) of exact forms, since it is a closed subspace of Ω
2
(S) by
Hodge theory. Let G : Ω
k
(S) →Ω
k
(S) be the Green operator of Hodge
theory for some Riemannian metric on S and define Γ ∈ Ω
1
(M : X(S))
17. Self duality 99
by i(Γ(X
x
))ω
x
= −d

G(d
M
ω)
x
(X
x
). Since ω
x
is non degenerate, Γ is
uniquely determined by this procedure and we have
L
Γ(X
x
)
ω
x
= d
S
i
Γ(X
x
)
ω
x
+ 0 = −dd

G(d
M
ω)
x
(X
x
) = −(d
M
ω)
x
(X
x
),
since it is in B
2
(S). For the covariant derivative ∇ induced by the
connection with Christoffel form Γ we have

X
ω =
d
dt
[
0
(Fl
(X,Γ(X))
t
)

ω = (d
M
ω)(X) +L
Γ(X)
ω = 0,
so the Christoffel form Γ defines an ω-respecting connection.
For the general situation we know now that there are local solutions,
and we may use a partition of unity on M to glue the horizontal lifts to
get a global ω-respecting connection.
The second assertion is obvious.
17.5. Let now Φ be an ω-respecting connection on (E, p, M, S) where
ω is a fiberwise symplectic form on E. Let R = R(Φ) be the curvature
of Φ and let C be the horizontal lifting of Φ. Then i(R(CX
x
, CY
x
))ω
x


1
(E
x
) and i(R(CX
x
, CY
x
))ω
n
x
∈ Ω
2n−1
(E
x
). As in lemma 16.5 we may
prove that both are closed forms. So [i(R(CX
x
, CY
x
))ω
x
)] ∈ H
1
(E
x
)
and [i(R(CX
x
, CY
x
))ω
n
x
] ∈ H
2n−1
(E
x
).
Let us also fix an auxiliary Riemannian metric on the base manifold
M and let us consider the associated Hodge -∗-operator: Ω
k
(M) →

m−k
(M), where m = dimM. Let us suppose that the dimension
of M is 4 and let us consider the forms [i
R
ω] ∈ Ω
2
(M; H
1
(p)) and
∗[i
R
ω
n
] ∈ Ω
2
(M; H
2n−1
(p)) with values in the flat vector bundles H
i
(p)
from 16.6. Both are d

-closed forms (before applying ∗ to the sec-
ond one) since the proof of 16.7 applies without changes. Let D
x
:
H
2n−1
(E
x
) → H
1
(E
x
) be the Poincar´e duality operator for the com-
pact oriented manifold E
x
; these fit together to a smooth vector bundle
homomorphism D : H
2n−1
(p) →H
1
(p).
Definition. An ω-respecting connection Φ is called self dual or anti self
dual if
D ∗ [i
R
ω
n
] = [i
R
ω] or
= −[i
R
ω] respectively.
This notion makes sense also for not ω -respecting connections.
100 17. Self duality
17.6. For the notion of self duality of 17.5 there is also a Yang-Mills
functional if M
4
is supposed to be compact. Let Φ be any connection.
For X
i
∈ T
x
M we consider the 4-form
ϕ
x
(Φ)(X
1
, . . . , X
4
) :=
1
4
Alt
_
E
x
(i
R
ω)
x
(X
1
, X
2
) ∧ ∗(i
R
ω
n
)
x
(X
3
, X
4
),
where Alt is the alternator of the indices of the X
i
. The Yang-Mills
functional is then
F(Φ) :=
_
M
ϕ(Φ).
17.7. A typical example of a fiber bundle with compact symplectic
fibers is the union of coadjoint orbits of a fixed type of a compact Lie
group. Closely related to this are open subsets of Poisson manifolds. ω-
respecting connections exist if the orbit type has second Betti number 1.
The Yang-Mills functional and the self duality notion exist even without
this requirement. It would be nice to investigate the characteristic class
of section 16 for the fiberwise symplectic structure instead of a fiber
volume form for examples of coadjoint actions.
17.8. Finally we sketch another notion of self duality. We consider
a fiberwise contact structure α on the fiber bundle (E, p, M, S) with
compact standard fiber S: So α
x
∈ Ω
1
(E
x
) depends smoothly on x and
is a contact structure on E
x
, i. e. α
x
∧(dα
x
)
n
is a positive volume form
on E
x
, where dimS = 2n + 1 now. A connection Φ on the bundle E is
now called α-respecting if in analogy with 16.2 we have

Φ
X
α :=

∂t
¸
¸
0
(Fl
CX
t
)

α = 0
for each vector field X on M. If R is the curvature of such a connec-
tion then iR(CX, CY )α is fiberwise locally constant by the analogue of
16.5.(3). If S is connected then (X, Z) →iR(CX, CY )α defines a closed
2-form on M with real coefficients and it defines also a cohomology class
in H
2
(M; R). But it is not clear that α-respecting connections exist.
101
References
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List of Symbols 103
List of Symbols
C

(E), also C

(E → M) the space of smooth sections of a fibre
bundle
C

(M, R) the space of smooth functions on M
d : Ω
p
(M) →Ω
p+1
(M) usually the exterior derivative
(E, p, M, S), also simply E usually a fibre bundle with total space
E, base M, and standard fibre S
Fl
X
t
the flow of a vector field X
I
k
, short for the k k-identity matrix Id
R
k.
L
X
Lie derivative
G usually a general Lie group with multiplication µ : GG →G,
left translation λ, and right translation ρ
: GS →S usually a left action
M usually a (base) manifold
N natural numbers
N
0
nonnegative integers
R real numbers
r : P G → P usually a right action, in particular the principal
right action of a principal bundle
TM the tangent bundle of a manifold M with projection π
M
:
TM →M
Z Integers
104
Index
α-respecting connection, 100
µ-respecting connection, 92
ω-respecting connection, 98
A
algebraic bracket, 28
algebraic derivation, 27
anti self dual, 99
approximation property (bornological) , 15
associated bundle, 48
associated vector bundles, 52
B
base space, 36
basis, 36
Bianchi identity, 37
bundle atlas, 36
bundle of gauges, 54
bundle, 36
C
cartesian closedness, 8, 11, 13
characteristic class, 94
Chern class, 97
Christoffel forms, 39
classifying connection, 87
classifying space, 53, 87, 89
cocurvature, 33
cocycle condition, 36
cocycle of transition functions, 36
cohomologous, 44
complete connection, 41
connection form (Lie algebra valued), 60
connection form, 95
connection, 32, 37, 92
connector, 69
continuous derivation over ev
a
, 14
convenient vector space, 7
covariant derivative on vector bundles, 70
covariant derivative, 63, 70
covariant exterior derivative, 63, 71
curvature form (Lie algebra valued), 60
curvature form, 96
curvature, 32, 33, 37, 70
c

-topology, 6
C
ω
-manifold structure of C
ω
(M, N), 19
C
ω
-manifold structure on C

(M, N), 19
D
De Rham cohomology of M with twisted
coefficient domain H
n−1
(p), 92
derivations (graded) , 27
diffeomorphism group, 22
E
Ehresmann connection, 41
equivariant mappings and associated bundles,
50
exponential law, 20
F
f-dependent, 33
f-related, 33
fiber bundle atlas, 36
fiber bundle, 36
fiber chart, 36
fiber volume, 90
fiberwise symplectic form, 98
flat connections, 38
frame bundle, 81
Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket, 29
fundamental vector field, 5
fundamental vector field, 5
G
G-atlas, 44
G-bundle structure, 44
G-bundle, 44
gauge group of a fiber bundle, 83
gauge transformations, 54
general Bianchi identity, 33
generalization of the theorem of Ambrose and
Singer, 77
global formula for the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis
bracket, 30
Grassmann manifold, 46
H
Hodge-∗-operator, 99
holomorphic curves, 10
holomorphic, 10
holonomy group, 65, 76
holonomy groups for principal connections, 65
holonomy Lie algebra, 76
homogeneous spaces, 45
homomorphism of G-bundles, 51
homomorphism over Φ of principal bundles, 47
horizontal bundle, 37
horizontal differential forms, 63
horizontal foliation, 38
horizontal lift, 37
horizontal projection, 37
horizontal space, 32
horizontal vectors, 37
I
induced connection, 66, 67
inducing principal connections on associated
vector bundles, 69
irreducible principle connection, 66
K
kinematic tangent vector, 14
L
Lie derivation, 28
Lie group, 5
linear connection, 69
linear frame bundle, 52
105
local description of connections, 38
local descriptions of principal connections, 62
local formulas for the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis
bracket, 31
M
manifold structure of C

(M, N), 17
Maurer-Cartan formula, 39
N
n-transitive, 23
natural bilinear concomitants, 34
naturality of the Fr¨olicher-Nijenhuis bracket,
33
nearly complex structure, 35
Nijenhuis tensor, 35
Nijenhuis-Richardson bracket, 28
nonlinear frame bundle, 81
O
operational tangent vector, 14
orthonormal frame bundle, 53
orthonormal frame field, 52
O
parallel transport, 39
principal (fiber) bundle, 44
principal bundle atlas, 44
principal bundle of embeddings, 24
principal connection, 60
principal fiber bundle homomorphism, 47
principal right action, 45
projection, 36
proper, 20
pullback operator, 34
pullback, 38
pullback of fiber bundles, 37
R
real analytic curves, 12
real analytic mappings, 12
real analytic, 12
recognizing induced connections, 67
reduction of the structure group, 47
regular, 23
restricted holonomy group, 65, 76
Riemannian metric , 52
right logarithmic derivative, 58
S
sections of associated bundles, 53
self dual, 99
smooth curves in C

(M, N), 18
smooth mappings, 7
smooth partitions of unity, 14
smooth, 6, 7
smoothness of composition, 19
space of connections, 84
standard fiber, 36
Stiefel manifold, 46
T
tangent and vertical bundles of principal and
associated bundles, 58
tangent bundles of Grassmann manifolds, 56
tangent bundles of homogeneous spaces, 54
tangent group of a Lie group, 57
tangent vectors as derivations, 16
theorem of Hartogs, 10
topologically real analytic, 12
total space, 36
transformation law for the Christoffel forms,
39
transition functions, 36
U
universal vector bundle, 56
V
vector valued differential forms, 27
vertical bundle, 37
vertical bundle, 58
vertical projection, 37
vertical space, 32
Y
Yang-Mills functional, 100

1

Table of contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Notations and conventions . . . . . . . . . 2. Calculus of smooth mappings . . . . . . . . 3. Calculus of holomorphic mappings . . . . . . 4. Calculus of real analytic mappings . . . . . . 5. Infinite dimensional manifolds . . . . . . . . 6. Manifolds of mappings . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Diffeomorphism groups . . . . . . . . . . . 8. The Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis Bracket . . . . . . . o 9. Fiber Bundles and Connections . . . . . . . 10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles . . . 11. Principal and Induced Connections . . . . . 12. Holonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. The nonlinear frame bundle of a fiber bundle . 14. Gauge theory for fiber bundles . . . . . . . 15. A classifying space for the diffeomorphism group 16. A characteristic class . . . . . . . . . . . 17. Self duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 6 10 12 14 17 22 27 36 44 60 76 81 83 86 90 98 101 102 103

2

Introduction
Gauge theory usually investigates the space of principal connections on a principal fiber bundle (P, p, M, G) and its orbit space under the action of the gauge group (called the moduli space), which is the group of all principal bundle automorphisms of P which cover the identity on the base space M . It is the arena for the Yang-Mills-Higgs equations which allows (with structure group U (1) × SU (2)) a satisfactory unified description of electromagnetic and weak interactions, which was developed by Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg. This electro-weak theory predicted the existence of massive vector particles (the intermediate bosons W + , W − , and Z), whose experimental verification renewed the interest of physicists in gauge theories. On the mathematical side the investigation of self dual and anti self SU (2)-connections on 4-manifolds and of their image in the orbit space led to stunning topological results in the topology of 4-manifolds by Donaldson. The moduli space of anti self dual connections can be completed and reworked into a 5 dimensional manifold which is a bordism between the base manifold of the bundle and a simple manifold which depends only on the Poincar´ duality form in the second dimensional e homology space. Combined with results of Freedman this led to the discovery of exotic differential structures on R4 and on (supposedly all but S 4 ) compact algebraic surfaces. In his codification of a principal connection [Ehresmann, 1951] began with a more general notion of connection on a general fiber bundle (E, p, M, S) with standard fiber S. This was called an Ehresmann connection by some authors, we will call it just a connection. It consists of the specification of a complement to the vertical bundle in a differentiable way, called the horizontal distribution. One can conveniently describe such a connection as a one form on the total space E with values in the vertical bundle, whose kernel is the horizontal distribution. When combined with another venerable notion, the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket for vector valued differential forms o (see [Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis, 1956]) one obtains a very convenient way to o describe curvature and Bianchi identity for such connections. Parallel transport along curves in the base space is defined only locally, but one may show that each bundle admits complete connections, whose parallel transport is globally defined (theorem 9.10). For such connections one can define holonomy groups and holonomy Lie algebras and one may prove a far-reaching generalization of the Ambrose Singer theorem: A complete connection tells us whether it is induced from a principal connection on a principal fiber bundle (theorem 12.4).

as least when S is compact. real analyticity and holomorphy. Finally we discuss some self duality and anti self duality conditions which depend on some fiberwise structure on the bundle like a fiberwise symplectic structure. There is hope that it can be stratified into smooth manifolds corresponding to conjugacy classes of holonomy groups in Diff(S). 1990b] and the forthcoming book [Kriegl-Michor]. 1980] . We define the non linear frame bundle for E which is a principle fiber bundle over M with structure group Diff(S) and we show that the theory of connections on E corresponds exactly to the theory of principal connections on this non linear frame bundle (see section 13). but this will be treated in another paper. p. The diffeomorphism group Diff(S) for a compact manifold S admits a smooth classifying space and a classifying connection: the space of all embeddings of S into a Hilbert space 2 . whose base manifold is the non linear Grassmanian of all submanifolds of 2 of type (diffeomorphic to) S. We treat smoothness. Characteristic classes owe their existence to invariant polynomials on the Lie algebra of the structure group like characteristic coefficients of matrices. Unfortunately it does not admit any invariants. and one may consider the moduli space Conn(E)/ Gau(E). But there are equivariants like X → LX ω for some closed form ω on S which can be used to give a sort of Chern-Weil construction of characteristic classes in the cohomology of the base M with local coefficients (see sections 16 and 17). The Lie algebra of Diff(S) for compact S is the Lie algebra X(S) of vector fields on S. M.Introduction 3 A bundle (E. Then we give a more detailed exposition of the theory of manifolds of mappings and the diffeomorphism group. S) without structure group can also be viewed as having the whole diffeomorphism group Diff(S) of the standard fiber S as structure group. is the total space of a principal bundle with structure group Diff(S). say. which admits a classifying connection: Every S-bundle over M can be realized as the pull back of the classifying bundle by a classifying smooth mapping from M into the non linear Grassmanian. which can be arranged in such a way that it pulls back the classifying connection to a given one on E — this is the Narasimhan-Ramadas procedure for Diff(S). This part is based on [Kriegl-Michor. The action of Diff(S) on S leads to the (universal or classifying) associated bundle. The gauge group of the non linear frame bundle turns out to be just the group of all fiber respecting diffeomorphisms of E which cover the identity on M . This booklet starts with a short description of analysis in infinite dimensions along the lines of Fr¨licher and Kriegl which makes infinite o dimensional differential geometry much simpler than it used to be. This part is adapted from [Michor.

his interest in this subject. Wien. Then we present a careful o introduction to the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket. 1988. I want to thank G. 1990 P. has been published in [Michor. Michor . from section 12 onwards. The material in the rest of the book. 1988]. The material in this booklet is a much extended version of a series of lectures held at the Institute of Physics of the University of Napoli. August 6. The version here is much more detailed and contains more results.4 Introduction to the use of the Fr¨licher-Kriegl calculus. March 28 – April 1. G-structures and principal connection which emphasizes the construction and recognition of induced connections. and for the suggestion to publish this booklet. Marmo for his hospitality. to fiber bundles and o connections.

X = T(e. λa : G → G. A Lie group G is a smooth manifold and a group such that the multiplication µ : G × G → G is smooth. We shall use the following notation: µ : G × G → G. X). (2) Tx (ra ). We will use the following notation: ra : M → M and rx : G → M . we use the following notation: AdG : G → AutLie (g) and so on.(0x .2.ζX (x) = ζAd(a−1 )X (x.a). Lemma. so ˇ : G → Diff(M ) is a group homomorphism. (2) Tx ( a ). right translation. x) = a.x. M For any X ∈ g we define the fundamental vector field ζX = ζX ∈ x X(M ) by ζX (x) = Te ( ). y) = x. ν(x) = x−1 . the unit element. 1.e) r. left translation. ρa : G → G.ζX (x) = ζAd(a)X (a. Then also the inversion ν : G → G turns out to be smooth. 0x ).a. ζY ] = −ζ[X. inversion. Definition. ν : G → G. Lemma. a) = x. µ(x.a. so r : G → Dif f (M ) ˇ is a group anti homomorphism.5 1. ζY ] = ζ[X. Then we have partial mappings a : M → M and x : G → M .x) . given by rx (a) = ra (x) = r(x.x. Notations and conventions 1.Y ] . (4) [ζX . (3) RX × 0M ∈ X(G × M ) is -related to ζX ∈ X(M ). λa (x) = a. In this situation the following assertions hold: (1) ζ : g → X(M ) is a linear mapping. given by a (x) = x (a) = (a. M For any X ∈ g we define the fundamental vector field ζX = ζX ∈ X(M ) by ζX (x) = Te (rx ). In this situation the following assertions hold: (1) ζ : g → X(M ) is a linear mapping. Let r : M × G → M be a right action. (4) [ζX . (3) 0M × LX ∈ X(M × G) is r-related to ζX ∈ X(M ).(X. .x). e ∈ G. If g = Te G is the Lie algebra of G.Y ] . multiplication. ρa (x) = x. 1. Let : G × M → M be a left action.1.X = T(x.y.3.

t−s (3) {EB → E : B bounded absolutely convex in E}. The finest among all locally convex topologies on E which are coarser than c∞ E is the bornologification of the given locally convex topology. 1988]. convergence spaces. Let E be a locally convex vector space. (2) Lipschitz curves (so that { c(t)−c(s) : t = s} is bounded in E). E). each of them rather complicated and none really convincing. They joined forces in the further development of the theory and the (up to now) final outcome is the book [Fr¨lichero Kriegl. o 2. (4) Mackey-convergent sequences xn → x (there exists a sequence 0 < λn ∞ with λn (xn − x) bounded). The traditional differential calculus works well for finite dimensional vector spaces and for Banach spaces. Alfred Fr¨licher and Andreas Kriegl presented indeo pendently the solution to the question for the right differential calculus in infinite dimensions.2. where EB is the linear span of B equipped with the Minkowski functional pB (x) := inf{λ > 0 : x ∈ λB}. then c∞ E = E.this is a concept without problems. The final topologies with respect to the following sets of mappings into E coincide: (1) C ∞ (R. In general (on the space D of test functions for example) it is finer than the given locally convex topology. since scalar multiplication is no longer jointly continuous. Then in 1982.1. If E is a Fr´chet space. E) be the space of smooth functions. for any compatible topology. For more general locally convex spaces a whole flock of different theories were developed. E) does not depend on the locally convex topology of E. which is the general reference for this section. It can be shown that C ∞ (R. The c∞ -topology. it is not a vector space topology. only on its associated bornology (system of bounded sets). Calculus of smooth mappings 2. See also the forthcoming book [Kriegl-Michor]. Let C ∞ (R. This was the original motivation for the development of a whole new field within general topology.6 2. e . This topology is called the c∞ -topology on E and we write c∞ E for the resulting topological space. In this section I will sketch the basic definitions and the most important results of the Fr¨licher-Kriegl calculus. A curve c : R → E is called smooth or C ∞ if all derivatives exist and are continuous . The main difficulty is that the composition of linear mappings stops to be jointly continuous at the level of Banach spaces.

For locally convex spaces E and F we have: (1) If F is convenient. E). E) with the bornologification of the topology of uniform convergence on compact sets. then EB is a Banach space. f : R → E is scalarwise C ∞ then f is C ∞ . so f∗ : C ∞ (R. Convenient vector spaces. E) there is c2 ∈ C ∞ (R. Constant mappings are smooth. 1967]. F ) makes sense. This is also called c∞ -complete. Structure on C ∞ (E. 2. (2) If B is bounded closed absolutely convex. locally on Rn . Lemma. (3) Any Lipschitz curve in E is locally Riemann integrable. f scalarwise C ∞ means that λ ◦ f is C ∞ for all continuous linear functionals on E. We equip the space C ∞ (R. F ) with the bornologification of the initial topology with respect to all mappings c∗ : C ∞ (E. if f ◦ c ∈ C ∞ (R. Let E be a locally convex vector space. for k > 1. F ) denote the space of all smooth mapping from E to F . Therefore we denote by L(E. E).3. (4) For any c1 ∈ C ∞ (R. in all derivatives separately. E) → C ∞ (R. E) with c1 = c2 (existence of antiderivative).5. Then we equip the space C ∞ (E. Lemma. F ) the space of all bounded linear mappings from E to F . E is said to be a convenient vector space if one of the following equivalent (completeness) conditions is satisfied: (1) Any Mackey-Cauchy-sequence (so that (xn − xm ) is Mackey convergent to 0) converges. A mapping f : E → F is called smooth or C ∞ . Then the following properties are equivalent: (1) (2) (3) (4) E If If If is c∞ -complete.2. 2. c∗ (f ) := f ◦ c. F ). Let E be a locally convex space. Here a mapping f : Rk → E is called Lipk if all partial derivatives up to order k exist and are Lipschitz. Multilinear mappings are smooth if and only if they are bounded.6. then also C ∞ (E.7.4. For E and F finite dimensional this gives the usual notion of smooth mappings: this has been first proved in [Boman. F ) is convenient. F ). Let E and F be locally convex vector spaces. F ) → C ∞ (R. for all c ∈ C ∞ (R. Calculus of smooth mappings 7 2. 2. f : R → E is scalarwise C ∞ then f is differentiable at 0. then f is Lipk . for any . Smooth mappings. f : Rk → E is scalarwise Lipk . Let C ∞ (E. This lemma says that a convenient vector space one can recognize smooth curves by investigating compositions with continuous linear functionals. 2. F ) for all c ∈ C ∞ (R.

F ) × C ∞ (E . F ) is a closed linear subspace of C ∞ (E. Calculus of smooth mappings E. df (x)v := lim t→0 f (x + tv) − f (x) . then a curve c : R → L(E. G) )∨ : C ∞ (E × F. x) = f (x) ins(x)(y) = (x. G) → C ∞ (E. F ). Also the chain rule holds: d(f ◦ g)(x)v = df (g(x))dg(x)v. F )). 2. F ) is smooth if and only if t → c(t)(x) is a smooth curve in F for all x ∈ E. G)) → C ∞ (E × F.9. G) × C ∞ (E. C ∞ (E . E × F ).8 2. Let all spaces be convenient vector spaces. E) → C ∞ (C ∞ (E. ) : C ∞ (F. Then the differential operator d : C ∞ (E. ev : C ∞ (E. The space L(E. (2) If E is convenient. 2. so it also convenient.8. G)) . y) ) : C (E. ins : E → C (F. So we have a natural bijection C ∞ (E × F. Theorem. Let E and F be convenient vector spaces. Fi ) 2. F ) → C ∞ (E. F )) C ∞ (Ei . Corollary.10. G) C ∞( (f. g) → (h → f ◦ h ◦ g) : Ei . L(E. C ∞ (F. F ). G) ∼ C ∞ (E. Theorem. . G)). C (F. ( ( ∧ ∞ ∞ ∞ ev(f. = which is even a diffeomorphism. F ) → C ∞ (E. Cartesian closedness. F ) × E → F. Then the following canonical mappings are smooth. C ∞ (F. t exists and is linear and bounded (smooth). The category of convenient vector spaces and smooth mappings is cartesian closed. Of coarse this statement is also true for c∞ -open subsets of convenient vector spaces. Fi ) → C ∞ ( comp : C ∞ (F.

Note that the conclusion of theorem 2. but it is always smooth. Many authors try to build their platonic idea of an a priori estimate into their differential calculus. Calculus of smooth mappings 9 2.8 to be true and assumes some other obvious properties. that the calculus itself should be as easy to use as possible.8 is the starting point of the classical calculus of variations. and [Pressley-Segal. If one wants theorem 2. For example the evaluation E × E → R is jointly continuous if and only if E is normable. 1974]. smooth mappings which are not continuous. A prevalent opinion in contemporary mathematics is. This is the differential calculus used by [Michor. There are.2. 1986]. and that all further assumptions (which most often come from ellipticity of some nonlinear partial differential equation of geometric origin) should be treated separately. [Milnor. that for infinite dimensional calculus each serious application needs its own foundation. I think that this makes the calculus inapplicable and hides the origin of the a priori estimates. 1980]. however. Clearly smooth mappings are continuous for the c∞ -topology. I am sure that in this sense the Fr¨licher-Kriegl calculus as presented here and its holomorphic and real o analytic offsprings in sections 2 and 3 below are universally usable for most applications. By a serious application one obviously means some application of a hard inverse function theorem. These theorems can be proved. 1984]. I believe. where a smooth curve in a space of functions was assumed to be just a smooth function in one variable more. Remarks. This is unavoidable and not so horrible as it might appear at first sight.11. if by assuming enough a priori estimates one creates enough Banach space situation for some modified iteration procedure to converge. . in a setting depending on the specific problem. then the calculus of smooth functions is already uniquely determined. For Fr´chet spaces smoothness in the sense described here coincides e ∞ with the notion Cc of [Keller.

Along the lines of thought of the Fr¨licher-Kriegl calculus of smooth o mappings. (2) f is locally a convergent series of homogeneous continuous polynomials. Here we will start with them for the sake of shortness. 3. Let D ⊂ C be the open unit disk and let us denote by C ω (D. Let C ω (E. a mapping f : E → F is called holomorphic if f ◦ c is a holomorphic curve in F for each holomorphic curve c in E. y) and f (x. Obviously f is holomorphic if and only if λ◦f : E → C is holomorphic for each complex linear continuous functional λ on F . If f : E ⊃ U → F is holomorphic then df : U × E → F exists.10 3. If E and F are Banach spaces and U is open in E. Theorem of Hartogs. 1930 and 1933]. I will now sketch the bae sics and the main results. Calculus of holomorphic mappings 3. in [Kriegl-Nel. e . then for a mapping f : U → F the following conditions are equivalent: (1) f is holomorphic. 2 and F be complex convenient vector spaces and let Uk ⊂ Ek be c∞ -open. Its elements will be called the holomorphic curves.1. F ) denote the space of all holomorphic mappings from E to F . (3) f is C-differentiable in the sense of Fr´chet.5 Lemma. 3. e. This implies also that in finite dimensions we have recovered the usual definition. A mapping f : U1 × U2 → F is holomorphic if and only if it is separably holomorphic (i. 3. ) are holomorphic for all x ∈ U1 and y ∈ U2 ).3. E) the space of all mappings c : D → E such that λ ◦ c : D → C is holomorphic for each continuous complex-linear functional λ on E. 1985] the cartesian closed setting for holomorphic mappings was developed. If E and F are convenient complex vector spaces (or c∞ -open sets therein).2. Let Ek for k = 1. 3. f ( . The right definition of this calculus was already given by [Fantappi´. is holomorphic and C-linear in the second variable. Let E be a complex locally convex vector space whose underlying real space is convenient – this will be called convenient in the sequel. It can be shown that again convenient vector spaces are the right ones to consider.4 Lemma. A multilinear mapping is holomorphic if and only if it is bounded.

An immediate consequence of this result is that C ω (E. The category of convenient complex vector spaces and holomorphic mappings between them is cartesian closed. . F ) is a closed linear subspace of C ∞ (ER . Calculus of holomorphic mappings 11 3. e. G) ∼ C ω (E. = An immediate consequence of this is again that all canonical structural mappings as in 2.7 Theorem. 3.9 are holomorphic. Let E and F be convenient vector spaces.6 Lemma.7. by 2. Cartesian closedness.8. A mapping f : E → F is holomorphic if and only if it is smooth and its derivative is everywhere C-linear.3. The chain rule follows from 2. G)). C ω (F. The following theorem is an easy consequence of 2. FR ) and so it is a convenient vector space if F is one. C ω (E × F.10. i.

U ) → C ω (U. A curve c : R → E is called real analytic if λ ◦ c : R → R is real analytic for each λ ∈ E . If the dual E of E admits a Baire topology which is compatible with the duality. for all λ ∈ F . → where C ∞ (R. Real analytic mappings. R) of all real analytic functions with the initial topology with respect to the families of mappings C ω (U. and where C ω (R. In this section I sketch the cartesian closed setting to real analytic mappings in infinite dimension following the lines of the Fr¨lichero Kriegl calculus. R) is equipped with the final topology with respect to the embeddings (restriction mappings) of all spaces of holomorphic mappings from a neighborhood V of R in C mapping R to R. Let C ω (U. for all c ∈ C ∞ (R. Surprisingly enough one has to deviate from the most obvious notion of real analytic curves in order to get a meaningful theory. → It turns out that this is again a convenient space.12 4. F ) denote the space of all real analytic mappings. U ). but again convenient vector spaces turn out to be the right kind of spaces. then each real analytic curve in E is in fact topological real analytic for the bornological topology on E. A mapping f : U → F is called real analytic if and only if it is smooth (maps smooth curves to smooth curves) and maps real analytic curves to real analytic curves. In contrast a curve is called topologically real analytic if it is locally given by power series which converge in the topology of E. 4. R). Calculus of real analytic mappings 4. F ) with the initial topology with respect to the family of mappings C ω (U. We equip the space C ω (U. R) carries the topology of compact convergence in each derivative separately as in section 2. R) − C ∞ (R. F ) − ∗ C ω (U. Furthermore we equip the space C ω (U. R).3. as it is presented in [Kriegl-Michor. 1990a]. They can be extended to germs of holomorphic curves along R in the complexification EC of E. Real analytic curves.1. R) − C ω (R. Let E and F be convenient vector spaces. Let U be a c∞ -open set in E. It turns out that the set of these curves depends only on the bornology of E.2. Let E be a real convenient vector space with dual E . R). λ c∗ c∗ . 4. for all c ∈ C ω (R. and each of these spaces carries the topology of compact convergence.

. Powerful real analytic uniform boundedness principles are available. Theorem Cartesian closedness. The category of convenient spaces and real analytic mappings is cartesian closed. F .9 are real analytic. and G are convenient vector spaces.4. where E. F ) ∼ C ω (U × V.5. Calculus of real analytic mappings 13 4. 4. L(E. F ) → C ω (U. F )) exists. Multilinear mappings are real analytic if and only if they are bounded. Theorem. F ) = is valid for all c∞ -open sets U in E and V in F . C ω (V ).3 a mapping f : U → F is real analytic if and only if it is smooth and is real analytic along each affine line in E. Furthermore the differential operator d : C ω (U.4. This implies again that all structure mappings as in 2. So the equation C ω (U. is unique and real analytic. In the setting of 4.

if they have this property when composed which any chart mappings. Smooth partitions of unity. The material is taken from [Kriegl-Michor. 5. Mappings between manifolds are smooth (holomorphic.1. 5. The value Xa (f ) depends only on the germ of f at a. Lemma. 1990b]. For each open neighborhood U of a in E (a. Convenient vector spaces which are nuclear admit smooth bump functions. The tangent spaces of a convenient vector space E. Infinite dimensional manifolds 5. real analytic) diffeomorphisms. E) of smooth E-valued functions on a manifold M is again a convenient vector space. Let a ∈ E. Lemma. which explains the choice of the name kinematic. e 5. then this is true for every open cover U of M .5. Likewise for the real analytic and holomorphic case. If M is a smooth manifold modeled on convenient vector spaces admitting smooth bump functions and U is a locally finite open cover of M . If M is in addition paracompact. In this section I will concentrate on two topics: Smooth partitions of unity. A manifold M is metrizable if and only if it is paracompact and modeled on Fr´chet spaces. then there exists a smooth partition of unity {ϕU : U ∈ U} with carr/supp(ϕU ) ⊂ U for all U ∈ U.14 5. and satisfies Xa (f · g) = Xa (f ) · g(a) + f (a) · Xa (g). which is continuous for the convenient vector space topology on C ∞ (U. X) induces a linear mapping Xa : C ∞ (U. In the usual way we define manifolds by gluing c∞ -open sets in convenient vector spaces via smooth (holomorphic.6. R). For a convenient vector space E the set C ∞ (M. Then we equip them with the identification topology with respect to the c∞ -topologies on all modeling spaces. A kinematic tangent vector with foot point a is simply a pair (a. Let Ta E = E be the space of all kinematic tangent vectors with foot point a.2.3.4. . It consists of all derivatives c (0) at 0 of smooth curves c : R → E with c(0) = a. so it is a continuous derivation over eva . We require some properties from this topology. and several kinds of tangent vectors. like Hausdorff and regular (which here is not a consequence of Hausdorff). X) with X ∈ E. real analytic). 5. 5. Theorem. R) → R by Xa (f ) := df (a)(Xa ).

9. Any ∂ ∈ Da E induces a bounded derivation C ∞ (U. Let Da E be the vector space of all these derivations. nuclear Fr´chet spaces. Definition. 5. R) be a bounded linear functional which sym vanishes on the subspace k−1 Li (E. defines an operational The linear mapping → ∂ k |a is an embedding onto a topological direct (k) summand Da E of Da E. e . Let : L2 (E. R). The sum k>0 Da E in Da E is a direct one. 5.8. since (d2 (f g)(a)) = = (d2 f (a)g(a) + df (a) ⊗ dg(a) + dg(a) ⊗ df (a) + f (a)d2 g(a)) = (d2 f (a))g(a) + 0 + f (a) (d2 g(a)). Example. We equip Da E with the induced convenient vector space structure.5. So we have a canonical injection E → Da E. R) ∨ Lk−i (E. all opera(k) tional tangent space summands D0 E are not zero. Lemma. R) → R over eva . 5. The following spaces have the bornological approximation property: R(N) . If E is an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Its left inverse is given by ∂ → (Φ → ∂((Φ ◦ (k) diag)(a+ ))). A convenient vector space is said to have the (bornological) approximation property if E ⊗ E is dense in L(E. R) → R over eva for each open neighborhood U of a in E.7. Then for each a ∈ E we have an operational tangent vector ∂ 2 |a ∈ Da E given by ∂ 2 |a (f ) := (d2 f (a)). Then for each a ∈ E we have an operational tangent vector Ya ∈ Da E. Infinite dimensional manifolds 15 An operational tangent vector of E with foot point a is a bounded ∞ derivation ∂ : Ca (E. R). nuclear (LF)spaces. So the vector space Da E is a closed linear subspace of the convenient vector space U L(C ∞ (U. Example. Then sym tangent vector ∂ k |a ∈ Da E for each a ∈ E by ∂ k |a (f ) := (dk f (a)). Let Y ∈ E be an element in the bidual of E. R). R) sym sym i=1 of decomposable elements of Lk (E. given by Ya (f ) := Y (df (a)). E) in the bornological locally convex topology. Note that the spaces Da E are isomorphic for all a ∈ E. Let ∈ Lk (E. Lemma. R) → R be a bounded linear functional which vanishes on the subset E ⊗ E .

So if E is in addition reflexive. . The kinematic tangent bundle T M of a manifold M is constructed by gluing all the kinematic tangent bundles of charts with the help of the kinematic tangent mappings (derivatives) of the chart changes. D(k) N ) are well defined for all k including ∞ and have the usual properties. Let E be a convenient vector space which has the approximation property. Then πM : DM → M is again a vector bundle which contains the kinematic tangent bundle T M embeds as a splitting subbundle. Tangent vectors as derivations. T M → M is a vector bundle and T : C ∞ (M. 5. each operational = tangent vector is a kinematic one. Also for each k ∈ N the same gluing construction as above gives us tangent bundles D(k) M which are splitting subbundles of DM . N ) → C ∞ (D(k) M.16 5.11. Then we have (1) Da E = Da E ∼ E . T N ) is well defined and has the usual properties.10 Theorem.12. N ) → C ∞ (T M. Note that for manifolds modeled on reflexive spaces having the bornological approximation property the operational and the kinematic tangent bundles coincide. Infinite dimensional manifolds 5. The mappings D(k) : C ∞ (M. 5. The operational tangent bundle DM of a manifold M is constructed by gluing all operational tangent spaces of charts.

N ) : (f (x). N ) of all smooth mappings from M to N is a smooth manifold. N ) we write f ∼ g if f and g agree off some compact subset in M . uf (g)(x) = (x. −− f ∞ Then C ∞ (f ∗ T N ) is canonically isomorphic to the space Cf (M. g ∈ C ∞ (M. defined on a suitable open neighborhood of the zero section. f (x) . Theorem. Manifold structure of C ∞ (M. T N ) : πN ◦ h = f } via s → (πN f ) ◦ s and (IdM . Then the space C ∞ (M. exp) : U → N × N is a smooth diffeomorphism onto an open neighborhood V of the diagonal. g ∼ f }. Now let Uf := {g ∈ C ∞ (M. Manifolds of mappings 6. For f ∈ C ∞ (M. o Proof. Let M and N be smooth finite dimensional manifolds. For f . N ) we consider the pullback vector bundle M ×N T N f ∗T N − − → T N −N−    π f ∗π N π∗ f N M − − → N. Let exp : T N ⊇ U → N be the smooth exponential mapping of this Riemannian metric. ((πN . h) ← h. I include a o proof of this result here because the result is important and the proof is much simpler now with the help of the Fr¨licher Kriegl-calculus. A careful description of this theorem (but without the help of the Fr¨licher-Kriegl calculus) can be found in [Michor. g(x)) ∈ V for all x ∈ M. exp)−1 ◦ (f. K where K runs through all compact sets in M and each of the spaces ∞ CK (f ∗ T N ) is equipped with the topology of uniform convergence (on K) in all derivatives separately. modeled on spaces C ∞ (f ∗ T N ) of smooth sections of pullback bundles along f : M → N over M .17 6. ∞ uf : Uf → Cc (f ∗ T N ). Choose a smooth Riemannian metric on N . T N ) := ∞ ∗ {h ∈ C (M. We may assume that U is chosen in such a way that (πN .1. N ). 1980]. g))(x)). ∞ We consider the space Cc (f ∗ T N ) of all smooth sections with compact support and equip it with the inductive limit topology ∞ ∞ Cc (f ∗ T N ) = inj lim CK (f ∗ T N ). exp−1 (g(x))) = (x.

Since this is a local condition on R and since smooth curves in C ∞ (M. which have compact support in M locally in R. It is equipped with the inductive limit topology ∞ ∞ Cc (E) = inj lim CK (E). −1 The chart change uf ◦ u−1 = (τf ◦ τg )∗ is defined on an open subset g and obviously maps smooth curves to smooth curves. K . whose inverse is given by uf (s) = exp ◦(πN f ) ◦ s. Let M and N be smooth finite dimensional manifolds. exp ◦(πN g) ◦ s)) g −1 = (τf ◦ τg )∗ (s). N ) locally take values in charts as in the proof of theorem 6. Yg(x) ) := (x. 6. (πN . where τg (x. where ∞ we view U → N as fiber bundle.N ) for C ∞ (M.1 it suffices to ∞ describe the smooth curves in the space Cc (E) of sections with compact support of a vector bundle (E. ∞ Smooth curves in Cc (f ∗ T N ) are just smooth sections of the bundle ∗ ∗ pr2 f T N → R × M . Finally we put the identification topology from this atlas on the space C ∞ (M. The set uf (Uf ) is open in Cc (f ∗ T N ) for the topology described above. therefore it is also smooth. N ). N ). Its ∞ chart change mappings are given for s ∈ ug (Uf ∩ Ug ) ⊆ Cc (g ∗ T N ) by ∗ (uf ◦ u−1 )(s) = (IdM . N ) which satisfy the following property: ˆ (1) For each compact interval [a.18 6. ˆ Proof. uf )f ∈C ∞ (M. Since R is locally compact property (1) is equivalent to (2) For each t ∈ R there is an open neighborhood U of t in R and a compact K ⊂ M such that the restriction c|(U × (M \ K)) is ˆ constant. M. which is obviously finer than the compact open topology and thus Hausdorff. p. Now we consider the atlas (Uf . V ). b] × (M \ K)) is constant. N ). expg(x) (Yg(x) ))) is a smooth diffeomorphism τg : g ∗ T N ⊇ g ∗ U → (g × IdN )−1 (V ) ⊆ M × N which is fiber respecting over M .2. Lemma. −1 The equation uf ◦ u−1 = (τf ◦ τg )∗ shows that the smooth structure g does not depend on the choice of the smooth Riemannian metric on N. exp)−1 ◦ (f. Then the smooth curves c in C ∞ (M. b] ⊂ R there is a compact subset K ⊂ M such that the restriction c|([a. Smooth curves in C ∞ (M. N ) correspond exactly to the smooth mappings c ∈ C ∞ (R×M. Manifolds of mappings ∞ Then uf is a bijective mapping from Uf onto the set {s ∈ Cc (f ∗ T N ) : −1 ∗ ∗ s(M ) ⊆ f U }.

6. where the factor spaces on the right hand side carry the topology used in 2. V ) is a linear embedding onto a closed linear subspace of the product. The chart changings uf ◦ u−1 = (τf ◦ τg )∗ are real analytic: this g follows from a careful description of the set of real analytic curves into C ∞ (f ∗ T N ). N ) is a smooth manifold. N ). It can also be found in [Kriegl-Michor.3. since C ω (M. in all derivatives separately). N ). N ) do not cover C ∞ (M. using a real analytic Riemannian metric. uf ) from 6. 1990a] for more details. 8]. C ω -manifold structure on C ∞ (M. Then ∞ CK (E) s → (pr2 ◦ ψα ◦ s|Uα )α ∈ α C ∞ (Uα . and where CK (E) denotes the space of sections of E with support in K. 6. Then the smooth manifold C ∞ (M. modeled on spaces C ω (f ∗ T N ) of real analytic sections of pullback bundles along f : M → N over M . N ) of all real analytic mappings from M to N is a real analytic manifold.1 for f ∈ C ω (M. 1990a]. 1958. N ).8 this is the case if and only if their canonically associates are smooth R × Uα → V . Since this injective limit is strict (each bounded subset is contained and bounded in some step) smooth ∞ ∞ curves in Cc (E) locally factor to smooth maps in CK (E) for some K. Manifolds of mappings 19 ∞ where K runs through all compact subsets of M . This is not the case for the D-topology from [Michor. 6. ψα : E → Uα × V ) be a vector bundle atlas for E. N ) is dense in C ∞ (M.6. By cartesian closedness 2. these fit ∗ together to a smooth section of the pullback bundle pr2 E → R×M with support in R × K. Let M and N be real analytic manifolds. . See again [Kriegl-Michor. Then the space C ω (M. Prop. C ω (M. C ω -manifold structure of C ω (M. 1980]. equipped with the compact C ∞ -topology (the topology of uniform convergence on compact subsets. N ) is dense in C ∞ (M. 6. ∞ So a curve in CK (E) is smooth if and only if each its ”coordinates” in ∞ C (Uα . N ) with the structure from 6. V ) is smooth. The charts Uf for f ∈ C ∞ (M. Let (Uα .5 Remark. Proof. The proof is a variant of the proof of 6. N ) for the Whitney-C ∞ -topology by [Grauert. N ) by [Grauert. For a fixed real analytic exponential mapping on N the charts (Uf . let M be compact.1 is even a real analytic manifold. 1958.1. N ) form a smooth atlas for C ∞ (M. Proposition −1 8].4. Let M and N be real analytic manifolds. with M compact. Theorem. in which C ∞ (M. N ). Theorem. If M is not compact.

c2 )) = c1 (t. Then we have (comp ◦(c1 . N ) induces an atlas for T C ∞ (M. N ). Smoothness of composition.6. . then the composition mapping ∞ comp : C ∞ (M. N ) × Cprop (P. N ) and Cc (M. 10. then the evaluation mapping ev : C ∞ (M. T N ) ⊂ ∞ ∞ C (M. N are finite dimensional smooth manifolds. Theorem. M ) denote the space of all proper smooth mappings P → M (i. Using the description of smooth curves in C ∞ (M. Let M and N be smooth manifolds. N ) and g ∈ Cprop (P.8. This is carried out in great detail in [Michor. M ). N ) given in 6.7.1 for C ∞ (M. Let (c1 .e. N ) × M → N is smooth. N ) → ∞ ∞ C (P. a suitable compact / subset of M (equivalently. but P and M have to be compact. N ) × ∞ Cprop (P. M ) since changing a mapping only on a compact set does not change its property of being proper. M ) be a smooth curve. The proof for real analytic manifolds is similar. T N ) we denote the space of all smooth mappings f : M → T N such that f (x) = 0πM f (x) for x ∈ Kf . N ) ∞ is smooth. c2 ) : R → C ∞ (M. p)) and one may check that this has again property (1). so ev is smooth as claimed. N ) are canonically isomorphic. If P is another smooth manifold. c1 (t)) is smooth for each ˆ smooth (c1 . T N ) over C (M.20 6. This is open in C ∞ (P. One can check directly that the atlas from 6. N ) are smooth for f ∈ C ∞ (N. If M . 6. Exponential law. T N ) via some natural identifications in T T N . Then the infinite ∞ dimensional smooth vector bundles T C ∞ (M. ∞ The space of proper mappings Cprop (P. N ) × M . c2 (t. compact sets have compact inverse images). ∞ Proof. N ) → C ∞ (M. c2 ) : R → C ∞ (M. M ) is open in the manifold ∞ C (P. M ) → C ∞ (P. where Cprop (P. so it ˆ ˆ is a smooth curve in C ∞ (P. Proof. N ) which is equivalent to that for C ∞ (M. such that the associated section of the pull back bundle (πM ◦ f )∗ T N → M has compact support). N ) and g ∗ : C ∞ (M. 6. if M is compact. c2 ))(t)(p) = c1 (t.19]. Theorem. N ). Manifolds of mappings 6.2 we immediately see that (ev ◦(c1 . 1980. Let M be a (possibly infinite dimensional) smooth manifold. The same assertion is true for C ω (M. M ). Here by Cc (M. and let M and N be finite dimensional smooth manifolds. The corresponding statement for real analytic mappings is also true. In particular f∗ : C ∞ (M. Thus comp is smooth. Theorem.

where the image in the right hand side consists of all smooth mappings f : M × M → N which satisfy the following property (1) For each point in M there is an open neighborhood U and a compact set K ⊂ M such that the restriction f |(U × (M \ K)) is constant. This follows directly from the description of all smooth curves in C ∞ (M.6. C ∞ (M. We have equality if and only if M is compact. If M and N are real analytic manifolds with M compact we have C ω (M. N ) for each real analytic (possibly infinite dimensional) manifold. N ) given in the proof of 6. N )) = C ω (M × M. Manifolds of mappings 21 Then we have a canonical embedding C ∞ (M. N )) ⊆ C ∞ (M × M → N ).6. C ω (M. . Proof.

To show that the inversion inv is smooth. e. Then the mapping c : R × M → M satˆ isfies 6. M ). Diffeomorphism group.X. For a smooth manifold M the group Diff(M ) of all smooth diffeomorphisms of M is an open submanifold of C ∞ (M. o By the chart structure from 6. thus T (ρf ). Property 6. m). M ).1. The composition is smooth by theorem 6. Since the topology we use on C ∞ (M. Proof. M ) for the Whitney C ∞ -topology. Likewise Tf Diff(M ) = Cc (f ∗ T M ) which we identify with the space of all vector fields with compact support along the diffeomorphism f .6.1. Thus the exponential mapping of the diffeomorphism group is given by Exp = Fl1 : Xc (M ) → Diff(M ). This proof is by far simpler than the original one. 1980].22 7. M ). Diff(M ) is an open submani∞ fold of Cprop (M. For a compact real analytic manifold M the group Diff ω (M ) of all real analytic diffeomorphisms is a real analytic Lie group with Lie algebra C ω (T M ) and with real analytic exponential mapping. Diffeomorphism groups 7. t So the one parameter group t → FlX ∈ Diff(M ) is the integral curve of t the right invariant vector field RX : f → T (ρf ). Right translation ρf is given by ρf (g) = f ∗ (g) = g ◦ f . and shows the power of the Fr¨licher-Kriegl calculus. or directly from theorem 6.(1) is obvious.6. a time dependent vector field with compact support Xt . The exponential mapping Exp : Cc (T M ) → Diff ∞ (M ) is the flow mapping to time 1.X = X ◦ f and for the flow FlX of the vector t d X X field with compact support X we have dt F lt = X ◦ F lt = T (ρFlX ). Thus Exp maps smooth curves to smooth curves and is smooth . We may view it as a complete vector field (0t . So inv maps smooth curves to smooth curves and is thus smooth. Theorem. By the finite dimenˆ sional implicit function theorem (inv ◦c) is smooth in (t.6. see [Michor. equipped with the negative of the usual Lie ∞ bracket. To show that is smooth we consider a smooth curve in Xc (M ).(1) and (inv ◦c) fulfills the finite dimensional implicit equation c(t.7we see ∞ that the tangent space Te Diff(M ) equals the space Cc (T M ) of all vec∞ tor fields with compact support. and it is smooth.X = X ◦ f on Diff(M ). It is well known that the space Diff(M ) of all diffeomorphisms of M is open in C ∞ (M. we consider a smooth curve c : R → Diff(M ) ⊂ C ∞ (M. Xt ) on R × M whose smooth flow respects the level surfaces {t} × M and is smooth. m)) = m for all t ∈ R and m ∈ M . M ) is finer. i. composition and inversion are smooth. (inv ◦c) (t. The Lie algebra of the smooth infinite dimensional Lie group Diff(M ) ∞ is the convenient vector space Cc (T M ) of all smooth vector fields on M with compact support.

the negative of the usual Lie bracket on Xc (M ). Using tubular neighborhoods or submanifold charts one can . . which is not real analytic in t for general smooth X. 1983. ∞ The exponential mapping Exp : Cc (T M ) → Diff(M ) is in a very strong sense not surjective: In [Grabowski. It is even real analytic. Ad(Exp(sX))Y = = = ∂ ∂t 0 ∂ ∂t 0 Exp(sX) ◦ Exp(tY ) ◦ Exp(−sX) Ad(Exp(tX))Y = T (FlX ) ◦ Y ◦ FlX t −t (FlX )∗ Y.6 the left action ev : Diff(M ) × M → M is smooth. The mapping ∞ Ad ◦ Exp : Cc (T M ) → Diff(M ) → L(C ∞ (T M ).2. . C ∞ (T M )) is not real analytic. xn ) and (y1 . . 4. 3.2. . Y ]. 7. 1984. To understand this contemplate 1.2]. see [Pressley-Segal. 1986. The group Diff(M ) of smooth diffeomorphisms does not carry any real analytic Lie group structure by [Milnor.3]. 9. see [Michor. Remarks. 1984. thus −t X ∗ ∂ ∂t 0 (Fl−t ) Y = −[X. . yn ) of pair wise different elements of M there is a diffeomorphism f ∈ Diff(M ) with f (xi ) = yi for each i. ∞ For x ∈ M the mapping evx ◦ Exp : Cc (T M ) → Diff(M ) → M is not X real analytic since (evx ◦ Exp)(tX) = F lt (x). i.6]. 1] → M which is an embedding.7. compare the proof of theorem 7. who weakened the original concept of [Omori. . 1983. 7. Diffeomorphism groups 23 itself.(4). This condition means that the mapping associating the evolution operator to each time dependent vector field on M is smooth. Let us finally compute the Lie bracket on Xc (M ) viewed as the Lie algebra of Diff(M ).2. Again one may compare this simple proof with the original one in [Michor. for two ordered finite n-tupels (x1 . If dim M ≥ 2 this action is n-transitive for each n ∈ N. The real analytic Lie group Diff ω (M ) is regular in the sense of [Milnor. .11]. section 4]. 1988] it is shown. and it has no complexification in general. By theorem 6. that Diff(M ) contains an arcwise connected free subgroup on 2ℵ0 generators which meets the image of Exp only at the identity. . e. To see this connect xi with yi by a simple smooth curve ci : [0. 1982]. such that the images are pair wise disjoint.

whose smooth base manifold is the space B(M. Theorem. see [Kriegl-Michor. Let us consider the mapping τ = τ i := (expN ◦¯ i)|U : N (i) ⊃ U → N. Then let p : N (i) → M be the normal bundle of i. Let M and N be smooth manifolds. Let g be a fixed Riemannian metric on N and let expN be its exponential mapping. .3. N ) of B(M. Then N (i) − − → T N −−    π p M −−→ N −− i ¯ i N is an injective vector bundle homomorphism over i. N ) consisting of all closed submanifolds of N of type M . N ) of all smooth embeddings M → N is an open submanifold of C ∞ (M. 1990a]. N ) of proper (equivalently closed) embeddings is saturated under the Diff(M )-action and is thus the total space of the restriction of the principal bundle to the open submanifold Bclosed (M. N ). There is. Then the set Emb(M. Principal bundle of embeddings. In contrast to this one knows from [Omori. 7. inverse limit of Hilbert manifolds) which sometimes permits to use an implicit function theorem. 1974] for this. Proof. In the real analytic case this theorem remains true provided that M is supposed to be compact. It is the total space of a smooth principal fiber bundle with structure group Diff(M ). e. however. The diffeomorphism Exp(X) = FlX 1 then maps xi to yi . N ) of all submanifolds of N of type M . The open subset Embprop (M. See [Omori. Let us fix an embedding i ∈ Emb(M. the possibility to view Diff(M ) as an ILH-group (i. 1978] that a Banach Lie group acting effectively on a finite dimensional manifold is necessarily finite dimensional.24 7. N ). Now let U i = U be an open neighborhood of the zero section of N (i) which is so small that (expN ◦¯ i)|U : U → N is a diffeomorphism onto its image which describes a tubular neighborhood of the submanifold i(M ). Diffeomorphism groups show that then there is a vector field with compact support X ∈ Xc (M ) which restricts to ci (t) along ci (t). defined in the following way: For x ∈ M let N (i)x := (Tx i(Tx M ))⊥ ⊂ Ti(x) N be the g-orthogonal complement in Ti(x) N . section 6. So there is no way to model the diffeomorphism group on Banach spaces as a manifold.

N ) we have W(i) := U(i) ◦ Diff(M ) ∼ Q(i) × Diff(M ) ∼ (Cc (U i ) ∩ V(i)) × Diff(M ). Furthermore π|Q(i) : Q(i) → Emb(M. Then there is an immersion h ∈ W(i) ∩ Q(j). N ) : j(M ) ⊆ τ i (U i ). We consider now the open set {h ◦ f : h ∈ V(i). N (i)) is a smooth mapping which is bijective onto the open set V(i) := {h ∈ C ∞ (M. N )/ Diff(M ) is bijective onto an open set in the quotient. 1980. and the open set in Emb(M. In order to investigate the chart change let j ∈ Emb(M. N (i)). So if we let Q(i) := τ∗ (Cc (U i ) ∩ V(i)) ⊂ Emb(M. section 4] the set U(i) is an open neighborhood of i in Emb(M. ∞ Obviously we have a smooth mapping from it into Cc (U i ) × Diff(M ) i −1 ∞ given by h → (h ◦ (p ◦ h) . N (i)) : h(M ) ⊆ U i . Its inverse is given by the smooth mapping τ∗ : h → i τ ◦ h. h ∼ 0} i in C ∞ (M. . we have Q(i)∩Q(j) = ∅ and consequently U(i) ∩ U(j) = ∅. N ) which will serve us as a saturated chart. p ◦ h). U i )). We now consider ϕi ◦ (π|Q(i))−1 : π(Q(i)) → C ∞ (U i ) as a chart for the quotient space. so there exists a unique f0 ∈ Diff(M ) −1 −1 (given by f0 = p ◦ ϕi (h)) such that h ◦ f0 ∈ Q(i). For each j ∈ U(i) we define ϕi (j) : M → U i ⊆ N (i). N ). Diffeomorphism groups 25 a diffeomorphism onto its image. N ) be such that π(Q(i)) ∩ π(Q(j)) = ∅. where j ∼ i means that j = i off some compact set in M . ϕi (j)(x) := (τ i )−1 (j(x)) Then ϕi = ((τ i )−1 )∗ : U(i) → C ∞ (M. where Cc (U ) is the space of sections ∞ i with compact support of U i → M . If we consider j ◦ f0 instead of j and call it again j. f ∈ Diff(M )} ⊆ C ∞ ((M.7. Then by [Michor. Then the chart change is given as follows: ∞ ∞ ϕi ◦ (π|Q(i))−1 ◦ π ◦ (τ j )∗ : Cc (U j ) → Cc (U i ) s → τ j ◦ s → ϕi (τ j ◦ s) ◦ (pi ◦ ϕi (τ j ◦ s))−1 . U(i) := {j ∈ Emb(M. j ∼ i}. i i We have τ∗ (h ◦ f ) = τ∗ (h) ◦ f for those f ∈ Diff(M ) which are near enough to the identity so that h ◦ f ∈ V(i). = = ∞ since the action of Diff(M ) on i is free.

a submanifold of N. Both V and W are Diff(M ) saturated. N ) : k(M ) ⊂ W }. 7. n = dim N . N ) be set of all proper immersions. We choose an open neighborhood V of y0 in N and an open neighborhood W of j(M ) in N such that V ∩ W = ∅. Then the diffeomorphism group Diff(M ) acts smoothly from the right on the smooth manifold Immprop (M. Then V is obviously open in Emb(M. N ) = Emb(M. Let (WL . j ∈ Emb(M. so π(i) = π(j). N )/ Diff(M ). j ∈ V. which is an open subset of C ∞ (M. where n = dim M .prop (M. 1989]. N ) → Immfree. say. So π(V) and π(W) separate π(i) and π(j) in B(M. Case 2 Let i(M ) ⊂ j(M ) and j(M ) ⊂ i(M ).prop (M. Let (V.26 7. Since j(M ) ⊆ i(M ) we conclude that we have also v((i(M ) ∪ j(M )) ∩ V ) ⊆ Rm ∩v(V ). We show that the quotient space B(M. N ). N ) with π(i) = π(j). pL . contrary to the assumption. where also the existence of smooth transversals to each orbit is shown and the stratification of the orbit space into smooth manifolds is given. on which Diff(M ) acts freely. Now we distinguish two cases. N )/ Diff(M ) is Hausdorff in the quotient topology. the mapping i−1 ◦ j : M → L → M is then a diffeomorphism of M and j = i◦(i−1 ◦j) ∈ i◦Diff(M ). Let Immfree.4. Theorem. Case 1. Let V := {k ∈ Emb(M. Both composants are smooth by the general properties of manifolds of mappings. Let M and N be smooth manifolds. Let y ∈ i(X). Then the space of orbits Immprop (M. We may find a point y0 ∈ i(M ) \ j(M ). v) be a chart of N centered at y which maps i(M ) ∩ V into a linear subspace. N ) : k(M ) ∩ V } W := {k ∈ Emb(M. So we see that L := i(M )∪j(M ) is a submanifold of N of the same dimension as N . Diffeomorphism groups This is of the form s → β ◦ s for a locally defined diffeomorphism β : N (j) → N (i) which is not fiber respecting. N ) and V is even open in the coarser compact open topology. prop (M. followed by h → h◦(pi ◦h)−1 . i ∈ W. v(i(M )∩V ) ⊆ Rm ∩v(V ) ⊂ Rn . This is proved in [Cervera-Mascaro-Michor. So the chart change is smooth. Then WL |i(M ) is a tubular neighborhood of i(M ) and WL |j(M ) is one of j(M ). N )/ Diff(M ) is Hausdorff. . say. and V ∩ W = ∅. N ) and is the total space of a smooth principal fiber bundle Immfree. L) be a tubular neighborhood of L. Let i. Then this is open in C ∞ (M. N ) of all smooth proper immersions M → N . Then i(M ) = j(M ) in N for otherwise put i(M ) = j(M ) =: L. N ). which is not a cluster point of j(M ).

D2 ]. . . The space Derk Ω(M ) consists of all (graded) derivations of degree k. Plug in the definition of the graded commutator and compute. . It is ∗ ∗ uniquely determined by its restriction to 1-forms Dx |Tx M : Tx M → ∗ Λk+1 T ∗ M which we may view as an element Kx ∈ Λk+1 Tx M ⊗ Tx M depending smoothly on x ∈ M . . (1) For K ∈ Ωk+1 (M. . Then D(f. L ∈ Ω +1 (M. L] = iK L − (−1)k iL K. A derivation D ∈ Derk Ω(M ) is called algebraic if D | Ω0 (M ) = 0. D2 ] = −(−1)k1 k2 [D2 . In this section let M be a smooth manifold. The Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis Bracket o 8. . . We consider the graded dim M k commutative algebra Ω(M ) = Ω (M ) of differential forms on k=0 M . T M ) the space of all vector valued differential forms. Note also that the important formula LX = d iX + iX d translates to LX = [iX . D2 ] := D1 ◦ D2 − (−1)k1 k2 D2 ◦ D1 as bracket. ] is itself a derivation). Xk+ ) = = 1 (k+1)! ( −1)! σ∈§k+ sign σω(K(Xσ1 . . . (2) By i([K. d]. D3 ]] = [[D1 . i.27 8. Xσ(k+2) .1. all linear mappings D : Ω(M ) → Ω(M ) with D(Ω (M )) ⊂ Ωk+ (M ) and D(ϕ ∧ ψ) = D(ϕ) ∧ ψ + (−1)k ϕ ∧ D(ψ) for ϕ ∈ Ω (M ). LX is of degree 0. ] on the space Ω∗−1 (M. iL ] we get a bracket [ . T M ). so D is of tensorial character ∗ and induces a derivation Dx ∈ Derk ΛTx M for each x ∈ M . L] ) := [iK . [D1 . T M ) we have [K. ) for ω ∈ Ω (M ). D3 ]] (so that ad(D1 ) = [D1 . D1 ].D(ω) for f ∈ C ∞ (M. Xi ∈ X(M ) (or Tx M ) defines an algebraic graded derivation iK ∈ Derk Ω(M ) and any algebraic derivation is of this form. From the basics of differential geometry one is already familiar with some graded derivations: for a vector field X on M the derivation iX is of degree −1. dim M We call Ω(M. and for K ∈ Ωk+1 (M. Xσ(k+1) ). 8. T M ).2. This means that the bracket is graded anticommutative. Then the space Der Ω(M ) = k Derk Ω(M ) is a graded Lie algebra with the graded commutator [D1 . T M ) the formula (iK ω)(X1 . [D2 . Proof. T M ) which defines a graded Lie algebra structure with the grading as indicated.e. Theorem. D3 ] + (−1)[ D2 . and satisfies the graded Jacobi identity [D1 .ω) = f. T M ) = k=0 Ωk (M. R). Lemma. To express this dependence we write D = iK = i(K). where K ∈ C ∞ (Λk+1 T ∗ M ⊗ T M ) =: Ωk+1 (M . . . [D1 . and d is of degree 1. .

d] = 2d2 = 0. Xk ) ∈ X(M ) such that (Df )(X1 . Xk ) = K(X1 . . . . Then f → (Df )(X1 . . R) → C ∞ (M. 1967]. . Thus L(IdT M ) = d. Proof. Xk ) is a derivation C ∞ (M. T M ) the Lie derivation LK = L(K) ∈ Derk Ω(M ) by LK := [ik . Theorem. so K is tensorial. ∗ Proof. so the last assertions follow.3. Since we have [d. . D is algebraic if and only if K = 0.28 8. d] = iX d + d iX for vector fields X. T M ) such that D = LK + iL . so D −LK = iL by 8. Since Λ∗ Tx M is the free graded commutative algebra generated ∗ by the vector space Tx M any K ∈ Ωk+1 (M. The graded commutator of two algebraic derivations is again algebraic. d] = LK is injective. T M ) and L ∈ Ωk+1 (M . K ∈ Ωk (M . 8. T M ) → Derk (Ω(M )) induces a graded Lie bracket on Ω∗+1 (M. . We have L = 0 if and only if [D. . see [Nijenhuis-Richardson. . Xk )f = df (K(X1 . . . we define for K ∈ Ωk (M . . R). . by the graded Jacobi identity we obtain 0 = [iK . . Xk )). Applying i(IdT M ) on a k-fold exterior product of 1-forms we see that i(IdT M )ω = kω for ω ∈ Ωk (M ). . so the injection i : Ω∗+1 (M. Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o [ . so there is a unique vector field K(X1 . . d]] = 2[LK . . d]. since LK f = iK df = df ◦ K for f ∈ C ∞ (M. Thus D −LK is an algebraic derivation. The defining equation for K is Df = df ◦ K = iK df = LK f for f ∈ C ∞ (M. . The mapping L → [iL . ] is called the algebraic bracket or also the Nijenhuis-Richardson bracket. d]. d]] = [[iK . T M ) → Der Ω(M ) is injective. . Then the mapping L : Ω(M. 8. d] + (−1)k−1 [d. [iK . d] = 0. . T M ). . For any graded derivation D ∈ Derk Ω(M ) there are unique K ∈ Ωk (M . T M ). d]. .2 for unique L ∈ Ωk+1 (M . T M ) extends to a graded derivation. . . T M ) whose form can be seen by applying it to a 1-form.4. By applying it to an exterior product of 1-forms one can derive the formula in (1). R)-linear in each Xi and alternating. . In view of the formula LX = [iX . Clearly K(X1 . The exterior derivative d is an element of Der1 Ω(M ). Thus we have L(IdT M ) = ω = i(IdT M )dω − d i(IdT M )ω = (k + 1)dω − kdω = dω. [d. R). Let Xi ∈ X(M ) be vector fields. Xk ) is C ∞ (M. R).

LY ]f . Y ] = L([X. R) we have [iL . Proof. 8. df ◦ [X. the algebraic part of [iL . L : (Ω(M . T M ) and L ∈ Ω +1 dim M (M . IdT M ∈ Ω1 (M . Then we have: (1) (2) (3) (4) [ω ∧ D1 . The space Ω(M . Theorem. 8. d]] = = 0 − (−1)k L([K. [ . i(ω ∧ L) = ω ∧ i(L) ω ∧ LK = L(ω ∧ K) + (−1)q+k−1 i(dω ∧ K). [K.8. IdT M ] = 0 for all K. d] = [iL . [iL . T M ) we have [LK . LK ] = L(iL K) − (−1)k i([L. K]). T M ) with its usual grading is a graded Lie algebra. Proof. T M ). of ϕ be k. Let the degree of ω be q. [LK .e. For f ∈ C ∞ (M. L]) = (−1)k [i([L. The rest is clear. L] ∈ Ωk+ (M . T M ). For vector fields the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o coincides with the Lie bracket. ]) → Der Ω(M ) is an injective homomorphism of graded Lie algebras. LK ] − L(iL K) is an algebraic derivation. and of ψ be . [[LK . Since [ . LK ]f = iL iK df − 0 = iL (df ◦ K) = df ◦ (iL K) = L(iL K)f . d] = 0. This generalizes the usual formula for vector fields. Lemma.5. Let the other degrees be as indicated. For K ∈ Ωk (M . d] kills the ”L’s” and is injective on the ”i’s”. L]) − (−1)k L(iL K).6. L2 ] = ω ∧ [L1 . LL ].7. Let K ∈ Ωk (M . [[iL . So [iL . o Theorem. K]). T M ) is in the center. T M ) = k=0 Ωk (M . This vector valued form [K. Y ])f = [LX . i. so we have [L(K). iL ] = i([K. K]). L]) Then obviously for a uniquely defined [K. L(L)] = L([K. The space Der Ω(M ) is a graded module over the graded algebra Ω(M ) with the action (ω ∧ D)ϕ = ω ∧ D(ϕ). Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o 29 8. T M ). L] is called the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket of K and L. LK ] is (−1)k i([L. L2 ] − . [ω ∧ L1 . LK ]. D2 ] − (−1)(q+k1 )k2 d2 (ω) ∧ D1 . d]] − (−1)k [LK . d]). D2 ] = ω ∧ [D1 . T M ) and L ∈ Ω (M . or [iL .

. For (1) . . .7. For K ∈ Ωk (M . L2 ] ). L] the following formula. . Xσ(k+2) . . For K ∈ Ωk (M . It suffices to consider K = ϕ ⊗ X. T M ) and ω ∈ Ω (M ) the Lie derivative of ω along K is given by the following formula. . Xσk ). Proof. (2) . Xσ(k+1) ]. Now use the usual global formulas to expand this. . . For (4) compute i([ω ∧ L1 . . .8. 8. Xσ(k+1) ]. . . . . . . ). Xσk ). Theorem. Theorem. . . L](X1 . . Y ] + ϕ ∧ LX ψ ⊗ Y − LY ϕ ∧ ψ ⊗ X + (−1)k (dϕ ∧ iX ψ ⊗ Y + iY ϕ ∧ dψ ⊗ X) . For (6) use (5) . Xσ(k+ ) )) sign σ ω([K(Xσ1 . . . . L(Xσ(k+1) . . where the Xi are vector fields on M . Xk+ ) = = + + 1 k! ! σ −1 k! ( −1)! σ (−1)k−1 (k−1)! ( −1)! 2! σ sign σ L(K(Xσ1 . . (LK ω)(X1 . K2 ] = ω ∧ [K1 . [ω ∧ K1 . . T M ) and L ∈ Ω (M . .3 we have L(ϕ ⊗ X) = ϕ ∧ LX − (−1)k−1 dϕ ∧ iX .9. Xσ3 . [K. . ) . . Xσk ). Xσ(k+2) . . 8. Xσ(k+ ) )] sign σ L([K(Xσ1 . Xσ(k+2) . Then by 8.30 8. . ψ ⊗ Y ] = ϕ ∧ ψ ⊗ [X. Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o − (−1)(q+ (5) (6) 1 −1)( 2 −1) i(L2 )ω ∧ L1 . . . Y ] − iY dϕ ∧ ψ ⊗ X − (−1)k iX dψ ∧ ϕ ⊗ Y − d(iY ϕ ∧ ψ) ⊗ X − (−1)k d(iX ψ ∧ ϕ) ⊗ Y = ϕ ∧ ψ ⊗ [X. . . . ). T M ) we have for the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket [K. . . . ) sign σ ω(K([Xσ1 . Xσk ))(ω(Xσ(k+1) . K2 ] − (−1)(q+k1 )k2 L(K2 )ω ∧ K1 + (−1)q+k1 dω ∧ i(K1 )K2 . . For (5) compute L([ω ∧ K1 . . Proof. Xσ2 ]. where the Xi o are vector fields on M . . Global formula for the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis o bracket. . [ϕ ⊗ X. Xk+ ) = = + 1 k! ! σ −1 k! ( −1)! σ sign σ [K(Xσ1 . K2 ]). . (3) write out the definitions. .

L2 ] − (−1)k1 k2 [K2 . . see [Michor..... Xσ(k+2) . It suffices to consider K = ϕ ⊗ X and L = ψ ⊗ Y ... .αk+ i + (−1)k (∂α1 Kα1 . .α ∂i Kα +1 . Xσ2 ]. Xσ( +2) .αk−1 i ∂αk Li k+1 . L | U = Lj dβ ⊗ ∂j .. . ). ...αk Lj k+1 .αk ) ωiαk+2 .. Xσ3 . . .11. Proof. we get the following local formulas: iK ω | U = [K. . . . . Xσ3 . .. For Ki ∈ Ωki (M .. . L2 ] + [K1 . Xσ( +2) . and 8.αk+ α i + (−1)k Lj 1 .. LK2 + iL2 ] = = L [K1 .. T M ) we have (1) [LK1 + iL1 . Xk+ ). 1987].8. There are more illuminating ways to prove this formula. After some combinatorial computation we get the right hand side of the above formula for K = ϕ ⊗ X and L = ψ ⊗ Y .. L] | U = i Kα1 .8. β where α = (1 ≤ α1 < α2 < · · · < αk ≤ dim M ) is a form index. then for [ϕ ⊗ X... Local formulas..αk ωiαk+1 . )..αk+ α dα ⊗ ∂j 8.α −1 i ∂α Kα +1 . T M ) and Li ∈ Ωki +1 (M . 8.αk+ α j − kKα1 . . Xσ2 ]. ...αk ∂i Lj k+1 . ) + + + (−1)k (k−1)! ! σ sign σ K([L(Xσ1 . .α Kiα +1 . ∂i = ∂ui and so on. Xσ( (−1)k−1 (k−1)! ( −1)! 2! σ (−1)(k−1) (k−1)! ( −1)! 2! σ sign σ L(K([Xσ1 . Plugging Xj = ∂ij into the global formulas 8. K2 ] + iL1 K2 − (−1)k1 k2 iL2 K1 + i [L1 . ) sign σ K(L([Xσ1 . . .αk+ dα [K. . u) on the manifold M we i put K | U = Kα dα ⊗ ∂i .αk+ −1 dα i Kα1 . Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o 31 +1) ].. 8.7... ψ ⊗ Y ] we may use 8. . ∂ dα = duα1 ∧ ..αk+ iα − (−1)(k−1)( LK ω | U = −1) j Li 1 .6 and evaluate that at (X1 .αk+ α dα ⊗ ∂j i Kα1 .2.. ∧ duαk .αk+ α j − (−1)k Li 1 ... .. Theorem. . ). .. ..10.. . L] | U = i Kα1 .... . L1 ] .. and ω | U = ωγ dγ . Xσ ).9.αk ∂i ωαk+1 . In a local chart (U.

but the mappings i : Ω(M . Curvature. [ . ]) ]) do not take values in the subspaces of graded derivations. X]) − K([LX. For the general theory see [Michor.12. LY ] − [KY. T M ) and L ∈ Ω +1 (M .12. Y ] − [LY. We may call ker P the horizontal space and im P the vertical space of the connection. then both are sub vector bundles of T M . i. Let P ∈ Ω1 (M . P can be called a connection for it. iL K2 ] − (−1)k1 i([K1 . LX] − L([KX.e. Y ]. Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o Each summand of this formula looks like a semidirect product of graded Lie algebras. The corresponding product of groups is well known to algebraists under the name ”Zappa-Szep”-product. T M ). T M ) be a fiber projection. L])K2 − (−1)(k1 + (3) )k2 i([K2 . Y ) = [KX. [ ad : Ω(M . If P is of constant rank. We have instead for K ∈ Ωk (M . [L1 .6 several times to obtain i of the right hand side of (3). Equation (1) is an immediate consequence of 8. L2 ] ]) and use again 8. 1989a] The following result is immediate from 8.6. L2 ] + (−1)kk1 [L1 . K2 ] = [iL K1 . L ∈ Ω1 (M . 1989b]. [K.32 8. X]) + (LK + KL)[X.9). L1 ]. T M ) the following relations: (2) iL [K1 . For K. L1 ] The algebraic meaning of the relations of this theorem and its consequences in group theory have been investigated in [Michor. T M ) → End(Ω(M . L2 ]] − − (−1)kk1 [i(L1 )K. 8. Y ] − [KY. This is the most general case of a (first order) connection. L](X. Proof. K2 ]) and use 8. Equations (2) and (3) follow from (1) by writing out the graded Jacobi identity. Corollary (of 8. [L1 . L2 ] − (−1)(k+k1 )k2 [i(L2 )K. L2 ] ] = [[K. Special cases of this will be treated extensively later on. . If im P is some primarily fixed sub vector bundle or (tangent bundle of) a foliation. K2 ] + (−1)k1 [K1 . . Then consider i([K. or as follows: Consider L(iL [K1 . L])K1 [K. T M ) → End(Ω(M . 8. T M ) we have [K. P ◦ P = P .13. T M ).6 repeatedly to obtain L of the right hand side of (2).

if for all Xi ∈ Tx M we have (1) Kf (x) (Tx f · X1 . By 8. (5) If K and K are f -related then LK ◦ f ∗ = f ∗ ◦ LK : Ω(N ) → Ω(M ). Y ) = P [(Id − P )X. . 8.P ] [P.P ] P . . and also [K1 . where B 1 denotes the space of exact 1-forms. Naturality of the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket. (4) If Kj and Kj are f -related for j = 1. [P. (Id − ¯ P )Y ] and R(X. likewise ¯ for R. K2 ] and [K1 . then K and K are f -related. Two vector valued forms K ∈ Ωk (M . Theorem. So the first formula follows. . Xk ).8. We have 2R = P ◦ [P. . R ∈ Ω2 (M . then iK1 K2 and iK1 K2 are f -related. If P has constant rank. P ] = iR R + iR R. T M ) are given by R(X. T M ) is a ¯ connection (fiber projection) with curvature R and cocurvature R.P ] [P. (3) If iK ◦ f ∗ | B 1 (N ) = f ∗ ◦ iK | B 1 (N ). Therefore [R. Tx f · Xk ) = Tx f · Kx (X1 . P ] = 2R + 2R by 8. P ].P ] P. Let f : o M → N be a smooth mapping between manifolds. We have ¯ [P. We have [P. (2) If K and K as above are f -related then iK ◦ f ∗ = f ∗ ◦ iK : Ω(N ) → Ω(M ). P ] = 4 i[P.11. . T N ) are called f -related or f -dependent. then we have ¯ [P.14. P ] − 0 = 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 4[R. P ] = 2R + 2R. that for a principal fiber bundle R is just the negative of the usual curvature. P ] = i(R+ R)(R+ R) = iR R+iR R since R has vertical values and kills vertical vectors. 2. R + R] = 0 ¯ [R. ¯ ¯ Proof. General Bianchi identity. 8. and R is the obstruction against integrability of the vertical bundle im P . Thus we call R the curvature ¯ and R the cocurvature of the connection P . so iR R = 0. T M ) and K ∈ Ωk (N . Lemma. P ] = i[P. P ] = 2[i[P. Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o 33 Lemma. . . . . ¯ where R. P Y ].13 and [P. K2 ] are f -related. P ]] = 0 by the graded Jacobi identity. We will see later. then R is the obstruction against integra¯ bility of the horizontal bundle ker P . Y ) = (Id − P )[P X.15. If P ∈ Ω1 (M .2 we get i[P.

K2 ] and [K1 . the t Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis-bracket. K2 ]). o . L] = [f ∗ K. Xσk ). . Xq+k−1 ) (3) follows from this computation. T M ) the Lie ∂ derivative LX K = ∂t 0 (FlX )∗ K satisfies LX K = [X. . . . . respectively. the result for the bracket then follows 8. (6) For g ∈ Ω0 (N ) we have LK f ∗ g = iK d f ∗ g = iK f ∗ dg and ∗ f LK g = f ∗ iK dg. Theorem. given by (1) (F ∗ K)x (X1 . K2 ] are also f -related. . ). . . . Xσ(k+1) . Now use (6) . so also their graded commutators which equal L([K1 . . f ∗ L]. then K and K are f -related. . . . (5) The algebra homomorphism f ∗ intertwines the operators iK and iK by (2).34 8. d] = LK . (6) The algebra homomorphism f ∗ intertwines LKj and LKj . . . Then we can consider the pullback operator f ∗ : Ω(M . R) separate points. Thus f ∗ intertwines the commutators [iK .2. L] = [f ∗ K. . Proof. . Tx f · Xσ(k+1) . (4) follows from the same computation for K2 instead of ω. In this situation we have: (2) f ∗ [K. . ) = (f ∗ iK ω)x (X1 . . K]. (2) By 8. . ). f ∗ L] . f ∈ C ∞ (M. . Xk ) = (Tx f )−1 Kf (x) (Tx f · X1 . d] = LK and [iK . ) sign σ ωf (x) (Tx f · Kx (Xσ1 . K2 ]) and L([K1 . (7) If Kj and Kj are f -related for j = 1. Tx f · Xk ).2 we have for ω ∈ Ωq (N ) and Xi ∈ Tx M : (iK f ∗ ω)x (X1 . . . .16. . Let f : M → N be a local diffeomorphism.2. . Clearly K and f ∗ K are then f -related. . . (3) f ∗ iK L = if ∗ K f ∗ L. (5) For a vector field X ∈ X(M ) and K ∈ Ω(M . since the df . . . 2. T M ). Xq+k−1 ) = = = = 1 k! (q−1)! σ 1 k! (q−1)! σ 1 k! (q−1)! σ sign σ (f ∗ ω)x (Kx (Xσ1 . then their Fr¨lichero Nijenhuis brackets [K1 . Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o (6) If LK ◦ f ∗ | Ω0 (N ) = f ∗ ◦ LK | Ω0 (N ). Tx f · Xσ(k+1) . (4) f ∗ [K. . and f ∗ commutes with the exterior derivative d. . By (3) the result follows. T M ) → Ω(M . 8. . . . ) sign σ ωf (x) (Kf (x) (Tx f · Xσ1 .

(5) Obviously LX is R-linear.12 we have [J. Y ) = 2([JX. Y ]). etc. A vector o valued 1-form J ∈ Ω1 (M . ψ ∈ Ω(M ) and Y ∈ X(M ). J] = 0. Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket o 35 We may say that the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket.7.17. T M ) with J ◦ J = −Id is called a nearly complex structure.e.8. But then LX (ψ ⊗ Y ) = LX ψ ⊗ Y + ψ ⊗ LX Y = LX ψ ⊗ Y + ψ ⊗ [X. . ] . o natural bilinear concomitants. At last we mention the best known application of the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket. For it the following result is true: A manifold M with a nearly complex structure J is a complex manifold (i. are Proof. 1957]. 8. so it suffices to check this formula for K = ψ ⊗ Y . J] is also called the Nijenhuis tensor of J. if it exists. By 8. Y ] = [X. J](X. 1 The vector valued form 2 [J. Remark. See [Newlander-Nirenberg. which also led to its discovery. ψ ⊗ Y ] by 8. dim M is even and J can be viewed as a √ fiber multiplication with −1 on T M .6. Y ] − J[X. JY ] − [X. there exists an atlas for M with holomorphic chart-change mappings) if and only if [J.. [ . (2) – (4) are obvious from 8. JY ] − J[JX.16.

Then (N. p.36 9. Fiber Bundles and Connections 9. and a smooth mapping p : E → M . depending smoothly on x ∈ U . and we may use the mappings ψα ([(α. ψα ).u(x). t) = s. They satisfy the cocycle condition: ψαβ (x) ◦ ψβγ (x) = ψαγ (x) for x ∈ Uαβγ and ψαα (x) = IdS for x ∈ Uα . M.1. So let (U. A (fiber) bundle (E. p. s) as a bundle atlas whose cocycle of transition functions is exactly the one we started from. S. where ψαβ : (Uα ∩Uβ )×S → S is smooth and ψαβ (x. such that (Uα ) is an open cover of M . We may thus consider the mappings ψαβ : Uαβ → Diff(S) with values in the group Diff(S) of all diffeomorphisms of S. p is a surjective submersion. Given an open cover (Uα ) of a manifold M and a cocycle of transition functions (ψαβ ) we may construct a fiber bundle (E. Let p : N → M be a surjective submersion (a fibred manifold) such that p−1 (x) is compact for each x ∈ M and let M be connected. x. s) ∼ (β. p. Therefore the collection (ψαβ ) is called a cocycle of transition functions.2. . their differentiability is a subtle question. y. and S is called standard fiber. Proof. M. Definition. called the projection. s) = (x. ) is a diffeomorphism of S for each x ∈ Uαβ := Uα ∩ Uβ . A collection of fiber charts (Uα . For each x ∈ U let = ξx (y) := (Ty u)−1 . then ξx ∈ X(U ). then ψα ◦ψβ −1 (x. S) consists of manifolds E. M is called the base space or basis. M ) is a fiber bundle.1 below. x. (U. Lemma. t) if and only if x = y and ψαβ (y. ψ) as above is called a fiber chart. In either form these mappings ψαβ are called the transition functions of the bundle. We have to produce a fiber chart at each x0 ∈ M . u) be a chart centered at x0 on M such that u(U ) ∼ Rm . ψαβ (x. If we fix such an atlas. which will be discussed in 13. 9. s)). The quotient space then turns out to be a fiber bundle. s)]) := (x. furthermore each x ∈ M has an open neighborhood U such that E | U := p−1 (U ) is diffeomorphic to U × S via a fiber respecting diffeomorphism: E |U −−→ U ×S −−     p pr1 U U ψ E is called the total space. M . is called a (fiber) bundle atlas. S) similarly as in the following way: On the disjoint union α {α} × Uα × S we consider the equivalence relation: (α.

so R is an obstruction against integrability of the horizontal subbundle. . then as in 8. by 8. p. p. Definition A connection on the fiber bundle (E.9.13. Then ker Φ is of constant rank. Then we call Φ the vertical projection and χ := idT E − Φ = C ◦ (T p. M. M. πE ) | HE : HE → T M ×M E is fiber linear over E and injective. Then ϕ : U × S → p−1 (U ). V E). so by reason of dimensions it is a fiber linear isomorphism: Its inverse is denoted by C := ((T p. χY ]. is 1 a diffeomorphism and is fiber respecting.u(x). V E) with values in the vertical bundle VE such that Φ ◦ Φ = Φ and ImΦ = V E. and since each fiber is t t t compact and ξx is complete.ξu . πE ) | HE)−1 : T M ×M E → HE → T E. defined by ϕ(x. ηx has a global flow too. Denote p−1 (x0 ) by S. the fibers p−1 (x) are all diffeomorphic. so Φ is just a projection T E → V E. with the help of a partition of unity on p−1 (U ) we may construct vector fields ηx ∈ X(p−1 (U )) which depend smoothly on x ∈ U and are p-related to ξx : T p. Then (T p. p. M. 9. Since M is connected. S) be a fiber bundle.4. Let (E. y) = Flηx (y). Id − Φ] = [χ. Since the vertical bundle V E is integrable. πE ). Note the formula Φ(ξu ) = ξu − C(T p. πE )−1 (0p(u) . R] = 0. S). so each ξx is a complete vector t field on U . Y ) = Φ[χX. Connections on general fiber bundles 37 such that u(Flξx u−1 (z)) = z + t. 1 We have R(X. So we can equally well describe a connection Φ by specifying C. ϕ−1 ) is a fiber chart. So C : T M ×M E → T E is fiber linear over E and is a right inverse for (T p.14 we have the Bianchi identity [Φ.ηx = ξx ◦ p. Now we consider the mapping (T p. Thus p ◦ Flηx = Flξx ◦p and Flηx is fiber respecting. χ] ∈ Ω2 (E.3. so ker Φ is a sub vector bundle of T E. u) = Vu E by definition. If Φ : T E → V E is a connection on a fiber bundle (E. Since p is a submersion. it is called the space of horizontal vectors or the horizontal bundle and it is denoted by HE Clearly T E = HE ⊕ V E and Tu E = Hu E ⊕ Vu E for u ∈ E. C is called the horizontal lift associated to the connection Φ. Curvature. Φ](X. so (U. The following is special case of 8. Y ) = 2 [Φ. so (T p. πE ) : T E → T M ×M E. S) is a vector valued 1-form Φ ∈ Ω1 (E. 9.13 the curvature R of Φ is given by 2R = [Φ. u) for ξu ∈ Tu E. Φ] = [Id − Φ. we consider the fiber linear mapping T p : T E → T M and its kernel ker T p =: V E which is called the vertical bundle of E. πE ) will be called the horizontal projection.

Local description of connections. Since p is a submersion.6. Let us fix a fiber bundle atlas (Uα ) with transition functions (ψαβ ). S) is again a fiber bundle.4 the horizontal bundle is integrable and gives rise to the horizontal foliation. The forms f ∗ Φ and Φ are p∗ f -related in the sense of 8. Let (E.5.6.p) E exists. p. p. If (Uα . Pullback. The following diagram sets up some further notation for it: f ∗E − − → E −−     p f∗ N −−→ M −− f p∗ f Proposition. M. (3) The curvatures of f ∗ Φ and Φ are also p∗ f -related: R(f ∗ Φ) = f ∗ R(Φ). ψα ) is a fiber bundle atlas of (E.Tu (p∗ f ). f and p are transversal and thus the pullback N ×(f. (2) If Φ ∈ Ω1 (E. (f ∗ p.7. given by (f ∗ Φ)u (X) := Tu (p∗ f )−1 . p.38 9. S) be a fiber bundle and consider a smooth mapping f : N → M . M. M. Uα × T S). This is seen by devising suitable horizontal foliations on the trivial bundle pr2 : R × S 1 → S 1 . S) in the sense of 9. T E) is a connection on the bundle E. S) has zero curvature. and p∗ f is a fiber wise diffeomorphism. is again a connection on the bundle f ∗ E. S).15. S). the vector valued form f ∗ Φ. Let Φ be a connection on (E.Φ. Connections on general fiber bundles 9. f ∗ p. Each point u ∈ E lies on a unique leaf L(u) such that Tv L(u) = Hv E for each v ∈ L(u). 9. M. N.15. but in general it is neither surjective nor is it a covering onto its image. The restriction p | L(u) is locally a diffeomorphism. y) + ηy for ξx ∈ Tx Uα and ηy ∈ Ty S.X for X ∈ Tu E. pr2 ◦ ψα ◦ p∗ f )) is visibly a fiber bundle atlas for (f ∗ E. (3) follows from (2) and 8. p. ηy ) =: −Γα (ξx . In the situation above we have: (1) (f ∗ E. Let us suppose that a connection Φ on the bundle (E. and let us consider the connection (ψα )−1 )∗ Φ ∈ Ω1 (Uα × S. . N. 9.M. Proof. which may be written in the form ((ψα )−1 )∗ Φ)(ξx .1. by the formal universal properties of a pullback. It will be called the pullback of the fiber bundle E by F and we will denote it by f ∗ E. Flat connections. (1). Then by 9. (2) is obvious. f ∗ p. then (f −1 (Uα ).

Proof. 0y )) = −1 = −Φ(T (ψα )(ξx .9. We consider Γα as an element of the space Ω1 (Uα . y) = Γα (ξx . ψα ). η 2 )] = −1 = (ψα )∗ Φ[(ξ 1 . (Id − (ψα )∗ Φ)(ξ 2 .(ξx .(0x . y)) − Tx (ψαβ ( . ξ 1 Γα (ξ 2 ) − ξ 2 Γα (ξ 1 ) + [Γα (ξ 1 ). 0y )) = −1 −1 = T (ψα ). 0y )) = −1 −1 = −Φ(T (ψα ).(ξx . ηy ) = (ξx . y) = (x. The transformation law for the Christoffel forms is Ty (ψαβ (x. η 2 )) = −1 −1 −1 = (ψα )∗ R [(Id − (ψα )∗ Φ)(ξ 1 . y)) := −T (ψα ).4 and 9. This implies the transformation law. y)). y))) − T (ψα )(0x . ψαβ (x.T (ψα ◦ ψβ ). )). From ψα ◦ (ψβ )−1 (x. ξ 2 ) + [Γα (ξ 1 ). ξ 2 ]) + ξ 1 Γα (ξ 2 ) − ξ 2 Γα (ξ 1 ) + [Γα (ξ 1 ). Lemma.(ξx . y)) we get that T (ψα ◦ (ψβ )−1 ).Γβ (ξx . y)) = −Φ(T (ψβ )(ξx .y) ψαβ (ξx .(ξx . X(S)). 0y )) − Φ(T (ψα )(0x . Γα (ξ 2 )]X(S) . y)). a 1-form on U α with values in the infinite dimensional Lie algebra X(S) of all vector fields on the standard fiber.ξx ).T (ψα )−1 . Γα (ξx . Γβ (ξx . Tx (ψαβ ( . T(x. The Γα are given by (0x . (ξ 2 . Γα (ξ 2 ))] = −1 = (ψα )∗ Φ [ξ 1 .ξx . η 1 ). ξ 2 ]. The Γα are called the Christoffel forms of the connection Φ with respect to the bundle atlas (Uα . ηy )) and thus: −1 −1 T (ψβ ). 0y ))) = −1 −1 = −Φ(T (ψα )(ξx . Γα ]X(S) .y) (ψαβ ). The curvature R of Φ satisfies −1 (ψα )∗ R = dΓα + [Γα . ψαβ (x. Γα (ξ 2 )] = = dΓα (ξ 1 . Γα (ξ 2 )] = = −Γα ([ξ 1 .Φ.3 −1 (ψα )∗ R ((ξ 1 .y) (ψαβ )(ξx . T(x. For the curvature R of Φ we have by 9. T(x. 0y ). (ξ 2 . ψαβ (x.5. .(0x . Γα (ξx . The formula for the curvature is the Maurer-Cartan formula which in this general setting appears only in the level of local description. Γα (ξ 1 )). Connections on general fiber bundles 39 since it reproduces vertical vectors. η 1 ).

S) and the pullback connection c∗ Φ on it. (6) If X ∈ X(M ) is a vector field on the base then the parallel transport along the flow lines of X is given by the flow of the horizontal lift CX of X: Pt(FlX (x). and Pt(c. γ(y. t) + d dt γ(y. Pt Second proof. ψα ) as in 9. Parallel transport. where −1 0 = (ψα )∗ Φ d d dt c(t). t) = p∗ c((c∗ p | L(ux ))−1 (t)). Then there is a neighborhood U of Ex × {0} in Ex × (a. with initial condition Pt(c. (a. so γ(y. ux . t)) = (c(t). f (t). ux . b).7. All further properties are consequences of uniqueness. ux . It has zero curvature. p. ux . t)). f (0))) if defined. c∗ p. M ) ×(ev0 . ux )) = 0c(t) if defined. We first give three different proofs of assertions (1) – (4). → where U is its domain of definition. dt γ(y. Pt(c. 0) = ux . nonlinear. t. b) is smooth with 0 ∈ (a . S) and let c : (a.40 9. γ(y. So there is a maximally defined local solution curve which is unique. By 9. Connections on general fiber bundles 9.M. t) is the integral curve (evolution line) through y ∈ S of the d time dependent vector field Γα dt c(t) on S. ux ) = FlCX (ux ). d (2) Φ( dt Pt(c. ux . Then −1 ψα (Pt(c. t. Consider the pullback bundle (c∗ E. t. b ) → (a. b) → M be a smooth curve with 0 ∈ (a.p) E × R ⊃ U − E. t). (3) Reparametrisation invariance: If f : (a . t) = −Γα d dt c(t). b). since the horizontal bundle is 1-dimensional. ψα (x.8. b) and a smooth mapping Ptc : U → E such that: (1) p(Pt(c. in detail: Pt(c. 0) = ux . M. Consider a fiber bundle atlas (Uα . (5) The parallel transport is smooth as a mapping C ∞ (R.6 the horizontal foliation exists and the parallel transport just follows a leaf and we may map it back to E. d First proof. (4) U is maximal for properties (1) and (2). Let Φ be a connection on a bundle (E. t Proof. then Pt(c. t)) = 0 is an ordinary differential equation of first order. ux ) = Pt(c ◦ f. This vector field visibly . In local bundle coordinates Φ( dt Pt(c. ux )) = c(t) if defined. y). c(0) = x. b ). t. Third proof. Theorem.

iCX Φ] + 2i[Φ. M ) ×(ev0 . M.16. Φ]. [CX. 9. So T p.11. Lemma.8 shows that on a fiber bundle with compact standard fiber any connection is complete. M ) from 6. b) → M is defined on the whole of Ec(0) × (a. Φ] ∈ Ω1 (E.10. T M ). 9. which we then set equal. T E) is p-related to 0 ∈ Ω1 (M . Φ] The vector field CX is p-related to X and Φ ∈ Ω1 (E. T M ). The following is a sufficient condition for a connection Φ to be complete: There exists a fiber bundle atlas (Uα . From t = [iCX Φ. Φ]. By the theory of ordinary differential equations the solution is smooth in this parameters also.M. S) with curvature R and horizontal lift C.p) E × R to a smooth curve in E. Φ] (FlCX )∗ Φ = [CX. Φ] = − 1 iCX R.[CX. 0] ∈ Ω1 (M . Let X ∈ X(M ) be a vector field on the base.15. (5). p. Φ] = 0.2 and see that the ordinary differential equation considered in the first proof then just depends on some parameters more. From 8. b). By the considerations of section 6 it suffices to show that Pt maps a smooth curve (c1 .(5) we get LCX Φ = 8. X(S)) takes values in the linear subspace of gα -bounded vector fields on S .CX] Φ = −2Φ[CX. T E) is also p-related to 0 = [X. M.9. c3 ) : R → U ⊂ C ∞ (R. c2 . The third proof of theorem 9. and [CX. (6) is obvious from the definition. Φ] − [Φ.(7) the form [CX. S) is called a complete connection. A connection Φ on (E. p. Φ] = Φ[CX. if the parallel transport Ptc along any smooth curve c : (a. We use the description of the smooth curves in C ∞ (R. t 2 ∂ ∂t 0 Proof.9. Let Φ be a connection on a bundle (E. Connections on general fiber bundles 41 depends smoothly on c. so by 8. ψα ) and complete Riemannian metrics gα on the standard fiber S such that each Christoffel form Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . Then for the horizontal lift CX ∈ X(E) we have LCX Φ = ∂ ∂t 0 (FlCX )∗ Φ = [CX.(2) we have iCX R = iCX [Φ. Clearly local solutions exist and all properties follow. Φ] has vertical values.

42

9. Connections on general fiber bundles

For in the third proof of theorem 9.8 above the time dependent vector d field Γα ( dt c(t)) on S is gα -bounded for compact time intervals. So by continuation the solution exists over c−1 (Uα ), and thus globally. A complete connection is called an Ehresmann connection in [Greub - Halperin - Vanstone I, p 314], where it is also indicated how to prove the following result. Theorem. Each fiber bundle admits complete connections. Proof. Let dim M = m. Let (Uα , ψα ) be a fiber bundle atlas as in 9.1. By topological dimension theory [Nagata, 1965] the open cover (Uα ) of M admits a refinement such that any m + 2 members have empty intersection. Let Uα ) itself have this property. Choose a smooth partition of unity (fα ) subordinated to (Uα ). Then the sets Vα := { x : 1 fα (x) > m+2 } ⊂ Uα form still an open cover of M since fα (x) = 1 and at most m + 1 of the fα (x) can be nonzero. By renaming assume that each Vα is connected. Then we choose an open cover (Wα ) of M such that Wα ⊂ Vα . Now let g1 and g2 be complete Riemannian metrics on M and S, respectively (see [Nomizu - Ozeki, 1961] or [Morrow, 1970]). For not connected Riemannian manifolds complete means that each connected component is complete. Then g1 |Uα × g2 is a Riemannian metric on ∗ Uα × S and we consider the metric g := fα ψα (g1 |Uα × g2 ) on E. Obviously p : E → M is a Riemannian submersion for the metrics g and g1 . We choose now the connection Φ : T E → V E as the orthonormal projection with respect to the Riemannian metric g. Claim: Φ is a complete connection on E. Let c : [0, 1] → M be a smooth curve. We choose a partition 0 = t0 < t1 < · · · < tk = 1 such that c([ti , ti+1 ]) ⊂ Vαi for suitable αi . It suffices to show that Pt(c(ti + ), t, uc(ti ) ) exists for all 0 ≤ t ≤ ti+1 − ti and all uc(ti ) ∈ Ec(ti ) , for all i — then we may piece them together. So we may assume that c : [0, 1] → Vα for some α. Let us now assume that for some (x, y) ∈ Vα × S the parallel transport Pt(c, t, ψα (x, y)) is defined only for t ∈ [0, t ) for some 0 < t < 1. By the third proof of 9.8 we have Pt(c, t, ψα (x, y)) = ψα (c(t), γ(t)), where γ : [0, t ) → S is the maximally defined integral curve through y ∈ S of the time dependent d −1 vector field Γα ( dt c(t), ) on S. We put gα := (ψα )∗ g, then (gα )(x,y) = ∗ (g1 )x ×( β fβ (x)ψβα (x, ) g2 )y . Since pr1 : (Vα ×S, gα ) → (Vα , g1 |Vα ) −1 is a Riemannian submersion and since the connection (ψα )∗ Φ is also given by orthonormal projection onto the vertical bundle, we get
t

∞ > g1 -lengtht (c) = gα -length(c, γ) = 0
0

d |(c (t), dt γ(t))|gα dt =

9. Connections on general fiber bundles
t

43

=
0

|c (t)|21 + g
t

d d ∗ β fβ (c(t))(ψαβ (c(t), −) g2 )( dt γ(t), dt γ(t)) dt d fα (c(t)) | dt γ(t)|g2 dt ≥


0

t

m+2
0

d | dt γ(t)|g2 dt.

So g2 -lenght(γ) is finite and since the Riemannian metric g2 on S is complete, limt→t γ(t) =: γ(t ) exists in S and the integral curve γ can be continued.

44

10. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles
10.1. Definition. Let G be a Lie group and let (E, p, M, S) be a fiber bundle as in 9.1. A G-bundle structure on the fiber bundle consists of the following data: (1) A left action : G × S → S of the Lie group on the standard fiber. (2) A fiber bundle atlas (Uα , ψα ) whose transition functions (ψαβ ) act on S via the G-action: There is a family of smooth mappings (ϕαβ : Uαβ → G) which satisfies the cocycle condition ϕαβ (x)ϕβγ (x) = ϕαγ (x) for x ∈ Uαβγ and ϕαα (x) = e, the unit in the group, such that ψαβ (x, s) = (ϕαβ (x), s) = ϕαβ (x).s. A fiber bundle with a G-bundle structure is called a G-bundle. A fiber bundle atlas as in (2) is called a G-atlas and the family (ϕαβ ) is also called a cocycle of transition functions, but now for the G-bundle. To be more precise, two G-atlases are said to be equivalent (to describe the same G-bundle), if their union is also a G-atlas. This translates as follows to the two cocycles of transition functions, where we assume that the two coverings of M are the same (by passing to the common refinement, if necessary): (ϕαβ ) and (ϕαβ ) are called cohomologous if there is a family (τα : Uα → G) such that ϕαβ (x) = τα (x)−1 .ϕαβ (x).τβ (x) holds for all x ∈ Uαβ . In (2) one should specify only an equivalence class of G-bundle structures or only a cohomology class of cocycles of G-valued transition functions. From any open cover (Uα ) of M , some cocycle of transition functions (ϕαβ : Uαβ → G) for it, and a left G-action on a manifold S, we may construct a G-bundle by gluing, which depends only on the cohomology class of the cocycle. By some abuse of notation we write (E, p, M, S, G) for a fiber bundle with specified G-bundle structure. Examples: The tangent bundle of a manifold M is a fiber bundle with structure group GL(n). More general a vector bundle (E, p, M, V ) is a fiber bundle with standard fiber the vector space V and with GL(V )structure. 10.2. Definition. A principal (fiber) bundle (P, p, M, G) is a G-bundle with typical fiber a Lie group G, where the left action of G on G is just the left translation. So by 10.1 we are given a bundle atlas (Uα , ϕα : P |Uα → Uα ×G) such that we have ϕα ϕ−1 (x, a) = (x, ϕαβ (x).a) for the cocycle of transition β functions (ϕαβ : Uαβ → G). This is now called a principal bundle atlas. Clearly the principal bundle is uniquely specified by the cohomology class of its cocycle of transition functions.

b.3 we write r(u.a.3 can serve as an equivalent definition for a principal bundle. Lemma. whose local expression is τ (ϕ−1 (x.g when the meaning is clear. which is obviously injective with inα vertible tangent mapping. p. As in 1.g ) = g −1 . From the Lemma itself it follows. called the principal right action. 10. ux .τ (ux . g) = u. this is well defined. sβ (x). Proof. Lemma 10. that a principal bundle atlas of a principal fiber bundle (P. a) = sα (x). vx )) = vx . 10. whose inverse is denoted by τux : Px → G. Let G be a Lie group with Lie algebra g. Let p : P → M be a surjective submersion (a fibred manifold).4. ϕ−1 (x. τ is smooth by the implicit function theorem and clearly τ (ux . a). Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 45 Each principal bundle admits a unique right action r : P × G → P . ux ). 10. so its inverse ϕα : P |Uα → Uα × G is a fiber respecting diffeomorphism. Then (P. Let ϕ−1 : Uα × G → P |Uα α be given by ϕ−1 (x. p. ux )) = ux . Let sα : Uα → P be local sections (right inverses) for p : P → M such that (Uα ) is an open cover of M . thus we also have τ (ux . ux ) = e. In the proof of Lemma 10. τ (ux . α Since left and right translation on G commute. The principal right action is visibly free and for any ux ∈ Px the partial mapping rux = r(ux .g.g) = (x. So (Uα . a). These inverses together give a smooth mapping τ : P ×M P → G.g. Remarks. Homogeneous spaces. M. Let K be a closed subgroup of G. G) is a principal fiber bundle. ϕα ) is a principal bundle atlas.g) and (Uα . given by ϕα (r(ϕ−1 (x. where r is the right G-action. This mapping is also uniquely deterα α mined by the implicit equation r(ux . that the pullback f ∗ P over a smooth mapping f : M → M is again a principal fiber bundle. g)) = (x. so in topology or in infinite dimensional differential geometry one should stick to our original definition.3.10.g)) = β (x. τ (ux . ) : G → Px is a diffeomorphism onto the fiber through ux .g) = τ (ux . Let τ : P ×M P → G be given by the implicit equation r(ux . ϕα ) is already a fiber bundle atlas.5. G) is already determined if we specify a family of smooth sections of P . ux ). Let the action be a right one by using the group inversion if necessary. and let G be a Lie group which acts freely on P such that the orbits of the action are exactly the fibers p−1 (x) of p. τ (sα (x).3 we have seen. sβ (x)). b)) = a−1 . ux . then by a well known theorem K is a closed Lie subgroup whose Lie algebra will be denoted by K. Thus we have ϕα ϕ−1 (x. But this is true only if an implicit function theorem is available.g and τ (ux . ag). M. τ (sα (x). There is a . g) = ϕα (sβ (x). whose domains of definition cover the base M .

p. O(n − k)) But O(k) also acts from the right on V (k. n. ek ) is 1×O(n−k). . Sp(k) × Sp(n − k)) are principal fiber bundles. . Proof. . p. n. . SO(n − 1)) is a principal fiber bundle. R) is the space of all k-planes containing 0 in Rn . By lemma 10. K) is a principal fiber bundle. p. R) → G(k. n. n.3 we get a principal fiber . p.46 10. p. G(k. p. . G/K. n. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles unique structure of a smooth manifold on the quotient space G/K such that the projection p : G → G/K is a submersion. and (Sp(n). . The Stiefel manifold V (k. The group O(n) acts transitively on it and the isotropy group of the k-plane Rk × {0} is the subgroup O(k) 0 0 O(n − k) . SU (n − 1)). U (k) × U (n − k)). n. R) is the space of all orthonormal kframes in Rn . so by the implicit function theorem p admits local sections. Likewise ˜ (SO(n). S 2n−1 . Theorem. n. p. S 4n−1 . The group SO(n) acts transitively on S n−1 ⊂ Rn . The isotropy group of the ”north pole” (0. p. and (Sp(n). p. 1) is the subgroup 1 0 0 SO(n − 1) which we identify with SO(n − 1). The Grassmann manifold G(k. R) and the isotropy subgroup of (e1 . (U (n). R) = O(n)/O(k) × O(n − k) is a compact manifold and we get the principal fiber bundle (O(n). R). n. U (n − 1)). C). . G(k. n. (SU (n). SO(k) × SO(n − k)). its orbits are exactly the fibers of the projection p : V (k. whose orbits are exactly the fibers of p. R). V (k. So S n−1 = SO(n)/SO(n − 1) and (SO(n). G(k. Likewise (O(n). O(n − 1)). . The group multiplication of G restricts to a free right action µ : G × K → G. so V (k. p. R). (G. p. S 2n−1 . For the convenience of the reader we discuss now the best know homogeneous spaces. 0. n. H). n. So by lemma 10. G(k. n.3 the result follows. R). R) = O(n)/O(n − k) is a compact manifold and we get a principal fiber bundle (O(n). (U (n). R). S n−1 . S n−1 . Clearly the group O(n) acts transitively on V (k. Sp(n − 1)) are principal fiber bundles. therefore G(k. O(k) × O(n − k)). n.

p . p .Φ(g) holds in general. n.10. There are furthermore complex and quaternionic versions of the Stiefel manifolds. M. but it is no longer a pullback diagram in general. More examples will be given in sections on jets below.6. p. By the universal property of the pullback any general homomorphism χ of principal fiber bundles over a group homomorphism can be written as the composition of a reduction of structure groups and a pullback . 10. M . Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 47 bundle (V (k. R). M . G) be a principal fiber bundle homomorphism. M. if χ : P → P is smooth and χ(u. it is called a reduction of the structure group G to G for the principal bundle (P .g) = χ(u). n.A = 1k }. G) → (P . Indeed we have the following diagram where all arrows are projections of principal fiber bundles. R). Homomorphisms. M . Then obviously the diagram P −−→ P −−     p p χ (a) M −−→ M −− χ ¯ commutes for a uniquely determined smooth mapping χ : M → M . G ) is called a homomorphism over Φ of principal bundles. G(k. n) is also diffeomorphic to the space { A ∈ L(Rk . i. n. Rn ) : At . G) → (P . the space of all linear isometries Rk → Rn . G ) — the name comes from the case. O(k)). For ¯ each x ∈ M the mapping χx := χ|Px : Px → Pχ(x) is G-equivariant and ¯ therefore a diffeomorphism. n. R). and where the respective structure groups are written on the arrows: O(n)   O(k) − − − V (k. i. when Φ is the embedding of a subgroup. Let Φ : G → G be a homomorphism of Lie groups. Then χ is fiber respecting. a smooth G-equivariant mapping χ : P → P . χ : (P.e. But the most general notion of a homomorphism of principal bundles is the following. n. p . Let χ : (P.e. so diagram (a) makes again sense. so diagram (a) is a pullback diagram. R) − −→   O(k) O(n−k) O(n−k) (a) V (n − k. p. p. If χ covers the identity on the base. R) − − − G(k. − −→ It is easy to see that V (k.

In this situation we have: (1) The space P ×G S of orbits of the action R carries a unique smooth manifold structure such that the quotient map q : P ×S → P ×G S is a submersion. ] or simply P [S] and we will write p for p if no confusion is possible. M.s). G ) − − → (P . G) is a G-bundle.7. We also define the smooth ¯ −1 mapping τ : P ×M P [S. G) − − → (χ∗ P . and τ (ux . p. G ) −− ¯ −−       p p (b) M M −−→ −− χ ¯ M 10. We consider the right action R : (P × S) × G → P × S. M. (2) (P ×G S. M. (3) (P × S. ¯ Notation: (P ×G S. In the setting of the diagram in (2) the mapping p◦pr1 is constant on the R-orbits. Theorem. vx )) = vx . s).2. S. p. P ×G S. so that P [G] = P .τ (ux . Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles homomorphism as follows. where p : P ×G S → M is ¯ ¯ given by P × S − − → P ×G S −−     pr1 p ¯ P −−→ −− p q (a) M.g. where we also indicate the structure groups: (P. vx ) := qux (vx ). where S = G and the action is left translation. p.g. vx ). g −1 . Let (P. (4) If (Uα . vx ) = g −1 . then together with the left action : G × S → S this cocycle is also one for the G-bundle (P ×G S. M. this mapping coincides with τ considered in 10. It satisfies τ (u. q. Proof.48 10. p. Let (Uα . G). q(ux . so p exists as a mapping. In this diagram qu : {u} × S → (P ×G S)p(u) is a diffeomorphism for each u ∈ P . In the special situation. given by R((u. We will also denote it by P [S. G) is called the associated bundle for the ¯ action : G×S → S. τ (ux . q(u. S. s)) = s. ] → S by τ (ux . G) is a principal fiber bundle with principal action R. g) = (u. ϕα : P |Uα → Uα × G) is a principal bundle atlas with cocycle of transition functions (ϕαβ : Uαβ → G). S. G) be a principal bundle and let : G × S → S be a left action of the structure group G on a manifold S. Associated bundles. ϕα : P |Uα → Uα ×G) ¯ .

since the principal right action is free.ϕαβ (x)−1 . So (1).g). since its lines are diffeomorphisms we conclude that qu : {u}× S → p−1 (p(u)) is a diffeomorphism. α −1 −1 so λα λ−1 (ψα (x.s). P ×G S. e).s). ϕαβ (x).ϕβα (x). ϕαβ (x). and p is smooth by the ¯ universal properties of a submersion. g) = λ−1 (ψβ (x. and (4) are checked. s). s) = q(ϕ−1 (x.g). ¯ (3) We rewrite the last diagram in the following form: p−1 (Uα ) × S (c) q −1 (Vα ) − − → Vα × G −α −     q pr1 p−1 (Uα ) ¯ −1 λ Vα Here Vα := p (Uα ) ⊂ P ×G S and the diffeomorphism λα is defined ¯ −1 by λ−1 (ψα (x. s). ϕαβ (x). s) = α α −1 = q(ϕ−1 (x.ϕαβ (x). ϕαβ (x). For each orbit in p−1 (x) ⊂ ¯ P ×G S there is exactly one s ∈ S such that this orbit passes through −1 (ϕ−1 (x.s) = (ϕ−1 (x. s). g) = (ψα (x. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 49 be a principal bundle atlas with transition functions (ϕαβ : Uαβ → −1 −1 G). s) = ¯ −1 q(ϕα (x. The defining equation for ψα shows that q is smooth and a submersion and consequently the smooth structure on P ×G S is uniquely defined. g). s) = q(ϕ−1 (x. g) = β β = (ϕ−1 (x. ψα ) is a G-atlas for P ×G S and makes it into a smooth manifold and a G-bundle.s). g) := (ϕα (x. ) : α −1 S → p (x) is bijective. α −1 so ψα ψβ (x. e). (2).s) So (Uα .e). g −1 . ϕαβ (x). s) = β = q(ϕ−1 (x. which is fiber respecting. ϕαβ (x). G) is a principal bundle with structure group G and the same cocycle (ϕαβ ) we started with. . e). ϕαβ (x). g −1 . e). By the definition of ψα the diagram (b) p−1 (Uα ) × S − − → Uα × G × S −−     q Id× ϕα ×Id p−1 (Uα ) ¯ Uα × S commutes. s). g). We define ψα : Uα × S → p−1 (Uα ) ⊂ P ×G S by ψα (x.s) = α β −1 = (λ−1 (ψα (x. s). Thus ψα (x. Furthermore ¯ −1 ψβ (x. Then we have α −1 −1 λ−1 (ψα (x. . s) = (x.g) and we conclude that β (P × S. ϕβα (x). q.s) = ψα (x.10. s). e). s). g −1 .

1. thus IdP × i induces IdP ×G i : M = P [{y}] → P [S ]. Let S be a point. M. M . M. G) be a G-bundle.s = s for all s ∈ S. He is given a bundle E.50 10. 3. Let χ : (P. and a homomorphism of G-bundles in the sense of the definition 10. If the action of G on S is trivial. Let χ : (P. G) be a principal fiber bundle homomorphism as in 10. which is a global section of the associated bundle P [S ]. ] which again is a homomorphism of G-bundles. G) be a principal fiber bundle homomorphism and let f : S → S be an G-equivariant mapping. ] and P [S . p. G) such that E = P [S. This is the usual way a differential geometer thinks of an associated bundle. ]. Let (E. 4. G) → (P . Furthermore we consider a smooth left action : G × S → S. so g. Let (P. 10.6. so there is an induced mapping P ×S −−→ −−   q Id×G f Id×f (a) P ×S   q P ×G S − − → P ×G S . Now we consider the situation of 1 and 2 at the same time. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 10. 2. p. Equivariant mappings and associated bundles.f (s) or f ◦ g = g ◦ f . and again a homomorphism of Gbundles in the sense of definition 10. For a trivial principal fiber bundle any associated bundle is trivial. M. p.8.s) = g. We have two associated bundles P [S. which is fiber respecting over M . G) → (P . Then χ × IdS : P × S → P × S is G-equivariant and induces a mapping χ×G IdS : P ×G S → P ×G S. p. Then from the cocycle of transition functions we may glue a unique principal bundle (P.10 below. M . : G × S → S and : G × S → S . ]. and the G-bundle structure then is described with the help of the mappings τ and q. then the inclusion i : {y} → S is G-equivariant. fiber wise a diffeomorphism. −− which is fiber respecting over M . S. Corollary. Then IdP × f : P × S → P × S is equivariant for the actions R : (P × S) × G → P × S and R : (P × S ) × G → P × S . then the associated bundle is trivial: P [S] = M × S. Furthermore let y ∈ S be a fixed point of the action : G × S → S . specified by a cocycle of transition functions (ϕαβ ) with values in G and a left action of G on S. ] → P [S . M. Then χ × f : P × S → P × S is clearly G-equivariant and therefore induces a mapping χ×G f : P [S. p . Then P [S] = P ×G S = M . so f (g.10 below. . a principal bundle P . G) be a principal fiber bundle and consider two left actions of G. p. Let furthermore f : S → S be a G-equivariant smooth mapping.9. p . M.

10. The G-equivariant mapping f : S → S can ¯ ¯ ¯ be read off the following diagram P ×M P [S]   χ× γ M (a) −−→ S −−   f τ τ P ×M P [S ] − − → S . and we have γ = χ. ψα ) be a G-atlas for P [S . ].5 has the cocycle of transition ¯ functions (ϕαβ = ϕαβ ◦ γ ). M. such that diagram (a) commutes. Let (Uα . G). ] → P [S . p . p. M . ρ] is an associated fiber bundle with structure group G. if the following conditions are satisfied: P is isomorphic to the pullback γ ∗ P . ϕ α) of (P . So by section 6 P [V. it induces the G-atlas (Uα . and consider a representation ρ : G → GL(V ) of G on a finite dimensional vector space V . for in the canonically associated fiber bundle atlas the transition functions have also values in GL(V ). p. belonging to the principal fiber bundle atlas (Uα . ) : S → S should γ be G-equivariant for all α and all x ∈ Uα . G) → (P . Lemma. G) of principal fiber bundles is already determined by the requirement that P = γ ∗ P . Definition. ] be a homomorphism of associated bundles and G-bundles. −− which by the assumptions is seen to be well defined in the right column. Let γ : P [S. Proof. M . In the situation of 10. Then the pullback-related principal fiber bundle atlas (Uα = γ −1 (Uα ). f : S → S (G-equivariant) .11. ρ] is a vector bundle. Let (P. ] → P [S . Associated vector bundles. 10. but also with structure group GL(V ). p . G) → (P . s) = (¯ (x). Let us describe this in more detail now. The homomorphism χ : (P. M.10. Then there is a principal bundle homomorphism χ : (P. p . G) be a principal fiber bundle. . Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 51 10. p. So a homomorphism of associated bundles is described by the whole triple (χ : P → P . ] covering a smooth mapping γ : M → M ¯ of the bases is called a homomorphism of G-bundles. and the local ¯ representations of γ in pullback-related fiber bundle atlases belonging to the two G-bundles are fiber wise G-equivariant. ] with cocycle of transition functions (ϕαβ ).8. γα ) for ¯ P = γ ∗ P as described in the proof of 9. s)) and γα (x. a smooth fiber respecting mapping γ : P [S. M . G) and a G-equivariant mapping f : S → S such that γ = χ ×G f : P [S. Then P [V. ¯ −1 Then (ψα ◦γ◦ψα )(x. ]. γα (x. M. γ : E → E ). ψα ) for P [S. ] → P [S .

. We call it an orthonormal frame field. We write sα = sβ . GL(n)).v) and consequently ψα ψβ (x. sα ). Now let (Uα ) be an open cover of M with orthonormal frame fields sα = (sα . p. (E. . Now we may apply the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure to the basis (s1 (x). g)). ψα ). sn ) of E over U which is orthonormal with respect to g. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles If (E. Rn ) equipped with a Riemannian metric g. p. gαβ (x). so by lemma 10. . v 1 . M.gβα i −1 for short. E) by reduction of the . the matrix gαβ (x) = (gαβ j (x)) is an element of O(n. . it is usually called the orthonormal frame bundle of E. The corresponding principal fiber bundle will be denoted by O(Rn . p. . We consider the vecn 1 tor bundle charts (Uα .v i =: sα (x). The associated bundle GL(Rn . The principal bundle GL(Rn . . . . which is a fiber bundle over the base M . E)|U ) be a local frame field of the bundle E over U ⊂ M . M ) is a vector bundle with n-dimensional fibers we may consider the open subset GL(Rn . .gβα i (x) for C ∞ -functions gαβ : Uαβ → R. E)[Rn ] for the banal representation of GL(n) on Rn is isomorphic to the vector bundle (E. . gαβ (x). E) whose orbits are exactly the fibers. M ) we started with. . v n ) = i β j α we have si (x) = sj (x). . ψα : E|Uα → Uα × Rn ) given the orthonormal −1 sα (x). Composition from the right by elements of GL(n) gives a free right action on GL(Rn . E) × Rn → E is invariant under the right action R of GL(n).52 10. . To illustrate the notion of reduction of structure group. E) is called the linear frame bundle of E. for the evaluation mapping ev : GL(Rn . and locally in the image there are smooth sections to it. we consider now a vector bundle (E. Any vector bundle admits Riemannian metrics: local existence is clear and we may glue with the help of a partition of unity on M . R)-structure on E.v = −1 −1 ψα (x. It is derived from the linear frame bundle GL(Rn . . Note that local sections of GL(Rn ) are exactly the local frame fields of the vector bundle E. Since sα (x) and sβ (x) are both orthonormal bases of Ex . . R). Now let s = (s1 . . .v.v = sα (x). E)[Rn ] = GL(Rn . so it factors to a fiber linear diffeomorphism GL(Rn . sn (x)) of Ex for each x ∈ U . v) = sβ (x). consisting of all invertible linear mappings. we obtain a frame field s = (s1 . v) = (x.3 we have a principal fiber bundle (GL(Rn . E). Since this procedure is real analytic. M. . that is a section g ∈ C ∞ (S 2 E ∗ ) such that gx is a positive definite inner product on Ex for each x ∈ M . E).v). E) ×GL(n) Rn → E. For x ∈ Uαβ frame fields: ψα (x. sn ) ∈ C ∞ (GL(Rn . . since the positive definite sections form an open convex subset. . p.gαβ (x). So we have constructed an O(n. R)) are the cocycle of transition functions for the vector bundle atlas (Uα . where sα is defined on Uα . Then we have ψβ (x. So the (gαβ : Uαβ → O(n. E) ⊂ L(M × Rn .

S)G we construct sf ∈ C ∞ (P [S]) in the following way: graph(f ) = (Id. sf (p(u))) = τ (u.g) = g −1 . p. f ) : P → P × S is G-equivariant. So it induces a smooth section sf ∈ C ∞ (P [S]) as seen from P −−→ P ×S −−     p q M − − → P [S] −− fs (Id. fs (u)) = q(u. so by lemma 10. p. G/K)G . M.3 we get a principal fiber bundle (Ps . Proof. This is G-equivariant since fs (ux .4. If f ∈ C ∞ (P.12 the section s ∈ C ∞ (P [G/K]) corresponds to fs ∈ C ∞ (P.g) = (u. The sections of the associated bundle P [S. M.f (u) holds for g ∈ G and u ∈ P .f (u)) = ((Id. The embedding Ps → P is then a reduction of structure groups as required. f )(u. Let (P.g. f (u))) = f (u) and ss(f ) (p(u)) = q(u. Theorem.13. Sections of associated bundles. f (u.g. S)G by fs := τ ◦ (IdP ×M f ) : P = P ×M M → P ×m P [S] → S. K).g. we have a bijection C ∞ (P.τ (ux . Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 53 structure group from GL(n) to O(n). Thus Ps := fs (¯) is a submanifold e of P which is stable under the right action of K on P .g. The phenomenon discussed here plays a prominent role in the theory of classifying spaces. G) and a closed subgroup K of G. 10. g −1 . 10. .12. λ]. f (p(u))) = f (p(u)). q(u. f (x)) = g −1 . S)G ∼ C ∞ (P [S]).g)) = (u. M.10. since (Id. Theorem. ] correspond exactly to the G-equivariant mappings P → S. G) be a principal fiber bundle and : G × S → S a left action.fs (ux ) by 10. f )(u)). where λ : G × G/K → G/K is the left action on the homogeneous space. Consider a principal fiber bundle (P. = Proof. p. The two constructions are inverse to each other since we have fs(f ) (u) = τ (u.f ) (a) If conversely s ∈ C ∞ (P [S]) we define fs ∈ C ∞ (P. Furthermore the K-orbits are exactly the fibers of the mapping p : Ps → M .g) = τ (ux . τ (u. S)G denote the space of all smooth mappings f : P → S which are G-equivariant in the sense that f (u. Let C ∞ (P. which is a surjective submersion since the action −1 ¯ λ : G × G/K → G/K is transitive. Then the reductions of structure group from G to K correspond bijectively to the global sections of the associated ¯ ¯ bundle P [G/K. f (x)) = g −1 . By theorem 10.

k for k ∈ K this restriction induces f : P → G/K by P ×M P   −−→ −− τ G   p P = P ×M P /K − − → G/K. G) is a principal fiber bundle we denote by Aut(P ) the group of all G-equivariant diffeomorphisms χ : P → P .g) = τ (u.k) = τ (ux . We use again the mapping τ : P ×M P → G from 10. conj]). Pp(u) ) ⊆ K } = P . Then p ◦ χ = χ ◦ p for a unique diffeomorphism χ of M . so the e two constructions are inverse to each other.g. vx ) = g −1 .g = conjg−1 fχ (u). (G. If (P. with Lie algebras g and K.15 The tangent bundles of homogeneous spaces. χ). −− f and from τ (ux . vx .2.14. p. Theorem. we define χf : P → P by χf (u) := u. so we may view P as a sub fiber bundle of P which is stable under the right action of K.54 10.K (k)X = AdG (k)X = AdK (k)X ∈ K. vx ). Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles If conversely we have a principal fiber bundle (P . The group Gau(P ) of gauge transformations is equal to the space C ∞ (P. χ(u. (G. so K is an invariant . For X ∈ K and k ∈ K we have AdG.1 and put AdG. conj))G ∼ C ∞ (P [G. The bundle of gauges. Let G be a Lie group and K a closed subgroup. p . vx ) it follows that f is G-equivariant as required. The kernel of this homomorphism is called Gau(P ). We recall the mapping AdG : G → AutLie (g) from 1. M.τ (ux . conj))G is given.g)) = g −1 . If conversely f ∈ C ∞ (P. 10.g. For χ ∈ Gau(P ) we define fχ ∈ C ∞ (P. 10.f (u). M.g.g) = χ(u). Now we consider the mapping τ : P ×M P → G from 10. χ(u)). (G.K := AdG |K : K → AutLie (g). Then fχ (u. so ¯ ¯ there is a group homomorphism from Aut(P ) into the group Diff(M ) of all diffeomorphisms of M .τ (u. the group of gauge transformations. = Proof. conj))G by fχ := τ ◦ (Id. then χ is an embedding covering the identity of M and is K-equivariant. Finally f −1 (¯) = {u ∈ P : τ (u.2 and restrict it to P ×M P . K) and a reduction of structure groups χ : P → P . It is easy to check that χf is indeed in Gau(P ) and that the two constructions are inverse to each other. Since we have τ (ux . So Gau(P ) is the space of all χ : P → P which satisfy p ◦ χ = p and χ(u. respectively. so fχ is indeed G-equivariant.

Proof.K ]. AdG.10. Te (G/K)).K ] → G[g/K. Ad⊥ ] ⊕ G[K. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 55 subspace for the representation AdG. AdG. For p : G → G/K we consider the tangent mapping Te p : g → Te (G/K) which is linear and surjective and induces a linear isomorphism ¯ Te p : g/K → Te (G/K). AdG. Let ϕ : G × g → G × g be given . Ad⊥ ] and G[K. AdK ] → G[G. Ad⊥ ].K ] is a trivial vector bundle. In these circumstances we have T (G/K) = G[g/K.K ] ∼ G[g. G/K. G/K. which is isomorphic to the vec¯ ¯ tor bundle G[g/K. Then (a) 0 → K → g → g/K → 0 is short exact and K-equivariant. since the representation spaces are isomorphic. AdG. p. Te λ] = ¯ ¯ (G ×K Te (G/K). Now we consider the principal fiber bundle (G.K ] is a trivial vector bundle. The short exact sequence (a) induces a sequence of vector bundles over G/K: G/K × 0 → G[K. For k ∈ K we have p ◦ conjk = p ◦ λk ◦ ρk−1 = ¯ ¯ ¯ λk ◦ p and consequently Te p ◦ AdG. G/K. Theorem. ¯ ¯ ¯ Now we consider the associated vector bundle G[Te (G/K). Furthermore G[g/K.K (k) = Te p ◦ Te (conjk ) = Te λk ◦ Te p. p. g/K).K of K in g.and we have the factor representation Ad⊥ : K → GL(g/K. ¯ The left action g → T (λg ) of G on T (G/K) coincides with the left action of G on G ×K g/K. AdG. Ad⊥ ] ⊕ G[K. AdG. It remains to show the last assertion. p. K) and the associated vector bundles G[g/K. so we obtain G[g/K. Ad⊥ ] = (G ×K G/K. Ad⊥ ] → G/K × 0 This sequence splits fiber wise thus also locally over G/K. ¯ Thus the isomorphism Te p : g/K → Te (G/K) is K-equivariant for the ¯ ¯ ¯ representations Ad⊥ and Te λ : k → Te λk .K ] and it remains to show that = G[g. ¯ The mapping T λ : G×Te (G/K) → T (G/K) is K-invariant and therefore ¯ induces a mapping ψ as in the following diagram: G × Te (G/K) − − → T (G/K) −− ¯   q (b) G ×K Te (G/K) − − → T (G/K) −− ¯ ψ    πG/K  p G/K G/K ¯ Tλ This mapping ψ is an isomorphism of vector bundles.

n) × Rk → Rn . n) given also by the orthogonal complement mapping. n) × Rn with its standard Riemannian metric is isomorphic to the universal vector bundle En−k over G(n − k. n) as the space of all linear isometries Rk → Rn .5 we know that (V (k.5 the description of V (k. p. n) → G(n − k. AdG. Ek ⊥ ). AdG (g)X). Then for k ∈ K we have ϕ((g.56 10. where the isomorphism covers the diffeomorphism G(k. ¯ 10. we get from it the evaluation mapping ev : V (k. Recall from 10. The tangent bundle of the Grassmann manifold is T G(k. Using the banal representation of O(k) we consider the associated vector bundle (Ek := V (k. n)). n) × Rn . AdG (g)X). From 10. n) = O(n)/O(n − k). G(k.16 Tangent bundles of Grassmann manifolds. Note finally that the fiber wise orthogonal complement Ek ⊥ of Ek in the trivial vector bundle G(k. G(k. Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles by ϕ(g.k.k −1 )X) = (gk.ev) (a) V (k. The mapping (p. So the fiber (Ek )W over the k-plane W in Rn is just the linear subspace W . n) ×O(k) Rk − − → G(kn) × Rn −− ψ is O(k)-invariant for the action R and factors therefore to an embedding of vector bundles ψ : Ek → G(k. n).K (g −1 )X) = (ak. p. It is called the universal vector bundle over G(k. n) for reasons we will discuss below in chapter 11. O(k)) is a principal fiber bundle. ev) in the diagram V (k. n). AdG (g. n)[Rk ]. So ϕ is K-equivariant from the ”joint” K-action to the ”on the left” K-action and therefore induces a mapping ϕ as in the diagram: ¯ G×g −−→ −−   q (c) ϕ G×g   G ×K g − − → G/K × g −− ϕ ¯     p pr1 G/K G/K The map ϕ is a vector bundle isomorphism. Corollary.k) = ϕ(gk. n) × Rk   q − − → G(kn) × Rn −− (p. . X) = (g. X). n) = L(Ek .

T ρ. T(a.X = −T ρa−1 .(Y.X + T ρb . .1. Rn−k ) is given by (A. a−1 ).X. Finally we have an O(k) × O(n − k) . g) = Te (ρg ). Ek ⊥ ) = L O(n) = O(n) × O(k)×O(n−k) × O(k)×O(n−k) Rk . The tangent group of a Lie group. We have G(k.T ρa .b) µ.T λa−1 . Finally L(Ek . Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 57 Proof. Ta ν.T λa . Rn−k ). × O(k)×O(n−k) Rn−k where the left action of O(k) × O(n − k) on L(Rk .Ad(a−1 )X. Let G be a Lie group with Lie algebra g. b) = (X + Ad(a)Y. the group structure on T G looks as follows: (X.b) µ.(X.X + T λa . We will use the notation from 1. So T G is isomorphic to the semidirect product g G.T ρb .A−1 . Via the isomomorphism T ρ : g × G → T G. a).15 we get T G(k.ξa = −Te (λa−1 ). n)[Rk ] = O(n)/O(n − k) × Rk = O(n) O(k) × O(k)×O(n−k) Rk .X. ηb ) = Ta (ρb ).(T ρa .Y = = T ρab .T ρa .10. First note that T G is also a Lie group with multiplication T µ and inversion T ν. O(n) L(Rk . given by the expressions T(a.ηb and Ta ν.T ρa−1 . n) = O(n)/(O(k) × O(n − k)). T ρb . n) = O(n) × O(k)×O(n−k) so(n)/(so(k) × so(n − k)). n) = O(n)/O(n − k) and the right action of O(k) commutes with the right action of O(n − k) on O(n).T ρa . therefore V (k. Lemma. Rn−k ) → so(n)/(so(k)×so(n−k)).b) and (X. a)−1 = (−Ad(a−1 )X.equivariant linear isomorphism L(Rk .ξa + Tb (λa ). On the other hand we have V (k.C. as follows: so(n)/(so(k) × so(n − k)) = skew skew 0 0 skew = 0 A −A 0 : A ∈ L(Rk .Y = T ρab (X + Ad(a)Y ). Rn−k ) 10.T ρa . so by theorem 10.17. where O(n − k) acts trivially on Rk . Proof.X = −T ρa−1 .Ta (ρa−1 ). a.(ξa .Y ) = T ρb . B)(C) = B.ξa .

p. g) is the right logarithmic derivative of ϕαβ which is given by δϕαβ (ξx ) = T (ρϕαβ (x)−1 ). M. the bundle V P → M is isomorphic to T P |0M and T r restricts to a free right action. M. πE . (T Uα .X) = β = (ξx . (3) Obviously T r : T P × T G → T P is a free right action which acts transitive on the fibers of T p : T P → T M . T2 ] = P ×G T S.X.ξ = 0 } of T E is called the vertical bundle and is denoted by (V E. p. X). Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles Remark. (2) The mapping (u.58 10. Since V P = (T p)−1 (0M ). T ]. Then the following assertions hold: (1) (T P. π. T M.(b.T (ϕαβ ). the semidirect product structure looks somewhat awkward: (a. T λ. T ϕα : T P |T Uα → T Uα × T G) is again a principal fiber bundle atlas with cocycle of transition functions (T ϕαβ : T Uαβ → T G). (3) The vertical bundle of the principal bundle as bundle over M is again a principal bundle: (V P. where δϕαβ ∈ Ω1 (Uαβ . Let (Uα . M. (5) The vertical bundle of the associated bundle P [S.(δϕαβ (ξx ) + Ad(ϕαβ (x))X)).(g. ] is given by V (P [S. For completeness sake we include here the transition formula for this atlas in the right trivialization of T G: T (ϕα ◦ ϕ−1 )(ξx . . E). In the left trivialization T λ : G × g → T G. T G). T p. So (1) follows. G) be a principal fiber bundle with principal right action r : P × G → P . T G) is again a principal fiber bundle with principal right action T r : T P × T G → T P . (2) The vertical bundle (V P. X) is a vector bundle isomorphism P × g → V P over P . For a fiber bundle (E. Ad(b−1 )X + Y ) and (a. X) = Te (λg ). Proof. S) the subbundle V E = { ξ ∈ T E : T p. (4) The tangent bundle of the associated bundle P [S. X) → Te (ru ).3 the result follows. ] is given by T (P [S. X)−1 = (a−1 . Tangent and vertical bundles. which is transitive on the fibers. Theorem. T G).ξx . 10. Te (ρϕαβ (x).g). Since T is a functor which respects products. Te (ρg ). ]) = T P [T S. T M. The assertion about the principal action is obvious. so by lemma 10. p ◦ π. ϕα : P |Uα → Uα × G) be a principal fiber bundle atlas with cocycle of transition functions (ϕαβ : Uαβ → G). Let : G × S → S be a left action. T p. Y ) = (ab.e) r.X = T(u.(0u . P. g) of the principal bundle is trivial as a vector bundle over P : V P = P × g. ]) = P [T S. − Ad(a)X).18. describing the principal fiber bundle (T P. Let (P.

(x. ηs ) and this implies the result . Principal Fiber Bundles and G-Bundles 59 (4) The transition functions of the fiber bundle P [S.ηs = T2 .(0x . ηs ) = T . ηs ) ∈ T Uαβ × T S.10.(0ϕαβ (x) . ηs ) = T ( ϕαβ (x) ). ] they transform as T ( ◦ (ϕαβ × IdS )). (5) Vertical vectors in T P [S. Under the transition functions of T P [S. ] have local representations (0x . ] are T ( ◦ (ϕαβ × IdS )) = T ◦ (T ϕαβ × IdT S ) : T Uαβ × T S → T G × T S → T S. from which the result follows. Then the transition functions of T P [S. ] are given by the expression ◦ (ϕαβ × IdS ) : Uαβ × S → G × S → S.

G) be a principal fiber bundle. We take the negative sign here to get the usual connection form as in [Kobayashi-Nomizu I. M. 11. so we have ω(ζX (u)) = X for all X ∈ g. 2 (rg )∗ R = R for all g ∈ G. the result follows. Conversely a 1-form ω ∈ Ω1 (P.Ad(g −1 ).ω. p.Φ = Φ. which is a principal connection if and only if (2) is satisfied. 1963]. (2) ω is G-equivariant. From Te (rug ).Xu ) (ug) = Φ(Tu (rg ).Φ(Xu ) both directions follow.Xu ) = ζω(Tu (rg ).60 11. g) by Ω(Xu . M.X. g). G) then the connection form has the following two properties: (1) ω reproduces the generators of fundamental vector fields.Xu ) and Te (rug ). Recall from 9.1 that the curvature R = 1 [Φ. Principal and Induced Connections 11. So ω(Xu ) := Te (Ru )−1 . (2). for all g ∈ G. Φ] is then also 2 rg -related to itself for all g ∈ G. g).T (rg ) and Φ is rg -related to itself. so that T (rg ).2. Let (P. Recall from 10. Lemma.15. T P ).3 that a (general) connection on P is a fiber projection Φ : T P → V P . which is called the (Lie algebra-valued) curvature form of the connection. . We already noted in 11.R(Xu . so we have ((rg )∗ ω)(Xu ) = ω(Tu (rg ). p. Proof. Recall from 1.16.ω(Tu (rg ). Since Te (ru ) : G → Vu P is an isomorphism. Let Φ be a principal connection on the principal fiber bundle (P.Φ(Xu ) ∈ g and in this way we get a g-valued 1-form ω ∈ Ω1 (P . V P ) is a principal connection on the principal fiber bundle (P. Curvature.ω(Xu ) (ug) = Tu (rg ). Yu ).18. Te (ru ). Principal connections.1. If Φ ∈ Ω1 (P .ω(Xu ).[Φ.6 the curvature R = 1 . Φ] is then also G-invariant. Yu ) := −Te (ru )−1 .ω(Xu ) = ζAd(g−1 ). p. (1).ω(Xu ) for all g ∈ G and Xu ∈ Tu P . Such a connection Φ is called a principal connection if it is G-equivariant for the principal right action r : P × G → P . g) satisfying (1) defines a connection Φ on P by Φ(Xu ) = Te (ru ). G) with connection form ω ∈ Ω1 (P .Xu ) = Ad(g −1 ).ζω(Xu ) (u) = Tu (rg ).2 that the vertical bundle of P is trivialized as a vector bundle over P by the principal right action. M. Consequently we have for the Lie derivative LζX ω = −ad(X). which is called the (Lie algebra valued) connection form of the connection Φ. Since R has vertical values we may again define a g-valued 2-form Ω ∈ Ω2 (P .3. By theorem 8. viewed as a 1-form in Ω1 (P . or (rg )∗ Φ = Φ in the sense of 8.ω(ζX (u)) = Φ(ζX (u)) = ζX (u) = Te (ru ). the fundamental vector field mapping ζ : G → X(P ) for the principal right action.

11. ω])(X. Xp+q ) = 1 = signσ [Ψ(Xσ1 . Y ) = Xω(Y ) − Y ω(X) − ω([X. Yu ) = Te (rug ). . .((rg )∗ Ω)(Xu . Y − ΦY ] = Φ[X. (2) Ω is G-equivariant in the following sense: (rg )∗ Ω = Ad(g −1 ).Ω(Xu . Y ∈ C ∞ (H(P )) we have R(X. Xσ(p+q) )]g p! q! σ or equivalently by [ψ ⊗ X. ω] − [ω.Ad(g −1 ).((rg )∗ R)(Xu .Y ]) 1 (dω + [ω.Ω. In particular for ω ∈ Ω1 (P . it kills vertical vectors. .Ω(Xu . . Y ]) 2 by 1. Y ) = 2[ω(X). .e. g) we have [ω. (3) The Maurer-Cartan formula holds: Ω = dω + 1 [ω. and for horizontal vector fields X. Theorem. ω] = −ad(X)ω + ad(X)ω = 0 So the formula holds for vertical vectors. Yu ) = Tu (rg ). ω](X. Y ] = ζω([X. 2 Proof.R(Xu . ω(Y )]. . θ ⊗ Y ] := ψ ∧ θ ⊗ [X. Xσp ). Y ]. The curvature form Ω of a principal connection with connection form ω has the following properties: (1) Ω is horizontal. g) of all g-valued forms on P in a canonical way with the structure of a graded Lie algebra by [Ψ. Θ](X1 . . ω]g ) = iζX dω + [iζX ω. Yu ) = = −Tu (rg ).[ω. Consequently LζX Ω = −ad(X). Y ]) = −ω([X.4. Θ(Xσ(p+1) . Yu ). Tu (rg ). i.Xu . Y ) = Φ[X − ΦX.Yu ) (u) = = ζAd(g−1 ). (1) is true for R by 9. . Tu (rg ). ω]g .Ω(Tu (rg ). For (2) we compute as follows: Te (rug ).Ω. . For X ∈ g we have iζX R = 0 by (1) and 1 1 1 iζX (dω + . .Xu .Yu ) = = −Rug (Tu (rg ).Yu ) = −Tu (rg ). . .3. (3).Yu ) (ug) = = Te (rug ). . iζX ω] = 2 2 2 = LζX ω + [X.ζΩ(Xu . Principal bundles and induced connections 61 We equip the space Ω(P .

Now let (fα ) be a smooth partition of unity on M which is subordinated to the open cover (Uα ). 0g ) + X = Ad(g −1 )ωα (ξx ) + X. the local expressions of ω. g) = −T (ϕα ). Lemma. g). G) (with paracompact basis) admits principal connections. We may associate the following local data to the connection: (2) ωα := sα ∗ ω ∈ Ω1 (Uα .4. M. 0g ).T (ϕα )−1 (ξx . We will use the forms Θαβ := ϕαβ ∗ Θ ∈ Ω1 (Uαβ .Te (rϕα (x. (7) Γα (ξx . Te λg .Ad(g −1 )ωα (ξx ).X)) := X for ξx ∈ Tx Uα and X ∈ g.g) )ω.T (ϕα )−1 (ξx . 0g ) = −T (ϕα ). Let Φ = ζ ◦ ω ∈ Ω1 (P .1 are invariant under convex linear combinations. .T (ϕα )−1 (ξx . (3) The Christoffel forms Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . Local descriptions of principal connections. Any principal fiber bundle (P. These local data have the following properties and are related by the following formulas. Proof. α Lemma. (1) Let Θ ∈ Ω1 (G. T λg . (6) γα (ξx . G) with some principal fiber bundle atlas (Uα . 0g ) = −Te (λg )ω. ω is a principal connection on P . From the definition of the Christoffel forms we have Γα (ξx . Let (Uα . (4) γα := (ϕ−1 )∗ ω ∈ Ω1 (Uα × G. g)) = −T (ϕα ). g) satisfies the requirements of lemma 11.7. 0g ) = −Te (λg )γα (ξx .Φ.e. which are given by (0x .3 shows that γα ∈ Ω1 (P |Uα .ηg .T (ϕα )−1 (ξx . We consider a principal fiber bundle (P. Γα (ξx . Θ(ηg ) := Tg (λg−1 ).62 11. M. Proof. 0g ) = −Te (λg ).ϕαβ = sβ . and let ω := α (fα ◦ p)γα .γα (ξx . g). i.1 and thus is a principal connection on P |Uα . V P ) be a principal connection.3. (5) The forms ωα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . g). ϕα : P |Uα → Uα × G)α be a principal fiber bundle atlas. Since both requirements of lemma 11. g) = −Te (λg ). g) satisfy the transition formulas ωα = Ad(ϕ−1 )ωβ + Θβα .Φ. 0g ) = −Te (ϕα ◦ rϕα (x. 11. Principal bundles and induced connections 11. X(G)) from 9. g). e) and satisfy sα .T (ϕα )−1 (ξx .g) )ω. g) be the left logarithmic derivative of the identity. We consider the sections sα ∈ C ∞ (P |Uα ) which are given by ϕα (sα (x)) = (x. ω ∈ Ω1 (P . p. 0g ). An α easy computation involving lemma 1. βα and any set of forms like that with this transition behavior determines a unique principal connection. ψα : P |Uα → Uα × G) and corresponding cocycle (ϕαβ : Uαβ → G) of transition functions. Let us define γα (T ϕ−1 (ξx .X) = γα (ξx . the physicists version of the connection. p.

χ∗ ◦(rg )∗ = (rg )∗ ◦χ∗ for all g ∈ G. 0e )) α α = Ad(g −1 )(sα ∗ ω)(ξx ) = Ad(g −1 )ωα (ξx ). 11. . that Flt Now we define the covariant exterior derivative dω : Ωk (P . χ∗ ◦χ∗ = χ∗ . if one of the two forms has real values. the curvature form. the space Ωhor (P . . The projection χ∗ has the following properties: χ∗ (ϕ∧ψ) = χ∗ ϕ∧χ∗ ψ. Xk ) = ϕu (χ(X1 ). . Via (7) the transition formulas for the ωα are easily seen to be equivalent to the transition formulas for the Christoffel forms in lemma 9. im χ = HP . . They follow easily from the corresponding properties of χ. The covariant derivative. The second part is seen from γα (ξx . Principal bundles and induced connections 63 This is the first part of (7). (4) dω ◦ p∗ = d ◦ p∗ = p∗ ◦ d : Ω(M . W ) → k+1 Ω (P . The second part follows from (6).X) = ω(T (ϕα )−1 (ξx . The mapping χ∗ is a projection onto the subspace of horizontal differential forms. (3) (rg )∗ ◦ dω = dω ◦ (rg )∗ for each g ∈ G. (2) L(ζX ) ◦ dω = dω ◦ L(ζX ) for each X ∈ g. and χ∗ ◦ L(ζX ) = L(ζX ) ◦ χ∗ . G) be a principal fiber bundle with principal connection Φ = ζ ◦ ω. 9. α So the first part of (6) holds. W ) := {ψ ∈ Ω(P . W ) : iX ψ = 0 for X ∈ V P }. . The covariant exterior derivative dω has the following properties. the Bianchi identity. and χ ◦ T (rg ) = T (rg ◦ χ) for all g ∈ G. γα (ξx . We consider the horizontal projection χ = IdT P − Φ : T P → HP . 0g ) + X. we consider the mapping χ∗ : Ω(P . W ). where R is the curvature.11. (7) dω ◦ χ∗ − dω = χ∗ ◦ i(R) ◦ d. Te (ρg )0e ) = (ω ◦ T (ϕα )−1 ◦ T (ρg ))(ξx . (8) dω ◦ dω = χ∗ ◦ i(R) ◦ d. 0g )) = = γα (ξx . 0g ) + ω(ζX (ϕ−1 (x. . If W is a finite dimensional vector space. i. . p. ker χ = V P .3.7. χ(Xk )). M. W ) → Ω(P . 0e ) = = (ω ◦ T (rg ◦ ϕ−1 ))(ξx . χ∗ ω = 0. (6) dω Ω = 0. T λg . Let (P. (1) dω (ϕ ∧ ψ) = dω (ϕ) ∧ χ∗ ψ + (−1)deg ϕ χ∗ ϕ ∧ dω (ψ). W ) which is given by (χ∗ ϕ)u (X1 . the last property uses ζ(X) = rexp tX . W ) by the prescription dω := χ∗ ◦ d.5. The notion of horizontal form is independent of the choice of a connection. g))) = γα (ξx . Theorem. which satisfies χ ◦ χ = χ. 0e ) = Ad(g −1 )ω(T (ϕ−1 )(ξx . cf. . 0g ) = γα (ξx . W ) → Ωhor (P .e. . (5) dω ω = Ω.

. . . ω]) 2 = χ∗ ddω + 1 χ∗ d[ω. Principal bundles and induced connections Proof. . We have (dω ω)(ξ. . ω] − [ω. . . . ω] 2 = 1 χ∗ ([dω. . . χ(X0 ). For ϕ ∈ Ω(P . . . χ(Xk ))) + i<j (−1)i+j ϕ([χ(Xi ). . Xk ) = (dχ∗ ϕ)(χ(X0 ). . χ(Xj )] − Φ[χ(Xi ). χ(Xi ). . Xk ). . . since χ∗ ω = 0. η)) = Φ[χξ. χ(Xj ). . (1) through (4) follow from the properties of χ∗ . (5). ) = (dϕ)(χ(X0 ). χ(Xk )) = 0≤i≤k (−1)i χ(Xi )((χ∗ ϕ)(χ(X0 ). χη) = (χξ)ω(χη) − (χη)ω(chξ) − ω([χξ. ) = 0≤i≤k (−1)i χ(Xi )(ϕ(χ(X0 ). η) = dω(χξ. . χη]) and R(ξ. χ(Xk )) + (iR ϕ)(χ(X0 ). . . χ(Xj )]. (6). . . W ) we have (dω χ∗ ϕ)(X0 . . . . . . ω] 2 = [χ∗ dω. χ(X0 ). χη]. . η) = (χ∗ dω)(ξ. . . . . . . by (7) . . . . χ(Xj ). . dω dω = χ∗ dχ∗ d = (χ∗ iR + χ∗ d)d = χ∗ iR . η) = −ζ(Ω(ξ. χη]) = −ω([χξ. . . . . . . χ(Xi ). . χ(Xj )]. We have dω Ω = dω (dω + 1 [ω. . . χ(Xk ))) + i<j (−1)i+j (χ∗ ϕ)([χ(Xi ). (8). . χ(Xi ).64 11. . . . χ(Xk )) = (dω + χ∗ iR)(ϕ)(X0 . . . . . . . (7). . χ∗ ω] = 0. . . . . . dω]) = χ∗ [dω. χ(Xi ).

and ω( dt Pt(c. Theorem. Let (P. u0 )/ Hol0 (ω.11. x0 ). (Reparametrizing c by a function which is flat at each corner of c we may assume that any c is smooth. u0 )) = Hol0 (ω. M. t.g) = Ad(g −1 ) Hol(ω. x0 ).10. u0 ) a normal subgroup Hol(ω.g) = Pt(c. u0 ). 2. Pt(c. u0 ) and Hol0 (ω. p. u) ∈ Pc(t) . u. The elements τ (u0 . and (2) is seen as d d follows: ω( dt Pt(c. u0 )) = Hol(ω. t. Then the parallel transport for the principal connection is globally defined and g-equivariant. For each curve c in M we have Hol(ω. u0 ) is at most countable. i.g) = Ad(g −1 ) Hol0 (ω. t.g) = Ad(g −1 )ω( dt Pt(c. M. t. Pt(c. Properties (1) and (3) follow from theorem 9. Hol0 (ω. which are bounded with respect to any left invariant Riemannian metric on G. so Hol(ω. We have Hol(ω. Let (P.g). t) : Pc(0) → Pc(t) is G-equivariant. x0 ) ⊂ Diff(Px0 ) as the group of all Pt(c. u0 ).8. t. Each left invariant metric on a Lie group is complete. u). t. t. Pt(c. t. We assume that M is connected and we fix x0 ∈ M .g = Pt(c. 0) = IdPc(0) . t. So the connection is complete by the remark in 9. u.7. u0 ) is a connected Lie subgroup of G and the quotient group Hol(ω. u0 )) ∈ G form a subgroup of the structure group G which is isomorphic to Hol(Φ. t. u)) = 0. G) be a principal fiber bundle with principal connection Φ = ζ ◦ ω. 11. 1. (3) For smooth f : R → R we have Pt(c. In view of developments which we make later in section 12 we define the holonomy group Hol(Φ. u0 ) and we call it also the holonomy group of the connection.) If we consider only those curves c which are nullhomotopic. f (t). Considering only nullhomotopic curves we get the restricted holonomy group Hol0 (ω. u0 ). u). G) be a principal fiber bundle with principal connection ω. u)) = 0 implies that Pt(c. we denote it by Hol(ω. X(G)) of the connection ω with respect to a principal fiber bundle atlas (Uα . p. ϕα ) take values in the Lie subalgebra XL (G) of all left invariant vector fields on G.g. u0 . u0 ) and Hol0 (ω. f (0). we obtain the restricted holonomy group Hol0 (Φ. Holonomy groups. u0 ) is also a Lie subgroup of G. 3. In detail: For each smooth c : R → M there is a smooth mapping Ptc : R × Pc(0) → P such that the following holds: d (1) Pt(c. The Christoffel forms Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . 1) : Px0 → Px0 for c any piecewise smooth closed loop through x0 . Now let us fix u0 ∈ Px0 . u) = Pt(c ◦ f.e. t. Pt(c. . Pt(c. Pt(c. (2) Pt(c. u). Proof. u)). u0 . Principal bundles and induced connections 65 11.6 Theorem. t.

M. T (P [S])) by the following diagram: TP × TS   −−→ −− Φ×Id T q=q TP × TS   q T (P × S)   Tq T (P ×G S). 1963. 7. u0 ) is then again a principal connection form i∗ ω ∈ Ω1 (P (ω. u0 ) equals the structure group G for some (equivalently any) u0 ∈ Px0 . Yu ) : Xu . It is isomorphic to the Lie algebra hol(Φ.66 11. so it is itself a principal fiber bundle over M with structure group Hol(ω. If the curvature Ω = 0 then Hol0 (ω. ]) = P [T S. u) is a covering of M .2 and from the from the G-equivariancy of the parallel transport.18 that its tangent and vertical bundle are given by T (P [S. If one uses piecewise C k -curves for 1 ≤ k < ∞ in the definition. Then P (ω.8. T2 ] = P ×G T S. In view of assertion 5 a principal connection ω is called irreducible if Hol(ω. Proof. constructed in 10. x0 ) we considered in 9. Yu ∈ Tu P }. 10. ]) = T P [T S. P is foliated by the leaves P (ω. one gets the same holonomy groups. t. u0 ). u0 ) is a sub fiber bundle of P which is invariant under the right action of Hol(ω.6 and 10. u ∈ Px0 . u0 ) ⊂ g of Hol(ω. The rest of this theorem is a compilation of well known results.7. hol(ω. cf. u0 )). u0 ) = {e} and each P (ω. Let (P. p. Then we consider the associated bundle P [S] = P [S. Recall from 10. u0 ) is linearly generated by {Ω(Xu . T P ×T G T S − − → T P ×T G T S −− ¯ Φ Let us first check that the top mapping Φ × Id is T G-equivariant.13. We construct the induced connection Φ ∈ Ω1 (P [S]. For u0 ∈ Px0 let P (ω. u0 ) be the set of all Pt(c. u0 ). u). The pullback of ω to P (ω. ] = P ×G S. T P ) be a principal connection on the principal ¯ bundle P . u0 ) and we have a reduction of structure group. u0 ) for c any (piecewise) smooth curve in M with c(0) = x0 and for t ∈ R. The Lie algebra hol(ω. Let Φ = ζ ◦ ω ∈ Ω1 (P . This follows from the properties of the mapping τ from 10. G) be a principal bundle with principal right action r : P × G → P and let : G × S → S be a left action of the structure group G on some manifold S.9. T ] = T P ×T G T S and V (P [S. Principal bundles and induced connections 4. 1. 6. Inducing principal connections on associated bundles. and we refer to [Kobayashi-Nomizu I. For g ∈ G and X ∈ g the inverse of Te (λg )X in the Lie group T G is denoted . 5. 11. 83ff] for proofs. 8. p.

The image of Φ q (V P × T S) = q (ker(T p : T P × T S → T M )) = ker(T p : T P ×T G T S → T M ) = V (P [S.9. since Φ × Id and q = T q are. Te (λg )X) = Tu (rg )ξu + T r((OP × LX )(u. s)) = q(PtΦ (c. Te (λg )X). We call it the induced connection. So by 8. T ((Te (λg )X)−1 . T ((Te (λg )X)−1 . T (P [S])) are (q : P × S → P [S])related. s). The mapping Φ is ¯ ¯ ¯ have Φ ¯ is fiberwise linear. The answer is given in the following . Φ] × 0 = RΦ × 0. ηs )) = (Φ(Tu (rg )ξu + ζX (ug)). g)) = Tu (rg )ξu + Tg (ru )(Te (λg )X) = Tu (rg )ξu + ζX (ug). u). T ((Te (λg )X)−1 . T ((Te (λg )X)−1 . T P × T S) and Φ ∈ Ω1 (P [S].17. ηs )) ¯ So the mapping Φ × Id factors to Φ as indicated in the diagram. T q ◦ (RΦ × 0) = RΦ ◦ (T q ×M T q). Recognizing induced connections. ]. G) and a left action : G × S → S. We consider again a principal fiber bundle (P.15 we have for the curvatures RΦ×Id = 1 [Φ × Id. p. and we ¯ ◦ Φ = Φ from (Φ × Id) ◦ (Φ × Id) = Φ × Id. From the diagram it also follows. Then the following question arises: When is the connection Ψ induced from a principal connection on P ? If this is the case. ηs )) = (T r((Φ × Id)ξu . ηs )) = (Φ(Tu (rg )ξu ) + Φ(ζX (ug)).e. ¯ Thus Φ is a connection on the associated bundle P [S]. ηs )) = (Φ(Tu (rg )ξu ) + ζX (ug).3 we have T r(ξu . Principal bundles and induced connections 67 by (Te (λg )X)−1 . ¯ 2 that they are also q-related. t. Φ]. t. Φ × Id] = 1 [Φ. that the vector valued forms Φ×Id ∈ ¯ Ω1 (P × S. ]). M.11. i. q(u. ¯ By uniqueness of the solutions of the defining differential equation we also get that PtΦ (c. see lemma 10. T ((Te (λg )X)−1 . Suppose that Ψ ∈ Ω1 (P [S]. Furthermore by 1. We may compute (Φ × Id)(T r(ξu . Te (λg )X). T (P [S])) is a connection on the associated bundle P [S] = P [S. ¯ 11. 2 2 ¯ ¯ RΦ = 1 [Φ. we say that Ψ is compatible with the G-structure on P [S].

Let Ψ be a (general) connection on the associated bundle P [S]. 0s ) ¯ Φ ¯ = −(T (ψα ) ◦ Φ ◦ T q ◦ (T (ϕ−1 ) × Id))(ξx .7 its Christoffel symbols are given by −1 ¯ Γα (ξx . s) = −(T (ψα ) ◦ Φ ◦ T (ψα ))(ξx . which by the first part of the proof induces the given connection Ψ on P [S]. i. Then by the proof of theorem 10. g). s) = q(ϕ−1 (x. Then the connection Ψ is induced from a principal connection ω on P if and only if the following condition is satisfied: In some (equivalently any) fiber bundle atlas (Uα . Now let us conversely suppose that a connection Ψ on P [S] is given such that the Christoffel forms Γα with Ψ respect to a fiber bundle atlas of the G-structure have values in Xf und (S). So the condition is necessary.(7) by (2) = −(T (ψα ) ◦ = −(T (ψα ) ◦ T q ◦ (Φ × Id))(T (ϕ−1 )(ξx .4. Principal bundles and induced connections Theorem. ωα (ξx ). 0e ). Then unique g-valued forms ωα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . 0s ) α T q)(Φ(T (ϕ−1 )(ξx .8 by 11. By 9. α ¯ Let Φ = ζ ◦ ω be a principal connection on P and let Φ be the induced connection on the associated bundle P [S]. e). 0s ) α Φ = −T (ψα ◦ q ◦ s = −Te ( )ωα (ξx ) = −ζωα (ξx ) (s).7 the induced fiber bundle atlas (Uα . 0e )). Proof. g) are given by the equation Γα (ξx ) = ζ(ωα (ξx )). ψα : P [S]|Uα → Uα × S) is given by (1) (2) −1 ψα (x. so that Ψ they give a unique principal connection on P . e)). Ψ since the action is infinitesimally effective. Let (Uα . .e.(3) by 11. Let us suppose that the action is infinitesimally effective.4. s). ϕα : P |Uα → Uα × G) be a principal fiber bundle atlas for P .4.s).(5) for the ω α . 0s ) = (T (ψα ) ◦ T q)(T (ϕ−1 )(Γα (ξx . s) = (x. X(S)) have values in the sub Lie algebra Xf und (S) of fundamental vector fields for the action .7 for the Γα follow the transition formulas 11. 0s ) α by (1) by 11. 0e . 0s ) α (ϕ−1 α × Id))(0x .68 11. From the transition formulas 9. the fundamental vector field mapping ζ : g → X(S) is injective. ψα ) of P [S] belonging to the G-structure of the associated bundle the Christoffel forms Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . α (ψα ◦ q)(ϕ−1 (x. g.

This follows from the fiberwise linearity of the composants of K and from its definition. T (E)) from 11. pr1 –πE –fiberwise linear and also p–T p–fiberwise linear.11. T E) such that Ψ : T E → V E → T E is also T p–T p– fiberwise linear is called a linear connection.8. If (E. T P ) be a principal connection on P . p. Proof.10. Let (P. T M ). T p ◦ pr1 : T (E) = T P ×T G T W → T M . Principal bundles and induced connections 69 11. which was treated in some detail in 10. Inserting the projections of both vector bundle structures on T (E) into the diagram in 11. a connection Ψ ∈ Ω1 (E. Recall now from 11. M. . M. Inducing principal connections on associated vector bundles. The connector K : T E → E is πE –p–fiberwise linear and T p–p–fiberwise linear and satisfies K ◦ vlE = pr2 : E ×M E → T E → E. We ¯ consider the induced connection Φ ∈ Ω1 (E. M ) is a vector bundle. G) be a principal fiber bundle and let ρ : G → GL(W ) be a representation of the structure group G on a finite dimensional vector space W .10. the second one is the derivative of the vector bundle structure on E. T p. Equivalently a linear connection may be specified by a connector K : T E → E with the three properties of lemma 11. An easy check with 11. Linear connections.11. The tangent bundle T (E) = T P ×T G T W has two vector bundle structures with the projections πE : T (E) = T P ×T G T W → P ×G W = E. We say that it is a linear connection on the associated bundle. We consider the associated vector bundle (E := P [W. p. Now let Φ = ζ ◦ ω ∈ Ω1 (P .11. ¯ Now we define the connector K of the linear connection Φ by ¯ K := pr2 ◦ (vlE )−1 ◦ Φ : T E → V E → E ×M E → E. Lemma. ρ]. p. For then HE := {ξu : K(ξu ) = 0p(u) } is a complement to V E in T E which is T p–fiberwise linearly chosen. the first one is the vector bundle structure of the tangent bundle. E) of E (where n is the fiber dimension of E). 11.9 or a direct construction shows that Ψ is then induced from a unique principal connection on the linear frame bundle GL(Rn . W ).8 one easily sees that the induced connection is linear in both vector bundle structures: the new aspect is that it is a linear endomorphism of the vector bundle (T E.8 the vertical lift vlE : E ×M E → V E. which is an isomorphism.

See e. E) → Ef (x) makes sense and ( X s)(x) = X(x) s. This covariant derivative has the following properties: is C ∞ (N. the clumsy and unclear treatment of it in [Eells-Lemaire. If Y ∈ X(Q) and X ∈ X(N ) are g-related. Lemma. 1983]. From the universal property of the ∞ pullback it follows that the vector space Cf (N. By the method of 7. E). R)-linear in X ∈ X(N ). For vector fields X. the derivation property of X . E) is canonically linearly ∞ ∗ isomorphic to the space C (f E) of sections of the pullback bundle. Y )s : = = ([ X Y X. smooth mapping s : N → E. given by a connector K : T E → E with the properties in lemma 11. s− Y]− Y Xs − [X. E) the vector space of all smooth mappings s : N → E with p ◦ s = f – they are called sections of E along f .s) = dh(X).s + h.12.4 it follows that RE is a 2-form on M with values in the vector bundle L(E. X s for h ∈ C ∞ (N. E). For any manifold N . p. So for a tangent vector X ∞ Xx ∈ Tx N the mapping Xx : Cf (N.10. Remark. Property (6) is not well understood in some differential geometric literature. E) → Cf (N. and s.Yy s = Yy (s ◦ g). ∞ s is R-linear in s ∈ Cf (N.70 11. ∞ If f : N → M is a fixed smooth mapping. and vector field X ∈ X(N ) we define the covariant derivative of s along X by (1) Xs := K ◦ T s ◦ X : N → T N → T E → E. (3) (4) Xs Proof.Y ] )s is C ∞ (M. M ) be a vector bundle with a linear connection. (6) For any manifold Q and smooth mapping g : Q → N and Yy ∈ Ty Q we have T g. E). (5) X (h. R). . let us denote by Cf (N. All these properties follow easily from the definition (1). Y ∈ X(M ) and a section s ∈ C ∞ (E) an easy computation shows that RE (X. Then the covariant derivative may be viewed as a bilinear mapping (2) ∞ ∞ : X(N ) × Cf (N. Let (E. R)-linear in X. then we have Y (s ◦ g) = ( X s) ◦ g.Y ] s [X.g. Y . Covariant derivative on vector bundles. Principal bundles and induced connections 11.

Y )s.13.e. Xσ(p+q) )). Xp ). .11. . f ∗ E) is defined by (where the Xi are vector fields on N ) p (d Φ)(X0 . . Xσp )Φ(Xσ(p+1) . Xj . . . . Covariant exterior derivative. . . . . . . . Xp+q ) = = 1 p! q! σ sign(σ) ϕ(Xσ1 . . The covariant exterior derivative is well defined and has the following properties. . . The graded space Ω(N . Xp ) = i=0 (−1)i Xi Φ(X0 . . Let (E. f ∗ E) we have d (g ∗ Φ) = g ∗ (d Φ). The covariant exterior derivative d : Ωp (N : f ∗ E) → Ωp+1 (N . . Xj ]. . p. . . Xp ) + (−1)i+j Φ([Xi . f ∗ E) we have (d s)(X) = X s. given by a connector K : T E → E. f ∗ E) → Ω(N . For f : N → M . . . It can easily be shown that the graded module homomorphisms H : Ω(N . Xσp )(Φ(Xσ(p+1) . RE ∈ Ω2 (M . We can also view them as forms on N with values along f in E. . f ∗ E) (so that H(ϕ ∧ Φ) = (−1)deg H. 0≤i<j≤p Lemma. which are given by (µ(K)Φ)(X1 . . . (3) For smooth g : Q → N and Φ ∈ Ω(N . Principal bundles and induced connections 71 i. . . Xσ(p+q) ). f ∗ L(E. but we do not introduce an extra notation for this. . X0 . . . (2) d (ϕ ∧ Φ) = dϕ ∧ Φ + (−1)deg ϕ ϕ ∧ d Φ. . f ∗ E) is a graded Ω(N )-module via (ϕ ∧ Φ)(X1 . For a smooth mapping f : N → M let Ω(N . . f ∗ E) be the vector space of all forms on N with values in the vector bundle f ∗ E. . E) along f we obtain X Y s− Y Xs − [X. Xi . E)). E)). . Y ∈ X(N ) and a section s ∈ ∞ Cf (N. . . . . Xp+q ) = = 1 p! q! σ sign(σ) K(Xσ1 . Xi . . . L(E. M ) be a vector bundle with a linear connection. (1) For s ∈ C ∞ (f ∗ E) = Ω0 (N . (4) d d Φ = µ(f ∗ RE )Φ.Y ] s = (f ∗ RE )(X. . . . . deg ϕ ϕ ∧ H(Φ)) are exactly the mappings µ(K) for K ∈ Ωq (N . vector fields X. It is called the curvature of the covariant derivative. . . . 11. .

Xi = Tu p. P [W ]) = C ∞ (P [W ]) → Ω0 (P . since Tu (rg )Xi − Xi ∈ Vu P.g ) = g −1 . the mapping d is well defined. .τ (ux . Xk )) = q(u . ρ(g −1 )ϕu (X1 . ϕu (X1 .Xk )) = q(u . 11.Xi for each i. Xk )) = q(ug. . This formula also implies (2) immediately. Then we have for g = τ (u. .2. Let (P. ux ) = e. (rg )∗ ϕ = ρ(g −1 ) ◦ ϕ for all g ∈ G}. . Let ϕ ∈ Ωk (P . . ρ]valued differential forms on M onto the space of horizontal G-equivariant W -valued differential forms on P : q : Ω(M . f ∗ E). P [W. and X1 . . .12.g . .g. In particular for W = R with trivial representation we see that p∗ : Ω(M ) → Ωhor (P )G = {ϕ ∈ Ωhor (P ) : (rg )∗ ϕ = ϕ} is also an isomorphism. . Principal bundles and induced connections Proof. W )G = C ∞ (P. W )G .(6). Xk )) = q(u . W )G hor is a special case of the one from 10. . Xk ∈ Tu P . Proof. . p. . which satisfies r(ux . . . It suffices to investigate decomposable forms Φ = ϕ ⊗ s for ϕ ∈ Ωp (N ) and s ∈ C ∞ (f ∗ E). . . ϕug (Tu (rg ). ux . . so that ug = u : q(uϕu (X1 . Recall the smooth mapping τ : P ×M P → G from 10.(3) d s ∈ Ω1 (N . W )G = {ϕ ∈ Ω(P .X1 .12. There is a canonical isomorphism from the space of P [W. W ) : iX ϕ = 0 for all X ∈ V P. (3) follows from 11. G) be a principal fiber bundle and let ρ : G → GL(W ) be a representation of the structure group G on a finite dimensional vector space W . ux ). τ (ux . . . and τ (ux .14. u ). . . Xk )). Since by 11. ρ]) → Ωhor (P . ((rg )∗ ϕ)u (X1 . .72 11. X1 . . . Xk ∈ Tu P hor such that Tu p. τ (ux . . (4) is checked as follows: d d (ϕ ⊗ s) = d (dϕ ⊗ s + (−1)p ϕ ∧ d s) by (2) = 0 + (−1)2p ϕ ∧ d d s = ϕ ∧ µ(f ∗ RE )s by the definition of RE = µ(f ∗ RE )(ϕ ∧ s). Tu (rg ).12. . Theorem. M. . . . The isomorphism q : Ω0 (M . Then from the definition we have d (ϕ⊗s) = dϕ ⊗ s + (−1)p ϕ ∧ d s. vx )) = vx .

χ.X1 . . Φp(ug) (Tug p. as follows: q ◦ d = dω ◦ q : Ω(M . Φp(u) (Tu p. P [W ]) is uniquely determined. we have T s. The covariant exterior derivative dω from 11. W )G = C ∞ (P. s(p(u))) and s(p(u)) = q(u. P [W ]) we define q ∈ Ωk (P .T s. . q(ux . (d s)(T p. w)) = w.X1 . M. Therefore T s. q(u. 11. M.Xu ).Xk )). df (Xu )) ∈ T W = W × W . . We consider the associated vector bundle (E := P [W. Xk ). Proof. For the converse recall the smooth mapping τ : P ×M P [W. T p. .Xu ).13. W ). .Tu (rg ). ¯ Then q Φ is smooth and horizontal. . p. If χ : T P → HP is the horizontal projection as in 11. vx )) = vx . W )G .11. . vx ).Xu = (f (u). . For Xi ∈ Tu P we put (q Φ)(X1 .14. . T f.T p. .Xu = T s.Xk ) = τ (ug.Xu s) by 11. . . . Xk ) = (q Φ)ug (Tu (rg ).12. ¯ τ For Φ ∈ Ωk (M .X1 . Tu p.15. Theorem.X1 .Xk )) τ = ρ(g −1 )(q Φ)u (X1 . .Xu . Clearly the two constructions are inverse to each other.14 and 10. τ (ux . . and ¯ ¯ τ (ux g.(1) = τ (u.χ. . . Let first f ∈ Ω0 (P . Let (P. which satisfies τ (u.5.T p.Xu = T q(χ.12.Xu ) . Xk ) := τ (u. For g ∈ G we have ((rg )∗ (q Φ))u (X1 . f (u)) by 11. Φp(u) (Tu p. So we get (q d s)(Xu ) = τ (u.T p. . Principal bundles and induced connections 73 By this prescription a vector bundle valued form Φ ∈ Ωk (M . . .7. P [W ]) → Ωhor (P . W )G . ρ] → W ¯ from 10. .Xu = T q(Xu . and let ρ : G → GL(W ) be a representation of the structure group G on a finite dimensional vector space W . Tu p. K.Xk )) ¯ = ρ(g −1 )¯(u. vx ) = ρ(g −1 )¯(ux . .Xu )) = τ (u.Tu (rg ). W ) as follows. ρ]. T f. Tu (rg ). the induced ¯ connection Φ on it and the corresponding covariant derivative.T p. p. . where T f. G) be a principal fiber bundle with a principal connection Φ = ζ ◦ ω. . . .5 on P and the covariant exterior derivative for P [W ]-valued forms on M are connected by the mapping q from 11. Tug p. then f = q s for s ∈ hor C ∞ (P [W ]) and we have f (u) = τ (u. . .(1) by 11.

Proof.pr2 .P [W ]) RP [W ] = ρ ◦ Ω.16. T f. q. g) and the curvature RP [W ] ∈ hor Ω2 (M . T f. Y ∈ Tu P (dω dω qP [W ] s)u (X. where ψ ∈ Ωk (M ) and s ∈ C ∞ (P [W ]).15.vlP ×W .(1) from above 11.Xu ))) −1 τ (u. df.Y )s(p(u))) = (qL(P [W ]. W ) is the derivative of the representation ρ. Y ) = τ (u. .T q(χ. RP [W ] (Tu p.Xu )) ¯ = τ (u.Xu )) = (χ∗ df )(Xu ) = (dω q s)(Xu ).T q. Y ) = (q RP [W ] s)u (X. L(P [W ]. By this theorem we have for X. where ρ = Te ρ : g → L(W. Then we have dω q (ψ ⊗ s) = dω (p∗ ψ · q s) = dω (p∗ ψ) · q s + (−1)k χ∗ p∗ ψ ∧ dω q s = χ∗ p∗ dψ · q s + (−1)k p∗ ψ ∧ q d s = p dψ · q s + (−1) p ψ ∧ q d s = q (dψ ⊗ s + (−1)k ψ ∧ d s) = q d (ψ ⊗ s). Y )(qP [W ] s)(u).χ. T f. Tu p.Xu ))) τ (u.χ.T q(0u . It suffices to check the formula for a decomposable P [W ]-valued form Ψ = ψ ⊗ s ∈ Ωk (M.Xu ))) −1 τ (u.P [W ]) RP [W ] )u (X.(Φ × Id)(χ.vlP [W ] . pr2 . K. P [W ])) the relation qL(P [W ]. P [W ]). T f.vl−1 . Y ) = (q d d s)u (X.5.X.Φ.χ. Now we turn to the general case. ∗ k ∗ by 11. Principal bundles and induced connections = τ (u.χ.Xu . In the situation of theorem 11.Xu .74 11.χ.T q(0u . Corollary.Xu )) = = = = from above by 11.10 by 11. T f. pr2 .8 since Φ. pr2 . q(u.15 above we have for the curvature form Ω ∈ Ω2 (P .T q(χ. We use the notation of the proof of theorem 11.vlP [W ] .χ.Xu .χ = 0 since q is fiber linear P [W ] −1 τ (u.

s(p(u))) ρ(exp tΩ(X.2 (q ζΩ(X. Principal bundles and induced connections 75 On the other hand we have by theorem 11. .Y ) (u)) = = = = ∂ ∂t ∂ ∂t ∂ ∂t ∂ ∂t 0 0 0 0 since R is horizontal by 11.Y ) s)(Fl−t (u)) τ (u. Y ))(q s)(u). Y ))))) τ (u. exp(−tΩ(X. Y ) = (χ∗ iR dq s)u (X. s(p(u.(8) (dω dω q s)u (X. Y )). s(p(u))) by 11. Y ) = (dq s)u (R(X. Y )) = (dq s)(−ζΩ(X. Y ))τ (u.7 = ρ (Ω(X. exp(−tΩ(X. Y )).5. exp(−tΩ(X.11.

Yx ∈ Tx M and curves c from x0 to x) in X(S) with respect to the compact C ∞ -topology. For Xx and Yx ∈ Tx M we consider R(CXx . CYx ) ∈ X(Ex ). CY2 ]. generated by all these vector fields (for all x ∈ M . CV )] Ex0 ∈ hol(Φ. called the restricted holonomy group of the connection Φ at x0 . ) : Ex → T E is a vector field along Ex . Proof. Y2 ].3. (FlCX )∗ (FlCZ )∗ R(CU. x0 ) s z by the Jacobi identity and [(FlCX )∗ C[Y1 . t) : S = Ex0 → Ex and the pullback Pt(c. since it is closed in the compact C ∞ -topology and the derivative can be written as a limit. 1)∗ R(CXx .1 let C : T M ×M E → T E be the horizontal lifting as in 9. In the setting of 12. 12.76 12. Thus [(FlCX )∗ [CY1 . and let us call it the holonomy Lie algebra of Φ at x0 .2.1. 1] → M through x0 the parallel transport Pt(c. Xx . (FlCZ )∗ R(CU. CV ) = (FlCX )∗ [CY. CV )] Ex0 ∈ hol(Φ. For X ∈ X(M ) we consider the local flow FlCX of the horizontal t lift of X. x0 ) the closed linear subspace.3. CYx ) ∈ X(S). and let us assume that M is connected. x0 ). It restricts to parallel transport along any of the flow lines of X in M .4) of the connection Φ. Now we choose any piecewise smooth curve c from x0 to x and consider the diffeomorphism Pt(c. x0 ). . If we consider only those piecewise smooth curves which are homotopic to zero. x0 ).M. For any x ∈ M and Xx ∈ Tx M the horizontal lift C(Xx ) := C(Xx . Lemma. (FlCZ )∗ R(CU. we get a subgroup Hol0 (Φ. 12. Let (E. All these diffeomorphisms form together the group Hol(Φ. Then for vector fields on M the expression CX ∗ CY ∗ CX ∗ CZ ∗ d dt |0 (Fls ) (Flt ) (Fl−s ) (Flz ) R(CU. Holonomy Lie algebra. a subgroup of the diffeomorphism group Diff(S). and let R be the curvature (9. CV )] Ex0 s z Ex0 Ex0 is in hol(Φ. Holonomy 12. CV )] s −s z = [(FlCX )∗ CY. 1) =: Pt(c. hol(Φ. x0 ) is a Lie subalgebra of X(S). (FlCZ )∗ R(CU. Holonomy groups. 1) (pieced together over the smooth parts of c) is a diffeomorphism of S. We choose a fixed base point x0 ∈ M and we identify Ex0 with the standard fiber S. x0 ). For each closed piecewise smooth curve c : [0. s z .p. Let us denote by hol(Φ. the holonomy group of Φ at x0 .S) be a fiber bundle with a complete connection Φ.

x0 ) which is smooth as a mapping R × S → S. It is sufficient to prove claim 2 there. an irreducible connection ω on it and a smooth action of G on S such that the Lie algebra g of G equals the holonomy Lie algebra hol(Φ. x0 ) is a finite dimensional Lie subalgebra of X(S). where g is smooth and flat at each corner of c. 1) for a piecewise smooth closed curve c through x0 . p. the fiber bundle E is isomorphic to the associated bundle P [S]. which is nullhomotopic. x0 ). To prove claim 2 we consider the pullback bundle H ∗ E → R2 with the induced connection H Φ . CV )] Ex0 s z is in hol(Φ. x0 ). (FlCZ )∗ R(CU. 9. x0 ). 1) is a curve in Hol0 (Φ. x0 ). The structure group G equals the holonomy group Hol(Φ. x0 ) is finite dimensional and consists of complete vector fields on the fiber Ex0 Then there is a principal bundle (P.s = FlCX ◦ FlCY ◦ FlCX ◦ FlCY : S → S. The following theorem is a generalization of the theorem of Ambrose and Singer on principal connections. Claim 1. Let f ∈ Hol0 (Φ. we can replace c by c ◦ g. 12. G0 equals Hol0 (Φ. Holonomy 77 so also their difference [(FlCX )∗ R(CY1 . the restricted holonomy group. x0 ). d Claim 2. Let Φ be a connection on the fiber bundle (E. Theorem.4. x0 ) consists of complete vector fields if and only if it is generated by complete vector fields as a Lie algebra. Proof.8. Then ft := Pt(Ht . 1] = x0 . 1957]. S) and let M be connected. Then g := hol(Φ. CY2 ). so [X. ( dt ft ) ◦ ft−1 =: Zt is in g for all t. CX Then Pt(c. Y ] = 0. then f = Pt(c. By a theorem of [Palais. P and ω are unique up to isomorphism. M. see [Palais. and Φ is the connection induced by ω. and since each vector field in it is complete. there is a finite dimensional connected Lie group G0 of diffeomorphisms of S with Lie algebra g.12. So we may assume that c itself is smooth. Since the parallel transport is essentially invariant under reparametrization. M. G) with finite dimensional structure group G. −s −t s t . 1] = c and H0 |[0. We put ft. Since c is homotopic to zero. Let d d X = ds and Y = dt be the constant vector fields on R2 . Suppose that for some (hence any) x0 ∈ M the holonomy Lie algebra hol(Φ. s) = Fls |S and so on. p. 1957] a finite dimensional Lie subalgebra of X(Ex0 ) like Hol(Φ. by approximation we may assume that there is a smooth homotopy H : R2 → M with H1 |[0. Let us again identify Ex0 and S.

CY ] = Φ[CX. x0 ) equals G0 . and for that it is enough to show. Then we have in the vector space X(S) −1 d ( dt ft. CYx ) for Xx . In the proof of claim 1 we have seen that Hol0 (Φ. 1)∗ R(CXx . We extend Xx and Yx to vector fields X and Y ∈ X(M ) with [X.s = 1 0 d ds −1 d ( dt ft. so it is a connected Lie subgroup by the results cited in 5. generated by the time dependent vector field Zt . x0 ).s ) ◦ ft.g(t) = dt g(t) and g(0) = e. Y ] = 0 near x. t = CY + 0 −1 d Thus all parts of the integrand above are in g and so ( dt ft.s = −(FlCX )∗ CY + (FlCX )∗ (FlCY )∗ (FlCX )∗ CY.s ) ◦ ft.78 12. CY ] s t −s ds. Y ] = 0 we have [CX. reparametrize it in such a way that it is again smooth (see the beginning of this proof) . There is a unique smooth curve d g(t) in G0 satisfying Te (ρg(t) )Zt = Zt . x0 ) is a smoothly arcwise connected subgroup of G0 . ˇ with f By definition we may assume ξ = Pt(c.6. via the action of G0 on S the curve g(t) is a curve of diffeomorphisms on S. that for each ξ ∈ g there is a smooth mapping ˇ f : [−1. Yx ∈ Tx M and a smooth curve c in M from x0 to x. Now claim 1 can be shown as follows.s ) ◦ ft.1 = ft . Claim 3. Hol0 (Φ. CY ] = R(CX.s ds = 0 −(FlCX )∗ [CX. x0 ) ⊆ G0 . 1] × S → S such that the associated curve f lies in Hol0 (Φ. CY ] dt t Φ(FlCX )∗ R(CX.s ) ◦ ft. CY ) and (FlCX )∗ CY = C (FlX )∗ Y t t 1 + Φ (FlCX )∗ CY t 1 = CY + 0 CX ∗ d ) CY dt Φ(Flt dt = CY + 0 1 Φ(FlCX )∗ [CX. x0 ) ˇ (0) = 0 and f (0) = ξ. Since [X. Holonomy so ft.s is in g for all t and claim 2 follows. CY ) dt. s s t −s 1 −1 d ( dt ft. CY ] + (FlCX )∗ [CX. (FlCY )∗ (FlCX )∗ CY ] s s t −s −(FlCX )∗ (FlCY )∗ (FlCX )∗ [CX. so g(t) = ft and f = f1 is in G0 . So we get Hol0 (Φ. We may also suppose that Z ∈ X(M ) is a vector field which extends c (t) along c(t): make c simple piecewise smooth by deleting any loop. It suffices thus to show that the Lie algebra g of G0 is contained in the Lie algebra of Hol0 (Φ.

1 Let us investigate the transition functions. The parallel transport in the last equation first follows c from x0 to x. From its construction it is clear that the associated bundle P [S] = P ×G S equals (E.(cα )−1 . 1) Pt(cβ . S). ψβα (x) s). Pt(cβ . p.Cβ . CY ) = (FlCZ )∗ [CX. G). so claim 3 follows. For this we have to compute the Christoffel symbols of Φ with respect . Put xα := u−1 (0) and choose α smooth curves cα : [0. M. Y ](x) = 0 1 1 1 d = (FlCZ )∗ 2 dt2 |t=0 (FlCY ◦ FlCX ◦ FlCY ◦ FlCX ) −t −t t t 1 2 = CZ 1 d2 2 dt2 |t=0 (Fl−1 FlCY ◦ FlCX ◦ FlCY ◦ FlCX ) FlCZ ). since the fundamental group π1 (M ) is countable (by Morse Theory M is homotopy equivalent to a countable CW-complex). 1)−1 Pt(cx . x0 ) into a Lie group which we call G. p. uα : Uα → Rm ) be a locally finite smooth atlas for M such that each uα : Uα → Rm ) is surjective. Clearly ψβα : Uβα × S → S is smooth which implies that ψβα : Uβα → G is also smooth. 1) Pt(cα . Y ] = 0 near x) and then follows c back to x0 . 1] → M with cα (0) = x0 and cα (1) = xα . Construction of a cocycle of transition functions with values in G. ψα : E|Uα → −1 Uα × S) by ψα (x. α α then cx connects xα and x and the mapping (x. x0 ) is a countable group. by taking Hol0 (Φ. (ψαβ ) is a cocycle of transition functions and we use it to glue a principal bundle with structure group G over M which we call (P. then follows a small closed parallelogram near x in M (since [X. Then ψα is smooth since α x Pt(cα .(cx )−1 . Step 4. This curve is clearly nullhomotopic. 1) = FlCXx for a local vector field Xx depending smoothly on x. Holonomy 79 and approximate it by an embedding. Lifting the connection Φ to P . Let (Uα . x0 )/ Hol0 (Φ. −t −t t t 1 where we used the well known formula expressing the Lie bracket of two vector fields as the second derivative of the (group theoretic) commutator of the flows. 1] → M be the smooth curve t → u−1 (t. 1) s. So we have ξ = (FlCZ )∗ R(CX. CY ] since [X. 1] → M . x0 ) = G0 as its connected component of the identity. s) = x. Step 6.12. Pt(cα . Then Hol(Φ. M. 4) s α =: (x. s) = Pt(cx .uα (x)). t) → cx (t) is smooth α α Uα × [0. −1 ψβ ψα (x. Now we define a fiber bundle atlas (Uα . Step 5. where ψβα : Uβα → G. 1) s α β x = x. 1)−1 Pt(cx . For each x ∈ Uα let cx : [0. Now we make Hol(Φ. The vector fields ξ thus obtained still generate the finite dimensional vector space g.

ψα ). where γ(t) is a smooth curve in the holonomy group G. see 11.8 we have −1 ψα (Pt(c. s) is the integral curve through s of the time dependent vector ¯ d field Γα ( dt c(t)) on S.7. By theorem 11.9 the connection Φ is thus induced by a principal connection ω on P .s). 1) Pt((cc(t) )−1 . But then we get d Γα ( dt c(t))(s) = d ¯ dt γ (t.8 the principal connection ω has the ”same” holonomy group as Φ and since this is also the structure group of P . Holonomy to the atlas of step 5. Let c : [0. s). Since by 11. Then we have −1 ψα (Pt(c. γ (t. Pt(c−1 . t)ψα (c(0). t) Pt(cc(t) . So Γα takes values in the Lie sub algebra of fundamental vector fields for the action of G on S. s)) = (c(t). 1) Pt(cα . the principal connection ω is irreducible. To do this directly is quite difficult since we have to differentiate the parallel transport with respect to the curve. . Now let Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . ¯ where γ (t. t)ψα (c(0). 1] → Uα be a smooth curve.s. 1)s α α α = (c(t). d where dt γ(t) ∈ g. 1) Pt(c.80 12. X(S)) be the Christoffel symbol of the connection Φ with respect to the chart (Uα . Fortunately there is another way. From the third proof of theorem 9. γ(t). s)) = = c(t). s) = d dt (γ(t).s) d = ( dt γ(t)).

E}. T E) be a connection on E.3. S)) ⊆ C ∞ (Uαβ × S. The principal action is just composition from the right. The nonlinear frame bundle of a fiber bundle 13. ) to the cocycle of transition functions (ψαβ ). Thus the bundle Diff{S. E}[S. p.1 the infinite dimensional smooth manifold Diff{S. Then we assume that the transition functions ψαβ : Uαβ → Diff(S. 13. The mapping Diff(S) ev : Diff{S.1. Ex )}. With the methods of [Michor. T E|Ex ) : T p ◦ f = one point in Tx M and πE ◦ f ∈ Diff(S. Let now Φ ∈ Ω1 (E. We can consider now the smooth action ev : Diff(S) × S → S and the associated bundle Diff{S. Ex ) and give it the infinite dimensional differentiable structure which one gets by applying the functor Diff(S. We want to lift Φ to a principal connection on Diff{S. Starting from the connection Φ we can then consider ω(f ) := T (πE ◦ f )−1 ◦ Φ ◦ f : S → T E → V E → T S for f ∈ T Diff{S. In the setting of 13. E}[S. S) be a fiber bundle and let us fix a fiber bundle atlas (Uα ) with transition functions ψαβ : Uαβ × S → S.2. with the obvious embedding. E} := x∈M Diff(S.E}×S Diff{S. 13. Let us therefore assume from now on that S is compact. E). Then ω(f ) is a vector field on S and we have . E} is a splitting smooth submanifold of Emb(S. S) as follows. Now we define the nonlinear frame bundle of (E. E}[S. E}.81 13. ev] → E as in the following diagram: pr Diff{S. Let now (E. E}×S → E is invariant under the Diff(S)-action and factors therefore to a smooth mapping Diff{S. C ∞ (S. ev]. S) with equality if and only if S is compact. p. M. E} is in full right the (nonlinear) frame bundle of E. M. ev] = Diff{S. E} = x∈M {f ∈ C ∞ (S. We consider the set Diff{S. By 6. E}. E} gives it the structure of a smooth principal bundle over M with structure group Diff(M ). Then the resulting cocycle of transition functions for Diff{S.8 we have C ∞ (Uαβ . E} × S − − → −− Diff(S)   ev E ← − − Diff{S. 1980] one can show that T Diff{S. Lemma. S). and for this we need a good description of the tangent space T Diff{S. −− The bottom mapping is easily seen to be a diffeomorphism.E}×S .

ηf ∈ Tf Diff{S. So ω reproduces fundamental vector fields. so the two last assertions follow. Then we consider the R-linear span of all elements ρ(ξf . Let (E. ω ∈ Ω1 (Diff{S.9. Lemma. But we also give a direct proof. The fundamental vector field ζX on Diff{S. S) be a fiber bundle with compact standard fiber S. Then ω(ζX (g)) = T g −1 ◦ Φ ◦ T g ◦ X = X since T g ◦ X has vertical values. E}[S.6. and their curvatures are related as in 11. Proof. This follows directly from 11. The proof is obvious. where ξf . E} admits a global parallel transport. ev] coincides with Φ. E} of its parallel transport is the global parallel transport of the lift of the connection. X.8 and 11. E} for X ∈ X(S) is given by ζX (g) = T g ◦ X. The holonomy groups and the restricted holonomy groups are equal as subgroups of Diff(S). Then by the Diff(S)-equivariance of ρ the vector space hol(ω) is an ideal in the Lie algebra X(S). Which one is the right holonomy Lie algebra? . ω]X(S) be the usual X(S)-valued curvature of the lifted 2 connection ω on Diff{S. Each principal connection on Diff{S. ηf ) in X(S). Then connections on E and principal connections on Diff{S. Then we have ((rh )∗ ω)(f ) = ω(T (rh )f ) = ω(f ◦ h) = T (πE ◦ f ◦ h)−1 ◦ Φf ◦ h .8. = T h−1 ◦ ω(f ) ◦ h = AdDiff(S) (h−1 )ω(f ). E}x0 . E} correspond to each other bijectively. X(S)) is a principal connection and the induced connection on E = Diff{S. This follows directly from 11. and the lift to Diff{S. Y ∈ Tx M . Now let h ∈ Diff(S) and denote by rh the principal right action. x0 ) of 12.5. Remark on the holonomy Lie algebra.4 Theorem. Proof. The nonlinear frame bundle of a fiber bundle Lemma. E}. M. Note that the closure of f∗ (hol(ω)) is (a priori) larger than hol(Φ. CY ).82 13. and g : Ex) → Ex any diffeomorphism. E}. 13. Each connection on E is complete since S is compact. Let M be connected. let ρ = −dω− 1 [ω. 13. E} are arbitrary (horizontal) tangent vectors. Then f∗ : X(S) → X(Ex0 ) induces an isomorphism between hol(ω) and the R-linear span of all g ∗ R(CX. p.2. Let f : S → Ex0 be a diffeomorphism in Diff{S. 13.9. and we call this span hol(ω).

is Diff(S)invariant. E} which cover the identity of M .1. so it is a fiber respecting diffeomorphism. E} × Diff(S) → Diff{E.8 that C ∞ (Diff{E. conj] which by 14. The associated bundle Diff{S. The mapping A : Diff{S. The first statement has already been shown before the theorem. 14. We consider the bundle Diff{E. The usual reasoning gives that Gau(E) equals the space of all smooth sections of the associated bundle Diff{S. E}. E}[Diff(S). with the negative of the usual Lie bracket. We equip it with the topology and differentiable structure as a space of smooth sections. Ex ). Its Lie algebra consists of all vertical vector fields with compact support on E. p. 14. p. ψαβ ) = (ψαβ )∗ (ψβα )∗ . Theorem. Gauge theory for fiber bundles We fix the setting of section 13. with the negative of the usual Lie bracket. so it factors to a smooth mapping Diff{S. In particular the standard fiber S is supposed to be compact. S). 14. Lemma. the derivative of such a curve is thus an arbitrary vertical vector field with compact support. where (ψαβ ) is a cocycle of transition functions for the bundle (E. The gauge group Gau(E) = C ∞ (Diff{E. Since the fiber S is compact we see from a local (on M ) application of the exponential law 6. E} → M . given by A(f. M. The gauge group Gau(E) of the bundle (E. see 6. if S is compact. E}) is a splitting closed subgroup of Diff(E). S) is by definition the group of all principal bundle automorphisms of the Diff(S)bundle (Diff{S. Proof. E}[Diff(S)] → Diff{E. E}[Diff(S). Proof.4. . E} → M ) → Diff(E) is an embedding of a splitting closed submanifold. A curve through the identity of principal bundle automorphisms of Diff{S. M. E} := x∈M Diff(Ex .2. It has an exponential mapping which is not surjective on any neighborhood of the identity.83 14. Ex ) which bears the smooth structure described by the cocycle of transition func−1 tions Diff(ψαβ .2 equals the space of sections of the bundle Diff{E.1.3. g) := f ◦g◦f −1 : Ex → S → S → Ex for f ∈ Diff(S. conj] is isomorphic to the fiber bundle Diff{E. Since only the image space is infinite dimensional but admits exponential mappings (induced from the finite dimensional ones) this makes no difficulties. E}. E}. E} → M is a smooth curve through the identity in Diff(E) consisting of fiber respecting mappings. 14. The space of all these is therefore the Lie algebra of the gauge group. It is bijective ans admits locally over M smooth inverses.

t d Then we have dt |0 (FlX )∗ Φ = LX Φ = [X.2 and we may view the space of sections C ∞ (J 1 (E) → E) as the space of all connections. This follows from 6. Gauge theory for diffeomorphism groups The exponential mapping is given by the flow operator of such vector fields. The action of the gauge group Gau(E) on the space of connections C ∞ (J 1 (E)) is smooth. the Fr¨licher Nijenhuis o t bracket.5.6 14. Then a section of J 1 (E) → E is just a horizontal lift mapping T M ×M E → T E which is fiber linear over E. Those strata whose holonomy group groups are up to conjugacy contained in a fixed compact group (like SU (2)) acting on S are diffeomorphic to the strata of the usual finite dimensional gauge theory. Φ].84 14. Φ(T E) = V E}. it has all the properties of the latter. T E) : Ψ|V E = 0}. Remark. If S is not compact we may circumvent the nonlinear frame bundle. T E) : Φ ◦ Φ = Φ. Let J 1 (E) → E be the affine bundle of 1-jets of sections of E → M .16(5).8. so it describes a connection as treated in 9.6 The space of connections. Then the action of f ∈ Gau(E) ⊂ Diff(E) on Φ ∈ Conn(E) is given by f∗ Φ = (f −1 )∗ Φ = T f ◦ Φ ◦ T f −1 . The . So the space of connections is now Conn(E) := {Φ ∈ Ω1 (E. Now it is very easy to describe the infinitesimal action. Theorem. Clearly this just the group of all those f which respect the horizontal bundle HE = ker Φ. and we may define the gauge group Gau(E) directly as the splitting closed subgroup of Diff(E) which consists of all fiber respecting diffeomorphisms which cover the identity of M . u ∈ E. Since S is compact the canonical isomorphism Conn(E) → C ∞ (J 1 (E)) is even a diffeomorphism. 14. The most interesting object is of course the orbit space Conn(E)/ Gau(E). Since on each fiber it is just isomorphic the exponential mapping of Diff(S). by 8. 14. The Lei algebra of Gau(E) consists then of all vertical vector fields on E with compact support on E. The tangent space of Conn(E) at Φ is the space TΦ Conn(E) = {Ψ ∈ Ω1 (E. We have J 1 (E) = { ∈ L(Tx M. Φ] : X ∈ Cc (V E)}. Tu E) : T p ◦ = IdTx M . We will now give a different description of the action. We view now a connection Φ again as a linear fiber wise projection T E → V E. Proof.7. The isotropy subgroup of a connection Φ is {f ∈ Gau(E) : f ∗ Φ = Φ}. each one corresponding to a conjugacy class of holonomy groups in Diff(S). The ”infinitesimal orbit” ∞ at Φ in TΦ Conn(E) is {[X. If the base manifold M is compact then one can show that the orbit space is stratified into smooth manifolds. 14. p(u) = x}. Let X be a vertical vector field with compact support on E and consider its global flow FlX .

.14. 1989] for the starting idea. see [Gil-Medrano Michor. Gauge theory for diffeomorphism groups 85 proof of this assertions is quite complicated and will be dealt with in another paper.

. ) = (0. a2 . By a slight generalization of theorem 7. 0.3 (we use a Hilbert space instead of a Riemannian manifold N ) the space Emb(S. 15. 1982]. thus B(S.4 below. . 2 )/ Diff(S) is a smooth manifold modeled on Fr´chet spaces which are projective limits of Hilbert spaces. Proof. 2 ) is a Lindel¨f space in the quotient topology and the model o spaces admit bump functions. 0]. . an sin θn (t). a nonlinear analogy of the infinite dimensional Grassmanian. . . 2 ) is a classifying space of Diff(S). The base space B(S. . a1 . . Then A1/2 (a0 . 2 ) is contractible. ) is in 2 . 2 ) of all smooth embeddings is an open submanifold of C ∞ (S. I will give a detailed description of the classifying process in 15. even odd then we connect them by te1 + (1 − t)e2 which is a smooth embedding for all t since the values are always orthogonal. 2 ) admits smooth partitions of unity. an−1 sin θn (t). e B(S. This is a variant of a homotopy constructed by [Ramadas. . . . The image under A then has values in R2N ⊂ R∞ and the expression is clearly smooth as a mapping into R2N . 2 ) we first deform e1 through embeddings to e1 ∈ Emb(S. and equals 1 on [1. So by the general theory of classifying spaces the base space B(S. 2 ). . a1 . 2 ) := Emb(S. an cos θn (t). The total space Emb(S. 2 ) as the space of all submanifolds of 2 which are diffeomorphic to S.2. a0 . 1] → 2 through At (a0 . odd The same homotopy makes sense as a mapping A : R∞ × R → R∞ . . 0. . a2 . an−2 . an+1 sin θn (t). a2 . where θn (t) = ϕ(n((n + 1)t − 1)) π for a fixed smooth for 2 function ϕ : R → R which is 0 on (−∞. ) 1 ≤ t ≤ n . 0. and here it is easily seen to be smooth: a smooth curve in R∞ is locally bounded and thus takes locally values in a finite dimensional subspace RN ⊂ R∞ . Given two embeddings e1 and e2 ∈ Emb(S. We consider the continuous homotopy A : isometries which is given by A0 = Id and by 2 ×[0. 1]. 0. an+1 cos θn (t). an−1 cos θn (t). . ) = (a0 . grows monotonically to 1 in [0. 2 ) and it is also the total space of a smooth principal bundle with structure group Diff(S) acting from the right by composition. . ∞)]. Let 2 be the Hilbert space of square summable sequences and let S be a compact manifold. a2 . a1 . We may view B(S.1. a1 . A classifying space for the diffeomorphism group 15. 1 n+1 . 0. .86 15. ) is in 2 even and on the other hand A1 (a0 . . a2 . . 0. Lemma. . 2 ). ) = (a0 . . . and e2 to e2 ∈ Emb(S. a1 . .

2 ) such that (E. x. 2 ) × 2 : x ∈ N } with the differentiable structure from the embedding into B(S. x) ∈ B(S. x. The fiber bundle (E(S. 2 ). We choose a Riemannian metric g1 on the vector bundle V E → E and a Riemannian metric g2 on the manifold M . We can combine these two into the Riemannian metric g := (T p| ker Φ)∗ g2 ⊕ g1 on the manifold E. By the theorem of Nash there is an isometric imbedding h : E → RN for N large enough. 2 ) as the ”universal S-bundle” as follows: E(S. 2 ) → B(S. The orthonormal projection p(N. Φ) is isomorphic to (f ∗ E(S.(0x . S) and each connection Φ on E there is a smooth (classifying) mapping f : M → B(S. B(S.3 combined with 6. ξ is a vector field along and normal to N in 2 .4. 2 ) consists of all (N. Classifying space for Diff(S). dt ))Rclass = 0 where Rclass is the class curvature of Φ . 2 ) which is given by Φclass (N. 2 ) → E(S. ξ. 2 ). 2 ) = {(N. ev] = Emb(S. 2 ) ×Diff(S) S which we call E(S. 2 ) with standard fiber S. 2 ). x. This follows from the description of the principal fiber bundle Emb(S. pr. 2 ) × 2 .15. 2 )[S. for which the horizontal and vertical spaces are orthogonal.t) H. We consider the smooth action ev : Diff(S) × S → S and the associated bundle Emb(S. p. The tangent bundle T E(S. v) where N ∈ B(S. 2 ). f ∗ Φclass ). It will be called the classifying connection for reasons to be explained in the next theorem. 2 ) is the fiberwise diffeomorphic = which covers the classifying mapping f : M → B(S. 2 ) is then the space of all (N. M.7. ξ. S) is classifying for S-bundles and Φclass is a classifying connection: For each finite dimensional bundle (E. x ∈ N . t) = Ptclass (f ◦ c. ˜ where f : E ∼ F ∗ E(S. smooth fiber bundle over B(S. In view of the interpretation of B(S. 2 ) given in 7. x.3. Theorem. Since S is compact the classifying connection Φclass is complete and its parallel transport Ptclass has the following classifying property: ∗ class ˜ ˜ f ◦ Ptf Φ (c. 2 ). We then embed RN into the Hilbert space 2 and consider .x) : 2 → Tx N defines a connection Φclass : T E(S. 2 ) as the nonlinear Grassmannian we may visualize E(S. Homotopic maps pull back isomorphic S-bundles and conversely (the homotopy can be chosen smooth). 2 ). The pulled back connection is invariant under a homotopy d H if and only if i(C class T(x. p(N. t) ◦ f . Classifying spaces for diffeomorphism groups 87 15.x) v). and v ∈ Tx 2 such that the part of v normal to Tx N equals ξ(x). 15. v) with x ∈ N and v ∈ Tx N . v) = (N. Proof. Obviously the vertical bundle V E(S. 2 ) → V E(S.

(0x . u)) = Φclass . Then we may approximate H by smooth mappings with the same H0 and H1 .(3). 2 ) − −→    pr p M − − → B(S. ∂t 0 Pt(c. t. Then we consider the bundle H ∗ E(S. f (u)).9 we have ∂ ∂t Flt (H ∗ C class )(∂t ) ∗ H ∗ Φclass = − 1 i(H ∗ C class )(∂t ) (H ∗ Rclass ) 2 1 d = − H ∗ i(C class T(x. . t. (f. [Ebin-Marsden. Parallel transport along the lines t → (x. u) ∂ ˜ = T f .h) ) is fiberwise a diffeomorphism. 1] → M is a (piecewise) smooth curve we have for u ∈ Ec(0)) Φclass ∂ ∂t 0 ˜ ˜ ∂ f (Pt(c. equipped with the connection H ∗ Φclass .88 15. t. 15. t) with respect H ∗ Φclass is given by the flow of the horizontal lift (H ∗ C class )(∂t ) of ∂t . dt ))Rclass 2 which implies the result. whose curvature is H ∗ Rclass . t. so this diagram is a pullback and we have f ∗ E(S. Then E − − − E(S. u)) = Ptclass (f ◦ c. By lemma 9. Theorem. −− f 2 ˜ f =(f. u) = 0. ∂t 0 Pt(c. ). We show first that there exists a smooth mapping τ : Vol(S) → Diff(S) such that τ (µ)∗ µ0 = µ.t) H. let µ0 be a positive volume form on S with total mass 1. 2 ) = E. where the infnite o a dimensionality of B(S. given by f (x) = h(Ex ). if they are smooth.Φ. 1970] Let S be a compact orientable manifold. h)∗ Φclass = Φ. see [Br¨cker-J¨nich.5. 2 ) does not disturb. Let us compute its action on the connection H ∗ Φclass whose curvature is H ∗ Rclass by 9. h) maps horizontal and vertical vectors to orthogonal ones. Let ∂t be the vector field tangential to all {x} × I on M × I. 2 ). Classifying spaces for diffeomorphism groups 2 f : M → B(S.5. 1973]. t. If Pt denotes the parallel transport of the connection Φ and c : [0. ˜ ˜ f (Pt(c. 2 ) → M × I.T f . Proof. so Now let H be a continuous homotopy M × I → B(S. Since T (f. Then Diff(S) splits smoothly into Diff(S) = Diff µ0 (S)×Vol(S) where Diff µ0 (S) is the Lie group of all µ0 -preserving diffeomorphisms and Vol(S) is the space of all volume forms of total mass 1.

So the cohomology class of LXt µt in H dim S (S) is zero. Consider the space B1 (S. It carries a universal Diff ω (S)-connection. Then the time dependent vector field Xt is uniquely determined by iXt µt = ω since µt is nowhere 0. f ∗ µ0 ).7.4 with the appropriate changes to Cω. Let ft be the −1 evolution operator of Xt and put τ (µ) = f1 . It is not applicable directly for e R∞ as image space. 15.5 is that the classifying spaces of Diff(S) and Diff µ0 (S) are homotopy equivalent. In other words: (Embω (S. 2 ) classifies fiber bundles with typical fiber S and carries a universal (generalized) connection. µ) = g ◦ τ (µ). 1982]. Classifying space for Diff ω (S). which is a classifying space for the Lie group Diff ω (S). 2 ) of all submanifolds of 2 of type S and total volume 1 in the volume form induced from the inner product on 2 . 2 ) by the NashMoser inverse function theorem. It is a closed splitting submanifold of codimension 1 of B(S. An easy computation shows that the inverse is given by the smooth mapping Ψ−1 (g. Theorem. because the modeling spaces are then tame Fr´chet spaces in his sense. Let S be a compact real analytic manifold. . and we have LXt µt = diXt µt + iXt 0 = dω for some ω ∈ Ωdim S−1 (S). This theorem is applicable if we use 2 as image space. 2 ) of real analytic embeddings of S into the Hilbert space 2 is the total space of a real analytic principal fiber bundle with structure group Diff ω (S) and real analytic base manifold B ω (S. so LXt µt = µ0 − µ and consequently S LXt µt = S (µ0 − µ) = 0. So their classifying spaces are also homotopy equivalent. N ) ×Diff ω (S) S → B ω (S. The proof is similar to that of 15.15. We now sketch a smooth classifying space for Diff µ0 . Classifying spaces for diffeomorphism groups 89 We put µt = µ0 +t(µ−µ0 ). We have ∂t ft = Xt ◦ ft for a time dependent vector ∂ ∂ ∗ field Xt on S. We want a smooth curve t → ft ∈ Diff(S) ∂ with ft∗ µt = µ0 . 2 ). 15. see [Hamilton. A consequence of theorem 15. Now we may prove the theorem proper.6. which is smooth by sections 6 and 7. Now we choose ω such that dω = µ0 − µ and we choose it smoothly depending on µ by the theorem of Hodge. Then 0 = ∂t ft µt = ft∗ LXt µt +ft∗ ∂t µt = ft∗ (LXt µt +(µ = µ0 )). We define a mapping Ψ : Diff(S) → Diff µ0 (S) × Vol(S) by Ψ(f ) := (f ◦ τ (f ∗ µ0 )−1 . Then the space Embω (S.

algebra homomorphisms for the wedge product. M. 16. dt |0 (Flt In fact Φ is a covariant derivative on the vector bundle Ωn (p) := Ωn (E) := x∈M Ωn (Ex ) with its obvious smooth vector bundle strucver ture. Then there is a bundle atlas (Uα . We may plug n vertical vector fields Xi ∈ C ∞ (V E) into µ to get a function µ(X1 . Bundles with fiber volumes. p. whose standard fiber is the nuclear Fr´chet space Ωn (S). Proof. Let now Φ be a connection on (E. 16. e We shall need a description of the convariant derivative Φ in terms of Lie derivatives. M. If X ∈ X(M ) is a vector field on M . and ϕα. so for the fiber volume µ the pullback (FlCX )∗ µ makes sense and is again a fiber volume on E. i. p. .x ∈ Diff(S) such that (ϕα. We start with any bundle atlas (Uα .e. S) be a fiber bundle and let µ be a smooth section of the line bundle Λn V ∗ E → E where n = dim S. then the horizontal lift CX ∈ X(E) and X are p-related.1. . S) and let C : T M ×M E → T E be its horizontal lifting.3. Lemma. We t can now define a kind of covariant derivative by (a) Φ Xµ := CX ∗ d ) µ. Likewise we consider Φ∗ : C ∞ (Λk V ∗ E) → Ωk (E). So let j : V E → T E be the embedding of the vertical bundle and let us consider j ∗ : Ωk (E) → C ∞ (Λk V ∗ E). ψα : E|Uα → Uα × S). The other composition Φ∗ ◦ j ∗ : Ωk (E) → Ωk (E) is a projection onto the image of Φ∗ .x depends smoothly on x. .x )∗ ((ψα )−1 |{x} × S)∗ µx = µ0 . A characteristic class 16. These are algebraic mappings.5 there is a diffeomorphism ϕα.x chart. but we cannot treat µ as a differential form on E. T p ◦ CX = X ◦ p. So FlCX respects the vertical bundle t t t .2.90 16. such that for each x ∈ M the n-form µx := µ|Ex is a positive volume form of total mass 1. By theorem 15. Then for X ∈ X(M ) the flow FlCX t of its horizontal lift CX respects fibers. Xn ) on E. . and satisfy j ∗ ◦ Φ∗ = IdC ∞ (Λk V ∗ E) . Let (E. Such a form will be called a fiber volume on E. Let µ0 be a fixed volume form on S and let µ be a fiber volume on the bundle E. Then ψα := (IdUα × ϕ−1 ) ◦ ψα : E|Uα → Uα × S is the desired bundle α. Thus the flows are p-conjugated: p ◦ FlCX = FlX ◦p. ψα : E|Uα → Uα × S) such that (ψα |Ex )∗ µ0 = µx for all x ∈ Uα . Such forms exist on any oriented bundle with compact oriented fiber type.

16. a connection on Uα × S → Uα with horizontal lift is given by C α (X) = (X. Y ∈ X(Uα ). Y ](µ) − LS Γ[X. so µ : Uα → Ωk (S) is just a smooth mapping. Γ(Y )] µ −1 = LS (((ψα ) ∗ R)(X. LS ) ]µ Γ(X) Γ(Y = LS dUα Γ(X. Proof. V E). on each fiber separately. where we write α for Φ . S).Y ] µ = LS (XΓ(Y ) − Y Γ(X) − Γ([X. Let Φ be a connection on the bundle (E.16. Let µ be a fiber k-form on Uα × S. Lemma. p. Its horizontal lift is given by C α (X) = (X. Thus we have for x ∈ Uα (c) ( Φα X µ) = =d ∂ ∂t 0 Uα ((FlΓ α (X) ∗ ) (µ ◦ FlX )) t µ(X) + LSα (X) µ Γ = X(µ) + LSα (X) µ Γ where dUα is the exterior derivative of Ωk (S)-valued forms on Uα . Y ](µ) − LS Γ(Y Γ[X. M. p. . as asserted. Ωk (S)) is given by v R( Φ )(X.4. so µ : Uα → Ωk (S) is just a smooth mapping. ψα ) be a fiber bundle atlas for −1 (E.Y ] )µ α X (Y (µ) + LS ) µ) − Γ(Y α Y (X(µ) + LS ) µ) − [X. Y ])) µ + [LS . Then the curvature of the linear covariant derivative Φ on the vector bundle (Ωk (p). Γ(X)). M. R( = α )(X. This formula also shows that Φ ∞ X µ is C (M. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles CX V E and we have j ◦ F lt = FlCX ◦j. Let (Uα . Let µ be a fiber k-form on Uα × S. R)-linear in X. and where LS is the Lie derivative on S. Therefore we have t 91 (b) Φ Xµ = = CX ∗ ∂ ∂ ) µ = ∂t 0 (FlCX )∗ j ∗ Φ∗ µ t ∂t 0 (Flt ∂ j ∗ ∂t 0 (FlCX )∗ Φ∗ µ = j ∗ LCX Φ∗ µ = 0 t + j ∗ iCX dΦ∗ µ. Now let (Uα . Put Φα := −1 ∗ (ψα ) Φ. ψα ) be a fiber bundle atlas for (E. Put again Φα := (ψα )∗ Φ. Y ))µ.Y ] µ S S S S = X(Y (µ)) + LS XΓ(Y ) µ + LΓ(Y ) X(µ) + LΓ(X) Y (µ) + LΓ(X) LΓ(Y ) µ − Y (X(µ)) − LS Γ(X) µ − LS Y (µ) − LS ) X(µ) − LS ) LS µ Y Γ(X) Γ(Y Γ(Y Γ(X) − [X. p. where L denotes the vertical Lie derivative.CY ) µ. M. Y )µ = ( α X α Y − α Y α X − α [X. Γα (X)). S) with curvature R ∈ Ω2 (E. Thus α we have for X. Y )µ = Lv R(CX. S). Y ) + [Γ(X). The easiest proof is local. a connection on Uα × S → Uα . M. where LCX is the usual Lie derivative.

5. The connection Φ on E is called µ-respecting connection if Φ µ = 0 for all X ∈ X(M ). LX µ0 = 0). ψα ) as in lemma 16.7. 16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles In this computation we used that LS : X(S)×Ωk (S) → Ωk (S) is bilinear and continuous so that the product rule of differential calculus applies. )). H n−1 (p)). Xµ0 (S)).2 the corresponding Christoffel forms Γα take values in the Lie algebra Xµ0 (S) of divergence free vector fields on S (i.e. We may view [iR µ] : Xx . R)-linear in X ∈ X(M ) we may glue them via a partition of unity on M . CY ))µ] ∈ H n−1 (Ex ) for X. ψα ) belonging to a fiber bundle atlas satisfying lemma 16. 1. 3. . Thus we have Φ µ0 = X LΓα (X) µ0 . It is described by a cocycle of transition funcx∈M H tions Uαβ → GL(H n−1 (S)).6.Y ) µ0 = 0. R R 16. Put Φα := (ψα )∗ Φ. So the vector bundle H n−1 (p) → M admits a unique flat linear connection respecting the resulting discrete structure group. Definition. (1) A connection Φ is µ-respecting if and only if for some (any) bundle atlas (Uα . then for Xx and Yx ∈ Tx M the form i(R(CXx . a connection on Uα × S → Uα . But then dS iS α (X. Xµ0 (S)). We consider the cohomology class [i(R(CX. and the induced covariant exterior derivative d : Ω( M . Γ ] is an element of Ω (Uα . we have Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . −1 Proof. X Lemma. The last formula comes from lemma 9. Yx → [i(R(CXx . Y ∈ Tx M and the finite dimensional vector bundle H n−1 (p) := n−1 (Ex ) → M . H n−1 (p)) → Ωk+1 (M . By the first part µ-respecting connections exist locally and since Φ ∞ X is C (M.Y ) µ0 = LS α (X. H n−1 (p)) satisfies d2 = 0 and defines the De Rham cohomology of M with twisted coefficient domain H n−1 (p). 2. Then by 1. Its horα izontal lift is given by C α (X) = (X. which are locally constant by the homotopy invariance of cohomology.7 the local expression of the curvature Rα = (ψα )∗ R = Uα α α α 2 d Γ + [Γ . x → H n−1 (ψβα (x. −1 so by lemma 9. Xµ0 (S)). CYx ))µ] as an element of Ω2 (M . Γα (X)). (2) There exist many µ-respecting connections. CYx ))µ is closed in ω n−1 (Ex ). and this is zero for all X ∈ X(Uα ) if and only if Γα ∈ Ω1 (Uα . (3) If Φ is µ-respecting and if R is its curvature.2. We compute locally in a chart (Uα .92 16.

16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles

93

16.7. Lemma. (1) If γ ∈ C ∞ (Λk V ∗ E → E) induces a section [γ] : M → H k (p) then we have X [γ] = [ Φ γ], for any connection Φ on E. X (2) If Φ is a µ-respecting connection on E then d [iR µ] = 0. Proof. (1). For any bundle atlas (Uα , ψα) the parallel sections of the vector bundle H k (p) for the unique flat connection respecting the discrete structure group are exactly those which in each local bundle chart Uα × H k (S) are given by the (locally) constant mappings: Uα → H k (S). Obviously Φ [γ] := [ Φ γ] defines a connection and in the local bunX X dle chart Uα → H k (S) we have
Φα α X γ

d (X,Γα (X)) ∗ α |0 (Flt ) γ dt = dUα γ α (X) + LSα (X) γ α , Γ =

where dUα is the exterior derivative on Uα of Ωk -valued mappings. But if [γ] is parallel for the flat connection respecting the discrete structure group, so [γ α ] is locally constant, then dUα γ α takes values in the space B k (S) of exact forms. And since γ α (x) is closed for all x ∈ Uα the second summand LSα (X) γ α = dS iΓα (X) γ + iΓα (X) 0 takes values in the Γ space of exact forms anyhow. So the two connections have the same local parallel sections, so they coincide. (2). Let X0 , X1 , X2 ∈ X(M ). Then we have d [iR µ](X0 , X1 , X2 ) = =
cyclic

(

X0 ([iR µ](X1 , X2 ))

− [iR µ]([X0 , X1 ], X2 )) − iR(C[X0 ,X1 ],CX2 ) µ

=
cyclic

X0 (iR(CX1 ,CX2 ) µ)

=
cyclic

j ∗ LCX0 iR(CX1 ,CX2 ) Φ∗ µ − iR(C[X0 ,X1 ],CX2 ) µ j ∗ i[CX0 ,R(CX1 ,CX2 )] Φ∗ µ+ + j ∗ iR(CX1 ,CX2 ) LCX0 Φ∗ µ − iR(C[X0 ,X1 ],CX2 ) µ j ∗ i [CX0 , R(CX1 , CX2 )] + 0 − R(C[X0 , X1 ], CX2 ) Φ∗ µ ,
cyclic

=

=

where we used [iCX , LZ ] = i[CX,Z] , that j ∗ Φ∗ = Id, and that R has vertical values, which implies j ∗ iR(CX1 ,CX2 ) LCX0 Φ∗ µ = iR(CX1 ,CX2 ) j ∗ LCX0 Φ∗ µ = iR(CX1 ,CX2 )
Φ X0 µ

= 0.

94

16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles

Now we need the Bianchi identity [R, Φ] = 0 from 9.4. Writing out the global formula 8.9 for the horizontal vector fields CXi we get 0 = [R, Φ](CX0 , CX1 , CX2 ) = (−Φ[CX0 , R(CX1 , CX2 )] − R(C[X0 , X1 ], CX2 )).
cyclic

From this it follows that d [iR µ] = 0. 16.8. Definition. So we may define a characteristic class k(E, µ) of the bundle (E, p, M, S) with fiber volume µ as the class k(E, µ) := [[iR µ]H n−1 (p) ]H 2 (M ;H n−1 (p)) . 16.9. Lemma. The class k(E, µ) is independent of the choice of the µ-respecting connection. Proof. Let Φ and Φ be two µ preserving connections on (E, p, M ), and let C and C be their horizontal liftings. We put D = C − C : T M ×M E → V E, which is fiber linear over E, then Ct = C + tD = (1 − t)C + tC is a curve of horizontal lifts which preserve µ. In fact we have LD(Xx ) µ|Ex = 0 for each Xx ∈ Tx M . Let Φt be the connection corresponding to Ct and let Rt be its curvature. Then we have Rt (Ct X, Ct Y ) = Φt [Ct X, Ct Y ] = [Ct X, Ct Y ] − Ct [X, Y ] = R(CX, CY ) + t[CX, DY ] + t[DX, CY ] + t2 [DX, DY ] − tD[X, Y ].
∂ ∂t 0 ∂ ∂t 0

Rt (Ct X, Ct Y ) = [CX, DY ] + [DX, CY ] + 2t[DX, DY ] − D[X, Y ]. i(Rt (Ct X, Ct Y ))µ = j ∗
∂ ∂t 0

i(Rt (Ct X, Ct Y )) Φ∗ µ

= j ∗ i[CX,DY ] − i[CY,DX] + 2ti[DX,DY ] − iD[X,Y ] Φ∗ µ = j ∗ [LCX , iDY ] − [LCY , iDX ] + 2t[LDX , iDY ] − iD[X,Y ] Φ∗ µ. = j ∗ LCX iDY − 0 − LCY iDX − iD[X,Y ] + 2t(diDX iDY − 0) Φ∗ µ. Here we used that D has vertical values which implies j ∗ iDY LCX Φ∗ µ = iDY j ∗ LCX Φ∗ µ = iDY Φ µ = 0. X Next we use lemma 16.7.1 to compute the differential of the of the 1-form [iD µ] ∈ Ω1 (M ; H n−1 (p)). d [iD µ](X, Y ) = = = So we get
X [iD(Y ) µ]

Y

[iD(X) µ] − [iD([X,Y ]) µ]

[ Φ iD(Y ) µ − X [j ∗ (LCX iD(Y )

Φ Y iD(X) µ

− iD([X,Y ]) µ]

− LCY iD(X) − iD([X,Y ]) )Φ∗ µ].

∂ ∂t 0

[iRt µ] = d [iD µ] in the space Ω2 (M ; H n−1 (p)).

16. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles

95

16.10. Remarks. The idea of this class is originally due to [Kainz, 1985]. From the point of view of algebraic topology it is not very interesting since it coincides with the second differential in the Serre spectral sequence of the fibration E → M of the class corresponding to µ. 16.11. Review of linear connections on vector bundles. Let (V, p, M, Rn ) be a vector bundle equipped with a fiber metric g. Let be a linear covariant derivative on E which respects g. Let s = (si ) be a local frame field over U ⊂ M of E: so si ∈ C ∞ (E|U ) and the si (x) are a linear basis of Ex for each x ∈ U . Then s defines a vector bundle chart ψ : E|U → U × Rn by the prescription ψ( si ui ) = (ui ) or ψ(s.u) = u. If s is another frame field, we have si = j sj hj or s = s.h for a function h ∈ C ∞ (U ∩ U , GL(n)). i For the vector bundle charts we have then ψ ψ −1 (x, u) = (x, h(x).u). We also have T ψ : T (E|U ) → T U × Rn × Rn , and for the chart change we have T (ψ ◦ ψ −1 ) : T (U ∩ U ) × Rn × Rn → T (U ∩ U ) × Rn × Rn T (ψ ◦ ψ −1 )(Xx , v, w) = (Xx , h(x).v, dh(Xx ).v + h(x).w)
j The connection form is defined by X si = j sj ωi (X) or s = s.ω 1 1 for ω ∈ Ω (U, gl(n)) in general and ω ∈ Ω (U, o(n)) if respects g and the frame field s is orthonormal. If s = s .ω is the connection form for another frame s = s.h, we have the transition formula h.ω = ω.h + dh. For a general section s.u = j sj uj we have (s.u) = s.ω.u + s.du. Now we want to express the connection Φ = Φ ∈ Ω1 (E; V E), the horizontal lift C : T M ×M E → T E and the connector K = vpr ◦ Φ : T E → E locally in terms of the connection form (compare with 11.10 and following). Since for a local section x → (x, u(x)) of U × Rn → U we have X (s.u)

= s.(ω(X).u + du(X)) = K ◦ T (s.u) ◦ X by 11.12,

(T (ψ) ◦ T (s.u))(Xx ) = (Xx , u(x), du(Xx )) we see that (ψ ◦ K ◦ T (ψ −1 ))(Xx , v, w) = (Xx , ω(Xx ).v + w) (T ψ ◦ Φ ◦ T (ψ −1 ))(Xx , v, w) = (0x , v, w + ω(Xx ).v) (T ψ ◦ C ◦ (Id × ψ))(Xx , v) = (Xx , v, −ω(Xx ).v).

v Now the curvature R (X. If we assume that E is fiber orientable and if we consider the fiber volume µ on SE induced by g. 16. v. Then for the characteristic class we have k(SE.s = s. p. ω(Xx ). v. then these Christoffel forms take values in the Lie algebra of divergence free vector fields. We have T (U × S n−1 ) = {(Xx . The local expression of the curvature of ΦSE is again −Ω. Lemma.7 (0x .v) v. Y ) = [ X . Let us consider now the unit sphere bundle SE = {u ∈ E : g(u. Φ] ∈ Ω2 (E. If we use an orthonormal frame then ψ : SE|U → U × S n−1 is a fiber bundle chart. since GL(n) acts from the left on Rn . We consider again the induced fiber volume on the unit sphere bundle (SE. For a complex line bundle (E. Rn ) with fiber dimension n > 2 and a fiber Riemannian metric g we consider the induced fiber volume µ on the unit sphere bundle SE. If we put R . v) = −ω(Xx ).Y ] . M. Y ) = dU Γ(X. µ) = −c1 (E).v = 0. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles The Christoffel form Γ of Φ with respect to the bundle chart ψ is given by 9. p. so the fundamental vector field mapping is a Lie algebra anti homomorphism.Ω. v. S 1 ). µ) = 0. w + ω(Xx ). Y ) + [Γ(X). 1.96 16. Y ). p.v) Γ(Xx . v)) = −T (ψ)ΦT (ψ −1 )(Xx . Γ(Y )]X(Rn ) = d(−ω)(X. then we have Ω ∈ Ω2 (U. w + ω(Xx ). The curvature R = 1 [Φ. w) = (0x . u) = 1} in the vector bundle E. 0) = (0x . o(n)) if respects g and if s is an orthonormal frame field. Y ]− [X.7 (ψ −1 )∗ R(X. gl(n)) and Ω ∈ Ω2 (U. Y ) − (−ω(X)) ∧ (−ω(Y )) = −Ω(X.v = v. . So Φ induces a connection on SE with the same Christoffel forms (acting on a submanifold now). w) ∈ T U × Rn × Rn : |v| = 1. 2. For a fiber orientable vector bundle (E.12. Then the characteristic class k(SE. Then the curvature form Ω is given by Ω = dω + ω ∧ ω. Γ(Xx . V E) can be written in terms of 2 the Christoffel forms by 9. since ω(Xx ) ∈ o(n). v⊥w = 0} Φlocal (Xx . −ω(Xx ). M ) with smooth hermitian metric g. v. so the induced connection ΦSE is µ-respecting. v.

This follows since H 0 (p) = M × R. This follows from H n−2 (S n−1 ) = 0. 2. Characteristic classes for general fiber bundles 97 the negative of the first Chern class of E. µ) is induced by the negative of the curvature form Ω. 1. so from 16.8 the class k(SE. Proof. .16. which also defines the first Chern class.

3. So as in 16. so ω : M → ωx0 +B 2 (S) if M is connected. 17.1. R) = 1 then there are ω-respecting connections on E and they form a convex set in the space of all connections. Proof.2. Let G : Ωk (S) → Ωk (S) be the Green operator of Hodge theory for some Riemannian metric on S and define Γ ∈ Ω1 (M : X(S)) . 17. Let again (E. I do not know whether lemma 16. For a compact Lie group G let Ad∗ : G → GL(g∗ ) be the coadjoint action. Definition.98 17. n If dim S = 2n. S) and let be the associated covariant derivative on the (infinite dimensional) vector bundle Ω2 (E) := x∈M Ω2 (Ex ) over M which is given by ver Xω := CX ∗ d ) ω dt |0 (Flt as in 16. Let us first investigate the trivial situation. The connection Φ on E is called ω-respecting if X ω = 0 for all X ∈ X(M ). By a fiberwise symplectic form ω on E we mean a smooth section of the vector bundle Λ2 V ∗ E → E such that ωx := ω Ex ∈ Ω2 (Ex ) is a symplectic form on each fiber Ex . If dim H 2 (S. We will suppose that each fiber Ex has total mass 1 for this fiber volume: we may multiply ω by a suitable positive smooth function on M . M. 17. let ωx = ωx ∧ · · · ∧ ωx be the Liouville volume form of ωx on Ex . M.1 we may plug two vertical vector fields X and Y into ω to get a function ω(X. Let ω be a fiberwise symplectic form on E. since it is a closed subspace of Ω2 (S) by Hodge theory. p. Lemma. Then the union of all orbits of principal type (maximal dimension) is the total space of a fiber bundle which bears a canonical fiberwise symplectic form. we see that the cohomology class [ωx ] ∈ H 2 (S) is locally constant on M . S) be a fiber bundle with compact standard fiber S. Example. So e = M × S and the fiberwise symplectic form is given by a smooth mapping ω : M → Z 2 (S) ⊂ Ω2 (S) such that ωx is a symplectic form for each x. Thus dM ω : T M → B 2 (M ) is a 1-form on M with values in the nuclear vector space B 2 (S) of exact forms. Since ω n = 1 for each x and since α → αn is a covering mapping H 2 (S)\0 = S x R\0 → H 2n \0 = R\0.2 remains true for fiberwise symplectic structures.4. Let now Φ be a connection on (E.3. Y ) on E. Self duality 17. p.

Γ(X)) ∗ d ) ω dt |0 (Flt = (dM ω)(X) + LΓ(X) ω = 0. CYx ))ωx ∈ Ω2n−1 (Ex ). CYx ))ωx ∈ n Ω1 (Ex ) and i(R(CXx . Both are d -closed forms (before applying ∗ to the second one) since the proof of 16. An ω-respecting connection Φ is called self dual or anti self dual if D ∗ [iR ω n ] = [iR ω] or = −[iR ω] respectively. Since ωx is non degenerate. since it is in B 2 (S).17. so the Christoffel form Γ defines an ω-respecting connection. Definition. For the general situation we know now that there are local solutions. So [i(R(CXx . For the covariant derivative connection with Christoffel form Γ we have Xω induced by the = (X. CYx ))ωx ] ∈ H 2n−1 (Ex ).5. 17. these fit together to a smooth vector bundle homomorphism D : H 2n−1 (p) → H 1 (p). . Γ is uniquely determined by this procedure and we have LΓ(Xx ) ωx = dS iΓ(Xx ) ωx + 0 = −dd∗ G(dM ω)x (Xx ) = −(dM ω)x (Xx ). and we may use a partition of unity on M to glue the horizontal lifts to get a global ω-respecting connection. S) where ω is a fiberwise symplectic form on E. Let us also fix an auxiliary Riemannian metric on the base manifold M and let us consider the associated Hodge -∗-operator: Ωk (M ) → Ωm−k (M ). p. where m = dim M . Let now Φ be an ω-respecting connection on (E. CYx ))ωx )] ∈ H 1 (Ex ) n and [i(R(CXx . M. Let R = R(Φ) be the curvature of Φ and let C be the horizontal lifting of Φ. Let us suppose that the dimension of M is 4 and let us consider the forms [iR ω] ∈ Ω2 (M . Let Dx : H 2n−1 (Ex ) → H 1 (Ex ) be the Poincar´ duality operator for the come pact oriented manifold Ex . As in lemma 16. The second assertion is obvious.5 we may prove that both are closed forms. Self duality 99 by i(Γ(Xx ))ωx = −d∗ G(dM ω)x (Xx ). Then i(R(CXx . H 1 (p)) and ∗[iR ω n ] ∈ Ω2 (M .6. H 2n−1 (p)) with values in the flat vector bundles H i (p) from 16.7 applies without changes. This notion makes sense also for not ω -respecting connections.

CY )α is fiberwise locally constant by the analogue of 16. If R is the curvature of such a connection then iR(CX.7. 17. CY )α defines a closed 2-form on M with real coefficients and it defines also a cohomology class in H 2 (M . X2 ) ∧ ∗(iR ω n )x (X3 . For the notion of self duality of 17.(3). Finally we sketch another notion of self duality. p. Let Φ be any connection. . R). It would be nice to investigate the characteristic class of section 16 for the fiberwise symplectic structure instead of a fiber volume form for examples of coadjoint actions. If S is connected then (X. Closely related to this are open subsets of Poisson manifolds. A typical example of a fiber bundle with compact symplectic fibers is the union of coadjoint orbits of a fixed type of a compact Lie group. i.6. .5 there is also a Yang-Mills functional if M 4 is supposed to be compact. A connection Φ on the bundle E is now called α-respecting if in analogy with 16.5. . X4 ). The Yang-Mills functional and the self duality notion exist even without this requirement. M. . e. We consider a fiberwise contact structure α on the fiber bundle (E. where dim S = 2n + 1 now. αx ∧ (dαx )n is a positive volume form on Ex .100 17. Self duality 17. where Alt is the alternator of the indices of the Xi . 17. ωrespecting connections exist if the orbit type has second Betti number 1. . But it is not clear that α-respecting connections exist. X4 ) := 1 4 Alt Ex (iR ω)x (X1 .2 we have Φ Xα := ∂ ∂t 0 (FlCX )∗ α = 0 t for each vector field X on M .8. Z) → iR(CX. The Yang-Mills functional is then F (Φ) := M ϕ(Φ). For Xi ∈ Tx M we consider the 4-form ϕx (Φ)(X1 . S) with compact standard fiber S: So αx ∈ Ω1 (Ex ) depends smoothly on x and is a contact structure on Ex .

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also simply E usually a fibre bundle with total space E. and right translation ρ : G × S → S usually a left action M usually a (base) manifold N natural numbers N0 nonnegative integers R real numbers r : P × G → P usually a right action. short for the k × k-identity matrix IdRk . left translation λ. in particular the principal right action of a principal bundle TM the tangent bundle of a manifold M with projection πM : TM → M Z Integers . p. R) the space of smooth functions on M d : Ωp (M ) → Ωp+1 (M ) usually the exterior derivative (E. LX Lie derivative G usually a general Lie group with multiplication µ : G × G → G.List of Symbols 103 List of Symbols C ∞ (E). base M . and standard fibre S FlX the flow of a vector field X t Ik . also C ∞ (E → M ) the space of smooth sections of a fibre bundle C ∞ (M. S). M.

10 holomorphic. 89 cocurvature. 41 equivariant mappings and associated bundles. 96 curvature. 19 C ω -manifold structure on C ∞ (M. 5 fundamental vector field. 13 characteristic class. 33 cocycle condition. 36 bundle of gauges. 44 G-bundle. 41 connection form (Lie algebra valued). 70 c∞ -topology. 5 linear connection. 28 Lie group. 69 linear frame bundle. 36 cohomologous. 14 convenient vector space. 50 exponential law. 36 fiber chart. 33 generalization of the theorem of Ambrose and Singer. 27 diffeomorphism group. 37 horizontal differential forms. 32. 20 F f -dependent. 52 B base space. 87. 87 classifying space. 15 associated bundle. 36 basis. 44 complete connection. 6 C ω -manifold structure of C ω (M. 47 horizontal bundle. 37. 98 A algebraic bracket. 66. 66 K kinematic tangent vector. 69 irreducible principle connection. 77 global formula for the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis o bracket. 94 Chern class. 5 G G-atlas. 28 algebraic derivation. 10 holonomy group. 52 . 54 general Bianchi identity. 44 gauge group of a fiber bundle. 99 approximation property (bornological) . 98 flat connections. 44 G-bundle structure. 63. 32. 83 gauge transformations. 29 o fundamental vector field. 37 horizontal space. 81 Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket. 45 homomorphism of G-bundles. 36 cocycle of transition functions. 38 frame bundle. 92 ω-respecting connection. 22 E Ehresmann connection. 48 associated vector bundles. 54 bundle. 100 µ-respecting connection. 33 f -related. 69 continuous derivation over eva . 36 fiber volume. 36 Bianchi identity. 70 covariant exterior derivative. 8. 65.104 Index α-respecting connection. 76 homogeneous spaces. 63 horizontal foliation. 90 fiberwise symplectic form. 76 holonomy groups for principal connections. 46 H Hodge-∗-operator. 71 curvature form (Lie algebra valued). 67 inducing principal connections on associated vector bundles. 38 horizontal lift. 36 C cartesian closedness. 39 classifying connection. 53. 36 fiber bundle. 37 horizontal projection. 37 I induced connection. 14 L Lie derivation. 19 D De Rham cohomology of M with twisted coefficient domain H n−1 (p). 27 anti self dual. 11. 37 bundle atlas. 70 covariant derivative. 92 connector. 60 connection form. 65 holonomy Lie algebra. 37. N ). 97 Christoffel forms. 95 connection. 51 homomorphism over Φ of principal bundles. 63. 60 curvature form. 33. 92 derivations (graded) . 99 holomorphic curves. 32 horizontal vectors. N ). 7 covariant derivative on vector bundles. 33 fiber bundle atlas. 30 Grassmann manifold.

38 local descriptions of principal connections. 84 standard fiber. 60 principal fiber bundle homomorphism. 39 N n-transitive. 67 reduction of the structure group. 36 Stiefel manifold. 12 real analytic. 46 T tangent and vertical bundles of principal and associated bundles. 56 V vector valued differential forms. 47 regular. 37 vertical space. 62 local formulas for the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis o bracket. 58 tangent bundles of Grassmann manifolds. 56 tangent bundles of homogeneous spaces. 12 recognizing induced connections. 58 vertical projection. 34 pullback. 52 right logarithmic derivative. N ). 36 transformation law for the Christoffel forms. 57 tangent vectors as derivations. 12 total space. 52 O parallel transport. 10 topologically real analytic. 39 principal (fiber) bundle. 36 proper. 99 smooth curves in C ∞ (M. 34 naturality of the Fr¨licher-Nijenhuis bracket. 37 R real analytic curves. 31 M manifold structure of C ∞ (M. 39 transition functions. 38 pullback of fiber bundles. 28 nonlinear frame bundle. 53 orthonormal frame field. 76 Riemannian metric . 16 theorem of Hartogs. 36 U universal vector bundle. 47 principal right action. 6. 100 . 32 Y Yang-Mills functional. 18 smooth mappings. 54 tangent group of a Lie group. 44 principal bundle of embeddings.105 local description of connections. o 33 nearly complex structure. 27 vertical bundle. 58 S sections of associated bundles. 45 projection. 23 natural bilinear concomitants. N ). 17 Maurer-Cartan formula. 53 self dual. 37 vertical bundle. 24 principal connection. 20 pullback operator. 35 Nijenhuis-Richardson bracket. 23 restricted holonomy group. 35 Nijenhuis tensor. 7 smooth partitions of unity. 7 smoothness of composition. 19 space of connections. 12 real analytic mappings. 65. 81 O operational tangent vector. 44 principal bundle atlas. 14 smooth. 14 orthonormal frame bundle.

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