Miller Sakmar A.P U.S.

History Chapter One: A Continent Of Villages

8/26/07

I. Settling the Continent A) Who Are The Indian People? 1. The Indian Peoples are a diverse group with more than 2000 different groups, each with its own set of traditions and beliefs. 2. When Europeans first realized the continent they landed on was not Asia, but North America, they began formulating ideas on how Indians had immigrated to this land from Europe and Asia a) Although they could not decide where they came from, all the early theories were similar in that they believed the Indians only immigrated a few thousand years before. 3. In the late 16th and 17th century, some began to hypothesize the ideas that became the basis of the modern theories on Indian beginnings. a) Joseph de Acosta reasoned that since European animals were present in America, the Indian peoples must have crossed a land bridge. b) Enrico Martin furthered Joseph de Acosta's idea saying that since no land bridges existed over the Pacific, they must have crossed form Asia into the Americas c) Bernabe Cobo argued that due to the variety in the Native American languages, the people that originally came to the continent must have came three a long time ago, but, due to the overall similarities in their physical appearance, they came from one common group of people 4. The main ideas of Indian migration, Indian peoples were descendants of Asians, they crossed a land bridge in the north-west corner of the continent, and had existed there form quite sometime. B) Migration From Asia 1. The most prominent theory about the origin of the Native American peoples is that they came to this continent form Asia 25,000 to 30,000 years ago. Some examples of evidence are: a) Most Native Americans have type O blood, with some having A, and almost none with B. Type B evolved in Asia around 30,000 years ago, so the Native Americans must have left the continent before then. b) Through studies in genetics, we know that it would take at least 20,000 years to evolve traits as diverse as those exhibited in Native Americans today. c) Linguists believe it would take 25,000 years for 500 separate languages to develop form one common language. 2. During the time of their migration, the geological era known as the Pleistocene was going on, which was defined by the Ice Age. a) Cold temperatures created glaciers, which, in turn, held huge amounts of water, thus creating sea levels 300 feet lower than today. b) These features lead a massive land bridge being created between Asia and North America. 3. This land bridge between the tow continents attracted many large mammals, which, in turn, attracted the hunter-gatherers that hunted these animals. a) The Hunters were fueled by their need for food and clothing, which the animals provided with the3ir hides and flesh, but also by their ever-expanding numbers, which drove them to new lands. 4. Scientists previously believed that the migration had taken place 15,000 years ago but

Clovis. The Beginning of Regional Cultures Around 15. house making. With climate changes. migrated form Asia along with the Aleuts about 5000 years ago.recent archaeological finds are contradicting this theory. (1) All the sites where Clovis technology have been found all date to within a period of one thousand years. while the Aleuts settled the Aleutian islands. b) By 7000 b. and cave painting are evident in Chile. (2) Scientists formulate that Clovis users were hunters that traveled in groups of 30 to 50. and date 12. They traveled by boat. dog bones were found dating 30. Clovis: The First American Technology a) About 12. Indian communities became more sophisticated a) Scientists have found evidence that Great Plains hunters stampeded hers of buffalo off cliffs. The passing of the Pleistocene and the flooding of the Bering Strait caused a second group of natives to move southward.e Plano technology was developed from Folsom. New Mexico. as the technology would be easily spread between neighboring peoples.c. and migrated between multiple hunting grounds. These climates. A) Hunting Traditions of the Plains and Forests 1. Due to increasing temperatures and increased hunting.000 years ago the world's climate underwent a climate change characterized by increasingly warmer temperatures. Upon further investigated this area. a) The Nadene people migrated south into Northwest.000 years old. Clovis. a) The hunters of Great Plains concentrated their hunting efforts on buffalo.000 years old. we know the ancestors of these people must have crossed the Bering Strait long before. a) Fossilized bones have been found in the Yukon. (1) This would have needed the involvement of multiple groups or communities (2) They also would have had some knowledge of food preservation techniques. II.000 years old. with smaller and lighter tips that could be thrown a very large distance accurately. it suggested people of the Great Plains had a varied diet. . and the Eskimos settled in the Arctic and southern Alaska. more advanced methods of tool making developed. otherwise known as Eskimos. many of the large mammals that once were plentiful across North America began to decline in numbers. dating approximately 27. This implies that the technology spread quickly (1) This also implies that the continent was well populated. Folsom technology was an upgrade of Clovis. where they settled 7000 to 4000 years ago. 2. 5. helped to shape the cultures and lifestyles of the people that inhabited them. b) The Inupiat. This style. in turn. 3. These huge and life altering changes created unique climates across the continent. and because Plano technology was often found with tools for grinding plant matter. because the large amounts of food would have spoiled if they did not. they had a different culture and language. This melted the glaciers which flooded the Bering Strait and created the rivers that we are familiar with today. (1) Although they had similar tools and weapons as their neighbors. even though they are spread throughout North America. This technology was much more advanced than anything that was used at this time. which lead to the invention of Folsom technology. is named for the area of its discovery.000 years ago. b) Because signs of human tool making.

desert foraging started in the Great Basin. and because people needed to stay near their crops year round to manage the growth. a) By cultivating crops that grew larger amounts of food in proportion to the amount of space it grew in. Ancient Mexicans could benefit from spending time specifically on farming. (1) More densely populated areas sprung up. which we now call Forest Efficiency. About 6000 years ago. b) In the Great Basin. which was a culture based on hunting of small game and foraging off plants. The addition of Desert Culture. many Indian cultures began to practice farming. (1) This new open land attracted animals. and by the end of the first millennium c. They collected some types of food during one season. which could be hunted. (1) Also. with Maize being the primary crop. c) Desert Culture spread from the Great Basin to other areas of the continent slowly. harding was frowned upon. (2) People's responsibilities within the community also changed. Complex urban civilizations existed throughout much of Mexico.000 to 25. and roots for food b) They practiced the burning of land which resulted in increased growth of edible berries. Leadership was not an elected office.e urban communities with permanent government had taken shape. roots. Communities of Indians living east of the Mississippi developed their own system of survival. A) Mexico 1. The development of farming began in Mexico. C) Forest Efficiency 1. people began to find new ways of find food. (3) Community was a very prominent theme among practitioners of Desert Culture. because farming supported much more people per square mile than hunting or gathering ever could. and abundance of resources in California helped to support the first permanent Indian communities.B) Desert Culture in Western America 1. Sharing and gift giving were practiced widely.e.The Development of Farming With the increased utilization of a wider range of foods. b) As farming became fore prominent. and a nomadic lifestyle prevented excessive wealth. (2) They lived in small caves and shelters made form rocks. collected seeds. then spread North then East. colonists from the Great Basin carried Desert Culture to California. fishing on the Northwest coast. III. but was spread throughout the adults of the community. and systems of writing . as someone would have to store crops during winter months and others would have to distribute it. farming supported them well enough so that they could have worker specialization. a) They hunted small game. a) 10. etc. 2. Farming began in Mexico about 5000 years ago. By 1000 b. migrated to another area and began collecting a different type during the next season. nuts. craftsman and other specialized workers became available. it quickly changed the social aspects of people's lives.c. impressive buildings and temples. (2) Although these people could not directly contribute to the communities need of food. Desert Culture developed.000 years ago. and hunting and gathering the rest of the continent. civilizations with social classes. mathematics and astronomy. At the end of the Pleistocene. (1) Small communities lived within a small area and migrated within it.

c) The Mayans of the Yucatan peninsula were one of the most advanced civilizations at this time. with artisans that created most of the tools that were used in the city. a) Farming societies often grouped themselves into clans. centered around the city Teotihuacan. women would farm. Hunting Tradition a) This system of beliefs. farmers that harvested crops surrounding the city. the Aztecs took control of the Valley of Mexico and soon expanded their grip over a large area. 3. and with increased population came social divisions. With farming came increased population.e and had a population as great as 200. calendar system. and by the 14th century. It emerged in 100 b. all the groups in that area would at least attempt to adopt the same system. and that those that didn't were just to primitive to change.a) One of the greatest civilizations in history sprung up during this era. Greater gender divides popped up during the beginning of farming. c) Their religious leaders were shamans. which could be based on any defining feature that the members of that clan shared.c. b) Men and women were divided socially as well. which is a reason to see the farming way of life as inferior c) Farmers were at the mercy of nature. and induce hallucinations. 2. (1) The city had a very complex division of labor. was based on the relationship of predator and prey. a) Labor divisions were by gender. Farming also had disadvantages depending on what type of climate you lived in. b) After the decline of Teotihuacan. b) Foragers had a more varied diet. 2. (1) Men would hunt. who were people in touch with spiritual forces. as they had to do much more work. and in areas where hunting was not important. C) Increasing Social Revolution 1. Historians used to believe that once some of the people in an area adopted farming and developed into an agricultural society. b) Those that practiced Hunting Tradition often went on a vision quest.000 at the height of the civilization. D) The Religions of Foragers and Farmers 1. and a huge amount of workers that helped to erect monuments that stand to this day. (1) A vision quest was a spiritual journey where one would go into the forest. prominent in hunting communities. the Toltecs emerged as the new power in central Mexico until the 10th to 12th century. (1) These clans were ruled by a tribal council. a) Fishing was a much more productive activity in the Northwest. and knowledge of mathematics for Mexico at this time B) The Resisted Revolution 1. with the most advanced writing. a) We now know this to be false. and were more vulnerable to fluctuations in weather. as foragers had the knowledge needed to successfully domesticate and grow plants. The divisions of farming communities as well as the larger populations caused these communities to be less stable than hunting or gathering ones. everyone farmed. opposed to the farmers diet of mainly grains. . and punishments were often allocated against an entire clan for one members misdeed. fast. b) Desert farming was nearly impossible at this time.

a) The Poverty Point culture built mounds in patters over a square mile in the lower Mississippi around 1700 to 700 b.e and 0 b. b) Maize farming spread east of the Mississippi c) Hoes mad from flint replaced sticks for digging and foraging.e. Woodland people had complex social order long before they domesticated maize. and practiced public cannibalism. 3. Mississippian Society 1. a) They had a complex systems of burial and they honored their dead highly b) They also had complex trade routs developed. those who practiced of Agrarian Tradition had a priestly class or an organized cult as its leader.E) F) G) H) 2. they still migrated during parts of the year to take advantage of seasonal plants.c. The most famous farming communities of the Southwest were the Anasazis.c. With the increased harvests that came from these innovations.e a) The first were the Mogollons (1) They lived on the southern part of the New Mexico-Arizona border from 250 b. which allowed them to get many rare materials. societies in the Mississippi area deserted the fancy burial grounds and crafts of the Hopewell.e to 250 c. After the decline of the Hopewell society. c) They also hunted around their towns with bow and arrow. increasing gathering production. beans. c) Incorporated war sacrifice. (1) Farmed a wide range of crops. a) Although they lived in permanent homes.e b) The Adena culture lived in permanent villages and built large burial mounds from 1000 b. with a center around fertility of the earth and the change of the seasons. Earliest Farmers of the Southwest 1.e. tobacco. 2. increasing hunting production. a) The bow and arrow became available in this area. Farmers of the Eastern Woodland 1. squash. The Hopewell civilization lived in the Mississippi-Ohio Valley area form 200 b.c.e. and cotton. which was occurred in the first millennium c. Agrarian Tradition a) Practiced by those who farmed for maize. to 1450 b. to 5th century c.e.e b) The Hohokam lived from 300 c. Farming communities appeared in the Southwest between 1000 b. the Mississippian culture came to power. including maize.e.c. in southern Arizona along the Salt and Gila rivers. b) They grew a domesticated forms of maize on field that were irrigated by canals that came from mountain basins that collected rain water. 2.c. valued violence.e.c. to 1500 c. a) They lived in large apartment-like complexes called pueblos. .e. Woodland culture was much different than the permanent settlements in other areas. which originated in the Four Corners area around the first century c. 3. A few important advancements were made during this time.c. (1) Craftsmen then used these materials to create very advanced goods for this era.e. (2) Created jewelry from shells The Anasazis 1. b) Due to the increased complexity of their societies.

2. or nonpermanent settlement for that matter. had to irrigate small fields using water form the Colorado River 2. I) The Politics of Warfare and Violence 1. The farmers of the Southwest. Because of the ideal climate that was present in the South. they hunted and gathered.e. At the end of the thirteenth century a change in climate increased the difficulty of maize farming. d) Mississippian society peaked between 1000 c. which were very far apart. but the most important was Cahokia. and often held ceremonies of rain making. a) This decreased the possibility of large communities. b) The largest populations were in the Southwest. (1) Housed a massive temple.a) They created many densely populated urban cities. and took advantage of the plentiful resources in this area. Athapascans lived in this area. Records of these Indian peoples are hard to find because they were quickly killed by . 4. and put a strain on those that already existed. IV. the density of population varied throughout the continent. and that Mexican highlands were home to 25 million other Indians. 3. North America On the Eve of Colonization A) The Indian Population of America 1. Warfare did exist before this point. 2. a) This kept conflict to a minimum b) Rancherias had group leadership. b) They held public ceremonies that were meant to entertain the people of the settlement. a) They fished farmed. could not gather enough people to wage a successful war. a) They did not farm. the Pimas and Papagos. c) The remains of Cahokia revealed a log stockade. but the Great Plains and Great Basin were not. and the need to avoid these conflicts and the large scale of Mississippian cities created a requirement of good leadership in Mississippian society. c) Mississippian city-states engaged in warfare. a) The Northwest was very dense. probably used to keep out invaders. as they had a greater focus on community a) They had a code of conduct that governed its people. (1) They did overtime adopt farming.e. Most historians believe the population of America north of Mexico was between 7 and 10 million. The Pueblo people were different. although some chose to remain nomads C) The South 1. residential area. however. b) The Great Serpent Mound was created by the Mississippian. The total number of people in the Western Hemisphere was probably about 60 to 70 million at this point in time. Indian peoples flourished. and 1200 c. and large amounts of farmland. however. b) Some believe that these problems increase tensions in communities which lead to an increase in violence 2. These farmers lived in rancherias. and these rules were enforced by the local clans and religious societies of that area. and Northeast B) The Southwest 1. a) Hunting communities. South. b) Farming communities often wages war to gain control of more land on which to farm. (2) Cahokia was the mold for other Mississippian settlements.

a) An exception is the Natchez people. each based off of a different river. . which was spoken by at least 50 separate groups. (1) Those that hunted were some of the first to trade with Europeans. The Iroqois were some of the first Indian people in this land.European Settlers. (1) Mohawks. and they were one of the earliest farming cultures. 3. a) Those north of the Great lakes hunted. smaller groups were much more resistant and survived much longer. (2) Had a class based society. Onondagas. Cayuga. a) They hunted and gathered as a supplement to farming and lived in huge housed that made up villages which were in turn surrounded by large log walls. Although the main civilizations of the Indian South were destroyed by the French. (1) Founded by Chief Deganawida 2. D) The Northeast 1. and Seneca c) There was body to govern over all 5 kingdoms and it prevented violence among them. b) They had 5 separate nations. Oneidas. The other main tribes in the area spoke the language Algonquian. while others were farmers. (1) They farmed on the Mississippi delta before being killed by the French.