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Applications of Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Expansions to Options Pricing

Dominique Bang 1

1 Bank of America Merrill Lynch, London Dominique.Bang@baml.com

Abstract. We present a new formulation of the call payoff as a convergent trigonometric series, where the corresponding frequencies are selected accord- ing to a minimum variance algorithm. When the characteristic function of the log-moneyness is available, this provides an efficient alternative to trans- form methods for option valuation (such as Fourier Integral), reducing the frequency spectrum from a continuum to a discrete set.

1

Introduction

A

standard approach to pricing vanilla options is based on integral representations

(such as the Fourier integral) of a call pay-off, requiring the characteristic function

of

the log-moneyness to be known in a closed form, as is the case for many models

of

interest (e.g. Black&Scholes, Heston, Stein&Stein, Cox process, Levy processes

etc

Fourier Integral, which can be computationally intensive. Moreover, the related integral being highly oscillatory and thus prone to inaccuracy, care needs to be

taken in the way the integral is truncated and discretized. In particular, in the case of Heston dynamics, a number of tricks can be used to improve the accuracy

of the numerical integration while keeping reasonable the number of evaluations of

the characteristic function as described comprehensively in [2]. Alternatively, an

interesting idea has been developped in Fang and Oosterlee [4] 1 where the call price

is approximately expanded in a Fourier Series using an approximate density based

on integral truncation; the authors demonstrate the efficiency of their approach compared with Carr and Madan [3] brute force integration in the case of Heston Dynamics. In this note, we develop a different approach, seeking for an exact series representation of a call payoff in term of trigonometric functions. The idea is to find (recursively) the combination of trigonometric functions that is closest(in a sense to

be specified later) to the call price and then, as for the Fourier Integral, to apply the expectation operator. In a sense, this approach amounts to performing a Principal Components Analysis of the Call option payoff itself, using trigonometric functions (for which the expectation is known in a closed form via the characteristic function

of the log-moneyness). We demonstrate constructively the existence of such a series,

show its convergence toward the call payoff in a strong sense (for the chosen norm)

).

These methods generally rely on a numerical integration of the (inverse)

1 Thanks to Leif Andersen for pointing out this reference and for constructive conversations.

1

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1759668

and give an error estimate when the call price is computed using a truncation of the series. Finally, as an illustration, we apply this method to option pricing under Heston dynamics. Additionnally, we provide in passing a simple (approximate but arbitrarily accurate) representation of a call option in terms of Fourier series, similar to Fang and Oosterlee’s cosine expansion, but with an improved rate of convergence.

2 Notations and General Framework

The payoff of a call struck at K maturing at T on the underlying S T is given by:

(S T K) +

=

K(e x e 2 e

x = ln( S T )

x

K

|x|

2

)

From contour integral theory, we have that:

φ(x) = e

|x|

2

=

π +

1

0

f λ (x) λ 2 +

1

4

dλ,

f λ (x) = cos(λx)

yielding

(1)

This decomposition formula shows how to recover the call payoff using a con- tinuum of frequencies in the Fourier space. Applying the expectation operator to this equality yields a valuation formula for the call option, provided that the char- acteristic function of the log-moneyness at maturity, χ(s) = E T (e ( 2 +is)x ), is known in closed form. As pointed out above, this integral, being highly oscillatory, needs particular care in the way it is discretized and/or truncated. More over, as a Fourier transform of an unsmooth fonction, and per Heisenberg principle, the integrand de- cays slowly to zero, or, in other terms high frequencies are necessary to describe well the underlying pay-off function. The aim of this note is to develop an alternative to this approach by providing a trigonometric series representation of φ(x) rather than an integral, that is to project the function φ on a discrete set of frequencies rather than a continuum. More precisely, we aim to write

(S T K) + = S T Ke x φ(x)

2

1

φ =

n=1

φ n e n

where φ n is a scalar and e n is a function such that e n span f

the differentiation is performed w.r.t λ (the element

polynomial of degree p times a sin() or a cos() depending on the parity of p). The frequencies λ j are selected through a minimum variance algorithm (which, in our case, is formulated as a maximization of a normalized scalar product 2 to be defined

p f λ (x) corresponds to a

1jn , where

(p j )

λ

j

p

∂λ

2 This approach is comparable to the one developped by Laskar [5] in the context of KAM theory. The latter proved to be very successful in areas as diverse as Celestial Mechanics and High Energy Particles Dynamics.

2

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later on) and can be seen as a PCA. Next, we introduce the framework in which this analysis takes place, which is naturally Hilbert space. More precisely, consider the weighted space H µ of integrable functions (w.r.t the weight µ) and the associated scalar product:

+

0

g, h

|g|

µ(x)

x p µ(x)dx

=

=

>

<

g, h µ = +g(x)h(x)µ(x)dx

0

|g| µ = g, g

0

, p 0

where the last technical condition is designed to ensure that for any λ 0, the elements f λ remains in H µ through differentiation of arbitrary order; we note that this condition is almost always satisfied in practice. We plan to build an orthonormal family (e n ) nN in H µ (using Gram-Schmidt construction) based on the free family (f λ ) λ0 , satisfying some optimal constraints and complete w.r.t φ. To gain further intuition about the forthcoming construction, we emphasize the following statement:

Lemma 1. let g λ denote a parametric family of non zero elements in H µ and ξ denote a fixed element in H µ . Then the two following problems are equivalent

Find

λ, ν = arg min |ξ νg λ | 2 .

Find

λ = arg max ξ,

λ | 2 , ν = | ξ,g g | 2 .

g

λ

|g

λ

λ

Proof 1. From ∇ |ξ νg λ | 2 = 0 we must have ν = ξ,g λ , so that

|g λ | 2

|ξ νg

λ | 2

=

=

|ξ| 2

2 ν ξ, g λ + ν 2 |g λ | 2

|ξ| 2 ξ,

λ | 2

g

λ

|g

| (the

which shows that minimizing |ξ νg λ | 2 is equivalent to maximizing ξ,

lemma is also clear from a Lagrange Multipliers perspective). The first formulation amounts to finding the element g λ which captures the max- imum variance of ξ, and can be essentially regarded as a Principal Component Analysis. However, for practical computation, we opt for the second one, which is well adapted to the iterative procedure we intend to use. From eq.1 we see that the success of any approach based on characteristic function relies on the ability to represent φ in an efficient manner. The main idea of this paper is to apply the mini- mum variance (maximum scalar product) strategy to φ on a recursive basis: find the

first element f λ 1 which maximizes φ,

| f λ 1 | and

g

λ

|g

λ

| , set e 1 =

f

λ

|f λ

φ,

| f λ 1 | and φ 1 =

f

λ 1

λ 1

f

3

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restart the same procedure with φ 1 = φφ 1 e 1 and so forth. In section 4, we provide a rigorous formalization of this algorithm, stating the main result of this note, that is the existence of (e n ) nN along with the convergence of the series i=1 φ i e i to- wards φ., but prior to that, in section 3 we give a self-contained result which allows for (approximate) call pricing in a very efficient and simple manner. This result is based on Fourier Series expansion of a periodization of φ.

3 Periodic decomposition of a Quasi-call payoff

The following result 3 gives a proxy for the call price using the characteristic function

χ(s) = E T (e ( 1 2 +is)x ) of the

Theorem 3.1 Let A be a real positive number. Consider the 2Aperiodic function φ A (x) such that φ A (x) = φ(x) on |x| ≤ A, and C A (F, K) the (approximate) call price by replacing φ with φ A in eq.1. Then we have:

log-moneyness.

C A (F, K)

c l

=

=

F K

l=0

c l χ l

4A 1 (1) l e A A 2 + (2πl) 2

2

,

π

A

c 0 = 2 1 e A

2

A

and the following error estimates hold:

Error in prices:

|C(F, K) C A (F, K)| ≤ FK N (K exp A ) + 1 N (K exp A )

Error in normal ( N ) and Black ( B ) vol for an at-the-money option:

σ N σ

σ B σ

N

A

B

A

2π

T

2π

T

F N (K exp A ) + 1 N (K exp A )

N (K exp A ) + 1 N (K exp A )

()

where N () is the cumulative distribution function of S T . Proof: see Appendix A. Remark 3.i The idea of using Fourier Series rather than Integral has been first exploited by Fang and Oosterlee in [4]. Though, the approach is slightly different in their paper, as it is the integral representation of the density itself which is truncated, leading eventually to a cosine series. We note that their approach involves a total of three levels of approximations whereas ours only involves two(in the choice for the threshold A and the truncation of the Fourier Series) with an improved decay rate of the Fourier coefficients. The latter being rescaled by χ (.) which usually vanishes exponentially fast, this shouldn t make too much of a difference in practice, except

3 The idea to directly periodize φ originates from a conversation with Alex Lipton. We wish to thank him in passing for his interest in this work.

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when the distribution of the underlying is close to singular (e.g. when the option maturity is very small) and where the call is close to its intrinsic value. Also, our Formula is simpler, and the error estimate for the choice of A quite transparent (N (x) can be easily estimated for small/large x). The previous formula has been mentioned in passing, as the core subject of this paper is to provide an exact series expansion, rather than a proxy. However, its great simplicity compared to the forthcoming quasi-periodic expansion sometimes outweights the fact that it is only an imperfect representation of the call.

4 Quasi-Periodic decomposition of a call payoff

The next theorem is the main result of this note: it proves constructively the exis- tence of a countable trigonometric family (e n ) nN satisfying some optimality criteria and on which φ can be decomposed, in a Hilbert sense.

with asso-

ciated frequencies (λ n 0) nN , indices (p n 0) n1 and scalars (φ n 0) nN such

that:

N

Theorem 4.1 There exists an orthonormal family (e n ) nN H

µ

φ

e i

=

i=1

φ i e i

φ

span f

i

=

φ, e i

(p j )

λ

j

1ji

where the convergence of the series should be understood as a strong convergence in H µ . The algorithm to compute (e n ) nN is performed recursively as follows: initial-

ization for

n = 1 according to step(1) and iteration of step(2).

1. find λ 1 such that:

λ

1

= arg max Ω 0 (λ) where

λ0

set and store:

e

1

f λ 1

=

0

+

cos 2 (λ 1 x)µ(x)dx

2. find λ n+1 for n > 1 such that:

λ n+1

= arg max Ω n (λ) where

λ0

n (λ) = φ,

0 (λ) = φ,

|f λ | 2

f

λ

,

φ 1 = φ, e 1 ,

p 1 = 0

f λ n

i=1

f λ , e i e i | 2

f

λ

, e

i

e

i

n

|f λ i=1

(2)

(3)

5

set and store:

e

n+1

p n+1

=

lim

λλ

+

n+1

f λ i=1 n f λ , e i e i

|f λ n

i=1 f λ , e i e i |

= min p such that f

(p)

λ n+1

n

i=1

φ n+1

=

φ, e n+1

f

n+1 , e i e i

(p)

λ

= 0

Moreover (for completeness and practical interest) we have for any n 1 :

lim

λλ n

n (λ) = 0

Proof: see Appendix B. As for the existence of the family (e n ) nN , see B.1, for

the convergence of the associated series toward φ, see B.2 and for the last statement

n (λ n ) = 0, it comes directly from a second order Taylor expansion associated with

a maximality argument.

Remark 4.i In (b) the limit is taken from above lim λλ n+1 . This choice is made

to resolve the intrinsic ambiguity on e n+1 (which can be replaced by e n+1 without any disruption). Remark 4.ii The fact that Ω n (λ n ) = 0 is useful in practice, providing informa-

tion about the zeros of Ω n (λ n ) when solving for λ n+1 (in particular, λ n+1

moreover λ n+1 should be fairly far from λ n ). In practice, one can observe a persis- tence of the zeros of Ω n () that is Ω n (λ i ) = 0 not only for i = n but also for i n (or at least it remains small). However, this is not necessarily the case for all n. Thus, a frequency λ j<n1 may reappear when solving for arg max Ω n (λ). When this

occurs, there is an indeterminacy in lim λλ

and denominator collapse, involving naturally the derivatives of the elements f λ (see L’Hopital’s rule). The integer p n can be seen as a counter of the visits of the fre- quency λ n before time n and also corresponds to the order of differentiation in f λ n

when λ n

number of visits n. Remark 4.iii We insist that, by construction, once e n has been computed and stored, only one additional frequency is necessary to generate e n+1 . This means that the algorithm can be used on an adaptative basis with a low computational cost (the numbers used to compute e n can be stored and reused for e n+1 ). This is of prime importance in option pricing, where the expectation operator will be applied to the elements e n and thus, will lead to evaluations of the characteristic function, which is generally computationnally intensive. In our case, the evaluations of the characteristic function will be stored to be possibly reused when/if incrementing n.

= 0. For the special case λ n = 0 the degree of differentiation is twice the

both numerator

λ n , and

+

=

f λ n

i=1

f

λ

,e

i

e

i

n | f λ i=1

f λ ,e i e i|

+

n+1

, as

5 Option Pricing

5.1 Valuation Formula and Error Estimate

We apply the previous approach to the pricing of a call option in a model for which the characteristic function of the log-moneyness χ(λ) = E T (e ( 1 2 +iλ)x ) is known, as-

6

suming that (λ j ) j1 , (p j ) j1 , (e j ) j1 and (φ j ) j1 have been found following the procedure in 4 such that:

|x|

e 2

=

i=1

φ i e i ,

e i =

F

= E(S T )

i

j=1

C ij p j f λ

∂λ p j

| λ j

for some constants C i,j . Also we introduce ρ (.), the density function of the log-

= ρ(s) + ρ(s). We

moneyness x = log F T , along with its symmetrization ρ (s)

define the exact and approximate (truncated) price of the call option by

K

C(F, K) = E (S T K) +

C n (F, K) = F KE e

x

2

n

i=1

φ i e i

and assume that the norm || µ dominates the norm || ρ , that is: there exists C µ > 0 such that |f | ρ < C µ |f| µ for any f H µ H ρ . Theorem 5.1 Under the previous assumptions, the following results hold:

Option Valuation

For the exact price we have

C(F, K) = F K

i=1

φ

i

i

j=1

C ij p j χ(λ) ∂λ p j

| λ=λ j

and for the proxy:

C n (F, K) = F K

n

j=1

Γ

n

j

p j χ(λ) ∂λ p j

| λ=λ j Γ

n

j

n

i=j

=

C ij φ i

2

i

Error Estimate

We have the following bound for the truncation error:

n

i=1

2

i

φ

|C(F, K) C n (F, K)| ≤ C µ FK φ, φ

n

φ

i=1

C µ F 2π φ, φ

and for the normal implied vol error atm we have:

σ N σ

N

n

and for the log-normal vol atm approximately

σ B σ

B

n

n

φ

2

i

i=1

C µ 2π φ, φ

7

Proof: See appendix C Remark 5.i As for the standard Fourier approach, this formula allows a strip

of options for different strikes to be priced at once since

E exp ( 2 + iz)x = exp ( 1 2 + iz) ln(K) E exp ( 1 2 + iz) ln(F T )

1

and the evaluations of the characteristic functions can be stored and reused for dif- ferent strikes. Remark 5.ii We emphasize that the computation of C n (F, K) requires exactly n evaluations of the characteristic function χ (or its derivatives); moreover, as already stated above, one increment of n will result in a single new evaluation of χ, pro- vided the past evaluations have been stored, which makes an adaptative procedure possible. Remark 5.iii The error estimate shows clearly the impact of the norm || µ on the deviation of the proxy from the exact price. Obviously C µ should be reasonable so that the series converge sufficiently rapidly.

5.2 How to choose the truncation level n?

From the last section, it is clear that the error depends directly on the product

C µ φ, φ n

. Once µ has been chosen, the number of terms necessary to

2

i=1 φ i

achieve a given accuracy η can be easily inferred by setting

n

φ

2

i

i=1

C µ FK φ, φ

< η

when C µ is known or at least is known to be reasonable. As an illustration, let us consider a tractable example with BlackScholes dynamics:

x

ρ(s)

=

=

σ T Z, Z N (0, 1)

ρ(s) =

1 2πT exp(

σ

s 2

2σ 2 T )

where N (0, 1) denotes the standard normal distribution. For µ, we use an exponen- tial weight

µ(s) = ν exp(νs)

A few calculations show that |f | ρ < C µ |f| µ with the optimal choice ν =

1

σ T

1. 147 This means that if the variance of our process is

σ 2 T = 1, a good choice for our proxy distribution will be µ(s) = exp(s). In that case, our experiments suggests that values n 15 20 produce very good results, not only when the terminal distribution of the underlying is log-normal, but also for richer dynamics such that stochastic volatility, as long as the variance of the

yielding C µ = 2e

for richer dynamics such that stochastic volatility, as long as the variance of the yielding C

π

8

process is reasonnably in line with the one implied by µ. When C µ is not known a priori, another possible strategy is to evaluate the elements (e i ) 1i100 once and for all, and then increment the number of elements used within this family until convergence is achieved (e.g the results do not change by more than some given quantity). This adaptative procedure is made possible as the evaluations of the characteristic functions are stored and reused. In the next section we examine the choice for the weight µ.

5.3 Example of Weights

In this section we provides useful quantities related to the practical implementation when the weights are either gaussian or exponential. We recall that the scalar product in H µ is defined by:

g, h µ = +g(x)h(x)µ(x)dx

0

where, without loss of generality, we impose

0

+

µ(x)dx = 1.

5.3.1 Gaussian Weight

This case corresponds to Black&Scholes dynamics for the underlying, thus, for an at- the-money option, the log-moneyness can be assumed to be gaussian (and centered for simplicity). This results in the following table:

distribution

Gaussian

 

µ (x)

2

x

2

T )

 

σ T

2π exp(

2σ 2

f λ , f µ

exp λ 2 +µ 2 σ 2 T cosh (λµσ 2 T)

2

 

|f λ | 2

2 1 [1 + exp (2λ 2 σ 2 T )]

 

φ, f λ

[exp(m 2 )erf c(m)] , m = 2 λi σ T

1

2

φ, φ

2N(σ T ) exp( σ 2 T )

2

 

Remark 5.ivThe Gaussian distribution is not necessary appropriate when the un- derlying’s distribution has fat tails, which is the case in stochastic volatility models.

5.3.2 Exponential Weight

The last remark suggests that we might consider a more slowly decaying density, and a good tractable candidate is the exponential density for which we will analyze

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in more details.

distribution

Exponential

µ (x)

ν exp(νx)

f λ , f µ

ν 2

ν 2 +λ 2 +µ 2

( ν 2 +(λ+µ) 2 )( ν 2 +(λµ) 2 )

|f λ | 2

ν 2 +2λ 2

ν 2 +4λ 2

φ, f λ

ν ( ν+

2 )

1

( ν + 1 2 ) 2 + λ 2

( ν+ 1 2 ) 2 +λ 2

φ, φ

ν

1+ν

In this case, we can work out the first term in the expansion. A short calculation leads to:

1 ν ( ν+ ) 2 ( ν+ 1 2 ) 2 +λ 2 2
1
ν ( ν+
)
2
( ν+
1
2 ) 2
+λ 2 2
Ω 0 (λ, ν) = φ, f λ , f f λ λ 2
=
ν 2 +2λ 2
ν 2 +4λ 2
5
8
λ
ν 4 +
32 25 ν 3 − ν 2
1
4
25ν 2 ν 2 +
2 6ν+2 √ (25ν 2 +8+32ν)
1
|cos (λ 1 ·)|
√ (25ν 2 +8+32ν)−ν
8 √ 2ν(1+2ν) √ (25ν 2 +8+32ν)−ν
φ
1
4+16ν+11ν 2 +ν √ (25ν 2 +8+32ν) 3ν+ √ (25ν 2 +8+32ν)

for ν = 1 this becomes:

λ

 

655

. 4374

 

1

4

 

φ

 

24

8959+737 65

. 6942

1

1777+303 65

e 1 (x)

cos 655

4

x

√ 31+ √ 65
31+ √ 65

1. 1299 cos (0. 4374 x)

   

651

 

The first element e 1 capture φ 2 . 48198 of the total variance φ, φ = 0.5. That is, in relative terms approximatively 96.4% of the total variance. The 20 first frequencies have been computed numerically:

Λ =

1

0.4374, 1.6489, 0.0000, 0.8941, 2.9970, 4.6829, 2.3117, 6.5990, 3.7550, 1.2114, 8.7081, 5.5708, 10.997, 7.5851, 13.455, 9.7852, 16.074, 18.836, 12.160, 0.0000

Φ =

69.42%, 10.61%, 5.202%, 4.034%, 3.963%, 1.910%, 1.077%, 1.056%, 0.800%, 0.663% 0.645%, 0.474%, 0.423%, 0.306%, 0.293%, 0.212%, 0.211%, 0.158%, 0.153%, 0.138%

Note that the twentieth term is the first occurrence of a frequency revisit. Using the

first three terms covers 99.2% of the variance etc to Heston Dynamics.

Next, we apply this methodology

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5.4

An application to Heston Dynamics

In this section we assume that the underlying follows Heston dynamics, that is, using similar notations than in Lipton[1]:

dS t

S

t

dv t

ρdt

=

=

=

σ v t dW

t

(S)

κ (1 v t ) dt + ε v t dW

dW

(v)

t

(S)

t

(v)

dW

t

,

v 0 = 1

From now on we consider an initial spot S 0 = 5% and the base case: σ = 40%, ε = 100%, ρ = 0, κ = 10% and T = 5y. The standard deviation in the base case is 80% justifying the use of an exponential weight with a caracteristic constant ν = 1. In the tables in Appendix D, we vary individually the different model parameters and compare a 20 terms quasi-periodic expansion with a benchmark brute force integration, reporting the errors between the two. The results suggest that a very good accuracy is reached with 20 terms, for a large spectrum of model parameters.

6

Conclusion

The contribution of this paper is two folds: first we have slightly simplified and im- proved an original idea developped in [4] and second we have developped a new exact decomposition of the call payoff in a polynomial-trigonometric series. Existence and convergence results have been established in a rigorous framework, yielding a val- uation formula along with error estimates when truncation is applied for practical purpose. The expansion has been tested under Heston dynamics, demonstrating the robustness and excellent accuracy of the approach for a number of terms as low as 20. The method could, in principle, be applied to other dynamics whenever the caracteristic function of the log-spot is known in a closed form. We plan, in a near future, to apply this technique to close to singular distribution (such as those appearing for very short term maturity) known to pose challenging problems when used in a Fourier Transform framework.

Aknowledgements

I am indebtful to Cyril Grunspan for initial motivating conversations, to Yann Ticot for his insights through out this work and to Professor Peter Hawkes for useful suggestions. Also I want to thank my colleagues in Bank Of America Merrill Lynch, and more specially Leif Andersen, Alex Lipton and Henrik Rasmussen for useful comments and support. Last, i am grateful to prof. Cornelius W. Oosterlee and prof. Fang Fang for interesting feed back and discussion.

11

A

Proof of Theorem 3.1

φ A (x) being 2Aperiodic, even, piecewise C 1 and C 0 , can be decomposed into its Fourier (cosinus) Series:

φ A (x)

c l>0

=

=

Thus, we have that:

C A (F, K)

l=0

c l cos l

π

A x

4A 1 (1) l e A A 2 + (2πl) 2

2

,

c 0 = 2 1 e A

2

A

=

E T S T Ke x φ A (x)

2

= F K

l=0

c l E T e

x

2

cos l

A x

π

yielding

By Cauchy-Schwartz,

C A (F, K) = F K

l=0

c l χ l

π

A

|C(F, K) C A (F, K)|

=

=

K E T e

K E T [e x ] E T (φ(x) φ A (x)) 2 ds

(φ(x) φ A (x))

x

2

A ( x )) 2 ds ( φ ( x ) − φ A ( x

K E T [e x ] E T 1 |x|>A ds

FK N

(K exp A ) + 1 N (K exp A )

At the money K = F , we have, in term of normal volatilities:

σ N σ

2π

N

A

T

F N (K exp A ) + 1 N (K exp A )

and in term of log-normal volatility, approximately:

σ B σ

B

A

2π

T

N (K exp A ) + 1 N (K exp A )

B Proof of Theorem 4.1

B.1

Existence result

In this section we show that the recursive construction described in 4 is valid at any order

12

Proof: We prove the result by induction. For n = 1, we have that

|f λ |

=

φ, f λ

=

+cos 2 (λx)µ(x)dx > 0

0

+cos(λx)φ(x)µ(x)dx

0

0 (λ) =

0

+

cos(λx)φ(x)µ(x)dx 2

+

0

cos 2 (λx)µ(x)dx

, λ 0

which shows that Ω 1 is a positive continous function of λ. Moreover, using Lebesgue’s Lemma, we see that:

λ→∞ +

lim

0

cos 2 (λx)µ(x)dx = 1 2 +µ(x)dx

0

λ→∞ +

lim

0

cos(λx)φ(x)µ(x)dx

=

0

so that:

λ 0 (λ) = 0

Relying now on the continuity of Ω 1 associated with a compacity argument, we can

ensure that there exist

lim

λ 0 such that

λ0 φ,

λ = arg max

|ξ λ | 2

ξ

λ

we now let

λ

e

1

1

=

=

λ

f λ 1

0

+

cos 2 (λ 1 x)µ(x)dx

and assume now a valid construction of (e i ) 1in and (λ i ) 1in up to the rank n. We proceed as for the first term, considering

e λ =

=

λ

n f λ i=1

f λ , e i e i

|f λ i=1 n f λ , e i e i |

λ i , i = 1

n

which is well defined since

λ i , i = 1,

Let us consider now λ j 0, j n. We have trivially f λ j i=1 so that we can consider

|f λ | 2 > i=1

n

f λ , e i 2 as

f λ / Span(e 1 ,

n

,

,

n.

e n ) when λ

=

f λj , e i e i = 0

p = max l 0/0 k l, ∂λ k f k

| λ j =

n

i=1

k f ∂λ k

| λ j , e i e i

13

then, using Taylor expansion up to order p, we have that:

f λ

so that

n

i=1

f λ , e i e i = (λ (p + λ j 1)! ) p+1

p+1 f

λ p+1

| λ j

n

p+1 f

i=1

λ p+1

| λ j , e i e i + o(1)

e λ = (λ λ j ) p+1 |λ λ j | p+1

p+1 f

λ p+1

| λ j n

i=1 p+1 f

λ p+1

| λ j , e i e i

p+1 f

λ p+1

| λ j n

i=1 p+1 f

λ p+1

| λ j , e i e i

is well defined and Ω n (λ) can be continously extended on λ 0. Similar argument

as previously shows that Ω n () = 0 and thus λ n+1 = arg max λ0 n (λ) < . Also, in virtue of what preceed,

Thus, we can perform this

construction at any order.

e n+1 = lim λ λ

+

n+1

f λ i=1 n f λ ,e i e

| f λ i=1 n f λ ,e i e

i| is well defined.

i

B.2

Convergence result

Φ n =

n

i=1

φ i e i

(e i ) 1i being orthonormal, we have:

φ, φ Φ n , Φ n =

n

i=1

2

φ i

As an increasing bounded sequence, Φ n , Φ n is convergent with limit l 0 (this also yields φ = 0) . Per

|Φ n+p Φ n | 2 =

=

Φ n+p Φ n , Φ n+p Φ n

n+p

φ

2

i

i=n+1

φ

2

i

i=n+1

Let us

denote its limit by Φ. We want to prove that Φ = φ. Let us assume momentarily

= 0. (λ j ) j1 being a discrete

family, there exists

that this condition is violated, that is:

we see that Φ n is a Cauchy sequence in H µ and therefore is convergent.

ψ

=

φ Φ

λ such that:

[ ψ, e ] 2

e

=

=

η > 0

f

λ

i=1 f

λ

, e i e i

f

λ

2

i=1 f

λ

,

e i 2

by orthogonality, we have that:

ψ, e = φ, e

14

and from φ = 0, there exists N 1 such that n N 1 we have φ have that:

n 2 <

η

2 .

Also, we

n→∞ e

lim

n = e

e n =

f

λ

n1

i=1

f

λ

, e i e i

f

λ

2 n1

i=1

f

λ

,

e i 2

such that there exists N 2 > 0 verifying n N 2 , φ, e 2 > η . Considering now

N

2