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Paper 13

Paper 13

CHALLENGES TO A PIPE MANUFACTURER DRIVEN BY WORLDWIDE PIPE PROJECTS
H.-G. Hillenbrand, C. Kalwa, J. Schröder, C. Kassel* EUROPIPE GmbH, Mülheim, Germany * presenting author

Abstract Pipeline systems are the safest and most effective means for gas transport for medium distance and continuous gas supply. The fact that gas sources are explored in many regions with harsh conditions, the fact that the gas composition of sources are aggressive to the steels and the fact that considerable quantities has to be delivered within a justifiable period of time needs to be faced by a pipe manufacturer and initiates tailored development activities. This paper gives an overview about EUROPIPE’s development activities to cope with the challenges from the operational necessities. Exemplified by recent and future pipeline projects the paper presents developments covering strain based design material, sour gas resistant material, deep sea designed pipes, crack arrest properties and arctic conditions, as well as optimising manufacturing to high productivity with a high quality level. The paper gives an outlook to the topics to be solved at the interface material and design.

1.

Introduction

The exploration of remote natural gas fields results in the fact that pipe line designers are faced with challenging conditions. The design for deep sea lines has to consider the high external pressure; arctic sources require low temperature design; gas impurities like H2S need to find solutions for corrosion resistance; ground movement implies new design criteria for a safe pipeline operation; cost and handling limits may result in considering high strength steels for the pipeline design. Over all the detail aspects the economic premise rules for building and operating pipelines to transport gas on the long term safely and cost effective to the consumers. Advanced design requires more and more sophisticated pipe material. Pipe manufacturers have to be ready with their solutions for the new design criteria or at least open to cope with the requirements coming up. EUROPIPE has put much effort in research and development to give ready solutions to the market or have a good status to develop further. The main focuses identified from the market are sour gas material which is a challenge to steel purity, high strength steels which is a challenge to plate rolling technique and pipe forming arctic grades which is a challenge to plate rolling technique and longitudinal seam welding in the pipe mill and

18th JTM, 16/19 May 2011, San Francisco, CA al

Page 1 of 1 Hillenbrand et

CA al Page 2 of 2 Hillenbrand et .0) and H2S partial pressure (up to 1 bar).g. Though the natural gas is dehydrated and gets inhibitors added breakdowns of such equipment cannot be excluded. Additionally some initial mechanical properties from the pristine pipe may change slightly during heating due to the coating process. Region 1 and 2 needs to be tested under adapted conditions. For the weldability of the pipes the engineers ask for low carbon equivalents (CE) but they need high strength and a low Y/T as well. San Francisco. The tests were performed with different severity levels in terms 18th JTM. low carbon steels exhibit excellent CVN toughness with limited DWT shear area ratios. ISO 15156-2 [1] has identified regions of SSC severity on a pH value – H2S partial pressure diagram (Figure 1) for all pipeline material grades. In parallel the available grades have to be alloyed with more expensive alloying systems as e. and Drop Weight Tear (DWT) 85 % shear area @ -10 C interact strongly. For Region 3 severe SSC testing is mandatory. In the usual procedure the pipeline designer considers testing rules from National Association of Corrosion Engineers as NACE TM 0177 for Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) and NACE TM 0284 for Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) to be fulfilled during procedure qualification and production tests. EUROPIPE has performed numerous HIC tests on steel grades with different purity levels. The toughness requirements Charpy V Notch toughness (CVN). Also weldability for longitudinal seam weld and girth weld has to be guaranteed with sufficient toughness properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ). For this limited periods material has to resist corrosion attack by humid and H2S containing gas. The development to higher strength sour grades above X65 is a continued effort of EUROPIPE and is ongoing with success but within limits concerning pipe geometry and further properties. For application with corrosive gas a certain level of corrosion resistance has to be achieved. material design has to abandon hardening effects by these elements that leads finally to the exclusion of higher strength grades above grade X 65 (L450). Having this in mind. In many cases the procedure of standard solutions for HIC and SSC testing is over conservative. Region 0 requires no SSC testing. 50 J @ -30°C. i. 2. 16/19 May 2011. Figure 1: Severity regions for SSC In terms of HIC testing no procedure like the ISO 15156-2 exists. SOUR GAS APPLICATION More and more pipeline design has to consider hydrogen sulphide contents in natural gas.e. Manganese. Elements that tend to form precipitates or are prone to segregate as Carbon. Those properties are not only dissimilar but they interact. The defined test solutions in these rules are very conservative to real conditions in terms of pH-value (down to 3. CuNi which raises the costs for pipeline material to achieve the required strength levels. have to be limited since those areas are trapping hydrogen and lead to hydrogen recombination. etc.Paper 13 - deep sea pipe which is a challenge to forming in terms of perfect pipe geometry. These severe test conditions can be met only with special procedures and alloying concepts to achieve high levels of steel purety. The material design has to fulfil various requirements considering properties for design as yield to tensile ratio (Y/T) and fracture elongation in the tensile test or CVN toughness and crack arresting in DWT tests. The HAZ toughness may be achieved by expensive alloying approaches those are quite often in conflict with the DWT properties and the low CE as well.

WT up to 25.4 mm was 0. Mo.Paper 13 of pH and H2S partial pressure to draw such kind of diagram. The use of X 65 or X 70 level grades for the 42” pipes with wall thickness being 29.3 Mn 1. CA al Page 3 of 3 Hillenbrand et . The Ichthys project connecting the gas sources at the North West Australian shore with Australian mainland is planned to be realised in 2013 (Figure 4). The tests showed that the borders of the ISO SSCdiagram are different to the HIC behaviour of the steel material.6 mm respectively is considered for this project. C Si 0. The NACE acceptance criteria were fulfilled. 16/19 May 2011.9mm WT) The idea to consider a more realistic environment for material selection was used in the past by different clients. the chemistry and the formation of precipitates [2].89 P 0.D.5 bar H2S partial pressure in a buffered pH4.1 100 1 1000 10 H2S partial pressure [mbar] Figure 2: Severity diagram for X80 level grade (48” O.4mm) 18th JTM.x18.0 solution.5 after 28 days long term loading.0005 Others Cr. In contrast to the ISO SSC diagram which is valid for all carbon steels the HIC behaviour depends on the grade.6 mm or 27.0110 0. In the period between 2001 and 2003 EUROPIPE produced pipes for the Baku-Tiblisi-Ceyhan (BTC) project connecting the Caspian Sea with the Mediterranean Sea (Figure 3).013 S 0. Cu. It could be shown that under specific severity conditions even X 80 level grades can be used (Figure 2). The test condition for the 42”/46” X 65-pipe material with a wall thickness up to 25.06 6 0 % = CAR < 1 % 1 % = CAR < 5 % 5 % = CAR < 10 % 5 pH CAR = 10 % 4 3 1E-4 1 1E-3 0. Figure 3: Baku-Tiblisi-Ceyhan pipeline project X65 (42”/46”. San Francisco. We could show that the NACE requirements were met during HIC tests with 0.02 bar H2S partial pressure and pH 4. Ni. V 7 0. For this project pre evaluation of material was performed in 2010 with respect to fit for service sour gas conditions.

CA al Page 4 of 4 Hillenbrand et . The distinct contribution of pipe forming. Therefore. WT 29.6 mm) The Fit for Sour Service idea enables the pipeline designer to consider higher grades by an economic i. HIGH STRENGTH PIPES The production of high strength pipe. i. A toughness level is required for low temperatures. the Bovanenkovo-Uchta Project. a great deal of pipes of the grade K65 with the dimension of 56” O. The composition used is indicated in Table 1. the requirements have been steadily raised. is nowadays standard as long as the requirements are merely according to EN 10208-2 [3]. 16/19 May 2011. 3.Paper 13 Figure 4: Ichthys project X65 or X70 (42”. welding and expansion shall not be underestimated. API 5L [4] or equivalent. the ultimate strength levels are lifted and the strain-based design of the pipeline calls for enhanced uniform elongation. with 27.e. a modern steel pipe consists of a lean base metal design along with sophisticated rolling parameters that fulfil the requirements of the customer. San Francisco. i. EUROPIPE produced for a Russian onshore pipeline.6 mm or 27. alloying element reducing solution. On the other hand are soaring costs for alloying elements. Those demanding environments led to further material design efforts in order to fulfil the customer growing needs.7 mm wall thickness.D. The pipes will be used in harsh environments like arctic and or seismic active areas. 18th JTM. Along the way of using X80 pipes for onshore projects worldwide.e. pipes with minimum yield strength of 550 MPa and above.e.

003 Nb+V+Ti <0. the yield strength (YS) level is reduced to minimum 500 and 555 MPa. Since the pipeline will be laid in the tundra with arctic temperatures. The transverse to longitudinal anisotropy of UTS is roughly 15 MPa and is more pronounced concerning the minimum values tested.Paper 13 C <0. San Francisco. Only a few values in longitudinal direction were within the range of 520 to 550 MPa whereas their majority was above the more stringent requirement of the transverse direction.-%) Whereas a standard X80 requires an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 621 MPa. Only a few values are below 200 Joule and the results document that the upper shelf is reached.5 trans 20 Frequency [%] Rt0. the K65 specification asks for minimum 640 MPa.6 Ceq (IIW) <0.23 Table 1: K65 Steel composition (wt. The CVN test temperature was -40 °C with a minimum requirement of 150 Joule for absorbed energy for the base metal. respectively. Furthermore.5 long Rm trans Rm long 15 10 5 0 490 510 530 550 570 590 610 630 650 670 690 710 730 750 770 Stress [MPa] Figure 5: Statistics of tensile properties of OD 56” x 27.45 PCM <0.6 P <0. CA al Page 5 of 5 Hillenbrand et . too.15 Mo+Ni+ Cr+Cu >0. the specification is asking for low temperature toughness as well.7 mm K65 production The average yield strength was 584 and 586 MPa in transverse and longitudinal direction.08 Mn >1.02 S <0. The mean UTS in transverse direction was 687 MPa. 18th JTM. tensile testing in longitudinal direction is required. 16/19 May 2011. However. respectively. Figure 5 summarizes the tensile test results for the longitudinal and the transverse direction of more than 300 heats tested for the initial part of the production. 25 Rt0. The CVN statistics is presented in Figure 6 on the left.

ARCTIC APPLICATION 18th JTM. respectively.e. 100 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 70 40 0 Frequency [%] DWT-Test @ -20° C Shear Area [%] 80 60 40 20 0 75 80 85 90 95 Percent Shear Area 100 105 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 Temperature [° C9 Figure 7: Statistics and Transition curve of DWT Test of OD 56” x 27. 16/19 May 2011. The transition temperature. The temperature transition curve of the CVN energies in the weld seam is illustrated in Figure 6 on the right. The transition temperatures as well as the upper shelf energies are similar for testing at the outer seam. CA al Page 6 of 6 Hillenbrand et . It could be demonstrated that the non-instrumented DWT test work well as release test for production as long as the shear area fraction is not borderline.7 mm wt. The largest challenge has been the Battelle Drop Weight Tear testing (DWT) since the test temperature is -20 °C with a required minimum shear area of 75 and 85 percent for single and mean value. The test results from production tests are given in Figure 7. inner seam and root area. of the pipes produced is far -30 °C. During the qualification of the K65 production even instrumented DWT tests had to be performed. K65 production The fracture toughness of the weld seam exhibit a similar behaviour but the upper shelf energy is merely 200Joule compared to 300 Joule for the base metal. the temperature that compares to 50 percent shear area. i.7 mm K65 production 4. respectively.Paper 13 Frequency [%] 40 30 20 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 CVN Energy [Joule] 250 CVN Energy [Joule] 200 150 100 50 0 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 Test Temperature [° C] Figure 6: Statistics of base metal Charpy V @-40°C and transition curve of weld metal Charpy V of 27. San Francisco. The toughness in the heataffected zone is declined towards the fusion line.

18th JTM.D. and 609.21 Table 2: X70 ‘arctic’ steel composition (wt %) The steel compositions is leaner than for the K65 project but the alloy content is still significant and the key to fulfil arctic requirements. x 32.5 mm wt. They have been reached easily and will not been further discussed in this paper. The tentative steel composition is given in Table 2.6 mm O.6 P <0. The later item exhibited ‘arctic’ properties since a lowest design temperature of -40 °C was demanded.8 mm O.3 mm wt.003 Nb+V+Ti <0. respectively. Customers require pipes for service temperature of -40 °C and below.6 Ceq (IIW) <0. The design for the K65 allows some minor modifications in order to reach DWT transition temperatures far below -50 °C but not in K65 grade.02 S <0.07 Mn >1. For a compressor station at gas in feed into the Nord Stream pipeline two different items in X70M grade were produced. The tensile test requirements and their test results are given in Table 3. x 29. 16/19 May 2011. CA al Page 7 of 7 Hillenbrand et . San Francisco..D.15 Cu+Ni+Cr >0. The dimensions have been 812. C <0.Paper 13 The results from the K65 production have been the basis for the development of pipe material tuned for arctic applications.42 PCM <0.

The latter is these days still a challenge but reachable by means of common measures like reduction of carbon and manganese contents and strict limitation of impurities as long as merely the base metal is concerned. The distribution of the CVN energies vs. 503 (525) 612 (591) 27.5) 0. 605 690 (665) . The CVN toughness 2 mm below the outer surface (designated OD) and in the root area (designated Root) were tested. The heat affected zone (designated FL) gave a wider distribution of CVN 18th JTM.89) Tensile Strength Properties of X70M ‘arctic’. 80 Frequency [%] 60 40 20 0 DWT-Test @ -40° C 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 Percent Shear Area Shear Area [%] 100 80 60 40 20 0 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 Temperature [° C] -10 Figure 8: Statistics and Transition curve of DWT Test of OD 609. All results @ -40 °C are unambiguous above the requirement of 75 percent shear area. The values in parenthesis are for longitudinal direction. The plate rolling parameter as well as the pipe forming was optimized for arctic grades.90 Min. The customer specified DWT testing and CVN testing @ -40 °C. 495 (505) 588 (572) 20. CA al Page 8 of 8 Hillenbrand et .Paper 13 flat rectangular trans (long) YS [MPa] UTS [MPa] A5 [%] Y/T Table 3: Requirements Min.0 (27./.5) 0. the frequency of results is given in Figure 9. The uniform elongation in longitudinal direction was for information only with all values above 6.3 mm X70M production The DWT transition temperature was established to be below -60 °C for full-size samples. Max.81 (0.87) Test Results Max. The outer weld area exhibit slightly higher energies compared to the root area. The results illustrate that the chosen welding consumables led to manageable properties in the weld metal. 0.87 (0. 485 570 (545) 19. The more exiting property is the low temperature fracture toughness and in particular the results of DWT testing. The subsequent question was whether the weld seam toughness and especially the HAZ toughness follow suite the excellent result for crack resistance.0 .5 (23.0 percent. The DWT testing was performed with full-size specimen @ -40 °C and with to 19 mm thickness reduced samples and a test temperature of -57 °C./. San Francisco. 16/19 May 2011. Both results are shown in Figure 8 and no difference was marked.6 x 29. The inside weld was tested as well and revealed similar results as the outer weld.

6 x 29. The final production step of the UOE process. 16/19 May 2011. pipes with a lower diameter to thickness ratio (D/t) as well as higher strength materials up to X70 are used for these applications. will lead to some reduction of compressive yield strength and therefore to a reduction of collapse pressure.ppl²) = pc pel ppl f0 (D/t2) where with E v t D fy αfab Young’s modulus (210 GPa) Poisson’s ratio (0. the collapse resistance is mainly controlled by the compressive stress-compressive strain behaviour in circumferential direction.Paper 13 energies from merely 2-digit CVN energies up to 350 Joule. CA al . San Francisco. SMYS) Fabrication factor pel = 2E (1 − ν ) 2  t    D 3 p pl = 2 f y α fab f0= t D D max− D min D Page 9 of 9 Hillenbrand et 18th JTM. But. For deepwater applications usually pipes produced by the UOE process were used. 40 30 20 1 0 0 25 75 1 25 1 75 225 275 325 C V N Ene rgy [ J o ule ] weld_OD weld_Ro o t 40 FL_OD 30 20 1 0 0 25 75 1 25 1 75 225 275 325 C VN E nergy [J o ule ] FL_Ro o t Figure 9: Statistics of CVN Test results @ -40°C of OD 609. Besides enhanced requirements to ovality [5]. the cold forming operations during the UOE pipe manufacturing process and subsequent anti-corrosion coating may significantly alter the characteristic stress-strain behaviour of parent plate material [6]. The notch was positioned according to API 5 L as close as practical to the fusion line. the cold expanding.3 mm X70M production 5.3) Wall thickness Outer diameter Yield strength (specified minimum yield strength. In accordance with DNV-OS-F101 the resistance for external pressure (pc) can be calculated as follows: (pc-pel)(pc² . In order to encounter pipe collapse. DEEP SEA Deepwater pipelines are exposed to ambient hydraulic pressure and associated bending during pipe laying.

that the “plastic” collapse pressure.0 25. increases the compressive yield strength and consequently compensates the drop of the strength caused by the cold expansion. αfab) This means.2% offset strain (Rp0. However. 500 450 400 virgin thermally treated Collapse Pressure [bar] 350 300 250 200 150 100 new data earlier data +21% +25% +18% +36% 50 0 15.Paper 13 These equations can be simplified to pcollapse = function (pel. which is set to 0.1% and 0. the increase of the collapse resistance is more than 18 %. thermal aging. due to the Bauschinger effect [7]. 16/19 May 2011. 18th JTM. and therefore the collapse pressure. This is recovered in the fabrication factor. the collapse pressure was calculated with different approaches of yield strength: Tensile yield strength defined at 0. which compensates more than the downgrading caused by the fabrication factor of 0. Considering the earlier data. Based heron the challenges for deep sea line pipe applications to a pipe manufacturer can be derived. San Francisco. a reduction of the yield strength and a consequently a degradation of the collapse pressure is observed after the cold expansion process.0 Wall Thickness [mm] Figure 10: Increase of collapse pressures in the sequel of thermal treatment in the range of 200 – 240 ° C In a further step.2) Tensile yield strength defined at 0.0 35. For this. CA et al Page 10 of 10 Hillenbrand .85 for UOE-pipes.0 40. Pipes manufactured by the UOE process will show an excellent ovality. Admittedly.5 % total strain (Rt0. ovality) where ppl = function (yield strength. the results of the experimental collapse tests were compared with the predictions calculated to the DNV equations. which are geometric and strength requirements. the fabrication factor may be increased by a thermal treatment or external cold sizing [5].2% offset strain with specimen diameter of 67% and 90% of wall thickness The sampling of the specimens was performed at the 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock position of the pipe.85 [6]. Figure 10 indicates an increase of the collapse pressure in the thermal treated condition up to 36 % in comparison to pipes in the non thermal treated condition. but.0 30.5) Specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) Compressive yield strength defined at 0. as applied during a coating process. increases if the yield strength and fabrication factor increase as well. This is shown by a series of collapse pressure tests carried out in the thermal treated and in the as welded condition. ppl.0 20.

DNV / coll. exp .] Figure 11: Collapse pressure prediction according to DNV equation (virgin pipes) 1.90 0.00 o'clock 1.85 Tens.05 1.2% offset 0. YS Comp. whereas the application of thermal treatment leads to a conservative prediction.10 Mean values.10 1.00 o’clock position show slightly higher collapse pressures than those taken from the 6.2 % offset shows that the predictions.95 0.85 Tens. press.00 0.1% offset Calculation variant [ . 6. YS SMYS Comp. 6.95 0. For the calculation of the collapse pressure the fabrication factor was set to 1. YS Comp. CA et al Page 11 of 11 Hillenbrand . - - Summing up.5% total Tens.] Figure 12: Collapse pressure prediction according to DNV equation (pipes in thermally treated condition) In Figures 11 and 12 the ratio between the DNV predictions and the corresponding results of the collapse pressure experiments are shown. YS d/t=90% d/t=67% d/t=90% d/t=67% 0. press.90 0. If the calculation is based on the compressive yield strength with 0. YS d/t=90% d/t=67% d/t=90% d/t=67% 0.1% offset Calculation variant [ . However. a conservative prediction of collapse pressure of pipes in the thermally treated condition under following preconditions is achieved: Aging temperature ≥ 200 °C Measured compressive yield strength (0. exp .1% offset 0. plastic strain applied 18th JTM.00 o’clock position.2% offset 0. 16/19 May 2011. that the prediction is on the over-conservative side. YS SMYS Comp. YS 0.5% total Tens. San Francisco.0 for all cases to examine the pure influence of the considered yield strength.00 o'clock 1.00 o'clock 1.2% offset 0. YS Tens. Contemplating the calculations using compressive yield strength for the thermal treated pipes the predictions are always on the conservative side. Calculation of the collapse pressure based on the compressive yield strength with 0.2% offset 0. independent from specimen diameter.15 Coll. press. 3.1 % offset it can be seen. YS 0. YS Comp.2 % plastic offset) is utilized Sampling in the 3 or 6 o’clock position Specimen size 90 % or 67 % of wall thickness.1% offset 0.00 0. Calculations based on results from specimens taken from the 3.15 Coll. YS Comp. YS Comp.Paper 13 1. the fabrication factor specified by DNV has to be increased due to thermal treatment of pipes as usually applied during the pipe coating process. YS Tens. [ . there are some other effects.g.2% offset 0.05 1. respectively Therefore. YS Comp. DNV / coll.] Mean values.00 reflect conservative prediction of collapse behaviour The DNV prediction based on measured yield strengths overestimates the collapse pressure in all cases. are on the non-conservative side for the virgin pipes. [ . e.] Mean values. 3. On a closer examination of these figures the following observations were revealed: Values below 1.00 o'clock Mean values. press.2% offset 0. The calculation for the virgin pipes based on SMYS shows an overrating of 5%.

after coating including the accompanied heat treatment. Zimmermann. J. 2006 EN10208-2: Steel pipes for pipelines for combustible fluids – Technical delivery conditions . Alberta. i. 61st Annual Conference and Exhibition.: Enhancement of collapse resistance of UOE pipe based on systematic exploitation of thermal cycle of coating process. the test lab is able to adjust almost every combination of pH value and H2S content. 2010 Liessem. J. Submarine Pipeline Systems. 1886 [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 18th JTM. San Francisco. Furthermore.e. The given results demonstrate the ability to react flexibly on market demands and perform modification in the pipe steel design even on short notice. durch Erwärmen und Abkühlen und durch oftmals wiederholte Beanspruchungen. This grade may be optimized on customer demands for particular requirements. S. Münchener Polytechnikum. Bosch et al.: Über die Veränderung der Elastizitätzsgrenze und die Festigkeit des Eisens und Stahls durch Strecken und Quetschen.. 13.Part 2: Pipes of requirement class B10208-2 ANSI/API Specification 5L. Sept. 44th ed. The largest challenge so far is the CVN toughness in the HAZ of the submerged arc weld. In the area of fit for service pipeline material for mild and slightly sour media the pipeline industry must not surrender on higher strength grades as long as pipe material with sufficient resistance against corrosion attack can be supplied.-2010 C. . which influence the compressive strength behaviour. high toughness at low temperature or large uniform elongation.g.. The high strength grade X80 is established and several hundred thousands of tons have been produced. In: Proceedings of IPC2008. and the Use of Cast Irons”. even though the relevance of the HAZ toughness is merely marginal..Materials for Use in H[2]S-Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production . 2008. Canada Bauschinger. But this will be subject to future research activities. It could be demonstrated that UOE pipes in service condition. REFERENCES [1] DIN EN ISO 15156-2 “Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries . CONCLUSION It can be concluded that EUROPIPE is prepared for the challenges of the pipeline industry. G. International Pipeline Conference.Part 2: Cracking-Resistant Carbon and Low Alloyed Steels. 03. 2007 Det Norske Veritas: Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.Paper 13 during forming. The DNV rules discriminates the UOE pipe against other pipes due to the recommended low fabrication factor. 6. e. achieve the necessary collapse resistance. The emerging developments of the low temperature base metal properties are auspicious. CA et al Page 12 of 12 Hillenbrand . The compression test describes the collapse behaviour adequately with enough conservatism. A. Groß-Weege. Knauf. 29 – Oct. Calgary. Dec. Mitteilungen aus dem Mechanisch-Technischen Laboratorium. October 1. Vol.: “Fit-For-Purpose HIC Assessment of Large-Diameter Pipes for Sour Service Application”. 16/19 May 2011.