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-

1986

2 Gregorian Newtonian
Cassegrain




Dawes

Dobsonian

1 Herschel Prime focus


3 Nasmyth
Relay
Jones-Bird

Tilted-Component


Schmidt camera Maksutov camera
Baker camera

1.

Coude

) ()
.

, , (
) ,
. , (1
= 2,54 .).

, . .
35 cm 3 20
cm
35 35 /20 20 230=1225/400= 3,0625. (1)
, 14,8
(m) 13,6 ,
m = 7,1 + 5 , cm.

(2)

100 cm

400 cm , .

.

.
:
. : 100
200.
.

.

.
, ..
10 ,

100.


.
. , ,
.
30 .
30 , 1 .
.
.
100,
30:100 = 0,3 , (18 ).
.
, .
) (focal length F.L).
( )
( ) (occular).
) .

.

4 -10 cm
( 3,5 mm 80 mm ).
1 -7 .
1
2

Tolles, Kepler
Ramsden

Achromatic,Kellner

Orthoscopic

5
6

Tank, Plossl
Erfle, Abbe
Nagler

. ,
.

, .


.
( ) .
= . mm / FL

(3)

cm, mm
mm FL mm.
)
(f/)
FL .

. (f/),
.
) Dawes (Dawes Limit) W.Daves 19
. .

. , Daves

, .
. .
Daves () . ,
=11,5824/

(4)

,
. , .

, .

) .

( )
( ).

, 13 .
Roger Bacon, 1590

.
1608 Lippershey
1609
().

1) .

=3 cm. 40 mm 120 cm
30 7,15.
, .

2)

. 1611

),

.

45


( )
.
,
.




,

.
( Chester Moore
(1733).
Peter Dolland (1765,
).

)
)
) ,

.
.

2) .


.
.
.

1) GREGORIAN.


1663
Gregory James.
.



.
,

.
,
,

.


.
( f ) f /12 - f /20.

2) NEWTONIAN.

1669

. ,
f /4 - f /8 .
(F.L) =20 cm
()=5 cm
f /4 .

. ,
90,
.

3) CASSEGRAIN. N. Cassegrain
1671
.
Gregorian
.

. (FL)
(f/) f/
. Cassegrain

1. . .
2. Dall- Kirkham. (1928) ,
.
.
3. Rittchey- Chretien. (1910) .
.
f/ (8-9) Cassegrain.
4. Pressman- Carnichel.

.

4) Herschel.


William
Herschel 18

.

122
.

12,2
! (f/10).

.

Cassegrain.

5) (Prime focus 1901).


H.Ellery.

.
2,5-5.

6)

Nasmyth
James
Nasmyth (19 ).



,
.

.

7,5.

7) Coude (1917)
Nasmyth


. . f/20-40.

8)

Relay

Cassegrain,
2 .

,
2

.

9) Jones-Bird

Relay ,
.
,
f/8-9.

10) Tilted-Component

,

.
,

.

.

.

.
. ,
.

15 .

) , .
,

4 .
)
,
.
) .
.

11) .
.

,
,
.


.
, .
.
.
.
1918 Emile Schaer
.

10 Frank Ross
.

12) Schmidt camera. 1931

.Schmidt

44

36 .
( 16)
f/2
.

13) Maksutov camera. 1944


Dimitri Maksutov
Schmidt camera ,


.

14) Baker camera.


,
. f/0,67
55.

3 .



. ,
.

) .



.

.


( ),
2 .

Dobsonian.

)
Dobsonian
.
.
,
.

Table .

II. Clark II .

,
.


( )


.

.


2100 .

.


. ( 38).
,
.


) 2 ,
- .

.

-
.

) (FORK).
..
. .
. .

(YOKE).
,

.
.
.

)
.



.
. .

1. .

,


.
(),
.

,

.

,
.


.
.