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Whittle Professor Mary Newman ART 211: History of Graphic Design April 28, 2011 Outline for Classic Rock Album Covers 1960-2010 I. INTRODUCTION: What is Classic Rock? A. A radio station format of rock and roll music that mostly features artists of the 1960‟s, „70‟s, and „80‟s. B. This format grew out of AOR (Album Oriented Rock) (“Classic Rock 101”). C. KMPX-FM in San Francisco started to play twenty-four hour rock music in 1967 (Molon et al 252), mostly of a psychedelic sub-genre; disc jockey Tom Donohue played songs longer than three minutes (Szatmary 159). D. In 1981, WYSP in Philadelphia was the first radio station to call itself “Classic Rock” (Hawkins). E. WZLX-FM (Boston) signed on in 1985; forty percent of radio programming was “classic rock” or “oldies” by 1988 (Szatmary 280). II. (SAMPLE) MUSICAL ARTISTS OF CLASSIC ROCK A. Bob Dylan has been performing folk music since his first performance at the University of Minnesota in 1959 (Szatmary 91). B. Joan Baez made her debut at the 1959 Newport (Rhode Island) Folk Festival (Szatmary 94). C. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones began performing in the early 1960‟s. D. The Who (1965-2010) began as the first mainstream psychedelic band with technological innovations; while Jefferson Airplane pioneered the psychedelic style underground (“Top 50: 1-25”). E. In 1965, the Doors were founded at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Szatmary 154); the Grateful Dead were established that same year as part of the cloister (Szatmary 157) in the Haight-Ashbury District of San Francisco (Szatmary 153). F. Jimmy Page invented “heavy metal” with the band Led Zeppelin (Szatmary 129). G. Pink Floyd was founded in 1966 (Szatmary 161); since then they have sold over 200 million albums (“Top 50: 1-25”).
Whittle 2 H. The Moody Blues, Jethro Tull, Genesis, the Electric Light Orchestra (ELO), and Yes played classical music with rock and roll themes (Szatmary 2024). I. Other groups include, but not limited to: Fleetwood Mac, the Eagles, Bruce Springsteen and the E-Street Band, Queen, the Talking Heads, The Police, U2, Van Halen, and AC/DC. III. SELECTED ALBUM COVERS FOR PRESENTATION A. The Beach Boys Today by the Beach Boys 1. Album cover designed by John Engstead 2. Released by Capitol Records in 1966 3. Picture of the five band members in a small frame, dressed within Dick Clark‟s dress code for American Bandstand (Szatmary 58). 4. All capital letters, bold Arial type B. Flowers by the Rolling Stones 1. Created by Guy Webster and Tom Wilkes 2. Title in psychedelic format with bright colors 3. Released by London Records C. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band by the Beatles 1. Released by Capitol Records in 1967 2. A collage of several influential people in history 3. Format like a photo scene of a military or high school marching band. D. The White Album by the Beatles 1. Concept by Richard Hamilton after consultation with Paul McCartney (Molon et al 73). 2. Band name type in Helvetica only E. Through the Past, Darkly by the Rolling Stones 1. Hexagonal shape (e.g. stop sign) 2. “Big Hits” album 3. Picture of the band members looking at the viewer F. Woodstock by Crosby, Stills and Nash 1. Very futuristic, has elements of Art Deco 2. Depicts a Star Trek scene or a Greek myth G. Harvest Moon by Neil Young 1. Simple Arts and Crafts Movement design by Tom Wilkes 2. Released by Reprise Records in 1972 H. The Song Remains the Same by Led Zeppelin
Whittle 3 1. Soundtrack album cover designed by the firm Hipgnosis/Hardie 2. Realistic architectural drawing of a run-down theatre
Whittle 4 I. Night Moves by Bob Seger and the Silver Bullet Band 1. Bob Seger pictured in front of a full moon at nighttime (Bert). 2. Released by Capitol Records in 1976 J. Running on Empty by Jackson Browne 1. Art directed by Jimmy Wachtel 2. Drum set placed in the middle of the highway in the desert. 3. Color is monotone with the extensive use of brown. K. Boston Ride by Lilith 1. All-female rock band from Boston 2. Band black and white photograph by Susan Wilson 3. Italicized text feels like a moving car L. Rumours by Fleetwood Mac 1. Victorian/Romantic band logo 2. Mick Fleetwood escorting Stevie Nicks, dressed in Shakespearian clothing. 3. Photograph by Hebert Worthington 4. Designed by Desmond Strobel M. Van Halen 1 by Van Halen is a picture of the four band members in action in gird squares. N. Enlightened Rouges by the Allman Brothers Band 1. Gothic band logo 2. Real stained-glass frame constructed by Sunshine Glass Works of Los Angeles. O. Born in the USA by Bruce Springsteen 1. Photo of Bruce Springsteen‟s blue jeans by Annie Leibovitz 2. Album released by Columbia Records in 1984 P. Frontiers by Journey 1. Cover designed by Jim Welch of Artists and Friends 2. A science fiction theme on the cover Q. 1984 by Van Halen 1. Album cover designed by Margo Zafer Nahas 2. Use of light colors, naturalistic 3. Cherub is smoking cigarettes R. Our Time in Eden by 10,000 Maniacs shows Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, depicted in an Arts & Crafts and Romantic style.
Whittle 5 S. Rock A Little by Stevie Nicks 1. Stevie Nicks is pictured in her trademark black dress 2. Stevie‟s name is more important than the album title 3. Modern image, but traditional 4. Art directed by Michael Hodgson T. Brothers in Arms by Dire Straits 1. Painting of Guitar Heaven by Thomas Steyer 2. Complementary and contemporary colors 3. Steel guitar is the band‟s trademark 4. Released by Warner Bros. Records in 1985 U. Kick by INXS 1. Collage of band members on white negative space 2. Simple and legible 3. Nick Egan served as main art director V. The Joshua Tree by U2 1. Designed by Steve Averill of the Creative Dept. in Dublin 2. Band photograph is on one side, the desert is on the right side 3. Pictured in grayscale W. The Beatles 1 consists of the thirty number one hits the band recorded, in which Rick Ward designed a simple “1” in yellow on a red background. X. Say You Will by Fleetwood Mac 1. “Hands 1991” photograph by Keith Carter shows Stevie Nicks and Lindsey Buckingham lying on the wood floor (Mick Fleetwood and John McVie are cut-off on the edges of the cover and are primarily lying on the back cover of the jacket). 2. Photo is in grayscale except for the band name, which is in white. 3. “Say You Will” is pictured upside down in red. Y. The Vicious Cycle Tour is a live album recorded by Lynyrd Skynyrd in 2004, released by Sanctuary Records. The band logo is a classic southern style. Z. Déjà vu All Over Again by John Fogerty 1. Brother Bob Fogerty took the cover photograph of John on the motorcycle. 2. The cover is grayscale except for red and blue text. 3. John and his wife Julie served as co-directors of art for the album.
Whittle 6 Works Cited Beatles, The. White Album. Hollywood: Capitol Records, Inc., 1968: Cover. Phonograph. Bert, Tom (photo.) Night Moves. Music by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band. Hollywood: Capitol Records, Inc., 1976: Cover. Phonograph. Carter, Keith. “Hands 1991”, Say You Will. Music by Fleetwood Mac, art dir. Stephen Walker. New York: Reprise Records, 2003: Cover. CD. Cooper, Sutton et al. Brothers in Arms. Music by Dire Straits. New York: Warner Bros. Records, Inc., 1985: Cover. Phonograph. Corbin, Anton and Averill, Steve, The Creative Dept., Dublin. The Joshua Tree. Music by U2. New York: Island Records, Inc., 1987: Cover. Phonograph. Egan, Nick et al. (art dir.) Kick. Music by INXS. New York: Atlantic Recording Corporation, 1987: Cover. Phonograph. Engstead, John (photo.) The Beach Boys Today. Music by The Beach Boys. Hollywood: Capitol Records, 1966: Cover. Phonograph. Fogerty, Bob. Déjà Vu All Over Again. Music by John Fogerty, art dir. Geoff Gans et al. Santa Monica: Geffen Records, 2004: Cover. CD. Hawkins, Kathy. “What is Classic Rock Music?”, Wisegeek.com. 2011; Accessed 2/15/2011. HTML. Hipgnosis/Hardie. The Song Remains the Same. Music by Led Zeppelin. New York: Swan Song, Inc., 1976: Cover. Phonograph. Hodgson, Michael (art dir). Rock a Little. Music by Stevie Nicks. Los Angeles: Modern Records, Inc., 1985: Cover. Phonograph. Kaylan, Diana Marie et al. Enlighten Rouges. Music by The Allman Brothers Band. Macon: Capricorn Records, Inc., 1979: Cover. Phonograph.
Whittle 7 Klein, Andrea and Leibovitz, Annie. Born in the USA. Music by Bruce Springsteen. New York: Columbia Records, 1984: Cover. Phonograph. Lynyrd Skynyrd. The Vicious Cycle Tour. New York: Sanctuary Records Group, 2004: Cover. CD. MC Productions. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. Music by The Beatles. Hollywood: Capitol Records, Inc., 1967: Cover. Phonograph. Molon, Dominic et al. Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock and Roll Since 1967. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. Print. Nahas, Margo Zafer. 1984. Music by Van Halen, art dir. Pete Angelus et al. New York: Warner Bros. Records, Inc., 1984: Cover. CD. “Rock”. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. 4th ed.; ed. Randel, Don Michael. Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2003: 734-35. Print. Russell, Ethan (photo.) Through the Past, Darkly (Big Hits Vol. 2). Music by The Rolling Stones. New York: London Records, 1970: Cover. Phonograph. Strobel, Desmond and Worthington, Hebert. Rumours. Music by Fleetwood Mac. Burbank: Warner Bros. Records, Inc., 1977: Cover. Phonograph. Szatmary, David P. Rockin‟ in Time: A Social History of Rock-and-Roll, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall, Inc., 2004. Print. Wachtel, Jimmy et al. Running on Empty. Music by Jackson Browne. Los Angeles: Elektra/Asylum Records, 1977: Cover. Phonograph. Ward, Rick. “Cover”, The Beatles 1. Music by The Beatles. Hollywood: Capitol Records, 2000: Cover. CD. Webster, Guy and Wilkes, Tom. Flowers. Music by The Rolling Stones. New York: London Records, Inc., 196?: Cover. Phonograph.
Whittle 8 Welch, Jim. Frontiers. Music by Journey. New York: Columbia Records, 1983: Cover. Phonograph. White, Dave. “Classic Rock 101: Who Put the „Classic‟ in Classic Rock?”, About.com Classic Rock. New York: The New York Times Co., 2011; Accessed 2/15/2011. HTML. -----. “Top 50 Classic Rock Bands 1-25”, About.com Classic Rock. New York: The New York Times Co., 2011; Accessed 2/15/2011. HTML. -----. “Top 50 Classic Rock Bands 26-50”, About.com Classic Rock. New York: The New York Times Co., 2011: Accessed 2/15/2011. HTML. Wilkes, Tom. Harvest. Music by Neil Young. New York: Reprise Records, 1972: Cover. Phonograph. Wilson, Susan et al. Boston Ride. Music by Lilith. Type. Universal Typographics, Boston. Woburn: Galaxia, 1978: Cover. Phonograph.