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During the past few years, the term "women in development" has
become common currency both inside and outside academic settings. But while "women in development" or "WID",
integration of women into global processes
political and social growth and change, there often is confusion
about the meaning of two more recent acronyms,
"WAD" and "dAD".
examination of meanings and
look at the
extent to which differing views of the relationship
between gender and development have
policymaking and international agency thinking since the mid1960s.
suggested that each term has been associated with a
varying set of assumptions and has led to the formulation of
different strategies for the
participation of women in
women in Development
term "women in development" came into use in the early
Women's Role in
1970s, after the publication of Ester Boserup's
systematically delineate on a global level the sexual division of
but she was the first to in systematically use gender as an independent variable analysis. belleria and gtn i99i). Boserup's research was later her its criticized by for oversimplification of the nature of women's work and roles (e. both men and women Boserup's work was remarkable in that it was based on analysis of data and evidence which had long been available to social scientists and development planners. technologies are used.g. D. areas intensive.C. cultivation. share in irrigation-based agricultural tasks. the attention of A set of common concerns. women tend to do the majority of agricultural work. but it was Seminal in focussing scholarly attention on the sexual division of labour and the differential impact by gender of development and modernization strategies. She concluded is that in sparsely populated regions where shifting agriculture practiced. The term "WILY" was initially used by the women's committee of chapter of the a the Washington. Society for International Development as part of evidence generated American policymakers deliberate strategy to bring the new to by Boserup and others (Maguire 1984). in more de17se1y populated regions. in where ploughs and other simple men tend to do more of the agricultural of work.. Finally.3 labour that existed in in agrarian economies. She analysed the changes that occured traditional agricultural practics as societies became modernized and examined the differential impact of those changes on the work done by men and women. loosely labelled "Women in Development" or WID began to be articulated by American liberal feminists who advocated legal and .
4 administrative changes to ensure that women would be better integrated into economic systems (Jaquette 1982). i. would improve the standards of living of the developing countries. supported by the "human capital" approach was+ of to theorists such as the American economist Theodore Schultz. this would enable the turn evolution of static. With the of growth of the economies modernization. etc. education. in if workers and managers (1961). inveet heavily in the establishment of education systems and to of develop strong cores rarely. were considered as a separate unit of analysis the modernization literature of this period. which was further The policy prescription for this view. essentially agrarian societies into industrialized and modernized ones. the benefits of better living conditions. wages. It was assumed . would "trickle down" to all segments of the society. stocks in of well-trained workers and managers would emerge. The Win perspective was closely linked with the modernization paradigm which dominated mainstream thinking on international development during the 1960s and into the 170s. in the 1950s and 160s.e. They placed primary emphasis strategies and disadvantages of on egalitarianism in and on the development of action programs aimed at minimizing the women the productive sector and ending discrimination against them. conventional wisdom decreed that "modernization. adequate health services." which was usually equated with industrialization. Women ever. It was argued that through massive expansion of education systems. these countries.
but also due to the role assigned to them as supplementary rattier than principal wage earners (Lim 1981). position There of was evidence which suggested 1970. formal the industrial sector. recognition that women's experience of development and of societal change differed from that of men was institutionalized and it became legitimate for research to focus specifically on women's experiences and perceptions. Under the rubric of WIQ. 1976. Nonetheless. 1976. was being questioned by many reseachers. especially at the tertiary level. As new technologies were introduced into the agricultural sector. 1982). improved very little over the past two even decades.S that the norm of the male experience was generalizable to fama1e5 and that all would benefit equally as societies increasingly became modernized. women were less likely to benefit from the surge of educational expansion (Muchena 1982). a condition due in part to their low levels of education. In they usually were directed at men rather than women. this view of modernization. in Boulding. women often were relegated to the lowest-paying. . that the some women had declined (Boserup. It was argued that the relative position of women had. Kelly and Elliot. example. Tinker and Bramson. Enrolment figures. By the 1970s. For general. Research in the 1970s confirmed Boserup's earlier findings. most monotonous and sometimes health-impairing jobs. sectors of the the position of women in various economy for the The first time was studied separate from that of men. in fact. tended to be lower for females.
First. This non-confrontational approach avoided questioning the sources and nature of women's subordination and oppression and focussed instead on advocacy for more equal ." For the most part. because it was Been as growing out of modernization theory and the notion of development as a process of slow but steady linear progress. or the provision of extension services and credit facilities the development of so-called appropriate (Stamp 1989 technologies which would lighten women's workloads forthcoming).6 the WID approach was based on several assumptions which were at in odds with critical trends in social sciences research the 1970s. the WID approach began from an acceptance of existing social structures. solutions adopted were within the realm of the "technological fix" with attention given to the transfer of technology. Statistics were beginning to show that women had fared less well from development efforts of the 1960s therefore a new strategy was called for. Rather than examine why women had fared less well from development strategies during the past decade. as adopted by international agencies. By the mid-170s. the WID approach. was solidly grounded in traditional modernization theory. Second. and related to the point above. the WID approach focussed only on how women could better be integrated into ongoing development initiatives. donor agencies to adjust the were the beginning to implement intervention programs imbalance of development "pay-off. It became an acceptable area of focus.
child care at the same time (Huvinic 1986). Third. Project planners and implementors often are well-intentioned volunteers with little or no previous experience. The WID approach also tended to be ahistorical and overlooked the impact and influence of class. a A5 such the WID approach provided only benefit crude set of analytical tools which did not insights of much of the critical thinking in the front the Bocial Sciences during the 1970s. ignoring or reproductive side of women's lives. it recognize that exploitation as being in itself a central component of a global system of capital ilCC-1-H ULI- t i on ( goner i>a and Ben 1980. WID projects typically have been income-generating activities where women are taught a particular skill or craft and sometimes are organized into marketing cooperatives. It is rare for feasibility studies to be . race and culture ( Mbilinyi 1984b. It focussed on women the and gender as a unit of analysis without that exist in recognizing the important divisions among women and of frequent exploitation that Nor did occurs most societies poor women by richer ones. Moreover. employment and other spheres of WID society (Mbilinyi 1984a). or it did not recognize contribution of more radical critical perspectives such as dependency theory or marxist analyses. Thus.7 participation in education. Nijeholt 1987). the wiD approach tended to focus exclusively on the minimizing the productive aspects of women's work. Frequently a welfare outlook is added to literacy or projects and women are taught aspects of hygiene. because the rooted in approach was the modernization theory.
8 undertaken in advance to ensure that a viable r(tarket project planners to exis+ts+ for a skill or product that will be produced and it is equally rare for take serious note of the extent to which women already are overburdened with tasks and responsibities. It is based on the assumption that gender relations will change of themselves aC women become full economic partners in development. its theoretical base from dependency theory although dependency theory. the WAD approach probably emerged it draws some of in the second half of the 1970s. for the most part. Historically. when women's income-generating projects do prove to be successful and become significant sources by men. of revenue. The common assumption is that access to income will be a sufficently powerful stimulant to encourage women somehow to juggle their time in such a way as to participate in yet another activity. they often are has appropriated The WID/liberal feminist approach offered little defense against this reality because it does not challenge the basic social relations of gender. like marxist analysis. approach grew out of a concern with the explanatory limitations of modernization theory and its proselytization of the idea that exclusion of the women from earlier development strategies had . women and Development The demarcation between the WID and the WAD approaches is not entirely clear. 2. has given remarkably little The WAD specific attention to issues of gender subordination.
Integration serves primarily to sustain existing international structures of inequality. tends like WID. In essence. of departure that women always have been "integrated" Into their societies and that thi. The WAD perspective recognizes that Third World men who do not have elite status also have been adversely effected by the structure of the inequalities within the international system but it has of given little analytical attention to the social relations gender within classes. Achola Okello Pala noted in the mid-1970s that the notion of "integrating women into development" was inextricably linked to the maintenance of economic dependency of Third World and especially African (1977). the WAD approach begins from the position that women always have been part of processes and that the development the they did not suddenly appear the in early 1970s as result of insights and intervention strategies of a few scholars and agency personnel. it practical implementation terms. maintenance of those societies.9 been an inadvertent oversight.to group women together without taking strong analytical note of . The countries on the perspective industrialized countries on WAD focusses the relationship between women and than purely on strategies Its point for development processes rather the is integration of women into development. central work to thty tar} both Inrjide and outside the household is but that this the. the Theoretically the WAD but in perspective recognizes project design and impact of class. The question of gender and cross-gender alliances within classes has not been systematically addressed.
undertake a WAD offers a more critical view of women's position than does it fails to full-scale analysis of the of relationship between patriarchy. under -representation of women economic. differing modes and women's production subordination and oppression. it should be noted that there is a tension within the WAD perspective which discourages a strict analytical focus on the problems of women independent of those of men since both sexes are seen to be disadvantaged within oppressive global structures based on class and capital. A second weakness shared by the WAD approach is a singular preoccupation with the productive sector at the expense of the reproductive side of women's work and lives. Finally. WID/WAD intervention strategies therefore development of have tended to concentrate on the income-generating activities without taking into account the time burdens that such strategies place on women . race influence WID but or ethnicity. in in the meantime.to class. women's condition primarily is seen within the structure of international and class inequalities. since the WAD perspective does not give detailed attention to the overriding influence of the ideology of patriarchy. all of which may exercise powerful on women's actual social status. political a and social structures still is identified primarily as problem which can be solved by carefully designed intervention strategies rather than by more fundamental shifts in the social relations of gender. The WAD perspective implicitly assumes that women's position will improve if and when international structures the become more equitable.
Gender and Development Thr as gthdtr and development approach has emerged in the 1980s alternative to the earlier WID focus. in an It finds its theoretical roots socialist feminism and has bridged the gap linking the relations of left by the. including those of social reproduction. this has been a reflection of tendency of both modernization and dependency theorists to utilize exclusively economic or political economy analyses and to discount the insights of the so-called "softer" social sciences. modernization theorists. the enhancing income- In essence. the ill and elderly. rearing. questioning the validity of roles which have been ascribed to both women and men in different societies. etc.11 (Roberts 1979. 3. Development plann6r5 have tended to impose western biases and assumptions on the south and the tasks performed by women in the household. housework. production to the relations of account all aspects of women's feminists have reproduction and taking into (Jaquette 1982). . lives Socialist identified the social construction of production and reproduction as the basis of women's oppression and have focussed attention on the social relations of gender. has been considered to belong to "private" domaine and outside the purview of development projects aimed at generating activities. including childbearing and care of the. are assigned no economic value. McSweeney and Freedman 1982). The labour invested its family maintenance.
GAD approach starts from a holistic perspective. economic and political order to understand the shaping of particular aspects of society" 1987: 2). of women's (and men's) lives to the exclusion of the It analyses the nature of women's contribution within the context of work done both inside and outside the household. The GAD approach dues not focus singularly on productive or reproductive aspects other. Both the socialist/feminist and GAD approaches give special attention to the oppression of women in the family and enter the so-called "private sphere" to analyse the assumptions upon which conjugal relationships are based. and rejects the a public/private dichotomy which commonly has been used as mechanism to undervalue family and household maintenance work performed by women. the GAD approach welcomes the potential contributions of men who share a concern for issues of equity and social justice (Ben and crown 1987). looking at "the totality of life in social organization.12 Kate Young (1987 ) has the GAD approach. identified some of the key aspects of the Perhaps most significantly. seeing it as the duty of the state to provide some of the social services which women in many . In on contrast to the emphasis is exclusively female solidarity which highly prized by radical feminists. GAD also puts greater emphasis on the participation of the state in promoting women's emancipation. (Young CAD is not concerned with women per se but with the social construction of roles. including non-commodity production. gender and the assignment of specific responsibilities and expectations to women and to men.
1.3 countries have provided The passive OAL on a private approach sees of women as. leads. have been manipulated by men to the disadvantage Tht the fttl aEiEirodc-Ti ggpa further than of wtv or WALE in gueetioning economic and underlying assumptions current social. race and development (Maguire 1984). A key focus of research being done front a strengthening of women's legal GAD perspective is including the is on the rights. socialist feminists and researchers working within the GAD perspective are exploring both the connections among and the contradictions of gender. Research also the examining confusions created by the co-existance of customary and in statutory legal systems many countries and the tendency for of these to women. class. inevitably. . Consequently. reform of inheritance and land laws. which power of entrenched elites. political structures. importance of both class solidarities and class it distinctions but argues that the ideology of patriarchy to operates within and across classes oppress women. individual ba5i5r agents of change rattier than as and it recipients development and stresses the heed for women to organize themselves It recognizes the for more effective political voice. fundamental re- examination of ultimately. to social the loss structures of and institutions and. A GAD perspective leads not only to the design of intervention and affirmative action strategies which will ensure that women It are better integrated into to a ongoing development efforts.
14 inevitably will effect some women as well as men. Not surprisingly. although there are some examples of partial GAD From Theory to Practice M rioted. to some extent this not be is a reflection of political expediency and should interpreted as a sign of As fundamental commitment to the liberation of women. it i5 clear that the general notion of focussing on women separate a from men in at least some projects has been accepted by of considerable number Third World governments. the actual process of ensuring equity for women even within those same institutions is still far from complete. However. "integrating women into development" has been accepted by many institutions. while the rhetoric of will be discussed below. WID. There is no question that the majority of the projects for . and in many non-governmental organizations. national and international development agencies. a fully articulated GAD perspective is less often found in the projects and activities of international development agencies approaches. However. it should be emphasized that just as the WID/WAD/GAD approaches are it often is not possible not entirely conceptually distinct a to place development project squarely within a single theoretical framework. WAD and GAD each have led and continue to lead to different types of development projects.
ina-dequate reeearch and information on women which limited ability of development planners to create projects relevant to women. - health burden of frequent pregnancies and malnourishment. modern agricultural equipment. attitudes and prejudices against women's participation.15 women which have emerged during the past two decades find in their roots the WID perspective. credit. - time-consuming nature of women's "chores". techniques and extension service. In a 1984 analysis of the publications of various international development agencies which were beginning to focus of women. and . that is within the WID/WAD . (1984: 13). - legal barriers. lacy of access to land.11fidtrldRi2lg of Wom@11 k b traditional po5 it ion as economically contributing partners. . An examination of this list confirms the tendency of mainstream development agencies to identify problems within the context of existing socioeconomic structures. limited access to and use of formal education. Patricia Maguire noted that identify the following constraints as being they tended to detrimental to the status of women in Third world societies: - traditions. resulting in high female illiteracy.
enable them to become more independent economically and participate more actively in community development activities (Palmer 1979. clothing. shelter. appropriate technology.Needs Approach in 1976 which was designed to enable women to provide more effectively for their families' most fundamental human needs (food.). while the Basic Needs Approach may have been based on a desire to ensure that the poor had some control over their own . etc. be community education. Each of the above a conceivably could be "solved" through it the application of specific intervention strategy. Beneria and Ben 1982). None questions the fundamental inequities of an international system which perpetuates the dependency of the South on the North and none questions the social construction of gender which has relegated (Rogers. the domestic realm In both North and South An examination of the women-oriented programs and projects the which have been developed by bilateral and multilateral agencies since mid-1970s confirms this tendency. the development of extension services and credit facilities. women to 1980). the compilation of further information and statistics. family planning. Each of the problems has been identified on the assumption of culpability Lin the part of the developing countries and neutral disinterest part of the on the industrialized countries. The International (ILO) Labour organization articulated a Basic.16 perspective rather problems identified than within the rAD perspective. etc. At the same time it was intended as a strategy to ease women's work burdens.
the British ODA and the Canadian efbA all have adopted strategies to ensure that women in developing countries benefit directly from their programs and. of women and affirmative action to ensure greater representation in agency staff positions can be identified. it did not c=hallenge existing patterns of inequality. in and employment of women development banks multilateral organizations and 1988). research on WID. and as such was. to For example. An analysis of the programs of many multilateral and bilateral development agencies reveals strategies for the a similar pattern. are improvement on earlier strategies. Various integration of women into on-going programs. However.17 lives. to to countries establish formal WID for to put aside fund special funds women-related advocate the in activities. It did not focus on issues of redistribution of land or wealth within socieites nor did it question the sexual divisor of labour within households. to try to ensure that female staff are represented in positions of power within their own organizations. of the actual processes There have been few in-depth analyses . the Danish DANIDA. the Development Assistance committee of the OECD has emphasized the necessity for member strategies. few strategies have been developed to question or attempt to influence in a profound fashion the social relations of gender in any given society. (Rathgeber Bilateral agencies like the swedi5h SIDA. to varying degrees. As such it can be seen as another example of modernization theory-driven development.
a small budget which necessitated dependency on the budgets of other bureaus within the Agency. Sta udt notes that "Agency personnel frequently complain that WID Is a 'womem. study of US AID's WID office by Kathleen Staudt revealed that these objectives had been pursued with varying degrees of interest and commitment. However. such statements are usually no more than a paragraph and are often recycled from one document to another. Staudt's (1982) description of the establishment of the WID office in 1974 is instructive t have a "women She notes that while each AID policy paper must impact" statement. development and/or equity justification" The WID office had a weak power base because of its small staff allocation. an agency that had overwhelmingly male professional and female clerical staff. Moreover. up 4 percent from 1974 but equal to what the number had been in the early 1960s. all female. Staudt demonstrates quite clearly that there may exist a considerable gap between the articulation of official policy on the part of . early 1980s the number of AID-supported international trainees who were women was 13 percent.18 of integration of of women and Wofien-related concerns into the a programs donor agencies. rather than an issue (1982: grounded 270). early 1980s. In the. the WID office in staff consisted of only five professionals. Staudt notes that despite efforts to in the increase the number of women benefitting from AID grants. few allies in the technical areas and a limited mandate which enabled the office to raise concerns but not to veto projects.n1s lib' issue being used in to expert American ideas.
Thus the existence of official WID policies cannot be judged as an accurate of commitment to gender Agencies. issues into their programs (Rathgeber Some.19 agencies and the development of support within the agencies for the implementation of such policies. arguing that to do so would bt to p?t rpetu. such as the British ODA (overseas Development Administration). Ford Foundation. separate from those of has issues are somehow Despite the fact that they have not ttworften'811 established WID offices however. such as SIDA (the Swedish International Development Authority) began to finance projects aimed specifically at women as early as the 19605. a but in the mid-80s within this the office was expanded and given higher profile Bank. has required all institutions requesting support to provide evidence that women participate in their projects. each of the three foundations supported many women-related projects within the context of existing program structures. The World Bank has had an Advisor on Women in Development the since early 1970s. indicator issues within an agency. such as Ford. have taken different approaches with respect to the integration of gender 1988). moreover.-att tht notion that men. steadfastly refused to give special support to projects for women until the second half of the 1980Ef claiming that to do so would be to impose the cultural biases of the North on of the South. Rockefeller and Carnegie all have chosen not to establish separate women's offices or programs. A major . in Private foundations engaged in the support research developing countries. others.
AID carried out an evaluation of its experience with (AID 1987). and iii) women's components larger projects. training women also usually failed because women lacked capital to establish small businesses where they could utilize their new skills. Perhaps most disturbingly. ii) integrated gender-sensitive designs to meet their in women-only projects which usually are small for scope and labour-intensive in AID staff. Moreover. are based within a traditional view of women's roles. by which 40 WID office had been established for several years. the evaluation revealed that even time the the period 1980-84. It can be argued that such while of obvious and crucial importance. .20 fucu8 of the expanded office during the lath 1980s "Safe haLm been on motherhood" under the argument that: "Improving maternal health helps involve women more effectively in development" (Herz and Measham 1987). It was found that those projects which had included a careful analysis of the sexual division of labour and responsibilities and were designed in such a way aC to realistically reflect the contexts within which men and women worked. made this a major focus. in 1987. i) Women in Development between 1973-1985 The Agency identified three different kinds of projects: projects which require objectives. ultimately were more efficient In meeting developmental The goals. evaluation also revealed that women rarely were successful of income-generating in projects for improving the job economic positions projects for participants. In however. The World Health Organitation similarly has initiatives.
however they do reveal a trend which in keeping with the attitudes reported by 5taudt (1982). it is difficult to find examples from a of development projects which have been designed perspective. looking at women's access to land within customary and statutory . including both productive and reproductive a labour. to that such projects would be designed to empower give them an equal voice by recognizing the full spectrum of their knowledge.21 perc=ent of the projects evaluated. Towards the More Effective implementation of GAD As already noted. in concerted attempt to view women as development rather than as passive recipients of projects in Kenya. Tanzania and Nigeria are For example. one GAD might speculate women. made no mention at all of women. 1972-77. The Win Unit of the international Development Research Centre (IDRG) currently is supporting a number of research projects in a Africa which are making actors change. In the earlier period. Projects designed from GAD perspective would question traditional views of gender roles and responsibilities and point towards a more equitable definition of the very concept of "development" and of the contributions made by women and by men to the attainment of societal goals. 64 percent of the projoctb analysed had trade no mention of women. experience and activities. therefore the numbers are too small definitive conclusions. The universe of projects for is analysed was only 98.
has as its overall objective the legitimization of women's It knowledge about the environment. which involves researchers in francophone and anglophone Africa. Second. This project. women are beginnning less.n'b productivity hab been negatively effected by legal systems which favour male female ownership and ownership. examining the impact of project in on women (3hana iC farmers.22 law. of in This less in turn for leads to lower crop yields and less with the outcome surplus to cook food family consumption for sale local markets. The researchers have discovered that as women are longer periods of time searching for time for firewood. technological of change analysing alternative methods income generation which have been developed by female farmers after part of their land was appropriated for industrial purposes. focusses on three . indeed sometimes even fail to recognize begins from the The research recognition that women are primary producers of food and that denial of land rights has had negative consequences not only for them personally but also A for households which are dependent on their. and a5beb5ing the extent to which Wome. forced to spend less they have agriculture. serving their families cheap store-bought foods or serving food cooked several hours earlier and which may have already become tainted. The unit currently is supporting a major network in project on women and Natural Resource Management Africa. A project in Burkina Faso is looking at the impact of fuelwood shortages on women's agricultural practices and on family nutritional intakes.
23 interrelated themes: i) Natural resources as they are perceived by individuals and groups. reforestation schemes have advocated the planting of trees such as eucalyptus which do not provide women. they intersect with the changing environment. A substantial literature already exists on African women's loss of political power and personal autonomy. failure An example of of such a conceptual problem is the general policymakers and international agencies to recognize that deforestration has created a double crisis for women. who often have responsibility for care of small animals. ii) The. relationship between individuals and the natural This concern focusses on women's lives as environment. As a consequence. is The current tendency among development a planners to focus on natural environment as "problem" but how that "problem" is defined has had important implications for women. while there fuel is awareness example - of the energy problem . within cultures in the environment different ways.shortage of domestic for the livestock feed problem has for the most part been invisible. with necessary sources of fodder and they face grave difficulties in fulfilling their responsibilities with respect to family livestock. resource issues the insights of earlier research regarding . and the increased burden of labour placed upon them as a result both of changing environments and changing The network project will apply to specific gender relations. This concern begins from the position that different conceive of cultures and actor.
the relationship of Inevitably this linked with insofar as individuals with the environment many aspects of women's decision-making are organized by the groups in which women participate. through such strategies important women's knowledge. and In share a common concern for the empowerment of women for the legitimization of women's knowledge and experience. the The project will therefore attempt to establish positive aspects of group in order to strategy. self-help groups. Some evidence suggests that women have Imaginatively adapted their traditional associations. all of which are being carried out by African researchers. will document women's knowledge and then translate into language which will be Ultimately. of women's correct policymakers' neglect collective decision-making capacity as a powerful and necessary human resource. changing e_c-gnomic practices and relations and the impact of state and aid policies on women. to Women always have worked using together solve problems regarding natural resources. 111? The relationship between communities and the environment.29 property and use rights. revolving credit clubs. the researchers it essence. to these contemporary organizations. This third concern focusses on the ways in which communities is interact with natural resources. views and experience will become components of national decision-making processes. familiar and acceptable to policymakers. 'these projects. and other forms of contemporary political organization. including women's traditional practices. such as age sets and cultivation groups. .
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