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PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004

1. 2. 3.


By the end of Chapter 2.3, the reader will be able to:
Carry out a literature review. Review secondary data. Assess and address stakeholder needs.

Behavior Change Theory Research Objective

Scheduling, Budgeting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis Plan and Research Instrument

Situation Analysis

Sampling Quality Control

Research Strategy

Indicators, Model Research Plan and Annual Research Plan

Research Brief and Model Instruments

Evidence-based Decision Making

Sub-Contracting Training

Dissemination Implementation

Data Collection

Ethics and Stakeholder Satisfaction


Strategic, Project and Marketing Planning

Social Marketing Research Series and the Box Score


Marketing Situation Analysis

Chapter 2.3

Social marketers and research managers have now set a research objective that identifies the application of the research, states one or more research questions, answers those questions in terms of hypotheses, and sets one or more research boundaries (see Chapter 2.2). The next step is to conduct a situation analysis to confirm and sharpen the elements of the research objective and to move next to choosing a research strategy. The situation analysis is a systematic way of learning: What is known about the research questions and hypotheses in published and unpublished literature, and across PSI. This process is known as the literature review and the review of secondary data. What information your program stakeholders require from you and what information you require from them. This process is known as stakeholder analysis.

A literature review is a systematic classification of what others already know about your research objective (Taylor 2001). Remember, your research objective consists of: The application (segmentation, concept development, pretesting, monitoring, evaluation) Research questions Hypotheses Boundaries. Once a research objective is defined, PSI may be starting down a path that could involve costly research. It makes sense before embarking on that path: To find out in a systematic way what is known about the research topic To see what has already been done to avoid reinventing the wheel To sharpen your research objective


PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004 To learn about research strategies and questionnaires that have already been used To gain access to others who have carried out similar research. Steps in a Literature Review These steps in the literature review are adapted from Polit and Hungler (1995). The term literature review is used in two ways: First, the term describes the process shown in Figure 2.3-1, and FIGURE 2.3-1: STEPS IN A LITERATURE REVIEW second, it applies to the written output of that process described simply as a concise review. Identify Key Words. In the last chapter, PSI/Nigeria stated a research objective as segmentation, and one of the research questions as: By those intending to practice safer sex and contraception, which opportunity, ability, and motivation constructs offer the best opportunity for influencing behavior change? The hypothesis was: Self-efficacy and outcome expectations remain the most important constructs for influencing behavior change among those who intend to use condoms.

Key words are the terms that you will use to conduct a literature search using Internet-based search engines. Identifying key words is difficult and requires trial and error. Generally, PSI follows the social marketing analytical framework to select key words. Table 2.3-1 shows some examples of key words that might be applicable in the example cited above.


Marketing Situation Analysis


Conduct the Literature Search

HIV/AIDS, family planning, reproductive Not so many years health, sexual health, sexually transmitted ago, doing a literadisease, sexually transmitted infections ture search meant Behavior condom, contraceptive use, risk reduction, that you had to go to behavior change, modern method use a university library Need high-risk groups, women of reproductive age, and thumb through low-prevalence settings an encyclopedic inOutput self-efficacy, outcome expectations, determidex, such as Index nants, antecedents, predictors, influencers, Medicus, to locate barriers, your key words and identify relevant artiTheory social learning theory, social cognitive theory cles. Then, you Intervention social marketing, Nigeria, health promotion, health education, West Africa, Africa would wander through the stacks gathering bound volumes of journals, locate the articles, and lug the books to a photocopier where you would have to pay to copy the articles. All that has changed with the advent of the Internet, wide availability of powerful search engine software, and online accessibility of abstracts, if not full-text articles. All you need do is go online and enter your key words into databases such as these: PubMed: A database maintained by the National Library of Medicine near Washington, D.C. National Centre for Reviews and Dissemination: A database maintained by the University of York in the United Kingdom. Popline: A database maintained by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communications Programs. World Health Organization:

Framework Construct Outcomes: Health or Quality of Life

Key Word Suggestions


PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004 UNAIDS: World Bank: Google: An Internet search engine. For example, a search of PubMed using the key words Nigeria and HIV resulted in 241 responses, sometimes called hits (Figure 2.3-2). Many of the responses are of no interest to PSI, but some are. The responses you get from PubMed will concern information in academic journals; responses from Popline and Google will concern information from: Books Journal Articles Internet Websites Government Documents Government Statistics Newspapers Gray Literature (Conference Proceedings, Dissertations, PSI Working Papers, or other non-published materials) FIGURE 2.3-2: THE PUBMED INTERFACE


Marketing Situation Analysis Published literature reviews.

Chapter 2.3

The word AND is important when you incorporate it in your key word search. It means that only sources that contain both the words Nigeria and HIV will be identified. If you were to use the word OR instead, then all sources containing either the word Nigeria or the word HIV would be identified. You would probably get many more responses if you had used the word OR instead of AND. Words and phrases such as AND, OR, BUT NOT are called Boolean operators. Many databases include instructions about how to use Boolean operators to perform power- BOX 2.3-2: LITERATURE REVIEWS ful, focused literature reviews. Another AVAILABLE FROM PSI term you are likely to enTopic PSI Literature Reviews counter when you are doing online literature reAbstinence views is search string, Lubricant and HIV which refers to key words PSIs Impact on B (Behavior Change) and C linked together with one (Condom Use) or more Boolean operaHIV/AIDS Antiretroviral Therapy tors. Circumcision Commercial Sex Workers Other Sources. By sendPrevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission ing a note to your regional Delayed sexual debut in sub-Saharan Africa researcher, you can also Hormonal Contraceptives access literature reviews ReproducDepo-Provera and Irregular Bleeding produced within PSI. Tative Health Switching from Depo-Provera to Noristerat ble 2.3-2 lists some of the Menopause and Depo-Provera literature reviews available from PSI. PSI Research can also assist with your literature review. For example, the PSI Research Library subscribes to many journals, going back about 5 years. Articles from these journals, which are listed in Table 2.3-3, can be retrieved easily. PSI Research also provides a literature retrieval service. This has two components:


PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004 ProCite database: This continuous activity archives relevant articles as they are found and retrieved for all PSI programs. The articles are catalogued using the reference manager software known as ProCite. PSI programs that have ProCite can have the database sent to them periodically, and you can identify articles available in PSIs archive. Library retrieval service: The PSI research intern is responsible for retrieving articles not available in the PSI Research Library or in the ProCite database. Requests for this service can be sent to BOX 2.3-3: PSI RESEARCH LIBRARY SUBSCRIPTIONS Contraceptive Technology AIDS and Behavior Culture, Health and Sexuality AIDS Care Family Planning Perspectives AIDS Education Health Policy and Planand Prevention ning AIDS Journal International Family Planning Perspectives American Journal International Journal of of Public Health STDs and AIDS Evaluate Literature Found. Because you will retrieve perhaps hundreds of possible relevant sources, you need to keep your search as narrow as possible. To do this, read the abstracts. In terms of the Nigeria example, is there AIDS JAIDS (Journal of AIDS) Journal of Adolescent Health Journal of Biosocial Science Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases The Lancet Population and Development Review Population Studies Social Marketing Quarterly Social Science and Medicine STATA Journal Studies in Family Planning Tropical Medicine and International Health

BOX 2.3-4: CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING THE RELEVANCE OF LITERATURE It is recent and has not been made redundant or out of date by more recent research It is close to my research objective and context. It is cited by others. It directly supports or contradicts my arguments It is possible to identify how the piece is biased and or limited. (Saunders et al. 1997)

information about self-efficacy and outcome expectations? Is the study less than 10 years old? Will it really be worth the substantial effort for PSI to go to the library, photocopy the article, and send it to you? Usually, you should


Marketing Situation Analysis

Chapter 2.3

expect to be able to review closely a limited number of articles, perhaps just 10 or so. Classify Literature Found. Each piece of literature is then reviewed and coded. Coding refers to the process of reading articles and grouping the information presented into one or more categories or keywords. The list of categories is decided ahead of time by the investigator(s), based on the objectives of the systematic review; it may be modified and expanded based on the findings of the review. An example of a coding scheme is shown in Box 2.3-5. Coding is useful because it BOX 2.3-5: EXAMPLE OF A CODING SCHEME helps summarize information about an article in a INTRODUCTION systematic way. Skimming POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS or even quickly reading the Gender: Male only (0=No, 1=Yes) pieces is usually not Female only (0=No, 1=Yes) enough to classify the study Male and female (0=No, 1=Yes) in terms of its utility in the INTERVENTION CHARACTERISTICS social marketing process Marketing mix: (Brown 1999). Communication/promotion (0=No, 1=Yes)
Product distribution (0=No, 1=Yes) Service delivery (0=No, 1=Yes) Price (0=No, 1=Yes)

STUDY DESIGN Experimental design (0=No, 1=Yes) Quasi-experimental design (0=No, 1=Yes)

Articles are coded in terms of the social marketing process, research process and PERForM. For example: Abstract: This brief section appears at the beginning of the paper. If there is none, read the summary or discussion and conclusion section at the end. Then identify the research objective, research strategy, and conclusions and code it.

OUTPUT LEVEL OUTCOMES EXAMINED Opportunity (0=No, 1=Yes) Ability (0=No, 1=Yes) Motivation (0=No, 1=Yes) PURPOSE LEVEL OUTCOMES EXAMINED Product/Service use (0=No, 1=Yes) Risk reduction (0=No, 1=Yes) GOAL LEVEL OUTCOMES EXAMINED Health status (0=No, 1=Yes) Quality of life (0=No, 1=Yes)


PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004 Introduction or background statement: Identify the research objective, including the hypothesis and boundaries, relevant readings in the literature review and theoretical framework. Code them. Methods: Code the population studied, research strategy (see Chapter 2.4), other elements of the research brief (see Chapter 3.5), and intervention characteristics in terms of the 4Ps. Results and discussion: Record the result. For qualitative studies, record the themes presented. For quantitative studies, code constructs and variables according to the social marketing analytical framework, the statistical tests used, and the values reported. You will use this in your final report as a comparison. References: Review and include as relevant in your literature review. You will need to keep the bibliographic information listed in Box 2.3-6 BOX 2.3-6: REQUIRED BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Journal Author(s)surname, first name initials Year of publication (in brackets) Title of article Title of journal (underlined or in italics) Volume Part/issue Page numbers Book Author(s)surname, first name initials Year of publication (in brackets) Title and subtitle of book (underlined or in italics) Edition Chapter in an Edited Book Author(s) of chapter surname, first name initials Year of publication (in brackets) Title of chapter Author(s) or editor(s) of booksurname, first name initials Title and subtitle of book (underlined or in italics) Edition Place of publication Publisher Page numbers of chapter

Place of publication Publisher


Marketing Situation Analysis

Chapter 2.3

Analyze and Interpret the Literature. Literature is relevant in four ways: 1. Stating the research objective and evaluating the importance of conducting the research 2. Preparing the research brief, including choosing research strategy, determining sample size, and preparing questionnaires. 3. Conducting the analysis 4. Analyzing the results. Literature should be analyzed in terms of whether it is useful in these four ways and interpreted explicitly by acknowledging its use through citations in the research brief and final report. Write a Concise Review. Usually, it is useful to summarize in a short literature review what you have learned from the perspective of the research objective and the usefulness of the literature. PSI Research can help you write a concise review at your request. This service requires approximately 2 to 4 weeks to perform. According to Silverman (2000), a good literature review: Responds precisely to your research objective Includes a discussion of search methodology in terms of key words and databases used, as well as the criteria applied for evaluating and classifying the literature Follows the relationships in the social marketing analytical framework, thereby identifying clearly what is known and not known about the research objective. Identifies conflicting results Characterizes the overall amount of information available Concludes with clear statements and recommendations for further research


PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004 Causes the reader to say, Yes, of course, this is the exact study that needs to be done at this time to produce evidence for PSI decision making!

Systematic reviews are literature reviews that follow a scientific approach that reduces bias in analyzing and reporting results. Criteria for performing a systematic review are available from PSI Research.

Strive for relevancy and quality rather than quantity in selecting references for a written review of the literature. A common misconception is that the quality of the review depends on the number of references included. A small review covering pertinent studies and organized in a coherent fashion is of more value than a rambling presentation of questionably relevant information.


Secondary data are data collected by a reliable outside source for purposes other than PSIs social marketing project. Examples are: The Demographic and Health Survey (USAID/Measure) The Living Standards Measurement Survey (World Bank) The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (UNICEF) The Behavioral Surveillance Survey (Family Health International) The census bureau or statistics office. Secondary data are limited in scope for decision-making purposes. They typically cover health status, behavior (but not always use of social marketing products), need and population characteristics, including exposure to mass media (but not social marketing campaigns). They lack generally the most important information that social marketers needspecifics about opportunity, ability, and motivation related to behaviorthat is gathered by social marketing surveys Figure 2.3-3).


Marketing Situation Analysis

Chapter 2.3

Yet the scope of social marketing surveys is often confined to the level of behaviorwithout health status information, which can be expensive to collect. Therefore, secondary data complement but rarely obviate the need for a social marketing survey. Uses of secondary data during the social marketing process include these: FIGURE 2.3-3: SCOPE OF SOCIAL MARKETING SURVEYS Strategic planHEALTH STATUS QUALITY OF LIFE ning: Secondary data identify the priority diseases and typically the RISK-REDUCING USE most important behaviorhealth NEED status relationTHE SCOPE OF ships. PSI reSOCIAL MARKETING search to date OPPORTUNITY ABILITY MOTIVATION has rarely been POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS used for measuring health status or behaviors that SOCIAL MARKETING INTERVENTION may be imporPRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION tant in future projects; rather the focus has been on behaviors being targeted now. Project planning: Secondary data are useful in logical frameworks for goal-level objectively verifiable indicators and for strategy development. Segmentation: Secondary data are useful for gauging the quality of results in Social Marketing Surveys. The Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys set international standards for indicators of health status, behavior, and need. Marketing planning and monitoring: Secondary data provide some information on media exposure and literacy. Evaluation: Secondary data are of little use; they provide generally no information about exposure to the intervention and PSI is unable to influence the timing of the study.



PSI/AIDSMark Social Marketing Research Tool Kit 2004

Last, managers should determine whether the research objective is of interest to other stakeholders. If so, then stakeholders should be consulted to determine whether their needs require a modification of the research objective. Stakeholder analysis is the BOX 2.3-7: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS EXPLICITLY: identification of the key Identifies stakeholders and their needs relative to the stakeholders in a research research objective project, an assessment of Identifies conflicts of interests among stakeholders, likely their interests, and the ways to influence the research objective, strategy, or the use in which these interests affect of the evidence produced the success of the research Identifies common interests, which can increase the (Montgomery 1996). value or cost-effectiveness of the research Identifies opportunities for participation by stakeholders PSI Research analyzes its in the social marketing research process stakeholders and their inforIncorporates stakeholder needs and interests into the mation needs using this simelements of the research brief. ple systems analysis. For nearly all PSI programs, this same framework applies. Therefore: Your research objective should per se be responsive to the needs of the social marketers. If the research objective is consistent with PERForM and can be achieved cost-effectively, then it meets the needs of PSI supervisors. Suppliers, therefore, are the most important group to be consulted. The scientific community is consulted via the literature review process described above. Governments are implicitly consulted by the analysis and use of secondary data, but special effort should be made, particularly for evaluations, to determine what other programs and projects are doing so that PSI monitors exposure to their interventions, as needed. Donors often merit consultation concerning the statement of the research objective.


Marketing Situation Analysis

Chapter 2.3


PSI Senior Management and Country Representatives

-Governments -Donors -Scientific Community