Arc welding It produces coalescence of materials by the heat of the arc. The arc and the weld pool are protected from any atmospheric contamination. Filler material may be added depending upon the need.

Elements of a Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Ideal weld The ideal weld is one in which there is complete continuity between the parts joined and every part of the joint is indistinguishable from the material in which the joint is made. Although this ideal is never achieved in practice, welds which give satisfactory service can be made in many ways. Objective of an arc welding Deposit a weld bead with constant dimensions and shape relationships such that the weldment exhibits same mechanical properties from start to end. Therefore, the melting rate (MR) / welding wire deposition rate should be constant over a period of time. Weld bead geometry and shape relationships
w = Weld bead width   p = penetration   h = Weld bead height  
Weld bead WPSF (w/p) = Weld penetration shape factor  Weld reinforcement form WRFF (w/h) = r facto  Ap= Area of penetration Ar= Area of reinforcement

%D =

A  p A  t

α = Angle of convexity  

100 = % dilution

β = Angle of entry  

A t = Ap + Ar Total weld bead area HI= η VI Cosφ J/mm S

Heat input per unit length

V = Arc voltage; volts, I = Welding current; amps., S = Welding speed; mm/s, Cos φ = Power factor, η = Heat transfer efficiency


and they can be classified in several ways. Since MR is directly proportional to square of the welding current. also known as (MIGW) Arc welding processes Semiautomatic GMAW (MIGW) Manual SMAW GTAW (TIGW) PAW SAW FCAW Manual processes: Feeding of electrode and direction of welding both are manually controlled.-1 Basic Elements of an Arc Welding Power Source Many types of power sources are available to suit the various arc-welding processes. Basic elements of an arc welding power source are shown in Figure-1. once the welding arc is initiated. Arc welding processes (conventional) Shielded Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Power sources THE various arc-welding processes require special electric power of relatively low voltage and high current to produce and sustain an arc capable of making a good weld.Dependence of MR on welding parameters MR is dependent on welding parameters both direct and indirect parameters. However. also known as (TIGW) Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). the MR then mainly depends on welding current and arc voltage. of 2 . Semi automatic processes: Only feeding of welding filler wire is mechanized and direction of welding is controlled manually. it is the welding current which needs to be maintained constant so as to get constant MR and this leads to the uniform BG&SR and hence uniform mechanical properties. Machines designed to deliver such electric power are known as power sources for arc welding. Fig. The welding current and arc voltage are regulated by the welding power source. A simple classification based on the consideration.

yet they are used and accepted by the welding industry. It is only recently that electronically controlled power sources have been developed. Thus each method of classification explains a particular feature of the power source but is not complete in itself to describe its essential features. with AC/ DC output. current range of 70 to 400 amps and rating of 400 amps at 60% duty cycle. which are unavoidable even in the case of a skilled welder. The basic features of the arc welding power source are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Static characteristic curves (Volt-Amp curves) Open-circuit voltage (OCV) Static and dynamic characteristics Current ratings and duty cycle specifications Classes of insulation Power factor 1) Static Characteristic Curves These curves show the relation between load voltage and load current under various load conditions. rating and applications is shown in Table-1. do not significantly change the output current. because small variations in the voltage caused by variations in arc length during welding. because in this case small variations in load voltage caused by arc fluctuations result in substantial changes in the current output. The description of a power source should include the appropriate feature under each method of classification given in this table. the weld quality is consistent. It is seen that some curves are of drooping type. For example. constant current and constant voltage are technically incorrect. 3 . the current does not exceed too much and hence the weld quality remains unimpaired. A machine with a relatively flat curve is described as a constant voltage (CV) or constant potential (CP) type Drooping or constant current type power sources (Figure-2) are conventionally used for manual metal arc welding (MMAW) / shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. In this case. a particular power source could be described as static type transformer-rectifier having saturable core type current control and constant current (CC) characteristics. As the welding current is fairly steady. Hence they are also called Volt-Amp (V-A) curves. The obvious reason being that with this type of characteristics. the short-circuit current is not excessive (normally less than 200% of the set current). which are capable of giving virtually any type of curve between truly constant current and truly constant voltage. the welding current remains substantially constant irrespective of small variations in arc length and consequent slight change in are voltage. while the others are of relatively flat type. Normally CV machines are designed for DC welding. hence at the time of arc striking and in case of accidental situations. A machine giving a drooping curve is said to have drooping characteristics and is described as a constant current (CC) type machine. A CV power source giving AC output is not suitable for arc welding The terms.

arc length variation is determined by the difference between melting rate and feeding rate of the electrode wire.Ampere Output Relationship for a Constant Voltage Power Source For example. In MIG/ CO2 welding. A small change in arc voltage results in a very large change in the welding current. a stable metal transfer can be obtained which results in getting a good quality weld. is controlled by adjusting the wire-feed speed. Fig. By selecting a correct combination of voltage and wire-feed speed. The voltage drop across the arc is directly proportional to arc length. the arc length can be adjusted by setting appropriate voltage on the power source and the welding current. changes in arc length can occur when the operator moves the welding torch toward or away from the workpiece.-3 Volt . The arc length and weld current are interrelated in such a way as to correct sudden changes. flux-cored arc welding and submerged-arc welding.Fig. The flat type power source together with a continuous electrode fed at a constant wire-feed speed form essentially a self-regulating are.-2 Typical Volt . such as MIG / CO2 welding. The flat type power source compensates for these changes by momentarily changing the current and the melt-off rate of the wire until equilibrium is established (Figure-4). This in turn increases the melting rate of the wire and quickly restores the arc length to normal.Ampere characteristics of a ‘Drooping’ Power Source with Adjustable OCV Flat or constant-voltage type power sources (Figure-3) are conventionally used for semiautomatic and fully-automatic processes involving a continuous electrode fed at a constant rate. Thus. In this 4 .

OCV becomes all the more important. However. while low-cost limited-service class transformers have OCV as low as 50 V. Welding transformers meant for heavy duty applications are generally designed for OCV of 60 to 70 V. Fig. as they are equally suitable for manual welding and semiautomatic and fully automatic welding. Some transformers are designed to give OCV of 100 V in addition to the normal OCV value. With such low OCV transformers. Table-2 indicates at a glance the suitability or otherwise of AC/ DC and CC/ CV types of power sources for several common arc welding processes. Hence it is also termed as no-load voltage. These power sources are called Universal Power Sources. the flat characteristic is not truly flat but has a slight drooping tendency (approximately 2 to 3 V per 100 amp). when it is under no-load condition.01 second.-4 Automatic regulation of welding arc length with cpps Power sources having both drooping and flat characteristics are also available. but in the case of CC type machines. Generally speaking. In AC better is the arc stability. Figure-5 shows sine waveforms of a typical two-range 5 . In CV type power sources. OCV is not significant. Commercially available welding rectifiers have OCV values generally ranging between 65 and 80 V. The required characteristic can be pre-selected by means of a change over switch/link board. both AC and DC. it is difficult to strike and maintain an arc. while welding generators have variable OCV values in the 40-90 V range. Higher the OCV. high OCV poses the danger of electric shock to the welder and hence its value is restricted to 100 V maximum by IS:4559. 2) Open-circuit Voltage Open-circuit voltage (OCV) is the voltage across the output terminals of the power source. They are therefore suitable for electrodes having a high proportion of arc stabilisers in their coating. because alternating current reverses direction of flow each 0. OCV plays a very important role in ensuring easy arc starting and good arc stability. so that they can operate satisfactorily with certain basic low-hydrogen electrodes. ‘Specification for single operator rectifier type DC arc welder’ and other relevant standards. all general-purpose electrodes operate satisfactorily with OCV of 80 V (AC as well as DC).

The dynamic characteristics of a power can be improved by 6 . because with the greater phase shift of the current. both of which are important from the welding performance point of view. As explained earlier. because the welding arc is never in real steady state.e. This voltage called the ‘recovery voltage’ is shown in the Figure-5. it is necessary that the recovery voltage is kept at the highest possible value. 1 microsecond). Good dynamic characteristics enable the power source to provide extremely rapid changes in its output voltage and current under changing arc conditions. The figure shows that the recovery voltage is higher with 80 OCV. In the next instant the electrons and ions must resume their flow but in the opposite direction. A power source having good dynamic characteristics gives a very stable and smooth are in spite of such transients. Fig. It is seen that at each half-cycle. firstly. ionisation of the material in the arc must be either maintained or reinitiated by the voltage across the arc gap. the current becomes zero. This means that at this instant the electrons and ions. each sine waveform completing a cycle in 0. This is of special significance for the power source. but is subjected to severe and rapid fluctuations due to constant small variations in arc length. the zero current occurs at a time when the recovery voltage is nearly as great as the open-circuit voltage. 3) Static and Dynamic Characteristics Every power source has specific static characteristics as well as dynamic characteristics. The arc gives rise to transients at the time of starting. arc voltage and welding current. It also gives similar transients in spray transfer MIG/ CO2 welding.AC power source with OCV of 80 V and 55 V. cease to flow. In contrast. the instantaneous variation in arc voltage with change in welding current over an extremely short interval of time (say. the dynamic characteristics describe the relation between voltage and current under changing load conditions. extinction and re-ignition after each half-cycle in the case of AC welding. because of the higher source voltage and secondly.02 second. To make this possible. i.-5 Typical Voltage and Current Waves of a Dual Range AC Power Source To make the period of arc extinction as brief as possible. which cause the current flow in the arc. the static characteristics describe the relation between voltage and current under various fixed load conditions.

This is computed by the following formula. Sometimes welding machines are required to give output other than rated. choke. singly or in combination. 60% duty cycle machine could be used at 392. 60% duty cycle is taken as standard for the MMA process. 4) Current Ratings and Duty Cycles Power sources. it means that it can be safely operated at 300 amps current without the danger of overheating for three out of every five minutes.) in the power source.8.providing appropriate value of series inductance (choke). In other words. Power sources designed for less rigorous applications and those involving short welding cycles and long intervals may be rated at lower currents than 300 amps and at lower duty cycles. Such machines are less expensive than the normal ones. In this case. because the rating is based on successive five minute intervals. when a 400 A 60% duty cycle machine is used for automatic welding application. say 50% or even 20%. The dynamic behaviour of a power source is studied on an oscilloscope with special simulated conditions in the laboratory.0 A must be the maximum allowable current (lower whole number is to be selected). as for example. taking into account the end use and safe working. at 60% duty cycle. These temperature values in turn depend on the type of insulation used in the 7 . the automatic current limit will be: (400)2 x 60 = (Desired current)2 x 100 ∴Automatic current = 309. and are rated by the manufacturers on the basis of their current output at specific duty cycles.g. secondary coil. but if they are used at higher duty cycles. which takes into account the safe thermal rating of the power source: (Rated current)2 x Rated duty cycle (%) = (Desired current)2 x Desired duty cycle (%) In the above example. Dynamic characteristics cannot be observed with standard graphs as in the case of static characteristics. a cycle of five minutes comprises of a period of three minutes of welding load followed by a period of two minutes of no-load operation. if the duty cycle is reduced to 35%. etc. Duty cycle is defined as the percentage of a five-minute interval that it operates at a given current setting.8 A or 392 A without the danger of damaging the insulation. Continuous operation at rated currents fop 36 minutes out of one hour is not a 60% duty cycle. their insulation is likely to burn out prematurely due to overloading. the user should know the safe current of operation at 100% duty cycle. by providing feedback controls and by modification of waveform of the welding current (pulsed modulations). For heavy-duty service in the fabrication industry. This means 309. 5) Classes of Insulation The duty cycle rating of a power source is primarily based on the maximum allowable temperature of various components (e. Similar calculation shows that a 300 amps. are of various current ratings and duty cycles. A 60% duty cycle means that the arc is in action for three minutes out of a five-minute time period. primary coil. For example. if a machine is rated at 300 amps.

Kva is apparent power drawn from the supply line and Kw (Kilo-watts) is actual power used to produce the rated load. which is likely to overload and damage the electrical wiring. much higher line current is drawn. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION ARC welding involves low-voltage. Kva means kilovolt-ampere.45. On the other hand.80 and 0. To avoid this. Electric generators built for arc welding usually are designed for dc welding only. For example. ‘Specification for single operator rectifier type DC arc welder’.80 at 50% of the continuous hand welding current. Unlike generators. which again means extra expenditure.7 240 x 30 Low pf means unnecessary wastage and less efficient utilisation of power. which must be rectified to provide a dc output. which gets registered on the power meter. The means of reducing power system voltage in Figure-1 may be a transformer or an electric generator or alternator driven by an electric motor. one must provide wiring of higher capacity. the inherent pf of a motor-generator is between 0. 6) Power Factor Power factor (pf) is an important electrical characteristic of a power source. as shown in Figure 1. The pf of a welding transformer or rectifier is improved by connecting a capacitor across the primary winding. They may use a separate exciter and either differential or cumulative compounding for controlling and selecting volt-ampere output characteristics.= 0. IS: 4559 has specified that machines must have a minimum pf of 0. which indicates the total product of ampere times volts delivered by the Supply Company. Various configurations are employed in the construction of dc generators. 5040 pf = ---------------.90. which is basically a transformer with a means of rectification on the secondary side. the electromagnetic means of controlling the volt-ampere characteristic of the arc welding power source is usually an integral part of the generator and not a separate element. The result is that less primary current is demanded while welding is being performed.manufacture of these components. alternators provide ac output. high-current arcs between an electrode and the work piece. Various insulation classes and the corresponding maximum permissible temperatures are specified in IS: 4559. and this applies equally to a welding rectifier. In the absence of a capacitor. specially interested in maintaining high pf for all the electrical equipment. if the voltage reading and current reading on the primary side are 240 V and 30 amps respectively and the actual watts registered are 5040. 8 . which is calculated from the following formula: Kw Pf = ---------Kva Where. In this case. Power supply companies as well as plant engineers are. The pf of a welding transformer can be as low as 0.

and efficiency. types. For a transformer. N1 = N2 = E1 = E2 = I2 = I1 = the number of turns on the primary winding of the transformer the number of turns on the secondary winding the input voltage the output voltage the input current the output (load) current. These machines are divided into two types. reliability. current-carrying capacity. Fig. Today. the significant relationships between winding turns and input and output voltages and currents are as follows: N1 / N2 = E1 / E2 = I2 / I1 Where. generators which produce direct current and alternators which produce alternating current. The most important of these materials is silicon.-6 Principal Electrical Elements of a Transformer Power Supply Generator and Alternator Rotating machinery is also used as a source of power for arc welding. Early welding machines used selenium rectifiers. Solid State Diodes Solid-state derives its name from solid state physics: the science of the crystalline solid.Welding Transformer Figure-6 shows the basic elements of a welding transformer and associated components. Methods have been developed for treating certain materials in order to modify their electrical properties. most rectifiers are made of silicon for reasons of economy. 9 . Transformer-rectifier or alternator-rectifier power sources rely on rectifiers to convert ac to dc.

Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Thyristor Solid-state devices with special characteristics also can be used to directly control welding power by altering the welding current or voltage waveform. and will conduct current as long as the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. When a small signal is applied. Solid State Inverter The primary contributors to weight/mass in any power source are the magnetics (main transformer and filter inductor). Because of their cost..-7 Silicon Controlled Rectifier Transistors The transistor is another solid-state device. the device becomes a diode. sometimes called a thyristor. An SCR is non-conducting until a positive electrical signal is applied to the gate. once it conducts. formerly used to control the output of welding transformers. there is no conduction. the use of transistors is limited to power supplies requiring precise control of a number of variables. which is used in welding power supplies. The transistor differs from the SCR in several ways. there is a correspondingly large conduction. Unlike the SCR. there is a corresponding small conduction. for example. The SCR is a diode variation with a trigger called a gate. several may be required to yield the output of one SCR. Conduction will stop only if the voltage applied to the anode becomes negative with respect to the cathode. Various attempts have been made to reduce their weight and size. which is a one-way electrical valve. as shown in Figure-7. With no signal. it is possible to convert ac to dc. moving shunts. Using a proper arrangement of diodes. moving coils. When this happens. However. Since transistors do not have the current-carrying capacity of SCRS. with a large signal. The use of an inverter 10 . Fig. the substitution of aluminium windings for copper. a diode allows current to flow in one direction only: when the anode of the diode is positive with respect to the cathode. the control can turn off the device without waiting for polarity reversal or an ‘off’ time. the current cannot be turned off by a signal to the gate. When placed in an electric circuit.A single rectifying element is called a diode. Such solid-state devices have now replaced saturable reactors. One is that conduction through the device is proportional to the control signal applied. etc. One of the most important of these devices is the siliconcontrolled rectifier (SCR). Conduction will not take place again until a positive voltage is applied to the anode and another gate signal is received.

ECONOMY 2. Why Inverters? 1. and offers a faster response time. Area of cross section of the core. more compact. which uses solid-state devices (SCR's or transistors) to convert DC into high-frequency AC. Flux density. Frequancy of operation. The basic elements of an inverter power source are shown in Figure-8.-8 Inverter Diagram Showing Power Supply Sections and Voltage Wave Forms. Conventional welding power sources use transformers operating from a line frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. 11 . using inverter circuits. requires less electricity than conventional welding power sources. usually in the range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz. Since transformer size is inversely proportional to line or applied frequency. An inverter-based power source is smaller. An inverter is a circuit. Fig.44 f N A B N A B = = = = = Induced emf. Inverter-The Universal Welding Power Source Inverter is a circuit which uses solid state devices (SCR's or transistors) to convert DC into high frequency AC.circuit can produce significant reductions in size and weight of these components as well as decrease their electrical losses. Number of turns. PROCESS CONTROL SIZE: The basic transformer equation is expressed as: U f U = 4. SIZE 3. reductions of up to 75 percent in power source size and weight are possible. usually in the range of 1kHz to 100 kHz.

-9 Arc starting 12 .92. etc. comparison has been done between a thyristorised inverter unit and a conventional one. This is also clear from the Fig. due to electromagnetic circuitry. stubbing. In a conventional unit. Arc Starting The improved starting characteristic from an inverter is evident from Fig. there is a delay in arc starting. a current signal is received every 20 ms. the energy transfer is much faster.97 because of which there is a big reduction in energy consumption and resultant lower running cost. In this. we operate at 40 kHz. a signal is received every 5 microseconds (almost thousand time faster than conventional machine). Fig. This can give rise to inconsistent starts. 415 V input for an inverter based power source is 30A whereas for a conventional machine. Also the efficiency of the power source is of the order of 85 % and power factor of the order of 0. it is around 40A.ECONOMY The savings in materials especially in copper and core material results in tremendous economy. For a conventional thyristorized MIG machine. With an inverter. In a conventional unit operating at 50 Hz. If however. The input current at 500A/39V output and three phase.-10. which compares the average arc starting time for a conventional MIG / MAG unit with an inverter power source.-9. PROCESS CONTROL Welding Quality This is a direct result of the control of dynamic properties. the efficiency of the power source is of the order of 79 % and power factor of the order of 0. Hence an unit operating at high frequency can sense all variations in the metal transfer mechanism and also variation in the input supply and ensures that corrections are made in time to obtain consistent weld quality.

to flammable gases and explosive powders such as coal. With the ability to control dynamic characteristic and consistent arc starting. Exposure to abrasive dust. or to wheat or soybean flour in a grain mill. and unusually corrosive vapors and fumes. For unusual operating conditions welding machines must be specially constructed or modified. 4. excessive humidity. SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS Arc-welding machines (also called power sources) are designed and built to protect you from most electrical hazards as long as you use them correctly. to oil vapors.Fig. 2. and often your plant's safety director will have a say in how this equipment is installed and used. These are all inherently explosive materials. Local City or state ordinances. Just like an automotive engine. High temperatures will overheat the machine and very cold weather will make some types of electrical insulation brittle. 13 . These conditions are tough on any kind of electrical equipment. Exposure to severe weather conditions. Hazardous Conditions Arc-welding machines conforming to these requirements will be safe and will provide good service in normal work environments. Sometimes. the carburetor in the engine drive needs a different mixture of fuel and air to work efficiently at higher altitudes than lower ones. The manufacturers of these machines must comply with many safety requirements specified by BIS. Altitudes above 1000 m. Air temperatures higher than 41° C and lower than O°C. especially if the power source is an engine-driven machine. But welding-equipment manufacturers can seal the machine against most of these hazards and problems if they know that's what's needed when the machine is sold.-10 Average starting time Spatter Spatter is essentially due to sudden short circuits and release of excessive energy across the arc. to steam. inverters can ensure almost spatter free welds. grain elevator. Welding machines also cool off more slowly at higher altitudes and their duty cycles may be different from the machine's rated duty cycle. or silo. The unusual conditions are: 1. 3.

People who meddle with your equipment can hurt you as well as themselves. If you are going to work in any unusual or hazardous conditions. ask your welding supervisor. If you do operate any arc-welding equipment. local welding distributor. Nobody will think you are a "green" operator for asking good questions. but ask for it. because nobody wants to work with an unsafe welder around them. Seacoast or shipboard conditions. Welding distributors and machine manufacturers both operate local welding-equipment repair stations for their customers. your arcwelding machine and equipment are designed for such service and that they are safe for welding in these places. If you don't hurt yourself. 6. Keep unqualified people away from your equipment. consult your welding supervisor. Don't expect to find the operating instructions for an old machine still hanging inside the cabinet. But you are not authorized to repair one.5. you obviously are expected to know how to set up and connect a welding machine. Only competent electricians or other trained and authorized people are allowed to install and repair them. If you have any questions. and are both qualified and authorized by your company to do the work. Never strike an arc (or an oxy-fuel flame) in any area with a potentially explosive atmosphere. Abnormal vibration or mechanical shock. Get Help from Electricians Welding machines must be installed and their electrical connections made according to the instructions on the machine or in the user's manual. If you are in doubt. The input end (and parts of the inside of the machine) can have voltages anywhere from 220 V on up to 440 V compared with open-circuit output voltages of 70-V dc to 80-V ac. that can loosen circuits. 7. or the equipment manufacturer. Be sure that you understand the limitations of your machine. These manuals usually are supplied with every machine when it is delivered. engineer. be sure that. and occasionally special directions and requirements. Never fool around with the wiring inside a machine. 14 . Different machines that are rated the same often will have slightly different limitations. Salt spray is very corrosive and will eat up many metals and other materials that you would think are corrosion-resistant. Salt spray will even eat the paint right off a welding-machine cabinet if you don't wash it off periodically. You'll probably find the manual on file somewhere in the plant so you can read up on the specific machine model before you use it. a welding engineer. Written instructions are available from your equipment manufacturer. you can hurt other innocent people in the plant. or exposure to nuclear radiation which rapidly ages electrical insulation. or your welding distributor or equipment supplier. Also remember that the output end of the welding machine that you work with actually is the low-voltage end of the machine. That not only includes things like automobile gas tanks that still have gasoline vapors in them but also places like flour mills or coal mines with fine organic dust or explosive gases. As a welder. or poke around inside the cabinet unless you know exactly what you are doing. you must first be properly instructed in its use.

Other factors that affect the degree of injury are the duration of current flow. But high voltage is the factor that forces the current to overcome the resistance in your glove or your skin so that the amperage can enter you. although both are dangerous. That's pretty obvious. the frequency when ac is used. the more likely you are to be hurt. High voltage is more serious than high amperage. That's why you have to be so careful with a power source when you are not welding. the voltage. Electrical current flow is the "substance" that causes injury in electric shock. An electric circuit has four important properties that can do some damage to you. The open circuit voltage (OCV) can really do some damage to you. 15 . You can better understand and protect yourself from this hazard if you understand how electricity can hurt you. and 70 V on de machines. The more electricity (amperes) that flows through you. the resistance. That's why the OCV of most welding power sources is limited to a maximum of 80 V on ac machines.Electrical Hazards Electric shock is the most critical hazard in arc welding. They are the amperage (current flow). and the part of your body that carries the current. and the type of current (de or ac) that you will work with.

Class F. 100% duty cycle. Features Rotating type Motor driven generator Engine driven generator Static type Transformer Rectifier Method of current control Type of output current Type of static characteristics (V-A curve) Rated current & duty cycle Suitability for the process Suitability for no. tap changer switch. depending on the maximum allowable temperature rise over a specified ambient temperature (usually 40° C). Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW or TIG). and Class H. variable reactor. electronic control with-feedback (thyristor control.Method of classification Type of basic design Table-1: Classification system for the power sources.. Submerged arc welding (SAW). etc. cutting. gouging Yes Possible Yes Stud welding Yes Possible No Submerged are welding (SAW) Yes Yes Yes Gas metal arc welding (MIG) Yes Yes No MAG (CO2) welding Usable Yes Not used MIG/ MAG. and range of welding current. Capability of the power source to be used for manual metal arc welding (MMAW). by double operators or multioperators. Capability of the power source to be used simultaneously by a single operator. etc. Direct current (DC) Alternating current (AC) Combination of both (AC) & (DC) Constant current type (CC) Constant voltage type (CV) Combination of both (CC) & (CV) type Capability of the power source to deliver current at specified duty cycle. of operators Type of cooling method Field control. etc. Gas metal arc welding (MIG/CO2). Class E. Natural air-cooled (NA) Forced air-cooled (FA) Oil-cooled natural (ON) Oil-cooled forced (OF) Class A. saturable reactor. Class B. transistor control). short-circuiting Not used Yes Not used Flux-cored arc welding Yes Yes Possible Usable Electroslag welding Possible Yes 16 . variable coupling. Type of insulation Table-2: Welding processes and recommended power source type Process Direct current Alternating Current CC CV CC Manual metal arc welding Yes Not used Yes Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW or TIG) Yes Not used Yes Plasma arc welding Yes Not used No Carbon arc welding. say 60% duty cycle.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.