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Volume LVII

Number 12

December 2008

Replicating Nature
Model For New UAV Concept

4 8 10 15 18 21 27

Duplicating Keys
Software Makes Possible Using Photos

Improving Lunar Navigation
Astronaut Safety Is Top Priority

Portable Imaging System
Tool To Aid First Responders



Perseverance Creates New Center

Reducing Aircraft Noise
Innovative Materials May Hold Key

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developed a 30-inch robotbut could glide like an albaic spy plane modeled after tross. packed craft now in develop. Their sizes ranged from vided an immense step forward project will demonstrate a next. to evolve. often repid animals. added capability to alter their This design showed promise as This new concept in robotic wing shapes using morphing a model to develop into an unspy plane design was present. their bodies featured lightweight bones and stances in the world continue tyl as the model animal. which has superior UAV’s Seek To Replicate Nature’s Aeronautic Capabilities C Page 4 – December 2008 .feature — a large. to a central command center. its strange design made in urban combat zones and then drones. the researchers engineer from the University of said. The skies were ferred to as pterodactyls.Sankar Chatterjee of Texas Tech Cretaceous Period. would gather data from sights.35 feet.” Tapejara wellnhoferi. incorporat.fibers that added both strength Toward that end. information from extremely danAccording to paleontologist Triassic Period to the end of the gerous or inaccessible environ.and Aerospace Engineering. a Texas ment could soon be demon. from They lived for 160 million the Greek word meaning years. “These animals take the best laboration with an aeronautical and actuators. without fessor in the University of Flor. so must information The unmanned. Chatterments. some with the imminent and Rick Lind. They dominated possibility of violence. tioned as a sensory organ.an intricate system of collagen gathering techniques.” The drone.and agility to their membranous Tech University curator in col. feaintuitive aircraft design head that functioned much like a flight com. Dr. Structurally. Nothing alive today the aeronautic capabilities compares to the performance of a 225 million-year-old and agility of these animals. Texas. this artist rendering ing animals of their time. thin rudderfeaturing a rudder at the puter in modern aircraft.emplacement using a pterodac.jee explained.the Mesozoic sky. thin rudder-like sail on its pterodactyl from Brazil. nose of the craft instead of Though as big as a Canada the tail. unmanned ida’s Department of Mechanical the heads of earth-bound dinoaerial vehicles (UVA’s) have pro. dive between Pterodrone. the military’s parts of bats and birds. Chatterjee said.that of a common sparrow to a in providing increased surveil. from the Greek word meanThey were the dominant flying “winged finger. Pterodrone.Based on fossil remains. But as circum. sensor. this saurs. land on apartment balconies or sail along the coastline for surveillance. “They had Florida have successfully the maneuverability of a bat. darkened by flocks of them.techniques to squeeze through manned aerospace vehicle called ed at the annual meeting of the confined spaces.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER buildings.generation capability of sensor Cessna plane with a wingspan of lance capability. sounds and smells next generation of airborne goose. Brazilian pterosaur.” Dr. Image courtesy of like sail on its head that funcMark Witton. an associate pro. so they were not stu“winged lizard”. zoom under overpasses. Pterodactyls lived 228 to 65 reated in response to the Geological Society of America million years ago from the late need to gather real time held in Houston.strated using existing materials wings. They will also have the crowd when it came to flying. won’t just be small and it stand out from the Cretaceous transmit that information back silent.tured a large. swooping over endangering people. a ing an extremely unusual clearly illustrates a most unique aeronautical and somewhat counter.

Chatterjee and Prof. With funding for the project awarded by the U. especially small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for urban environments that have taken cues from birds. Getting there is only half the equation. bats and insects. and in turn change the focus of the lens. a pterodactyl wing is a complicated structure of skin. Chatterjee and Prof.” Prof. low-cost. and it’s almost always in focus – no matter how close or far away it is from an object. Chatterjee’s research into Tapejara’s flight showed that the rudder acted similarly to a flight computer in a modern-day aircraft and also helped with the animal’s turning agility. The lens is made up of a pair of water droplets. But improved aerial capability alone will not suffice. Lind recounted that he had his doubts about creating a drone built with a tail at the nose of the aircraft. “A vertical tail on the head is a destabilizing influence. “Sankar actually contacted me about three years ago after seeing a story on the Discovery Channel on our bird-inspired aircraft to inquire if a pterodactyl-inspired aircraft could also be feasible. we’ve found they could actually sail on the wind for very long periods as they flew over the oceans. Initially.” Results of the study were detailed in the paper “Fast focuswww. Chatterjee.” Bio-inspiration has repeatedly provided the basis for a surprisingly wide variety of robotic design.” Dr. A team of students from the University of Florida will begin building the aircraft this fall. Lind have submitted a joint proposal to The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) at the Department of Defense. By using imaging software to automatically capture in-focus frames and discard any out of focus frames.vaeng.” According to Dr. National Science Foundation. Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering at Rensselaer. high-fidelity miniature cameras. “There is no need for high voltages or other exotic activation mechanisms. the new drone has been designed to perform in much the same fashion.” Prof.” he said. and surface tension could lead to smarter and lighter cameras in everything from cell phones and automobiles to autonomous robots and miniature spy planes. which is currently under review. Dr. so we immediately questioned how Tapejara could survive in that configuration. The other half of the equation is instrumentation advances. Putting the tail at the nose of an airplane would seem like a failed design. “Since the discovery of a complete Tapejara in Brazil about 10 years ago. based off the complete skeleton of the Tapejara. Hirsa. with very little energy. New miniature image-capturing technology powered by water. they could use the slightest breeze in the same way a catamaran moves across water. Compared with a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. professor and associate department head for graduate studies in the Department of Mechanical. “They spent most of their time hunting for fish.com – Page 5 . terrestrial and aquatic locomotion.S. Dr.agility to perform missions requiring aerial. By raising their wings like sails on a boat. Lind explained. “We shared some discussions for a while and then finally got serious this year once we had a common concept and could build upon that foundation. However. researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have designed and tested an adaptive liquid lens capable of capturing 250 pictures per second and requiring considerably less energy to operate than currently available technologies. the researchers can create streaming images from lightweight. Lind used computer simulation models and. which means this new lens may be used and integrated into any number of different applications and devices. muscles. must alter its flight properties to take advantage of the turning capabilities presented by this vertical tail and yet remain stable. which vibrate back and forth upon exposure to a high-frequency sound. “The issue of flight control becomes quite relevant as the animal. Prof. and thus aircraft. sound. were able to unlock the secrets of flight from this strangely shaped flying animal. blood vessels and nerve tissue. Lind said. They could take off quickly and fly long distances with little effort. hair.” said project leader Amir H. tendons. “The lens is easy to manipulate.

in order to ter vibrating at a high speed. stant. Hirsa said that methods for manipwith small enough ulating liquid lenses apertures and propinvolve changing A new technique for creating liquid lenses with water and erly selected liquid the size and shape sound could enable a new generation of low cost. to effectively capture both time and valuthose images. depending on ty and military applications. authored the paper “The great benefit with Carlos A. user with a stream of Prof. in turn. The time between frames is bring an image into four milliseconds. made up of two droplets of wa. When these droplets. liquid lens cameras sound. unchanging contact with force.the cylinder. who earned his that you can create a doctorate at Renssenew optical system laer and now works from a liquid lens and for Intel Corporaa small speaker. his new method ent sound frequencies. This requires Lopez. Hirsa fore. Lopez have The size of the filed a provisionary droplets is the deterpatent on this new mining factor in how technology. focused video. the device is phones.” which captured electronicalwas released online ly. leaving the Nature Photonics.000 times per secmoves in and out of focus.that oscillates as fast as surface. This series of time-lapse be able to create a lens the liquid contacts a photos shows how the lens. Hirsa coclear. “No development lab in one has done this beMexico. 100.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER ing using a pinnedits distance from the contact oscillating object.volumes. Hirsa says he anticikey feature of his new technique resonate back and forth with pates interest in his new device is that the water stays in con. Photo courtesy of Rensselaer/Carlos A. Prof.being integrated into a new gentia and water’s natural surface lets move back and forth through eration of unmanned and micro tension and becomes an oscilla. the device exploits iner. exposing the droplets to differ. tion’s research and Hirsa explained. he should of the area where weight. He also sees small.great speed and a spring-like from cell phone manufacturers. able energy. Prof. the lens moves in air vehicles for homeland securitor. or something akin to a small and out of focus. energy efficient cameras. competitors in terms of lighter couples two droplets of water By passing light through weight. Most current Prof.” Prof. exposed to certain frequencies of transformed into a miniature lightweight.” and Dr. light. thus requiring less the rate of these oscillations by to improve the performance of energy to manipulate. The images are liquid lens. rapidly they oscillate. more energy efficient through a cylindrical hole. ## Page 6 – December 2008 . Researchers can control who constantly seek new ways the surface. ond – and still be able focus.camera lens. changes shape and. Loof this new device is pez. As the water drop.their devices and outpace their To do this. Hirsa said a pendulum: the water droplets Prof. and software can be in addition to apused to automatically pearing in a recent edit out any unfocused issue of the journal frames.

vaeng.com – Page 7 .www.

If a key doesn't encode this precise "bitting code. Instead.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER Software Duplicates Keys From Photographs University of California-San Diego (UC San Diego) computer scientists have built a software program that can perform key duplication without having the key." said Prof. the computer scientists took pictures of common residential house keys with a cell phone camera. however. Savage. "We built our key duplication software system to show people that their keys are not inherently secret. Savage. the key. a UC San Diego computer science graduate student and an author on the key duplication paper. you will find many photos of people's keys that can be used to easily make duplicates. In another example. we argue that the threat has turned a corner . "This idea should come as little surprise to locksmiths or lock vendors.cheap image sensors have made digital cameras pervasive and basic computer vision techniques can automatically extract a key's information without requiring any expertise." Prof. As for what to do about the key duplication threat. In one demonstration of the new software system. While people generally blur out the numbers on their credit cards and driver's licenses before putting those photos on-line.San Diego. at the Association for Computing Machinery’s Conference on Communications and Computer Security (CCS) 2008. the computer scientists only need a photograph of distance without them even noticing." said Prof. Savage notes. Kai Wang. "If you go onto a photo-sharing site such as Flickr. he says that companies are actively de- .” by Benjamin Laxton. the computer science professor from UC San Diego's Jacobs School of Engineering who led the studentrun project. they used a five inch telephoto lens to capture images from the roof of a campus building and duplicate keys sitting on a café table about 200 feet away. Credit: Image courtesy of University of California . "Perhaps this was once a reasonable assumption. points to the roof where researchers photographed keys that are at his table. and Stefan Kai Wang. they don't realize that they should take the same precautions with their keys. fed the image into their software which then produced the information needed to create identical copies. The bumps and valleys on your house or office keys represent a numeric code that completely describes how to open your particular lock. “Reconsidering Physical Key Secrecy: Teleduplication via Optical Decoding." said Stefan Savage. "There are experts who have been able to copy keys by hand from high-resolution photographs for some time. that the idea that one's keys are sensitive visual information is not widely appreciated in the general public. but advances in digital imaging and optics have made it easy to duplicate someone's keys from a Page 8 – December 2008 Savage." Prof. Savage presented the work." then it won't open your door. However. The computer scientists subsequently decoded the keys using the new software program.

Since each pixel tists created a program in Mat. a UC San www. To do so.for physical security systems." is to adjust for a wide edge of MatLab and computer range of different angles and dis. he scientists only need a photograph of the key. The chief challenge for would not be terribly difficult HDPE AGRU SURE GRIP) • Epoxy Coatings the software system.and position. Instead. Cast-in-Place key. Mr. the computer on creating a comthe meantime. of computer science professor less you need to use it.San Diego. explained Benjamin Laxton.veloping and ate student and marketing new one of the contriblocking systems uting authors on that encode electhe new paper.com by matching control points from Diego computer science graduwww. You Serge Belongie. VHS or DVD the key being captured. Credit: Image cour. is what The researchers have not re• Bacteria Inhibitor (CONSHIELD) you need to make a duplicate leased their code to the public. ## The keys used in the most have to click on the photo to tell common residential locks in the it where the top of the key is. spaced out at regular here.manholerestoration.puterized pertesy of University of California . • Epoxy Coatings type of key you have.vision techniques to build a simCCTV Manhole Inspections tances between the camera and ilar system. on the creation of for example. but they acknowledge that it • Embedded Liners (PVC T-LOCK. This is part Scenes from one of the proof-of-concept telephoto experiments from turning the using a new software program from UC San Diego that can per. From or 6 cuts. called for someone with basic knowl• Bacteria Inhibitor (CONSHIELD) "Sneakey.points in the target image. suggests that you sonal shopping treat your keys assistant for the like you treat your credit card a reference image to equivalent visually impaired from the lab and "keep it in your pocket un.com – Page 9 . it normalizes the key's size intervals. it can accurately guess the keys from nearly any angle and height of each of the key cuts.of a larger project car on. The computer scien. searcher working "Many car keys. and United States have a series of 5 a few other control points. tromagnetic seWang is a comcrets as well as puter vision rea physical code." "The program is simple." (800) 362-7369 tion and size in three dimensions explained Kai Wang.vaeng. the String together the depth of each first author on the paper who MANHOLE & WET WELL cut and you have a key's bitting recently earned his Master's deREHABILITATION code.then corresponds to a set disLab that can process photos of tance. In form key duplication without having the key." he says. which together with basic gree in computer science from Cementitious Linings information on the brand and UC San Diego. have systems capable RFID immobilizer of reading text on chips that prevent product packagduplicated keys ing." CONTRACTORS measure the depth of each cut. "Technology trends in comFlow Monitoring — Chemical Grouting the researchers relied on a classic puter vision are at a point where —Chimney Seals — Vacuum Testing — LADTECH HDPE Adjustment Rings computer vision technique for we need to consider new risks normalizing an object's orienta.

" He explained how the system will work: images taken from orbit will combine with images from the surface to create maps of lunar terrain. According to Prof. then travel to the Mojave Desert to test and refine it. Li explained. and image processors will make the next trip to the moon easier for astronauts. explained Ron Li. and study the kinds of psychological stress they will experience. LASOIS partners at NASA Glenn Research Center will convert a pre-existing communications beacon to do double-duty for communication and navigation. which includes experts in psychology and human-computer interaction as well as engineering. and signals from lunar beacons. Li described the project in a poster session recently at the NLSI Lunar Science Conference. Li said. But the moon has no such cues." he said. "We will help with navigation. Astronaut safety will be a top priority for Prof." Prof. computer processors. will work with Kaichang Di. Li's team. Researchers have learned a lot about navigation from exploring the red planet. to view their location and search for new destinations. who leads Ohio State's Mapping and Geographic Information Systems Laboratory. the Lowber B. inertial navigation systems. The third year would possibly be spent testing the system on NASA astronauts. a research scientist. So NASA has awarded Prof. and orbital imaging sensors. both of civil and environmental engineering and geodetic science. Prof. or misjudging a distant object's size and location would be easy. Lunar navigation isn't just a technology problem. "We want them to avoid the stress of getting lost. NASA would then have several years to incorporate the navigation system into its other lunar technologies before 2020. cameras. The researchers have named the entire system the Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS).THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER Improving Astronauts Lunar Navigation People are used to having certain visual cues to judge distances. The moon doesn't have satellites to send GPS signals. an assistant professor. the team will create a prototype navigation system. motion sensors on lunar vehicles and on the astronauts themselves will allow computers to calculate their locations. and Alper Yilmaz. "They were so close. Li said. Li's ongoing development of software for the Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. Page 10 – December 2008 a picture of their surroundings similar to what drivers see when using a GPS device on Earth. Getting lost. ## . and base stations will give astronauts The same Ohio State University researcher who is helping rovers navigate on Mars is leading a new effort to help humans navigate on the moon. such as the size of a building or another car on the horizon. Li $1. held at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field. University of California . Prof. stereo cameras. Li's plan.2 million over the next three years to develop a navigation system that will feel a lot like GPS to the astronauts that use it. and got within a few yards of it. New technology including sensors. He described incidents during past lunar missions when astronauts were traveling to a target site such as a crater.Berkeley researchers will work out the visual cues that astronauts will need to find their way. or getting frustrated with the equipment. Strange Designated Professor of civil and environmental engineering and geodetic science. but couldn't see the crater because of difficult terrain. but also with astronauts' health as well. Prof. Calif. Prof. but they had to turn back for safety's sake. The new grant grew out of Prof. Prof. it's also biomedical. Yilmaz works in the university's Photogrammetric Computer Vision Laboratory. and extremely dangerous. but will rely on signals from a set of sensors including lunar beacons. When NASA returns to the moon – the space agency has set a target date of 2020 to do so – astronauts won't be able to use a global positioning system (GPS) to find their way around. Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers will design the touch-pad that astronauts will wear. possibly on the arm of their space suits. the lunar lander. Li.

www.vaeng.com – Page 11 .

D.earned his master’s and Ph. United Kingdom.E. He is a regisRodriguez.S.creditation from the US Green degrees at the University of Bufmoted to Project Engineer II.Nottingham Trent University in Nottingham. Evan of Florida and a B. falo in Mechanical and AeroThe firm also extends con.Dupilka is a Mechanical E..tant professor in 1998. Tim in White Stone. He joined the who passed the Association of ginia Military Institute where he Virginia Tech faculty as an assisState Floodplain Managers (AS. Dr.certified Project Management Michelle Virts. He Robbins. Turner Bradford.C.earned a B.D. senior Mr. Kevin O’Meara. Seldon. Engineering from the University dustry to his new position. David Grandfield. where he earned a B.firm as an Architecture Intern. McCormack has 23 has joined Clark Nexsen as a John Bennett. Melissa Pritchard and exam.named special assistant to the Epps and David Wilmoth have fice.E. Pruett. fied Floodplain Manager (CFM). Mr. degree in Interior Architecture and Design. degree in the commercial construction inManager. P.research and graduate studies in Virginia Tech’s College of EnP. Cory Taylor. P. Ostasiewski.E. head gineering and professor of meMichael Elander.of surveying services for Bay De. Stuart Toraason.ergy initiatives. Civil Engineering from the Uni. Ratti worked for a design firm in Warwickshire for over a year and then moved to Australia to In-depth coverage of Engineers and Their Colleagues On The Move do 6 months of volunteering. Pruett has served as a program manager in Brian O’Kane. Mr. agement organizations and con. After graduating.1995.cal Engineering. Building Council (USGBC). Virginia. Ben announce the following: Jackson.versity of Maine.Project Manager. A retired Professional (PMP) and brings Lamie and Scott Dunn have Civil Engineer Corps Naval Of. he earned a M. has ing from the University of IlliMcBride. Mr. becoming a full professor over the course FPM) exam and is now a Certi.vaeng. degree in Mechani. to announce the following staff in the firm’s Norfolk.dominantly large facilities man. degree in Bowles. Ratti has joined the of the next six years. L.chanical engineering. E. Sam Chopade have been pro. earning him LEED Ac. Mitch Clark Nexsen is pleased to bachelor’s degree in Aeronautical and Astronautical engineerBowser. Laurie sign Group’s Northern Neck of.T. Danny struction management. promotions: office. and Thomas S. and Nick Hadiaris. have been promoted to Proj. vice president for research for enbeen promoted to Project Engi.A. Don Leo. space engineering in 1992 and in gratulations to Laura Mwirigi and 2007 graduate of the Vir. and son University.I.S. is now an owner of the firm.T. has been ley.E.since 2003. James M.E. Leo neer III.been employed by Bay Design the Defense Sciences Office of tarski. Bay Design Group’s the Defense Advanced Research rell Hughes.S. Daniel Erik H.tered Mechanical Engineer and moted to Group Leader.E. Ratti is a graduate of the PBS&J as vice president and naPage 12 – December 2008 . David Maurstad has joined Dewberry has named Pat. Ter. P.S. and Roger years of experience leading pre. have been pro. associate dean of Tracey Ruff. Luke Fetcho.E. Mike Marshal. rick McCormack.com then moved to Sydney where he joined one of the largest firms in Australia and became involved Timmons Group is pleased engineer and office manager with 3D design.. Clint Smith. respectively. Mr.over 15 years of experience in been promoted to Senior Project ficer.. ect Manager. P. Dupilka. He earned his John Combs. In 2007. Roger passed the LEED® Certification nois at Urbana-Champaign. Kirk Haw. Craig Ko.I. He including photographs is available at www. P. P.A 1992 graduate of James Madi. Northern Neck office is located Projects Agency (DARPA) in Washington. Gareth J.

E. Ms. announces the following additions to its professional staff: Christine Swanson.E.C.E. She has nine years of engineering experience in both the private sector and municipal public works. drainage studies and stormwater management. Kidd PE. Woody will join the GeoTech Team and has over 12 years of administration experience.. budgeting and planning for their respective teams. is proud to announce that Doug M. Wigley was formerly on the staff at the W. Rowell is now a member of the Utilities Engineering Team. Draper Aden Associates is pleased to announce: Samantha Rowell and Campbell Bolton have joined the firm in the Charlottesville office as staff engineers. Inc. Mr.. has recently joined the firm in the position of Senior Engineer. LEED AP.T. mitigation directorate. P..J. and Jennifer L. Steven Wigley. Mr.S. and Mathew Chumbley as Blacksburg Survey Technician. E. She specializes in the field of water resources engineering and has experience in floodplain modeling and analysis. Jason McNew has joined the firm as a Subsurface Utility Engineering Technician on the Surveying Team in the Richmond office. Jennings Jr.com – Page 13 . Butler. Mr. Their duties will include the facilitation of project scheduling. Ms. has been hired as a Project Manager on the Site Planning and Engineering Team in the Blacksburg office. degree in Civil Engineering and an MBA degree from the University of Florida. degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Delaware. P. Prior to joining McKim & Creed. Maurstad most recently served as assistant administrator and federal insurance administrator. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Ms. P.vaeng. Swanson was formerly on the staff at Clark Nexsen. and Stephen D. Mr. Rountree has joined the firm as a senior project manager in the water and wastewater group. He has more than 35 years of experience in water and wastewater planning. Consulting Engineering.S. Ms. Draper Aden Associates is also pleased to announce that Allyson Woody and Jackie Haurand have joined the firm as Project Administrators in the Richmond office. Doyle was formerly on the staff at Warwick Air Conditioning. P. construction. Inc. Morales. Doyle has joined the Mechanical Department as Plumbing Designer. Vakos & Company. He was previously the FEMA Region VIII regional director. Anderson & Associates www. has joined the firm as a Staff Engineer on the Utilities Engineering Team in the Richmond office.. Mr. Ms. Dennis Finley has recently joined the IT Department as Systems Administrator. Rowell and Mr. he served as Director of General Services and Director of Public Utilities for Isle of Wight County. McNew’s duties will include data gathering with the use of ground penetrating radar and vacuum extraction. has joined the Project Management Department as Project Manager. Bolton are graduates of the University of Virginia and both hold Civil Engineering degrees. Butler was formerly on the staff at Commonwealth Architects. Mr. Inc.S. P. Morales is a graduate of Virginia Tech with a B. has joined the Project Management Department as Project Manager. Kidd brings over twenty years of experience in planning.I. William R. He received his B.tional business manager for its risk and emergency management (REM) division. design and implementation and maintenance of electrical systems to the firm. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). AIA. Bunting received her B. Maurstad will be located in the firm’s Chantilly. Haraund brings over 20 years experience of executive assistance to the firm’s Site Planning and Engineering Team.. Bolton has joined the Site Planning and Engineering Team and Mr. Hankins and Anderson. CFPS has joined the Life Safety Department as Senior Fire Protection Engineer. Mr. Ms. Mr. has joined the company’s Virginia Beach office. Mr. federal services. McKim & Creed announces that Wayne Rountree. operation and management. degree in Civil Engineering from Virginia Tech. Ms. Priscilla M. design. Finley was formerly on the staff at CENVEO.E. Bunting. Benjamin A. Whitney Blankenship as Blacksburg Design Technician. She has past experience in construction and housing development administration. Virginia office. would like to welcome: Sharon Stacy as Blackwell Web Programmer. Anderson & Associates.

Lonny Sturgeon. has recently announced that: Steve Sadler is steel and machinery division manager. A veteran Certified Professional Services Marketer has joined the Richmond branch of S&ME. His duties include design for land development and utility projects.. M. or a combination of the two. Gomez. over 800 visitors each month to the vaeng. received his M.S. Contact us to find out how. Mr. joined the firm as an Engineerin-Training 3 in the Civil Engineering Department. Paciulli. engineering and construction industry. at Georgia Institute of Technology in 1983. Simmons & Associates has named two new associate partners. Patricia L. RPA have been promoted to associate partners the firm announced.E. P. ECS Mid-Atlantic (ECS) is pleased to announce the addition of Jose N. CPSM. project management for water and wastewater projects. Colombia.would like to extend congratulations to Stevie Steele on his promotion to full Vice President of Municipal Engineering. and Scott Grabham is special projects estimator.3527 • sales@vaeng. Sutton received a B. Dunlap and Partners Engineers has recently announced that Dawen Lu has been promoted to director of mechanical engineering. and department management for utility services.000 readers each month. and M.779. Daniel T.com Jobs Board. Mr. the past 15 of those years involving client development and maintaining client relations.I.com Page 14 – December 2008 . Slaydon has over 30 years of experience with water and wastewater design and management. E. and acquired extensive and varied project experience while living in Bogota. Sc. office. Wiley & Wilson. Morton is a registered professional archaeologist and serves as the firm’s Director of Cultural Resources with responsibility for the department’s management and overall performance. over 5. has 35 years of experience in the architecture. joined the firm as a Project Manager. His duties include business development for water and wastewater projects. He received his B. is pleased to make the following staff announcements: Thomas (Tim) M.S. Robert Harrington is steel detailing manager. to lead the branch’s business development efforts. Sturgeon is a licensed Land Surveyor with over 34 years of experience serving as Chief of Surveys. Polen. Inc. Atlantic Constructors Inc. Inc. ## 804. Va.S. degrees in Civil Engineering from Virginia Tech. Locating That Special Someone Finding just the right professional to join your team is a challenge. degree in Civil Engineering from Michigan Technological University. Gomez. Sutton. degree in Civil Engineering.. Beth Johnson is marketing communications manager. which serves the Mid-Atlantic region. or electronically. we can provide the exposure you want to the engineering professionals you seek. Whether in print. Slaydon. LS and Allan Morton. with a concentration in Geotechnical Engineering. Mr. but we can help. He is responsible for the management and performance of the land surveying department within the firm’s Fairfax office.T. Mr.S. Dr. as the branch manager of the Virginia Beach. With over 18 years of experience in cultural resource management.

bio gas. We can help you reduce your energy usage and carbon footprint with bio-diesel. Energy costs remain high. The resulting visual information can be used to estimate the number of storm refugees and assess the need for health and humanitarian services. how they’re spaced out and even how many people you have on the ground.com www. a byproduct of waste treatment.6661 sales@powerandheatsystems.” The imaging system was developed with fund- Power & Heat Systems. it’s very hard to do population estimates and demographic estimates to figure out where people are.powerandheatsystems. so reducing these costs is a real priority. but there are dissemination restrictions and cloud cover can prevent collection of images.798. improved boiler operating controls and more. VA 23005 Mosaic image shown here is made of individual photographs collected from the Mini ModPOD system and stitched together to create a more complete picture of the ground below. Satellites can collect images of areas affected by a natural disaster. Image courtesy of David Price. a project officer from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) International Emergency and Refugee Health Branch. Aid organizations currently don’t have a quick and accurate way to determine how many people need assistance. is just one alternate fuel.vaeng. high-resolution imaging system that can be attached to a helicopter to create a complete and detailed picture of an area devastated by a hurri- R 804.com – Page 15 . “Without a real-time map. Call today and start increasing profit by reducing your energy costs. Alternate Boiler/Burner Fuels esearchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have developed a lowcost. “This technology does not exist currently.com www. LLC.1318 • 800. wood firing. how they’re moving. so GTRI’s imaging system is really an innovative project.Portable Imaging System To Aid First Responders cane or other natural disaster.552.” said Benjamin Sklaver. Biogas. Your Boiler Specialists Providing Quality Products for Turnkey Installations 10005 Whitesel Road • Ashland.

the modifications made.” completed a third test flight in vation Device. a small more accurate geo-referencing lapped. The resulting photos The white box attached to this helicopter “We plan to package the contains a low-cost. “We could see tennis balls reference.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER ing from the CDC.” was sufficient detail to allow ac. The electron.capability.the system from a USB drive.added Mr. they were not research engineer Gary Gray – ing books at outdoor tables. Price and senior on the ground and people read.ricane or other natural disaster. This overlapped as planned.August.of the device and developed a ages that were 60 percent overtioning system receiver. However. first to fly over Haiti follow.in refugee camps for health and The research team has tested tude coordinates of the zone into humanitarian services planning.clear – they were free of any UH-60J Black Hawk helicop.Price.separate from other objects. making it easier the CDC. a global posi. The research described in this posely selecting areas with large As soon as the helicopter flew article was supported by cooperpopulations of people would into the zone.from the CDC. “This test flight was sucthe CDC asked GTRI to accelcessful in confirming the Mini erate delivery of the imaging ModPOD’s ability to activate device for use during the 2008 the camera within the zone of hurricane season.rectangular zone of interest and can Red Cross. Its contents are “During the first test flight. enabling CDC engineers circuit board that uploads mis. pur. the re. high-resolution imag. and agency to stitch together the photos officials would like to begin to create a complete picture.” noted Mr. Price. roll and searchers went for a second The imaging system will also yaw. which were among the picture of an area devastated by a hur.researchers made a small adwhich stands for “Miniature curate counting of the number of justment to the software and Modular Photographic Obser.software glitch. which allowed the to build a high-resolution mosasion parameters. the re. loaded the latitude and longi. which enabled the CDC nior research technologist. to adjust them for geospatial The imaging system – de. Georgia The photos were successTech Photo: Gary Meek. ics were set to measure the speed solely the responsibility of the we wanted to test the clarity of the aircraft so that each photo authors and do not necessarily and resolution of the images col. including pitch. by Hurricanes Hanna and Ike. off-the-shelf Canon Digital Rebel searchers reduced the weight “This flight resulted in imXTi digital camera.overlapped 60 percent of the pre. “Inmeasurement unit that measures shown in each photograph to be dividuals on the ground were the aircraft’s rate of acceleration determined with precision. due to a signed by Mr.people in an area. to count people ture of the affected area. and an inertial physical location of the scenes ic image. the camera began ative agreement #U38 EH000363 likely to be outdoors. ## Page 16 – December 2008 .” It consists of an After the first flight. After responding to altitudes of 500 and 1. a GTRI sedata. such as the Amerigether to create a complete pic.were extremely sharp and system for use on Coast Guard ing system developed by GTRI research.” fully matched to the flight said David Price. snapping pictures.represent the official views of lected during the run. Price. The images collected from flight test in July. be available to the CDC and oththe system can be stitched toThe research group selected a er agencies. interest.” butes. With easily distinguishable as people and changes in rotational attri. ing Hanna’s devastation. using this device as soon as The pilot made two passes.” ters. at possible. were very pleased.ers that creates a complete and detailed vibration or motion effects.” said Mr. The is called the “Mini ModPOD.000 feet the recent devastation caused above ground level. and we ceding photo. the device on several flights.

Prof. deaf people now communicate by cell phone using text messages.S. For mobile communication. Since posting a video of the working prototype on YouTube. "But the point is you want to be able to communicate in your native language. to reduce battery consumption and processing power when the person is not signing. "They also cost more. Mobile video sign language won't be widely available until the service is provided through a commercial cell-phone manufacturer.vaeng. They discovered that the most important part of the image to transmit in high resolution is around the face." doctoral student Anna Cavender pointed out. and recently received a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant for a 20-person field project that will begin next year in Seattle.com www. The project represents the first time two-way real-time video communication has been demonstrated over cell phones in the United States.com – Page 17 . VA 23304 (800) 304-9043 www.'Can You See Me Now?' Using Sign Language Over Cell Phones group at the University of Washington (UW) has developed software that for the first time enables deaf and hardof-hearing Americans to use sign language over a mobile phone. a UW professor of electrical engineering. there is still a need for phones that would operate on the slower systems. The current version of MobileASL uses a standard video compression tool to stay within the data transmission limit. Riskin said. which are the only ones they could find that would be compatible with the software and have both a camera and video screen located on the same side of the phone so that people can film themselves while watching the screen. and the background in lower resolution." Low data transmission rates on U. Inc. Battery Park. deaf people around the country have been writing on a daily basis." said principal investigator Eve Riskin. Even as faster networks are becoming more common in the United States. We don't think it's fair for someone who's deaf to have to pay more for his or her cell phone than someone who's hearing. cellular networks. The team developed a scheme to transmit the person's face and hands in high resolution. "For deaf people that's American Sign Language. Future versions will incorporate custom tools to get better quality. since eyetracking studies have already shown that people spend the most time looking at a person's face while they are signing. "The faster networks are not available everywhere. Communication rates on United States cellular networks allow about one tenth of the data rates common in places such as A Europe and Asia (sign language over cell phones is already possible in Sweden and Japan). ## AEMC Instruments Sales & Rentals Power Quality Analyzers Electric Data Loggers Other Quality Products Available Include Cable Testers • Clamp-on Meters Data Loggers • Current Probes Ground Resistance Testers Hipot Testers • Megohmmeters Digital Multimeters Environmental Testers Hanover Technical Sales. The team is currently using cell phones imported from Europe. combined with limited processing power on mobile devices.EmpowerCompany." The team experimented with several different approaches to make American Sign Language (ASL) comprehensible on lowresolution video. have so far prevented real-time video transmission with enough frames per second that it could be used to transmit sign language. UW engineers got the phones working together this spring. The team has already been in discussion with a major cellular network provider that has expressed interest in the project. This is not surprising. Now they are working on another feature that identifies when people are moving their hands.

encouraged Dr. the home of the late Carl Sagan. including Berkeley. and several schools in the University of California system.D.space plasma physics . University of Washington. his Cornell colleagues felt Dr. His specialty . submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF)." Dr. Dr. The center is now making its own headlines around the world. Dr. that outweighed the interest of other universities and government laboratories. But Dr. Cornell. "and the next bolt came" shortly afterward. one of the most highly respected young space scientists in the nation. Scales reflects. The National Science Foundation funding allowed the hiring of Brent Ledvina. Clauer was designated as the second associate director.was not the topic of a household dinner conversation. Within a year of the research center's announcement.. he became the director of the Center for Space Science and Engineering Research at Virginia Tech. Since Virginia Tech did not have a space science and engineering program. Dr. as the third member of the center's initial cluster hire. where he obtained his Ph. In 1992 Scales was among the nation's entry-level assistant professors of electrical engineering.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER Space@VT: Perseverance Creates New Space Research Center Wayne Scales. Fairbanks. and in a little more than a decade. But sheer determination on the part of Wayne Scales proved them wrong. They included Cornell. Scales to consider joining its faculty. Scales and Joseph Wang. a talented young space instrument and space mission scientist from the University of Alaska. otherwise known as Space@VT. came Robert Clauer. Last. When he countered that he Page 18 – December 2008 T planned to join the Virginia Tech Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. which has one of most highly recognized space science programs in the world. wanting to live near his mother who resides in Virginia. Wang the associate director. Stanford. but certainly not least. $805. Only a handful of universities in the country were powerhouses in space research. one of the most noted names in magnetospheric physics in the country and a former NSF program manager.5 million. Scales had an emotional tie to Southwest Virginia. they were surprised. Next came Scott Bailey. with annual research revenues of about $2. Scales followed his heart. the director of the Center for Space Science and Engineering Research at Virginia Tech he naysayers said it couldn't be done. Virginia Tech was able to persuade the highly prestigious . aerospace and ocean engineering professor. In 2005. opening a number of doors. His intellect and his fortitude prevailed. Scales became the director and Dr. Scales would not be satisfied in Blacksburg and that it would be too difficult for him to initiate an enormously expensive competitive research program by himself.000 was awarded to create the interdisciplinary center for space research. The center was the result of a successful proposal that Dr. University of Michigan. "These were like three strikes of lightning.

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This commitment to graduate education and the possibility of tenure-track faculty positions provided the necessary incentive to the applied physics laboratory group to relocate to Virginia Tech.” Dr. Other members of the Advisory Board include representatives from Boeing. solar cell damage. We have the Virginia Space Grant Consortium and the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA) located in Hampton. Dr. The center is also making efforts to engage underrepresented groups in science and engineering in general. micrometeoroids. including Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Head James Thorp and engineering Dean Richard Benson.. including the development of several new space-oriented courses. Also. is now retired but continues to consult. The laboratory group is now operating its radar at Virginia Tech’s BlackPage 20 – December 2008 stone Agricultural Research and Extension Center. “The Sun-Earth system is our laboratory. to launch a sounding rocket from Poker Flat. “there is growing evidence showing that solar energetic particles lead to the production of ozone-destroying nitrous oxide. to convince the Applied Physics Laboratory researchers to relocate to Blacksburg. Dr. and connection into space. According to Prof.” Space weather includes galactic cosmic rays.’s (applied physics laboratory's research centers cannot) and utilization of the initial NSF support to create a doctoral specialization in space science in electrical and computer engineering and aerospace and ocean engineering. serves as the chair of the board. a government agency that looks at Ph. D.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER SuperDARN Radar Group to relocate from Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL) to the Blacksburg campus.” Dr.” Dr. a new assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering. Lockheed Martin. Dr. The SuperDARN network is an international radar network for studying the Earth’s magnetosphere. described by Dr. Dan Sable. A prototype system has been tested successfully at the South Pole during the past two years. along with Chris Hall of the aerospace and ocean engineering department. Clauer says. aimed at studying magnetic storm associated electric fields. At the Applied Physics Laboratory.” The project is being conducted with Colorado University’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. For example. Scales as the “godfather” of the SuperDARN group. ionosphere. The experiment will demonstrate if stellar occultation is a viable technique to measure nitric oxide. But Virginia is just one piece of the equation for Space@VT. Northrop Grumman. Orbital Sciences Corp. Scott Bailey. It is developing joint research and educational ventures with minority serving institutions such as the Inter-American University in Puerto Rico and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University.D. Clauer who works out of the National Institute of Aerospace is establishing an Antarctic chain of autonomous magnetic observatories along the 400 magnetic meridian.. and in space science and engineering in particular. “Dan has been critical to our success with his knowledge of businesses and space research. A lot of things are coming into alignment. We are close to Washington. Scales and his colleagues capitalized on Virginia Tech's advantageous ability to award Ph. Va. “It is a large electrodynamic system and the space weather in this system can affect many important technologies upon which our society depends. BAE Systems. “It makes sense that Virginia should excel in space science and engineering. Scales says. New faculty members Joseph Baker and Michael Ruohoniemi are responsible for its daily operations. ## . Scales says this criterion enabled him and others.. and several other industries and government agencies. In enticing the group to come to Blacksburg.. is working at the opposite end of the Earth. and airline passenger radiation. Ray Greenwald. Scales says. Dr. Bailey. Wallops Island. Scales also credits the Center for Space Science and Engineering Research Advisory Board for much of the group’s progress. is expected to become a more prominent launch facility.C.D. the group was receiving more than $1 million annually from the NSF. Ala. president of VPT Inc. plasma bubbles. production as one of it primary missions. in 2010. Va.

Nadler exnew approach to the physics of noise reduction. Founded 1924 resonate through the air on various frequencies. obliging airplanes to with a gas or other fluid.S. uses a resonance-dependent technique to reduce exhaust noise.” said Jason Nadler. CEO • Robert Zahn.” can reduce sound more effectively than convenThis technique. “Eventually the friction and the compresThey have discovered that honeycomb-like struc.com that doesn’t depend on frequencies or resonance. It can also make aircraft solid. Dr. P. Consultant other structures in which to resonate. engineers at the “It's the equivalent of propelling a little metal Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) are turn.” The two-year project is sponsored by EADS North America. and is weakened by the interiors excessively loud.sphere down a rubber hose when the sphere is just ing to innovative materials that make possible a a hair bigger than the rubber hose. President The drawback with these traditional noiseJohn Williams. Inc. VA 23223 Fax (804) 231-1330 acoustic absorption.process called viscous shear. for example. Instead of resonating. resulting friction.sive stresses of contact with the tube would stop tures composed of many tiny tubes or channels the sphere.com – Page 21 . President muffler. Dr.ChewningandWilmer. Just as air blowing into a bottle produces resonance at a particular tone. small cavities – exploit the fact that acoustic waves Contractors. operating entity of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N. Most sound-deadening materials – such as foams or other cellular materials comprising many Chewning & Wilmer.. In this case.E.vaeng. Executive Vice-President Jay Atkinson. the U. the porous medium. Nadler’s research involves broadband 2508 Mechanicsville Turnpike Telephone (804) 231-7373 Richmond.” Dr. from classical mechanical principles governing “This approach dissipates acoustic waves by how porous media interact with gases – such as essentially wearing them out. Nadler explains. (EADS). sound waves plunge into the channels and dissipate through a oise from commercial and military jet air. plained. New Approach Focuses On Physics Of Noise Reduction N www. a method of reducing sound www. is derived tional methods. the air through which sound waves move. “It’s a phenomenological shift. Virginia Registration #6 Dr. Art Nelson. tiny parallel tubes in porous media such as metal or ceramics create a honeycomb-like structure that traps sound regardless of frequency. An automobile Robert Zahn. Nadler adds.In this approach. fundamentally different from traditional techniques that absorb sound using a more frequency-dependent resonance. To address this situation. Carson Rogers reduction approaches is that they only work with Vice-Presidents some frequencies – those that can find cavities or Jed Wilson. thereby dissipating its energy. craft causes environmental problems for Viscous shear involves the interaction of a solid communities near airports. a gas – sound follow often complex noise-abatement procedures waves composed of compressed air – contacts a on takeoff and landing.V. an acoustic wave hitting Industrial and Commercial a cellular surface will resonate in certain-size caviElectrical Contractors ties. Noise a GTRI research engineer. Bill Powell.

Nadler says. It requires a material that’s light. Dr. honeycomb-like rial could also provide another composed of many metallic nanotubes structure. and yet robust enough to function reliably amid the high-temperature. “You need to have the hole Dr. proach. tolerance of resents a new application of high temperatures and corrosion these principles. “The result is acoustic the material is very light – a clear waves don’t resonate. aggressive environments inside aircraft engines. Geor. engine noise by up to 30 perwhich readily formed a low. Nadler has developed big enough to let the sound what could be the world’s first waves in.” tions – and also very strong and In researching this ap. Nadler constructHe estimates this new aped an early prototype from proach could attenuate aircraft off-the-shelf capillary tubes. they advantage for airborne applicajust dissipate.” he At around 30 percent density.as extreme strength.heat resistant. but you also need superalloy micro honeycomb enough surface area inside to using a nickel-base superalloy.ly candidates are suoped a new microchanneled material that reduces aircraft engine noise by wearing it peralloys.absorption would require jects by dissipating the energy of gia Tech Photo: Gary Meek micron-scale diameter tubes the collision. Further research means to protect the aircraft in was developed at the Georgia Tech showed that the ideal matecritical areas prone to impact Research Institute (GTRI) to validate rial for broadband acoustic from birds or other foreign obacoustic absorption experiments designed to reduce noise in aircraft. that employ unusual blends of metals abatement using micro-scale to achieve desired qualities such honeycomb structures rep. Micro-honeycomb mateA prototype microchanneled material density. said. strong enough to enable the walls between the tubes to be very thin.cent. Creating such low-density structures presents an interesting challenge. shear against the wave. ## Page 22 – December 2008 .THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER and a much lower structural density. resistance. Among the likeGeorgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) research engineer Jason Nadler has devel. Georgia Tech Photo: Gary Meek. Dr. materials down through a process called viscous shear.

## www. the core-shell junctions in the nanorods are conducive for heat removal upon application of an electrical voltage. in highly regulated patterns. Photo courtesy of Rensselaer/Ramanath.com – Page 23 . but this is the first time that both features have been simultaneously realized through the use of a biomolecular surfactant.” The researchers discovered that synthesis at high temperatures or with low amounts of the biomolecular surfactant Lglutathonic acid (LGTA) yields branched nanorod structures New branched nanorods. who worked on the project as a postdoctoral researcher at Rensselaer and is now a scientist with Laird Technologies in Bangalore. In contrast. Ramanath.” were recently published online and will be featured in the journal Advanced Materials. our discovery could be conceivably used as a starting point to explore the use of proteins and enzymes to atomically sculpt such nanorod architectures through biological processes. Ramanath’s conclusion that LGTA is able to induce branching through atomic-level sculpture. “Our single-step synthesis is an important development toward realizing large-scale synthesis of composite nanomaterials in general. “Branching and core-shell architectures have been independently demonstrated.” said G. more powerful heat pumps and devices that harvest electricity from heat. Second. as well as nanoscale heat pumps for cooling hot spots in nanoelectronics devices. professor of materials science and engineering at Rensselaer and director of the university’s Center for Future Energy Systems.” Most nanostructures comprised of a core and a shell generally require more than one step to synthesize. “Since LGTA is similar to biological molecules. or generating electrical power from heat. core-shell nanorods are anticipated to one day enable the development of a new generation of nanoscale thermoelectric devices for power generation. also supported this project through research grants. who led the research project.” said Prof. wherein each nanorod consists of two materials — a single-crystal bismuth telluride nanorod core encased in a hollow cylindrical shell of single-crystal bismuth sulfide.” Prof. The researchers were also able to create “branched” structures by carefully controlling the temperature. time. It is interesting to note that at the point of branching. The National Science Foundation and Honda Motor Co. The research project was supported by the Interconnect Focus Center New York through MARCO. Ramanath said.vaeng. Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have discovered how to direct the growth of nanorods made up of two single crystals using a biomolecular surfactant. DARPA and New York state. Because of their attractive properties. “Our work is the first to demonstrate the synthesis of composite nanorods with branching. India. atoms in the branch resemble a mirror image of the parent crystal – a finding that reinforces Prof. “First.” said Arup Purkayastha. the branched structures open up the possibility of fabricating miniaturized conduits for heat removal alongside nanowire interconnects in future device architectures. and amount of surfactant used during synthesis. Ramanath Results of the study. synthesis at low temperatures or with high levels of LGTA results in straight nanorods without any branching.Thermoelectric Devices new technique for growing single-crystal nanorods and controlling their shape using biomolecules could enable the development of smaller. but these new re- Nanorods May Enable New A search results demonstrate how to synthesize such nanorods in only one step. titled “Surfactant-Directed Synthesis of Branched Bismuth Telluride/ Sulfide Core/Shell Nanorods. “Our discovery enables the realization of two very important attributes for heat dissipation and power generation from heat.

New Year's reV. fix or repair something that's broke or not complete.Spend more time on those projreVolutions. determination and willpower … which are not exactly energizing words. about "wants and desires" with 4. follow these 10 tips: out.Dreams are all Well here's an idea: This year. loose. a deadline . Soar with Your Strengths consider creating New Year's no commitment. A reVolution .commitment. where goals . what actionable steps can you take today that will help you get there tomorrow? them in front of you at all times so your daily actions will lead you to the attainment of these goals. 3.three actionable goals that you at . Make a plan on how you will achieve each goal with mini-plans. mini-goals and corresponding dates for each. and usually begin to "break" them by February 1 as their commitment fades and enthusiasm for attainment wanes. Case in point: The extreme increase in traffic at a health club the beginning of the year.centuate your talents and natuthrough results. including to quit. one of the below would inspire chance to lay yourself on the line By focusing on your strengths you to get out of bed January 1? to achieve them. transformational are "concrete and defined" with ects. New Year's reVolutions are personal and broader in scope than the traditional resolutions. Most verbs associated with resolutions are restrictive in nature.a drastic and far reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving. reduce or eliminate.Transform Your Business with 2009 New Year's ReVolutions By Michael Guld While the origin of New Year's resolutions goes back as far as 153 BC. 2. what would you want your bio to say? Are you on track to be that person? If not. Goals are dreams with ple's challenges. people see New Year's resolutions as a difficult exercise at best. Keep fulfilled and you will ultimately Page 24 – December 2008 . Where do you ul. The framing of your reVolutions requires stepping back and deciding what do you want to be as opposed to what do you need to do. disci. Write down . Your chores are other peo1. in modern day times. etc. tasks or activities that acactions that will lead to break. stop. most people "make" the resolutions January 1. which nities and be willing to take a others). provides pleasure and satTo help increase the chances isfaction and less of what you do of keeping inspired (vs. it is the positive actions that follow that will lead to success (vs. If someone were to introduce you to a large crowd recognizing you for your accomplishments.)." By definition. ac.timately want to be and what do ral gifts and less time on the olutions can energize and invig.not enjoy that leads to procrastiplined) with your New Year's nation and stress (delegate.es or shortcomings (delegate to possible. hire revolutions.you want to do? improvement of your weaknessorate by the thought of "what's Imagine limitless opportu.you will have a higher selfcommodation or settling of a can visualize and that you WILL esteem. wanting. As a result. they usually evoke feelings of guilt. achieve by the end of 2009. The implication is that you need to improve. which quickly subsides as the weeks and months progress. hoping and waiting for them to happen).a solution.While having a positive mental attitude is a good start. requiring discipline.what you are naturally good A resolution . By its very nature. Follow your passion Commit to doing more of what you enjoy doing that invigorates. Positive attitude plus positive actions equal positive results . be more professionally problem.

marketing exposure. email. 10.Even performers like Madonna realize that change is cathartic. The reality is wherever we spend our precious resources . week.Being overwhelmed with clutter can make you feel busier than you actually are. even in our dress and our surroundings. Go through every piece of paper in every file with a goal to trash it. talkingbiz.all designed to save us time. Change the way you see everything .net. 9. as opposed to only those tasks that others ask you to do. While we now have new technologies like cell phones." "delegate it" or "scratch it.the reality is they can be pulls and distractions as well taking us off tasks to what is truly important. energy and focus to achieve your New Year's reVolutions. professional and monetary rewards and less of what steals your time. chores and celebrate what you've accomplished vs. but instead use technology as a tool to help you achieve your goals. employee productivity and creating a worldclass service experience. focus on the tasks at hand … setting up firewalls to keep any distractions from diluting your focus. family." when in reality we have to accept that we will never "get it all done. It is easy to become stale and accept the way things are if we don't shake it up every once and a while. so it is extremely difficult to concentrate on two or more projects and do them well at the very same time. wireless cards .By reprogramming your brain to see opportunities vs.Once you have decided on your priorities of the day. Reinvent Yourself .vaeng. While we have two arms. speaker. elevating organizations to heights previously thought unreachable. 12 and 14hour days and you still don't feel like you get it all done? Go back through your "to-do list" and prioritize it to "do it. make us more efficient and more effective . and year. encourage you and celebrate in your success. Do not become a slave to technology.time. Decide first on what results you want to accomplish in 2009. Choose to spend your precious time with people that will support you.Does your "to-do list" look more like an annual plan? Are you working 10.is where we will get the greatest results." airing on Central Virginia's Public Radio and heard at www. PDAs. He is the president of The Guld Resource Group and creator of "Talking Business with Michael Guld. You will start out the year with a refreshed attitude. obstacles. we only have one brain. challenges vs.be far more successful. draining energy. money and energy . but bad attitudes are more contagious. Begin or end each day with 20 minutes worth of organizing. Make sure you add in your "want todo list" items. feeling bad about what you have not. and spend your time. we all have a goal to "get it all done. 7. www." Prioritize your list so you can do more of what brings you personal. and destroying morale. Re-analyze your "to-do list. energizing and can be very good for a career.com – Page 25 . two eyes and two ears. Surround yourself with positive people . Compartmentalize your priorities . 8. box it (future needs) or re-file it (near term needs). accelerating discontent. 6. Be the organized executive .Good attitudes are contagious. increasing sales performance. friends and organizations. 5. you will increase your energy. Start the year fresh by doing a total catharsis or cleansing. improve your attitude and raise your level of professional satisfaction. Your files will be reduced by 66 to 75 percent. entrepreneur and radio commentator whose business development expertise lies in the "soft skills". even if it means hiding piles until you can get to them." There is no way to accomplish all that we want to do plus all that is asked from us by our work. ## ABOUT THE AUTHOR Michael Guld is an author. Finally. month." .

business associates.Season’s Greetings from The Virginia Engineer During this holiday season. we send our thanks and expressions of gratitude to our many loyal readers. Page 26 – December 2008 . health and happiness during this holiday season and throughout the coming year. colleagues and friends without whom our success would not be possible. We wish you and your loved ones peace.

6M grant from the U.Researchers Create A “Field Hospital On-A-Chip” ith a $1. brain injury or fatigue. the engineers will need to build a minimally invasive system that monitors mul- tiple biomarkers simultaneously and uses the system's "smarts" to process all this biomarker information and tease out accurate. primary investigator on the project. "Since the majority of battlefield deaths occur within the first 30 minutes after injury. To realize their "field hospital on a chip" idea.S. thus beginning the treatment well before the soldier has reached a field hospital. These diagnoses would immediately trigger drug delivery or other medical intervention." said Prof. "We are working on a system that will be different." said Prof. it will automatically administer the proper medication. Once the system detects a W battlefield injury. who helped to develop the first noninvasive system for monitoring glucose from a patient's sweat. tears or blood for biomarkers that signal common battlefield injuries such as trauma. automated diagnoses. shock. Wang. It will monitor biomarkers and make decisions about the type of injury a person www. "Today's insulin and glucose management systems for patients with diabetes don't include smart sensors capable of performing complex logic operations. Wang. The automated sense-andtreat system will continuously monitor a soldier's sweat. Office of Naval Research (ONR).com – Page 27 . rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial for enhancing the survival rate of injured soldiers. University of California-San Diego (UC San Diego) NanoEngineering professor Joseph Wang will lead a project to create a "field hospital on a chip" that soldiers can wear on the battlefield.vaeng.

Katz and colleagues ducers that produce strings of 1s the enzyme logic.Personnel Treatment (ADAPT): ers that will serve as biological erated by the enzymes would Use of enzymes as "logic gates" for input signals for their prototype change .vert the biomarkers to products which points to shock and will ological processes and implant." said Prof. now facing Prof. electrodes will also act as trans. if an injured toring and treatment of injured humans can wear." said Prof.ide. years. Wang.1. is to get the en." said Prof. Credit: Image courtesy of University of expect to have a working chemistry and biomolec.THE VIRGINIA ENGINEER has sustained and then begin logic system.ing a combination of enzymes NADH and lower NAD+. higher treating that person according. tion. a Co-PI on the grant An illustration of the sense-and-treat system being By the end of the and the Milton Kerker developed at UC San Diego's Jacobs School of En. glucose and The new project is titled "Aurine and glucose are examples norepinephrine. however.treatment plans. Integrating automated diagnostic enzyme logic onto elecdexterity. en. lower norepiquinone. Electrodes contain. the researchtrodes that can read bioers plan to build upon marker inputs from the "enzyme logic" breakbody will be one of our throughs recently demfirst major challenges. but also provide the tion based on predetermined sive membranes that can release logic necessary to make a lim.vide the logic necessary to con. drugs.with the drug delivery system. The pattern of ones and low the sensors to communicate One of the many challenges zeros will reveal the type of in. zeros.which may then be picked up by trigger a pre-determined treatable devices could have a broader another enzyme on the electrode ment response. Lactate. During the first two ized medicine. cus will be on the senTo reach this level of sor systems. At the same demonstrated recently that en.of injury biomarkers thanks to Prof. prototype that can detect ular science at Clarkson different combinations University. as well as the electrical or ited set of diagnoses based on "We just want the ones and optoelectronic systems that almultiple biological variables. will serve as sensors and pro. Thus far. which is the goal of beginning of this projthe new field of personalect." said Prof. tem will revolutionize the moniwork on sensing electrodes that For example.concentrations of products gen. Wang and his jury and automatically trigger "We really hope that our enteam.California .will cause the built-in logic struc"Developing an effective in.0. oxygen. would sense rising levels of the rate. 'on-demand' medical "We are just at the care.project. our primary foWang. norepineph. the researchers will also zymes can not only measure materials that release medica. Wang. The "This is biocomputing in acautonomous. Wang.higher hydrogen perox.San Diego. In turn. providing for further logic operations.ture to output the signal "1.biomarkers lactate." onstrated by Evgeny said Prof. zyme-logic sense-and-treat syszyme logic system to reliably Wang." said Prof.the proper treatment. Wang. This ly. individual. biomedical impact. the tonomous Devices for Advanced of the kinds of injury biomark.sensor fidelity and control. the researchers Chaired professor of gineering. enzymes on the electrode improvements in their survival been demonstrated in solution.soldier were to enter a state of soldiers and lead to dramatic zyme logic operations have only shock.0" terface between complex physi." ## Page 28 – December 2008 .and 0s that will activate smart time.be working on signal-responbiomarkers. Katz.

Now.AS THE WEATHER GROWS COLD and people start planning for the holidays.net Send new office announcements to news@vaeng. updated weekly. and with the 2009 editions of both of the model building codes. VA 23970 Tel: 434-447-7621 316 E. Scientists exposed two dry Christmas trees to an open flame in a living room mock-up built inside their laboratory and recorded the results. Manufacturers that successfully complete the evaluation process receive a Verification of Attributes Report (VAR) in one or more of nine key categories: recycled Specialists In Civil. manufacturers offer products that claim to be green or sustainable. the one on the right. These are the remains of two dry Christmas trees NIST researchers burned in an experiment. did not have a sprinkler system. the other video shows that the tree burns rapidly. says Dan Madrzykowski. which is destroyed. Without a sprinkler system. Ferrell Street South Hill. The video of the room with the sprinkler shows that the sprinkler eventually dampens and extinguishes the tree fire.brockenbrough. DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Engineers — Planners Civil • Structural • Geotechnical 10560 Main Street. are available at www. they will be required in all new residential buildings.vaeng.com water & wastewater systems • sanitary engineering site development • subdivisions • shopping centers topographic • boundary surveys • lab analysts 212 E. Photo courtesy of NIST. are showing the importance of residential sprinkler systems. A SAVE evaluation involves both inspection of the manufacturer’s production process and reviews of independent product testing. “Fire research. researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have released two new research videos that illustrate the benefit of having sprinkler systems in homes. Box 4800 4800 W. VA 23924 Tel: 434-372-5101 Tel: 434-572-3251 www. he says.” explains Dick Bukowski. they can prove their claims are verified.vaeng. The room shown on the left had a sprinkler system. Third Street 1320A Seymour Drive South Boston. the number of fatalities from Christmas tree fires will decrease. Hundred Road Chester. Mechanical.com! SAVE Introduced by ICC-E Today. with a SAVE evaluation from ICC-ES. a NIST fire protection engineer. The Sustainable Attributes Verification and Evaluation program provides independent confirmation that evaluated building products are sustainable and may qualify for points under major green rating systems. O.aegcorp.com – Page 29 . Sprinkler systems have been required for years in high-rise buildings. VA 23970 Chase City. Suite 401 • Fairfax.com Bits & Pieces DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Tel: 703-272-8122 • Fax: 703-272-8124 www. Fire and building researchers hope that as the number of homes with sprinkler systems increases. and Structural Engineering P. such as our videos and measurement science. where required. VA 22030 Numerous other news items. VA 23831 Phone: 804-748-8746 Fax: 804-748-7849 www. Electrical. coordinator of codes and standards for NIST’s Building and Fire Research Laboratory.

VA 23227 www.DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES AIRPORT PLANNING & DESIGN 4215 Lafayette Center Drive. specifiers. VA 22046 3719 Saunders Avenue Richmond.802.drhdesigngroup. VA 804.com engineering • remediation • Consulting Richmond. “A VAR (Verification of Attributes Report) from ICCES gives manufacturers proof they can show their customers that the sustainability of their product is indeed verified. volatile organic compound content and emissions (adhesives and sealants). designers and specifiers know to look for products evaluated under SAVE. com content (postconsumer/preconsumer). Code officials. ICC-ES Director of Special Projects. Virginia 20186 Office: 540. MD 866. professor of textiles at Kansas State University (K-State) and co-director DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES The Engineering Groupe 13625 Office Place Engineering Woodbridge. however. online or from a catalog. Hydrology/Hydraulics Applications • Stormwater Management Highway & Bridges Inspections • Sturctural Engineering Traffic Engineering & Planning • Construction Management Consulting Engineers • • • • • • • • • Geotechnical environmental mining Hydrology and Hydrogeology risk analysis Construction Quality assurance permitting air Quality Solid Waste management 201 PARK WASHINGTON COURT FALLS CHURCH.envalliance. shoppers have a pretty good idea of its appearance.8385 • Fax: 540. a significant advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace.com Tel: 804-358-7900 Fax: 804-358-2900 35 Rock Pointe Lane. VA 22192 Planning Tel: 703-670-0985 Surveying Alexandria: 703-684-3584 Environmental Fredericksburg: 540-710-5987 Services Leesburg: 703-737-7904 Serving all of Northern Virginia Since 1990 Charlottesville: 434-973-4394 Email: central@enggroupe.802.349. volatile organic compound content and emissions (paints and coatings). “SAVE brings great benefit to manufacturers. regional materials. certified wood products.9588 drhall@drhdg.0181 Email: info@campbell-paris.” said Steve Thorsell.752. LEED and Green Globes.com Millersville. Knowing how warm it will keep them. urea formaldehyde resin content in composite wood products and volatile organic compound content and emissions of floor coverings.3558 www. iNC. coveralls and other such products. solar reflectance index and thermal emittance of roofing materials. Suite 2 Chantilly.com PHONE (703) 891-5112 FAX (703) 891-5117 lottachi@chiassociates.golder. said Elizabeth McCullough. designers and code officials because it’s designed to be useable under the three major green rating systems: the new National Green Building Standard.0093 • Fax: 703. VA 20151 Campbell & pariS Tel: 703.” Clothing Temperature Ratings Being Researched When buying a winter coat in a store.3164 CHi aSSOCiaTeS.com Page 30 – December 2008 . takes guesswork.349.748. Manufacturers put temperature ratings on jackets. biobased materials.com • www. Suite 200 Warrenton.

VA 23451 Ph. The goal is to have all manufacturers doing the same testing so a consumer can compare one product to another.com William r. McCullough said.. VA 703-729-1416 703-503-6691 276-676-0426 Herndon. they’re for the whole ensemble. Inc. McCullough said this would be particularly helpful to consumers who can’t try on the garment because they’re shopping online or from catalogs. Jennings.com www. Mechanical/Electrical/Commissioning roanoke 540-265-4444 richmond 804-423-6444 Industrial TurnAround Corporation Suite 200 13203 N. McCullough’s work involves first measuring the insulation value of a cold-weather ensemble with a thermal manikin and then using the value in a whole body heat loss model developed by Steve Eckels.” How comfortable you are in a garment depends on the outside environment. Environmental. Enon Church Rd. McCullough is chairing a committee in the American Society for Testing and Materials to develop a standard formula for determining the temperature ratings for cold-weather clothing.com – Page 31 . Consulting engineering. E.com Tel: (434) 525-7099 • www. Chester. the clothing worn DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Geotechnical. Hazardous Materials & Construction Materials Consultants Abingdon. Jr. Sustainable Ecological Restoration and Environmental Consulting 1008 Old Virginia Beach Rd. Richmond Performance Has Built Our Business (804) 782-1907 Charles Hite. Mechanical • Electrical HVAC • Plumbing • Process Energy Management 800-283-1077 INDUSTRIAL – COMMERCIAL P. Suite 200 Virginia Beach. Prof. Virginia 24501 904 Lakeside Drive (434) 846-1350 MAYES ENGINEERING.vaeng. O. VA 703-471-8383 804-358-7111 Professional Engineering Lynchburg. She said manufacturers have different methods to determine those temperature ratings.T.DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Henkels & McCoy. A temperature rating is the lowest temperature at which a consumer can be comfortable when wearing outdoor clothing.Gas & Water Brian Healy. Prof. too. Suite A Lynchburg. V 23836 A (804) 414-1100 (804) 414-1195 Fax itac@itac-net. • Cathodic Protection • Natural Gas Engineering & CADD • Construction Services .E. VA 24551 Short Circuit and arc Flash Studies Email: bjennings@jenningspe. pC Industrial — Commercial — Environmental Electrical & Controls Engineering 2940 Perrowville Road • Forest.com Kerr Environmental Services Corp. Box 4468 • 21 Timber Oak Court. VA 24502 Tel: (434) 239-1616 • Fax: (434) 239-6164 McDONOUGH BOLYARD PECK Construction Management • CPM Scheduling • Cost Estimating • Resident Engineering • Constructibility Review • Disputes Resolution For more information. “You’re not going to be comfortable if you’re only wearing the jacket. 757-963-2008 Fax: 757-963-8322 of the Institute for Environmental Research. call 1-800-898-9088 Or visit us on the web at www. KState professor of mechanical engineering and director of the Institute for Environmental Research. P. VA Richmond.jenningspe. Prof. VA Ashburn.I. The clothing worn underneath the jacket during testing has to be the same. VA Fairfax. “One thing consumers need to realize is that the ratings are not just for the garment.mbpce. The model assumes all other variables like relative humidity and wind speed are the same.” Prof. INC.

INC. VA 20191 Tel: 703-506-0005 • Fax: 703-506-0009 800-783-6424 • www. LTD. Professor Works to Inspire School Children In his native Newark. the mother said. P. ENGINEERS ◆ SCIENTISTS ◆ SURVEYORS ◆ PLANNERS (804) 550-9200 ◆ Fax (804) 550-9259 9560 KINGS CHARTER DRIVE P.com Solid Waste Management and Environmental Services Consultants E S www.scsengineers. VA 23005 www. Freeman. Dr. to provide school children in the third through eighth grades with DVDs showing the work he is doing in Blacksburg. Using a classroom skeleton to show students the various bones on the body. & AudioVisual System Design 12040 South Lakes Drive. Freeman said he was thrilled that students became involved in the lesson.resourceintl. VA 22401 Specializing in Cost Effective Biological Nutrient Removal Wastewater Treatment Systems 540-371-8500 • sreid@reidengineering.pottsminter.com CS E I NG NE RS 800 767-4727 COMPREHENSIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEYING SERVICES 3520 Courthouse Rd • Richmond. Freeman and his mother decided to start making DVDs of lab-based lessons that he films so she can show them to her students.J.com RESOURCE INTERNATIONAL. are under 10 DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES MILLER. has been working with Diana Freeman. He also drew complicated nerve cell structures on the classroom chalkboard to show students why doctors cannot rebuild spinal cords or so many of the body’s complicated tissues that allow paraplegics to walk. POTTS. his mother and a science teacher.com We Shape the Environment Page 32 – December 2008 . O. Consultants in Acoustics. Joseph Freeman. Freeman arrived the next day. The DVDs. • Fredericksburg. Suite 104 • Reston. according to Dr.com Civil and Environmental Engineering reid engineering Company Wastewater • Water • Utility engineering 1210 Princess Anne St. The idea to share Dr.Vibration.millerbp.DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES and activity level of the person. N.. an assistant professor at the Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences and director of the Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration Laboratory. MINTER (804) 745-2876 www. VA 23236 engineers • land Surveyors • land planners P M AND ASSOCIATES. From that class. he discussed knee replacements and knee ligament surgeries and replacements. Dr. Box 6160 ◆ Ashland. asking question after question. Freeman’s in-lab work at Virginia Tech with students in Newark was sparked in 2006 after she invited her visiting son to participate in Career Day. BEAM & PAGANELLI.C. wearing a Superman T-shirt and spoke to her third through fifth graders about his career in scientific research. Dr.

. . VA 20109 703-257-9280 703-257-7589 Fax www. 9 Industrial Turnaround Corp. . mircospheres.com Whitman. . . .wdpa. . . . . and edits the production on his home computer. .343. . . .com Hanover Technical Sales . .Highways/Bridges . . .vaeng. BC www. . . Freeman says he also plans to work Internet conferencing into the classroom lessons. . the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME) and Project Lead The Way® (PLTW). .847. . . ## DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Company Profiles. 27 Southeastern Engineering Sales . . . .Forensic . IFC Reid Engineering Company . 21 D & S Contractors . . . . . . Dr.3386 Williamsburg | 757. The cost is cheap: he uses a digital recorder from home. . Visit the Consulting Firms’ Directory at For More Complete Specializing in Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Services .E. . .vaeng. . 7 www. LLC . .com minutes and have or will include work he is using in the lab. . . .wrallp. Burks Sales Company . Transportation Land Development Environmental Services Virginia Office locations Richmond | 804.7100 Vienna | 703. positive-themed hip hop mostly. inc. 15 a little ad may bring big results! Call Richard at 804-779-3527 Lipten . increasing participation of women and minorities.Expert Testimony 8832 Rixlew Lane Manassas. 3 Power & Heat Systems. . . . . science and technical subjects. and preparing high school graduates to enter post-secondary engineering programs fully competent in the required mathematics. such as electrospinning. . .490. 11 Chewning & Wilmer . . . . . . Freeman has ideas for more. . .com – Page 33 . .Rehabilitation/Restoration . . In early 2009. NACME and PLTW Collaborate To Further Programs The Gateway Academy. and hydrogels. .com Index to Advertisers S. how nanofibers are made.873. The partnership of these three organizations focuses on recruiting more high school students to choose careers in engineering and engineering technology. 17 Integrated Power Sources . 19 Prime Air Products . . . a nationwide initiative of the SME Education Foundation. .Construction/Project Management .Materials Testing . . . . NAF. . . with graduate students demonstrating the lesson after he gives a brief introduction. IBC Tate Engineering . Requardt and Associates.220. He adds music. . . LLP Engineers • Architects • Planners VIRGINIA LOCATIONS: RICHMOND • (804) 272-8700 • Fax: (804) 272-8897 NEWPORT NEWS • (757) 599-5101 • Fax: (757) 599-5320 FAIRFAX • (703) 293-9717 • Fax: (703) 273-6773 www.0500 www. . . Including Links.0132 Newport News | 757. . . .3071 Virginia Beach | 757.DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Vanasse Hangen brustlin. as well as DVDs. .vhb. The Society of Manufacturing Engineering Foundation will provide funding at Academy of Engineering sites in the summer of 2009. . . So far two DVDs have been completed and Dr. has received the endorsement of the Academy of Engineering (AOE) — a dynamic partnership between the National Academy Foundation (NAF). .

do something diff place. 2008 The Honorable Jeffrey M. if not just for n Virginia’s public and private professionals develop a vision for a state-wide transportatio ible remuneration. rminably in traffic trying to get to work only take.The Virginia Engineer ille. They fully comprehend paying to have the endure the same travail trying to get back hom to understanding ance. Grace Street Richmond. What they are not as well versed in is end realigned because the roads need mainten adgeable problem.com • Fax: (804) 779-3032 • Inte Tel: (804) 779-3527 • E-mail: sales@v Page 34 – December 2008 . Obenshain Center 115 E. it would seem that Standing on the edg ost on your agenda. and not just short term.com aeng. an environment where rhetoric and post serious and thoughtful planning and preparat tion where erent. ing to the professionals? No. VA 23219 Chairman Frederick. Carden. but not before. It requires a grea ctive and efficient land use and transportatio Effe uring have no ion.” dent on the key issues that matter most to our population who consider themselves indepen ing but time tested solution — concrete action. being prepared for the upcoming chale of the political precipice. Let these professionals some more tang tical expediwide range of other professionals. for you leadership is essential to promote what's best Hopefully. Then the essionals to analyze and provide feasible opti ence. according to many. for Virginia. the legislature’s continu again. Here challenges will but a statew legislators or other members of the choir. Virginia 23111 7401 Flannigan Mill Road • Mechanicsv Friday.vaeng. Virginia is bles with career professionals in transportation wide consultation be of trewhose expertise and experience might just y transportation and land use professionals with man tation issues. Give the technical problems to the prof wrangling can begin. may I offer a suggestion. November 14. not your fello t talk and land development/use. the prestige. lenges beginning in January would be upperm to communicate our message to the growstated. Carden. Knowle tical bombast is actually going to solve the how poli as well. could showcase their concepts. Virginians clearly understand sitting inte Make no mis car’s front e. Might I suggest a seldom used legislatively ’s transportation ing struggle to meaningfully address Virginia With little surprise. Publisher/Ge rnet: www. “Republicans have to find a better way As you recently families. and possibly in this case. Richard O. ble approach to solving our long term transpor mendous value in fashioning a truly sustaina t deal of n policy is not an accident. Offer a challenge or create a competi In this the year of change. top the agenda. II. Frederick The Richard D. How about . not on poli cy based on the options contributed from a poli ons. II A IIr Associates Publication neral Manager Richard O.

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