Chapter 1 Introduction

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Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers initially developed by Android Inc. Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005. The unveiling of the Android distribution on November 5, 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 84 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google released most of the Android code under the Apache License, a free software license. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.

Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Libraries written in C include the surface manager, OpenCore media framework, SQLite relational database management system, OpenGL ES 2.0 3D graphics API, WebKit layout engine, SGL graphics engine, SSL, and Bionic libc. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with justin-time compilation to run Dalvik bytecode, which is usually translated from Java bytecode.

Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java. There are currently approximately 300,000 apps available for Android, from a total of 500,000 apps over the life of Android. Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or through online stores such as Android Market, the app store run by Google.

The Android operating system consists of 12 million lines of code including 3 million lines of XML, 2.8 million lines of C, 2.1 million lines of Java, and 1.75 million lines of C++. Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone platform worldwide in Q4 2010 by Canalys with over 190 million Android devices in use by October 2011.

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Chapter 2 History:
2.1 Foundation:
Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire

Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubin's words "...smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences". Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.

2.2 Acquisition by Google:
Google acquired Android Inc. in August 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google Inc. Key employees of Android Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time of the acquisition, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.

2.3 Post-acquisition development:
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.

Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors
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Samsung Electronics. with source code publicly available at all times. Atheros Communications. 2008. and Vodafone Group Plc. 2. Google also keeps the reviewed issues list publicly open for anyone to see and comment. HTC. Nvidia. with source code released publicly when a major new version is released. Sprint Nextel. a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2. InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Android. 2007. Google. the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their first product. Toshiba Corp.5 Licensing: With the exception of brief update periods. Marvell Technology Group. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications. and the rest of the code (including network and telephony stacks) under the Apache License version 2. including ARM Holdings. LG.4 Open handset alliance: On November 5. On December 9. The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices. the Open Handset Alliance. On the same day. Sony Ericsson. 14 new members joined.0. in public. a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation. The Open Handset Alliance develops the GPL-licensed part of Android that is their changes to the Linux kernel. Typically Google collaborates with a hardware 3 . Intel. Huawei Technologies. it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. T-Mobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself. The rest of Android is developed in private. Android has been available under free and open source software licenses from October 21. Asustek Computer Inc. PacketVideo. 2008 until March 2011. Softbank. Motorola. Qualcomm.that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. Garmin Ltd. Google published the source code for their Linux kernel changes under the GNU General Public License version 2. 2.6. In September 2007.

In September 2010. 4 . including the Android Market. Google later confirmed that the Honeycomb source code would not be released until after it was merged with the Gingerbread release in Ice Cream Sandwich. then makes the source code available after that device has been released.manufacturer to produce a flagship device featuring the new version of Android. In December 2010 a judge denied Skyhook's motion for preliminary injunction. Skyhook Wireless filed a lawsuit against Google in which they alleged that Google had used the compatibility document to block Skyhook's mobile positioning service (XPS) from Motorola's Android mobile devices. was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom. Even though the software is open source. and that Motorola had terminated their contract with Skyhook because Skyhook wanted to disable Google's location data collection functions on Motorola's devices. Devices must also meet this definition to be eligible to license Google's closed-source applications. The reason. creating doubts over Google's commitment to open source with Android. which would have violated Motorola's obligations to Google and its carriers. In early 2011. according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post. device manufacturers cannot use Google's Android trademark unless Google certifies that the device complies with their Compatibility Definition Document (CDD). Google chose to withhold the Android source code to the tablet-only Honeycomb release. and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets. saying that Google had not closed off the possibility of accepting a revised version of Skyhook's XPS service.

and added support for Near Field Communication. unified social networking contacts.2 Honeycomb. network data usage monitoring and control. went on sale in February 2011. 2011. Recent releases  2. released in July 2011.2. added support for extra input devices.0 Ice Cream Sandwich. added SIP support (VoIP calls). and information sharing using NFC.1 Honeycomb. and the Google Movies and Books apps. improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste features. the Motorola Xoom tablet. Huawei Media Pad is the first 7 inch tablet to use this version. improved gaming performance. released in May 2011.  3. loading media files directly from SD card.3 Gingerbread is the latest Android version that is available to phones. and supports multi-core processors and hardware acceleration for graphics.  4. 5 . brought Honeycomb features to smartphones and added new features including facial recognition unlock. in alphabetical order. and an extended screen support API. USB host mode for transferring information directly from cameras and other devices. The first device featuring this version. Android 2. Each version is named. after a dessert.  3. new "zoom-to-fill" screen compatibility mode. photography enhancements. each fixing bugs and adding new features. added optimization for a broader range of screen sizes.3 Gingerbread refined the user interface.  3. announced on October 19. offline email searching.0 Honeycomb was a tablet-orientated release which supports larger screen devices and introduces many new user interface features.6 Version history: Android has seen a number of updates since its original release.

Certain features Google contributed back to the kernel. in September 2010 Linux kernel developer Rafael J. because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux. Even though Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community. He said that Android device drivers that use wakelocks can now be easily merged into mainline Linux. Wysocki added a patch that improved the mainline Linux wakeup events framework. were rejected by mainline kernel developers. Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. but it will probably not be for four to five years. In 2011 Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel. Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process". However." 6 . and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android. notably a power management feature called wakelocks. but that Android's opportunistic suspend features should not be included in the mainline kernel. partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code. the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch.1 Linux: Android's kernel is a fork of the Linux kernel and has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle.Chapter 3 Design: 3. Greg Kroah-Hartman.

JPEG. AMR-WB (in 3GP container). AAC. MP3. 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2. UMTS.  Storage: SQLite. Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic streaming are supported by the Flash plugin. is used for data storage purposes. IDEN. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on Dalvik.2 Features:  Handset layouts: The platform is adaptable to larger. PNG.263. The number of languages more than doubled for the platform 2. FLAC. AMR. H.3. Wi-Fi. a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for batterypowered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU.  Web browser: The web browser available in Android is based on the opensource WebKit layout engine.  Multiple language support: Android supports multiple human languages. VGA.  Media support: Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM.  Java support: While most Android applications are written in Java. HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container). HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). Apple HTTP 7 .  Streaming media support: RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS. Bluetooth. Ogg Vorbis. and BMP. MIDI. NFC and WiMAX.0 specifications. The browser scores a 95/100 on the Acid3 Test. J2ME support can be provided via third-party applications. and traditional smartphone layouts. H.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container). a lightweight relational database. ISMA). there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed.  Connectivity: Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE. CDMA. WAV. coupled with Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine. including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service. 2D graphics library.3 Gingerbread. GIF.  Messaging: SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging. LTE. MPEG-4 SP. EV-DO.

Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively.2 this was supported by thirdparty applications or manufacturer customizations. accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation.2 onwards.  Voice based features: Google search through voice has been available since initial release. magnetometers. gyroscopes. AVRCP. barometers. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touchscreen technology at the time). Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2. and by the operating system in Android 3. Before Android 2. proximity and pressure sensors.1+. which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot.0 (Honeycomb).  Tethering: Android supports tethering.  Video calling: Android does not support native video calling. etc. scaling. accelerometers.  Bluetooth: Supports A2DP. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics. thermometers.  Multitasking: Multitasking of applications is available. Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3. touchscreens.3. 8 . Voice actions for calling. including front camera support.1 offers video calling in Android 2. either via the UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP.  Multi-touch: Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero.4 and later.3. but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it. Keyboard. accessing the phone book (PBAP). texting. GPS.  Additional hardware support: Android can use video/still cameras.Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Mobile. and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications. dedicated gaming controls. voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Skype 2. This allows for enhanced VoIP dialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers. are supported on Android 2. sending files (OPP). navigation.

manufacturer and third-party customizations as well as using a PC connection (DDMS developer's tool) were the only known methods of capturing a screenshot on Android. Screen capture: Android has native support for screenshot capture ability by pressing the power and volume buttons at the same time on an Android device. Furthermore previously. 9 .0 (Ice Cream Sandwich) update which is first seen on the Galaxy Nexus smartphone. Previously Android did not feature native support for screen capturing which would have likely been due to security concerns. This native support came about with the release of Android's 4.

Developers are free to take advantage of the device hardware. All applications are written using the Java programming language. and others. much more. access location information.Chapter 4 Android Architecture: 4. 10 . calendar. Android offers developers the ability to build extremely rich and innovative applications. set alarms.1 Applications: Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client.2 Application Framework: By providing an open development platform. contacts. maps. SMS program. browser. run background services. and much. add notifications to the status bar. 4.

providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings. JPG. including lists.  A Resource Manager. any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework).Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. AMR. and PNG. as well as static image files. Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems.  A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar. buttons.  An Activity Manager that manages the lifecycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack. Some of the core libraries are listed below:  System C library: A BSD-derived implementation of the standard C system library (libc).264.3 Libraries: Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system. tuned for embedded Linux-based devices. This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user. H. 4. 11 . including MPEG4.  Surface Manager: Manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications. AAC. the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats.  Media Libraries: Based on PacketVideo's OpenCORE. and even an embeddable web browser. grids. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components. These capabilities are exposed to developers through the Android application framework. graphics.  Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts). including:  A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application. and layout files. MP3. text boxes. or to share their own data.

network stack. 12 .5 Linux kernel: Android relies on Linux version 2. LibWebCore: A modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view. process management. 4. and driver model.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.  SGL: The underlying 2D graphics engine.4 Android Runtime: Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.dex format by the included "dx" tool. memory management. with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. The VM is register-based. highly optimized 3D software rasterizer.  3D libraries: An implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.6 for core system services such as security. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently.0 APIs. 4. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.  FreeType: Bitmap and vector font rendering. the libraries use either hardware 3D acceleration (where available) or the included. The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.  SQLite: A powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications. and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the . Every Android application runs in its own process.

inadequate QA infrastructure. some developers may choose not to use a retail device. libraries. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (currently 3. "Functionality is not there.9 SDK beta was released. Merge Lab mobile startup founder Adam MacBeth stated. sample code.1 Software Development kit (SDK): The Android SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools. Mac OS X 10. documentation. (Google announced an issue tracker on 18 January 2008. A preview release of the Android software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007.5) using the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plug-in. Windows XP or later. is poorly documented or just doesn't work. triggering a reboot. a handset emulator (based on QEMU).g.Chapter 5 Software Development: The early feedback on developing applications for the Android platform was mixed. improved development tools and an updated design for the home screen. It's clearly not ready for prime time. Android-targeted applications began to appear the week after the platform was announced. installing software package(s) remotely).. This release provided an updated and extended API.9 or later. and no public issue-tracking system. While developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their applications. preferring an unlocked or no-contract device. These include a debugger.. In December 2007. build and debug Android applications as well as control attached Android devices (e.” Despite this. though developers may use any text editor to edit Java and XML files then use command line tools (Java Development Kit and Apache Ant are required) to create. 5. Detailed instructions for upgrading are available to those already working 13 .. On 18 August 2008 the Android 0. The Android Dev Phone is a SIM-unlocked and hardware-unlocked device that is designed for advanced developers. Issues cited include bugs.).4. Currently supported development platforms include computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux distribution).4 or 3. lack of documentation. and tutorials. The first publicly available application was the Snake game.

Finance for their finance service. Google Goggles that searches by image. APK package contains .with an earlier release. although some smaller features were added". Gesture Search for using finger written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone. based on MIT's Open Blocks Java library and providing access to Android devices' GPS. accelerometer and orientation data. contact data. Places Directory for their Local Search. These applications include Google Voice for the Google Voice service.2 App Inventor for Android: On 12 July 2010 Google announced the availability of App Inventor for Android. Sky Map for watching stars.apk format (which is simply a ZIP file with a particular internal file layout that allows it to be run in place.dex files (compiled byte code files called Dalvik executable). Under development for over a year. 14 . speech-to-text conversion. the block-editing tool has been taught to non-majors in computer science at Harvard. text messaging. Wellsley. and Web services. resource files. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks. MIT. phone functions." said the project director. a jogging application. On 23 September 2008 the Android 1. persistent storage. According to the release notes. 5.0 SDK (Release 1) was released. initially including Amazon and Twitter. Maps Editor for their MyMaps service. Android applications are packaged in .9 version. It also included several API changes from the 0. a Webbased visual development environment for novice programmers. where Professor David Wolber developed an introductory computer science course and tutorial book for non-computer science students based on App Inventor for Android. Google Shopper. 5.3 Google Applications: Google has also participated in the Android Market by offering several applications for its services. without unpacking ) and stored under /data/app folder on the Android OS (the folder is accessible to root user only for security reasons). "We could only have done this because Android’s architecture is so open. and the University of San Francisco. etc. MIT's Hal Abelson. it included "mainly bug fixes. Google Translate.

Running native code is complicated by the fact that Android uses a nonstandard C library (libc. ARM code can be compiled using GCC on a standard PC. and WeatherBug.5 Native code: Libraries written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and installed using the Android Native Development Kit. allowing the development of cross-platform applications. and initiate calls by voice. known as Bionic). Native classes can be called from Java code running under the Dalvik VM using the System.In August 2010. there has also been an increased interest by third party developers to port their applications to the Android operating system. The graphics library that Android uses to arbitrate and control access to this device is called the Skia Graphics Library (SGL). which is part of the standard Android Java classes. 5. The Android operating system has grown significantly. and a lot of the most popular internet sites and services have created native applications. and Twitter. The ADB debugger gives a root shell under the Android Emulator which allows native ARM code to be uploaded and executed. write messages. These include MySpace.4 Third party Applications: With the growing number of Android handsets. 15 . Notable applications that have been converted to the Android operating system include Shazam. Facebook. Complete applications can be compiled and installed using traditional development tools. and it has been released under an open source license. Skia has backends for both win32 and UNIX. The underlying graphics device is available as a framebuffer at /dev/graphics/fb0. 5. and it is the graphics engine underlying the Google Chrome web browser. Google launched "Voice Actions for Android". Doodle Jump.loadLibrary call. which allows users to search.

5. On 24 September 2009. He has provided a method to back up licensed Google applications during the mod's install process and restore them when it is complete. Cyanogen has complied with Google's wishes and is continuing to distribute this mod without the proprietary software. such as FLAC lossless audio support and the ability to store downloaded applications on the microSD card. This usually involves rooting the device.6 Community-based firmware: There is a community of open-source enthusiasts that build and share Android-based firmware with a number of customizations and additional features. phones come packaged with closed-source Google applications for functionality such as the application store and GPS navigation. Google issued a cease and desist letter to the modder Cyanogen. citing issues with the re-distribution of Google's closed-source applications within the custom firmware. Rooting alone does not allow the flashing of custom firmware. giving more control over their environment variables. In order to use custom firmwares the devices bootloader must be unlocked. Even though most of Android OS is open source. Modified firmwares allow users of older phones to use applications available only on newer releases. incorporate elements of Android functionality that haven't yet been officially released within a carrier-sanctioned firmware. Google has asserted that these applications can only be provided through approved distribution channels by licensed distributors. CyanogenMod and VillainROM are two examples of such firmware. 16 . Those firmware packages are updated frequently. and tend to have fewer limitations. Rooting allows users root access to the operating system.

The Market filters the list of applications presented by the Market app to those that are compatible with the user's device.Chapter 6 Applications: 6. Maps Editor (for their MyMaps service). As of December 2010 there were about 200. Places Directory (for their Local Search). and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Gesture Search (for using finger-written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone). users can install apps from third party app stores such as the Amazon Appstore. Finance (for their finance service). applications and widgets available on the Android Market.1 Android market: Android Market is the online software store developed by Google for Android devices. Alternatively. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks. a jogging application. Google Shopper.000 games. Google launched "Voice Actions for Android" which allows users to search. The operating system itself is installed on 130 million total devices. In April 2011 Google said there had been more than 3 billion Android apps installed and at end of June 2011 there are 6 billion apps installs from the Android market. In August 2010. 17 . Only devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall Google's closed-source Android Market app and access the Market. including Google Voice (for the Google Voice service). Google Translate. An application program ("app") called "Market" is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows users to browse and download apps published by third-party developers. and initiate calls by voice. Google Goggles that searches by image. write messages. or directly onto the device if they have the application's APK file. Sky Map (for watching stars). hosted on Android Market. Google has participated in the Android Market by offering several applications themselves.

6. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones. Even during installation. and to deliver location-based ads. unless access permissions are granted by the user when the application is installed. can identify personal information sent from applications to remote servers. Android Market displays all required permissions. 6. but should not need to read messages or access the phonebook. an isolated area of the operating system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources. In some cases applications which contained trojans were hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps. Security firms such as AVG Technologies and Symantec have released antivirus software for Android devices. encountered as phone users move around. Some Android malware incidents have been reported involving rogue applications on Android Market. One design issue is that average users cannot monitor how applications access and use private and sensitive data (e. to build vast databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. 18 . location and hardware ID numbers).2 Application Security: Android applications run in a sandbox. Before installing an application. Places. allowing them to run apps like Foursquare.3 Privacy: Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points. A game may need to enable vibration. the user can decide whether to install the application. Latitude. for example. Google has responded by removing malicious apps from the Android Market. and remotely disabling them on infected devices. Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid. After reviewing these permissions. an academic research-funded project. permission checks do not often indicate to the user how critical services and data will be used or misused.g.

There is support for x86 from the Android-x86 project. The world's first TV running Android. The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. released on 22 October 2008. Android device. has also been launched by the company People of Lava. The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream.3 'Gingerbread' may be set up to dual boot on a jailbroken iPhone or iPod Touch with the help of OpeniBoot and iDroid. This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsung-made Nexus S and in 2011 with the Galaxy Nexus. and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android. headphones and other devices. In early 2010 Google collaborated with HTC to launch its flagship.Chapter 7 Uses: The Android operating system is used on smartphones. tablet computers. wristwatches. laptops. the Nexus One. 19 . Google TV. called Scandinavia.3. netbooks. iOS and Android 2.

Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system. It is only used in the text logo. as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines.Chapter 8 Marketing: The Android logo was designed along with the Droid font family made by Ascender Corporation. NORAD). The custom typeface of Android is called Norad (cf. The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB color value in hexadecimal is #A4C639. Typeface Text logo 20 . Logos Android robot logo.

2011. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5. which allowed it to duplicate the quick success of Microsoft's Windows Mobile. Google announced that there are 190 million Android devices in the market. smartphone market. In Q4 2010 Android had 59% of the total installed user base of Apple's iOS in the U.000 new Android devices were being activated every day—up from 400. 2011 550.S. On July 14.2% in November 2009. By Q4 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market. and more than 100 million devices have been activated. as measured by current mobile subscribers. and 46% of the total installed user base of iOS in Europe. In the second quarter. Android's first quarter U.0% of the U. analysts pointed to advantages that Android has as a multi-channel. up 8% from the December quarter.000 activations per day back in December 2010. multicarrier OS. By the end of Q3 2010 Android's U. In February 2010 ComScore said the Android platform had 9. and still has to compete with heavy consumer demand for new competitor offerings. According to a report by the NPD group. Android achieved 25% smartphone sales in the US market. As of June 2011 Google said that 550. This estimate includes the Tapas and OMS variants of Android. indicating that Android is taking market share mainly from RIM.S.1 Market share: Research Company Canalys estimated in Q2 2009 that Android had a 2. sales surpassed that of the rival iPhone platform. In May 2010. Apple's iOS was up by 11%. On October 13. market share had grown to 21.4%. Furthermore.4% per week.S.000 Android devices are now activated by Google each day with growth 4. Android hit 300. 21 .8. becoming the top-selling smartphone platform.8% share of worldwide smartphone shipments.000 per day a month earlier in May 2011. On the 1st of August 2011 Canalys estimates Android has about 48% of the smartphone market share.S.

x Honeycomb 2.5 Cupcake API level 14-15 11-13 9-10 8 7 4 3 % 0% 1. Versions: Distribution 4.7% 1.4% 0.3.4% 40.0 Ice Cream Sandwich 3.6 Donut 1.2 Froyo 2.9% 22 .9% 44.2 OS usage share: Data collected by November 2011.x.8.x Gingerbread 2.1 Eclair 1.7% 10.

9. effectively branching kernel code in their own tree.1 Linux compatibility:  Android's kernel was derived from Linux but has been tweaked by Google outside the main Linux kernel tree. but does not provide the full-class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME.  Support for setting up a network proxy configuration for APN (i. Google announced in April 2010 that they will employ staff to work with the Linux kernel community. However. Android only reuses the Java language syntax. separating their code from Linux. i. However.e. This was due to a disagreement about new features Google felt were necessary (some related to security of mobile applications).3 Issues concerning Application development:  Android does not use established Java standards. support for the X Window System is possible. This prevents compatibility among Java applications written for those platforms and those for the Android platform.  Android doesn't natively support EAP extensions configuration. 23 . and this makes it difficult to port existing GNU/Linux applications or libraries to Android.  Android does not support Cisco virtual private network servers requiring XAUTH extensions for IPSec (L2TP/IPSec and PPTP are supported).  Google no longer maintains the code they previously contributed to the Linux kernel as part of their Android effort.Chapter 9 Restrictions & Issues: 9. The code which is no longer maintained was deleted in January 2010 from the Linux codebase. Java SE and ME. 9.e. Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. GSM/EDGE) connections is not available.2 Networking Issues:  Support for setting up a network proxy configuration for Wi-Fi connections is not available.

sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents. exFAT and HFS+ for Android.  As of the 2.4 Other Issues:  Older versions of Android do not readily support Bluetooth file exchange.6. owing to compatibility issues between versions 1.2 release. The most noticeable defect is the lack of proper time zone support: it is not possible to set the time zone for start/end times of events. which combines NTFS. 9.6 versions. 9. As of August 2010. especially the different resolution ratios in use among various Android phones.x versions. Android does not have full Unicode support. support for conjunct consonants.2 the rSAP protocol is missing which many vehicles use for hands free. For read/write access to other popular file systems. "In developing Android.  Using the native Google Calendar functionality for Android phones. and 36% still run the 1. some users experience difficulty while traveling with Android devices. directly and repeatedly 24 . an Android device user runs into the same limitations that exist in the Calendar application. Developers are reporting rendering issues. The lawsuit claims that.  Android supports all the file systems supported by the Linux kernel.5 and 1. etc. 64% of Android phones run the 2.5 Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents: On the 12 August 2010. Oracle. with its own limitations.5 and 1. Google knowingly. Developers have reported that it is difficult to maintain applications on multiple versions of Android.  The rapid growth in the number of Android-based phone models with differing hardware capabilities also makes it difficult to develop applications that work on all Android-based phones. Because of this issue. owner of Java since it acquired Sun Microsystems in April 2009. Such problems were pointedly brought into focus as they were encountered during the ADC2 contest.  In version 2. although it may still be achieved with some hacking. Tuxera launched Tuxera File System Suite.

702. making a distinction between "official Java" and "Java in general". Oracle says Dalvik is a competitor to Java and infringes several of its patents. and remarking that Google had not taken any clear position or action against software patents. 104.966. and United States Patent No.910. Schiller & Flexner as part of its legal team. the FSF also criticized Google. called Dalvik. The Free Software Foundation has said that Google could have avoided this suit by building Android on top of Iced Tea whose GPL license provides some protection against patents. and redistribute software". modify. entitled "Interpreting Functions Utilizing a Hybrid of Virtual and Native Machine Instructions". Android is based on a clean room reverseengineered version of Java. While officially claiming that "Android is not Java".infringed Oracle's Java-related intellectual property. 25 .205. It has also called the suit a "clear attack against someone's freedom to use. writing that "It's sad to see that Google apparently shunned those protections in order to make proprietary software development easier on Android. which was developed without using any Sun technology or intellectual property. However. share. and its Java copyright. It also references United States Patent No. RE38. which are listed in the complaint. Google at the same time calls the suit an "attack on Java community". Specifically the patent infringement claim references seven patents including United States Patent No. 6. (“the '104 patent”) entitled “Method and Apparatus for Resolving Data References in Generated Code” authored by James Gosling best known as the father of the Java programming language. entitled "Method and Apparatus for Preprocessing and Packaging Class Files".". 5. According to Gartner analyst Ken Dulaney. instead of implementing it independently under the Apache License." Oracle has named Boies.

Apress.. Collins. Apress. http://oreilly. Darcey. 2009). Mednieks. Hello. Unlocking Android: A Developer's Guide (1st ed. Addison-Wesley Professional. Blake (May 1.). http://www. 2009).).).com/store/product. 26 .Chapter 10 Bibliography:  Ed. Beginning Android (1st ed. Sen. Pragmatic Bookshelf.informit. ISBN 1934356492. ISBN 1430224193. ISBN 0321627091. John. Pro Android 2 (2nd ed. ISBN 1933988673.apress. http://www.com/ableson/. Meike.com/titles/eband2/hello-android.  Ableson. Robi (May 1. Android: Introducing Google's Mobile Development Platform (2nd ed. http://pragprog. Zigurd. Satya. ISBN 0596521472. O'Reilly Media. http://www. Dave (February 26. Frank. Lauren (September 7. Android Application Development: Programming with the Google SDK (1st ed.  Rogers. 2009).  Murphy. Lombardo.manning.com/book/view/1430226595.com/book/view/1430224193.com/catalog/9780596521509. Komatineni. 2010). ISBN 1430226595. Manning. 2009). MacLean.apress. Burnette (November 10. Sayed Y.). Charlie.  Conder.). Android Wireless Application Development (1st ed. http://www.aspx?isbn=0321627091.  Hashimi. Shane.). Mark (June 26. 2009). Rick.