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What is system?with eg. And diagram Explain all.Entity,attribute,action,activity,types of activity? states of system,states of entity,system environment ,what do u mean by model,modelling,purpose of building models,models of system Done directly in class + more here
System approach to problem solving
Define System -is a set of interacting or interdependent system components forming an integrated whole. The concept of an "integrated whole" can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. The scientific research field which is engaged in the study of the general properties of systems include systems theory, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics and complex systems. They investigate the abstract properties of the matter and organization, searching concepts and principles which are independent of the specific domain, substance, type, or temporal scales of existence.Most systems share common characteristics, including:
• • • •
Systems have structure, defined by components and their composition; Systems have behavior, which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy, information, or data; Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other. Systems may have some functions or groups of functions
State of the system State (computer science), a unique configuration of information in a program or machine Program state, in computer science, a snapshot of the measure of various conditions in the system .State is specified by specifying the values of all the variables describing the system.Eg. Of lift elevator State of rest,moving up,moving down ,stop Example of state of process in computer Primary process states 1.1 Created 1.2 Ready or waiting 1.3 Running 1.4 Blocked
• o 1.5 Terminated 2 Additional process states 2.1 Swapped out and waiting 2.2 Swapped out and blocked
Characteristics of systems 1
or other properties. the process of entropy causes energy within a system to dissipate and become random A system boundary is a boundary that separates the internal components of a system from external entities(outside world). culture that an individual lives in. Synergies among system components create a whole that is more than the sum of its parts. 4. 2 . The process of homeostasis acts to bring a system back to equilibrium when it is disturbed by external forces. Systems can be open (influenced by their environment) or closed (not influenced by their environment). and Solution. Any entities outside the rectangle (i. • Each subsystem may be independently developed. a system boundary is represented by a rectangle that is drawn to enclosed the internal components of a system. 2. Problem. Systems consist of interrelated components (a relationship exists between parts and the whole). the system boundary) are hence the actors. 7. 5. System boundaries are artificial: systems are components of another larger system. Solvable Cause. energy. These entities can also be thought and be called as actors. Systems have inputs. 6. Unless energy is continually focused on this activity. and feedback loops. Issue. 3. Cause. In a use case diagram. Situation.1.farlex. and the people and institutions with whom they interact http://encyclopedia.e. Systems are arranged in a hierarchy (subsystems and suprasystems).com/study+model Problem Solving Terminology Terminology of Problem SolvingWe should know the basic terminology for Problem Solving. Be careful which system is being bounded. which interact with each other. This report proposes seven terms such as Purpose. There may be systems within systems One system may in turn be made up of several subsystems. • It is helpful if the subsystems can be arranged in a layered architecture System environment the surroundings of a physical system that may interact with the system by exchanging mass. outputs. processes.
we should focus on solvable causes. the identical situation may be a problem or may not be a problem. But problem solvers frequently do not extract solvable causes among causes. because problem solvers recognize problems with their prejudice. which is equal to a specific action to realize an issue. at the first step of Problem Solving. Finding specific facts which causes problems is the essential step in Problem Solving. Problem Solving can not be specific. But oftentimes. the excessive inventories may not be a problem. and the issues. problem solvers such as consultants must clarify the differences of purposes. IssueIssue is the opposite expression of a problem. he or she has a problem. which bring about problems.PurposePurpose is what we want to do or what we want to be. Some problem solvers do not distinguish causes from problems. Therefore manufacturing managers sometimes operate lines without orders from their sales division. which cannot realize purposes. Extracting solvable causes is a useful step to make Problem Solving efficient. Without clear purposes. If the purpose is different. we waste time. SituationSituation is just what a circumstance is. Some problem splvers do not know what Issue is. One may see a problem but the others may not see the problem. Problem Solving is likely to be narrow sighted. Without distinguishing causes from problems. Before we recognize a problem. In other words causes are more specific facts. manufacturing managers are usually evaluated with line-operation rate. We should recognize situations objectively as much as we can. When we solve a problem. But if someone does not want money. Since problem solvers often neglect the differences of purposes. For example. At the worst case. which should be negative expressions. little money is not a problem. which is shown as a percentage of operated hours to potential total operation hours. Therefore. Problem solvers must break down issues into specific action. The excessive inventories may be a problem for general managers. A problem is decided by purposes. Purpose is an easy term to understand. They may think of "we do not have money" as an issue. If a problem is that we do not have money. in order to identify a problem. Therefore problem solvers should start their problem solving projects from the definition of purposes and problems Cause Cause is what brings about a problem. Issues are not solutions. Without recognizing situations objectively. Finding solvable causes is another essential step in Problem Solving. But since problems are some portions of a situation. If a purpose is different between managers. But for the manufacturing managers. we should capture situations clearly without recognizing them as problems or non-problems. h Problem Problem is some portions of a situation. which should be positive expressions. If we try to solve unsolvable causes. But problem solvers frequently forget to confirm Purpose. we can not think about problems. But some problem solvers think of all situations as problems. they see the identical situation in different ways. Usually almost all situations are not problems. Situation is neither good nor bad. the issue is that we get money. Some problem solvers do not break down issues into more specific actions. This operation may produce more than demand and make excessive inventories. 3 . problems are more general than causes are. they may mix the problems. Solution Solution is a specific action to solve a problem. Solvable Cause Solvable cause is some portions of causes. problem solvers frequently forget to clarify the differences of purposes and incur confusion among their problem solving projects. If someone wants money and when he or she has little money. they cannot capture the true problems.
the business organization or business process in which a problem or opportunity arises could be viewed as a system of input.Example. output. Implement and evaluate the success of the designed system. 3. 5.The systems approach to problem solving used a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop solutions. Develop and evaluate alternative system solutions. 4 . Symptoms are merely signals of an underlying cause or problem.Example. 2) Systems thinking Systems thinking is to try to find systems. Design the selected system solution. An opportunity is a basic condition that presents the potential for desirable results. 1) Defining problems and opportunities Problems and opportunities are identified in the first step of the systems approach. Then to understand a problem and save it. 2. and control components. Symptoms must be separated from problems. A problem can be defined as a basic condition that is causing undesirable results. You could then ask: Is poor sales performance (output) caused by inadequate selling effort (input). Select the system solution that best meets your requirements. and components of systems in any situation your are studying. Problem: Sales persons are losing orders because they cannot get current information on product prices and availability. This viewpoint ensures that important factors and their interrelationships are considered. I example. out-of-date sales procedures (processing). This is also known as using a systems context. Studying a problem and formulating a solution involve the following interrelated activities: 1. Recognize and define a problem or opportunity using systems thinking. or having a systemic view of a situation. 4.Symptom: Sales of a company’s products are declining. subsystems. feedback.The sales function of a business can be viewed as a system. Opportunity: We could increase sales significantly if sales persons could receive instant responses to requests for price quotations and product availability. you would determine if these basic system functions are being properly performed. processing. or inadequate sales management (control)? Figure illustrates this concept. incorrect sales information (feedback).
5) Selecting the best solution Once all alternative solutions have been evaluated. design specifications might describe the detailed characteristics and capabilities of the 5 . The. based on their importance in meeting your requirements. These requirements are key characteristics and capabilities that you feed are necessary for your personal or business success. marketing. alternative B for sales data entry is rejected. and reliability. with its own advantages and disadvantages. more realistic alternatives that recognize the limited financial. The solutions that have worked. you might develop very specific requirements for solving the sales-related information problems of your salespeople. Typically. Where do alternative solutions come from/ experience is good source. is selected. you will probably develop criteria for such factors as start-up costs.If you were the sales manager of a company. Example. personnel. 4) Evaluating alternate solutions Once alternative solutions have been developed.Then you would develop evaluation criteria and determine how well each alternative solution meets these criteria. You also lose the chance to combine the best points of several alternative solutions. 6) Designing and implementing solution Once a solution has been selected. For example. you can being the process of selecting the best solution. You should also use your intuition and ingenuity to come up with a number of creative solutions. they must be evaluated so that the best solution can be identified. Example. or at least been considered in the past. You would probably insist that any computer-based solution for your sales force be very reliable and easy to use. Another good source of solutions is the advice of others. Finally. don’t forget that “doing nothing” about a problem or opportunity is a legitimate solution. The goal of evaluation is to determine how well each alternative solution meets your business and personal requirements. and other resources of most organizations could be developed.Criteria may be ranked or weighted. Also. ease of use. decision support software packages can be used to develop and manipulate financial. it must be designed and implemented. The criteria you develop will reflect how you previously defined business and personal requirements. These could include what you think is an ideal solution. It limits your options and robs you of the chance to consider the advantages and disadvantages of several alternatives. This simulation process can help you generate a variety of alternative solutions. including the recommendations of consultants and the suggestions of expert systems.3) Developing alternate solutions There are usually several different ways to solve any problem or pursue any opportunity. Jumping immediately from problem definition to a single solution is not a good idea. the use of laptop computers by sales reps. You might also require that any proposed solution have low start-up costs. You may have to depend on other business end users technical staff to help you develop design specifications and an implementation plan. and other business operations. operating costs.Alternatives with a low accuracy evaluation (an accuracy score less than 10). should be considered again. or have minimal operating costs compared to present sales processing methods.Therefore. and alternative A. or a low overall evaluation (an overall score less than 70) should be rejected. Alternative solutions can be compared to each other because they have been evaluated using the same criteria.
the results of implementing a solution should be monitored and evaluated. and data resources and information system activities needed by a new system. An implementation plan specifies the resources. What is simulation ? done in class notes Computer simulation and its application area? A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. and timing needed for proper implementation. Therefore. activities. See a more detailed article on Urban Environment Simulation. and human systems in economics and social science (the computational sociology) as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems. 6 . For example. software. A good example of the usefulness of using computers to simulate can be found in the field of network traffic simulation. Training of sales reps and other personnel. the model behaviour will change each simulation according to the set of initial parameters assumed for the environment. By changing variables.Computer simulation has become a useful part of modeling many natural systems in physics. Robot simulators for the design of robots and robot control algorithms Urban Simulation Models that simulate dynamic patterns of urban development and responses to urban land use and transportation policies. forecasting of prices on financial markets (for example Adaptive Modeler) behavior of structures (such as buildings and industrial parts) under stress and other conditions design of industrial processes. the systems approach assumes you will cycle back to a previous step and make another attempt to find a workable solution. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • analysis of air pollutant dispersion using atmospheric dispersion modeling design of complex systems such as aircraft and also logistics systems. predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. The focus of this step is to determine if the implemented solution has indeed helped the firm and selected subsystems meet their system objectives. 7) Post implementation review The final step of the systems approach recognizes that an implemented solution can fail to solve the problem for which it was developed. chemistry and biology. Conversion procedures and timetable for final implementation. and software to be acquired for the sales reps.people. hardware. design of Noise barriers to effect roadway noise mitigation flight simulators to train pilots weather forecasting Simulation of other computers is emulation. such as chemical processing plants Strategic Management and Organizational Studies Reservoir simulation for the petroleum engineering to model the subsurface reservoir Process Engineering Simulation tools. If not. In such simulations. This is called a postimple-implemented. the following items might be included in the design specifications and implementation plan for a computer-based sales support system: • • • • Types and sources of computer hardware. Operating procedures for the new sales support system. The real world has a way of confounding even the most welldesigned solutions.
Considering the typical university budget cheaper is usually a very good thing. Simulations take the building/rebuilding phase out of the loop by using the model already created in the design phase. This is pouring money down a drain compared to the price of the simulation. for transportation system planning. the probe is too big and is skewing the results.money. Vacuum tanks are very expensive to buy. 4 You can set the simulation to run for as many time steps you desire and at any level of detail you desire the only restrictions are your imagination. Simulation of Static model: Simulation of Dynamic model: When to use simulation? Steps in simulation study? Types of system simulation directly in class ? Advantages of simulation 1. and any instrument would turn to a gas at those temperatures come into the conversation.. One of the main tests of an electric thruster is the lifetime test. design and operations.• • Traffic engineering to plan or redesign parts of the street network from single junctions over cities to a national highway network. A simulation can give you results that are not experimentally measurable with our current level of technology. and maintain. building. 2 Most of the time the simulation testing is cheaper and faster than performing the multiple tests of the design each time. the input and output variables are not allowed 7 . which means that the thruster is running pretty much constantly inside of the vacuum tank for 10.. Results such as surface interactions on an atomic level. ‘Monte-Carlo Technique’ is used in this solving simulation In this method. run. modeling car crashes to test safety mechanisms in new vehicle models Models of simulation? Simulation of Deterministic model: by the random variables. your programming skills. rebuilding. Designing. and your CPU. retesting. See a more detailed article on Simulation in Transportation.000+ hours. A simulation can give these results when problems such as it's too small to measure. Simulation of Probabilistic model: method. redesigning. This method will not consider the variable time. or molecular flow inside of a star are not measurable by any current devices. In the case of an electric thruster the test must be run inside of a vacuum tank. variable time is considered.. 3 the level of detail that you can get from a simulation. flow at the exit of a micro electric thruster. for anything can be an expensive project. In this simulation method of solving. testing.
Any incorrect key stroke has the potential to alter the results of the simulation and give you the wrong results. disadvantages 1.infact in some cases simulation is the only practical modeling technique applicable 7 analyst can study the relationship between components n detail and can simulate the projected consequences of multiple design options before having to implement the outcome in the real world.5 risk safety save time by first simulation and error checking then main product building otherwise time and money get wasted if error is detected after development . hear. but in reality that is another matter all together. then any simulation you do of your own design will have some credibility. If you are capable of moving your craft into the virtual world of simulations you are no longer restricted by little things like reality. If you want to design a light saber in the virtual world it is not a problem. Provided that you can get your simulation to give you accurate results you must first run a base line to prove that it works.simulation avoids placing restrictions on the system and also take random processes into account. If the two data sets compare. If you are designing a light saber a typical engineer needs to be able to hold the light saber in their hand in order to consider the project worth his or her time.efficiency and costs. and taste the project. 14 it can be utilized for highly complex scenarios involving a multitude of probablistic events. such as corrective maintenance.preventive maintenance.analytical solutions become impossible when dealing with real system of sufficent complexity (+ hira p-7) 15 the discrete event simulation also has the capability of: (i) Examining resourse utilization . 2 Many people do not consider what they do engineering unless they can see.crew response time.inspection. In order for the simulation to be accepted in the general community you have to take experimental results and simulate them.spare part availability etc. 6 normal analytical techniques make use of extensive mathematical models which require assumptions and restrictions is to be placed on the model. feel.this can result in an avoidable inaccuracy in the output data. but after that the sky isn't even your limit. The virtual world is difficult to get use to the first time you use it for design. 8 .imperfect repairs.when events such as these are considered . Also usually we are programming using theories of the way things work not laws and theories are not often 100% correct. 8 it is possible to easily compare alternatives designs so as to select the optimal system 9 the actual process of developing the simulation can itself provide valueable insights into the inner workings of the network which can in turn be used at a later stage 10 optimizing procedure and resource allocation 11 analysing relationship between in systems and components 12 maximizing throughput 13minimizing work downtimes. simulation errors.
This can be reduced by increasing the sample size and by lenghtening the computer runtime.3 simulation is an expensive way to solve a problem.audio and video elements.time or support required to best use educational technologies 15 computer programs are notgood substitutes for books.simulation should not be used to teach nurses how to take a patient’s temprature. 7 It can be time consuming.they can however be used to develope clinical decision making skills that enable nurses to identifythe likely cause of fever and implement the most appropriate management plan. The common trap here is to confuse the domain of knowledge being adddressed by the technology.sampling error exists in all output from stochastic simulation models. 4 because of the nature os simulatin. 8 The results are dependent on the number of simulations. the results are short lived!for appropriate uses of technologies see the advantages and application section 18 accurate simulation model devlopment requires extensive resources 9 .howeverthis may be offset by longer term gains where large nos of students are involved and where improvement in health and safety of the participents can be achieved.some elements may simply act as a distracter.if you were presented with concurrent text.which would atterect your attention ?? 17 beware the novelty effects.are very costly to produce.if the students are required to read and analyse substantial text .give them a book . 9 There is a lack of repeatability in the results due to the random nature of data genration 10 some strategies.students may not have the skills needed to install software or connect to the internet 14 academics may not have the skills . particularly complex simulation . 13 technology may be threatening to novices .rather than allow the same experince during clinical placement 11 simulation will never replace the need for actual experince.prolonged periods of reading text on screen is not a prefered experince for many 16 there is tendency among novice developers to use multiple media elements simultaneously in the belief that more verity leads to better learning. 12 not all students will have access to the computer systems required to operate the programs.it may be better to allow students to witness the autonomic nervous system effects that occur in patients receiving excessive doses of adrenaline via patient simulation. 5 A real disadvantage is that simulation is often misused because many people who are qualified to write a simulation program are not qualified to perform a total simulation study. 6 Another shortcoming of simulation is that it is a tool of solution evaluation and it does not generate problem solution.
 Sophisticated simulators of this type employ a life size mannequin that responds to injected drugs and can be programmed to create simulations of life-threatening emergencies. In other simulations. between simulations used for training and Instructional simulation.Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and military personnel. Another important medical application of a simulator — although. For example. 3 Simulation in entertainment Entertainment simulation is a term that encompasses many large and popular industries such as film. Some medical simulations are developed to be widely distributed (such as web-enabled simulations that can be viewed via standard web browsers) and can be interacted with using standard computer interfaces. 2 Clinical healthcare simulators Medical simulators are increasingly being developed and deployed to teach therapeutic and diagnostic procedures as well as medical concepts and decision making to personnel in the health professions. though. video games (including serious games) and rides in theme parks. a formulation that simulates the active drug in trials of drug efficacy (see Placebo (origins of technical term)). Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system. Application areas of simulation? All of application areas of computer simulation in classroom already noted + more are here Simulation in education and training Simulation is extensively used for educational purposes. in simSchool teachers practice classroom management and teaching techniques on simulated students. which avoids "learning on the job" that can damage real students. Currently. Many medical simulators involve a computer connected to a plastic simulation of the relevant anatomy. to laparoscopic surgery  and trauma care. simulators are applied to research and development of tools for new therapies. This usually occurs when it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. Simulators have been developed for training procedures ranging from the basics such as blood draw. visual components of the procedure are reproduced by computer graphics techniques. Although 10 . It is frequently used by way of adaptive hypermedia. while touch-based components are reproduced by haptic feedback devices combined with physical simulation routines computed in response to the user's actions. In such situations they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment. perhaps. such as the keyboard and mouse. Medical simulations of this sort will often use 3D CT or MRI scans of patient data to enhance realism.19 the simulation results are only as good as the model and as such are still only estimates/projected outcomes 20 optimization can only be performed involving a few alternatives as the model is usually developed using a limited no of variables. television. They are also important to help on prototyping new devices for biomedical engineering problems. There is a distinction. denoting a slightly different meaning of simulator — is the use of a placebo drug. treatments and early diagnosis in medicine.
Tiger Woods PGA Tour and Virtonomics. This technique represents a valuable tool used by engineers when evaluating the effect of capital investment in equipments and physical facilities like factory plants. Today’s simulator rides. 11 . Further. 300 and Iron Man. computer generated imagery has almost completely supplanted hand-drawn animation in children's movies which are increasingly computer-generated only. resources or safety. but they are different in a fundamental way. as opposed to other genres of video and computer games. While military training simulators react realistically to the input of the trainee in real time. Theme park rides Simulator rides are the progeny of military training simulators and commercial simulators. ride simulators only feel like they move realistically and move according to prerecorded motion scripts. Examples of simulation rides include Mission Space and The Simpsons Ride. controllable. Moreover. and can create effects that would not be feasible using any other technology either because of cost.Common measures of system performance include the following: • Throughput under average and peak loads. warehouses. and movement through an environment. Popular simulation games include SimCity. Another important goal of manufacturing-simulations is to quantify system performance. they represent the interactions between the playable characters and the environment realistically. 4 Simulation and Manufacturing Manufacturing represents one of the most important applications of Simulation. The movement was programmed by a joystick. These kinds of games are usually more complex in terms of game play. in the 20th century it also became a conduit for enterprises which were more hedonistic in nature. especially those of the action genre. Examples of movies that use computer-generated imagery include Finding Nemo. such as The Amazing Adventures of Spider-man include elements to increase the amount of immersion experienced by the riders such as: 3D imagery. physical effects (spraying water or producing scents). Simulation games have become incredibly popular among people of all ages. One of the first simulator rides. which cost $32 million. used a hydraulic motion based cabin. Advances in technology in the 1980s and 1990s caused simulation to become more widely used and it began to appear in movies such as Jurassic Park (1993) and in computer-based games such as Atari’s Battlezone entertainment simulation Computer and video games Simulation games.modern simulation is thought to have its roots in training and the military. and distribution centers. Film Computer-generated imagery is “the application of the field of 3D computer graphics to special effects”. represent or simulate an environment accurately. This technology is used for visual effects because they are high in quality. Star Tours.Simulation can be used to predict the performance of an existing or planned system and to compare alternative solutions for a particular design problem. Computer-generated graphics can be seen in many live action movies today.
These benefits range from direct cost issues such as reduced prototyping and shorter time-to-market. Queuing and delays caused by material-handling devices and systems. has been largely driven by increased integration of simulation tools with the entire CAD. This will allow students to enter the clinical years better prepared. in addition to textual and visual learning tools. to better performing products and higher margins.The classroom of the future will also form the basis of a clinical skills unit for continuing education of medical personnel. 6 Classroom of the future The "classroom of the future" will probably contain several kinds of simulators. CAM. and in the same way that the use of periodic flight training assists airline pilots.. and include solutions for managing 12 . CAE. large-scale urban simulators designed for use by urban planners. The successful use of Simulation.. 5 City and urban simulation A city simulator can be a city-building game but can also be a tool used by urban planners to understand how cities are likely to evolve in response to various policy decisions. WIP storage needs. Simulation solutions can now function across the extended enterprise in a multi-CAD environment.The research firm Aberdeen Group has found that nearly all best-inclass manufacturers use simulation early in the design process as compared to 3 or 4 laggards who do not. has the potential of providing substantial benefits. CAM and PLM solution-set. Effectiveness of control systems. and machines. Utilization of resource. this technology will assist practitioners throughout their career. Effectiveness of scheduling systems. UrbanSim and LEAM are examples of largescale urban simulation models that are used by metropolitan planning agencies and military bases for land use and transportation planning.) solutions and processes. The advanced student or postgraduate will have a more concise and comprehensive method of retraining — or of incorporating new clinical procedures into their skill set — and regulatory bodies and medical institutions will find it easier to assess the proficiency and competency of individuals. for some companies.The simulator will be more than a "living" textbook. The use of simulation throughout the product lifecycle. However. simulation has not provided the expected benefits. 7 Digital Lifecycle Simulation Simulation of airflow over an engine Simulation solutions are being increasingly integrated with CAx (CAD. early in the lifecycle. labor.• • • • • • • • • System cycle time (how long it take to produce one part). it will become an integral a part of the practice of medicine. Queuing at work locations. and with a higher skill level. especially at the earlier concept and design stages. AnyLogic is an example of modern. The simulator environment will also provide a standard platform for curriculum development in institutions of medical education. Bottlenecks and choke points. Staffing requirements.. City simulators are generally agent-based simulations with explicit representations for land use and transportation.
Simulations can replicate emergency situations and track how learners respond. and launch external applications. CADE has used a video game to prepare emergency workers for multiple types of attacks. earthquake response. or other lifethreatening emergencies. natural disasters. Disaster preparedness simulations can involve training on how to handle terrorism attacks.simulation data and processes and ensuring that simulation results are made part of the product lifecycle history. Most engineering simulations entail mathematical modeling and computer assisted investigation. controlled environment. smallpox and other disasters that emergency personnel must prepare for. 'speeding up' or 'slowing down' time as desired” Additionally. multimedia components. British Columbia. technology or process simulation Simulation is an important feature in engineering systems or any system that involves many processes. delay lines may be used to simulate propagation delay and phase shift caused by an actual transmission line. Other advantages are that the learner can be guided or trained on how to respond appropriately before continuing to the next emergency segment—this is an aspect that may not be available in the live-environment. file storage of individual simulations. law enforcement. Similarly.At the University of Québec in Chicoutimi. while other simulations may provide a summary and instruct the learner to engage in the learning topic again. 8 Disaster Preparedness and Simulation Training Simulation training has become a method for preparing people for disasters. dummy loads may be used to simulate impedance without simulating propagation. where mathematical modeling is not reliable.” Developed by a team from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). the benefits of emergency training through simulations are that learner performance can be tracked through the system.Net.LERPA) specializes in using wilderness backcountry accident simulations to verify emergency response coordination. They can make mistakes without risk of endangering lives and be given the opportunity to correct their errors to prepare for the real-life emergency. pandemic flu.The Emergency Simulation Program (ESP) at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). hazardous material handling. oil or chemical spill response. The ability to use simulation across the entire lifecycle has been enhanced through improved user interfaces such as tailorable user interfaces and "wizards" which allow all appropriate PLM participants to take part in the simulation process. Canada is another example of an organization that uses simulation to train for emergency situations. As reported by News-Medical. pandemic outbreaks.One organization that has used simulation training for disaster preparedness is CADE (Center for Advancement of Distance Education).” which allows simulations to run a 'simulated' time frame. picture-icon based navigation. 9 Engineering. This allows the developer to make adjustments as necessary or alert the educator on topics that may require additional attention. Simulation-training in this environment provides an opportunity for learners to gather as much information as they can and practice their knowledge in a safe environment. There are many cases. ”The video game is the first in a series of simulations to address bioterrorism. and response to terrorist attack  One feature of the simulation system is the implementation of “Dynamic Run-Time Clock. and is used in situations where propagation is unwanted. municipal fire fighting. A simulator may imitate only a few of the operations and functions of the unit it simulates. a research team at the outdoor research and expertise laboratory (Laboratoire d'Expertise et de Recherche en Plein Air . ESP uses simulation to train on the following situations: forest fire fighting. Some emergency training simulators also allows for immediate feedback. emergency responders do not have time to waste. military training. Vancouver. Simulation of fluid dynamics problems often require both 13 . For example in electrical engineering. the system allows session recordings. however.In a liveemergency situation. the game allows learners to practice their emergency skills in a safe. Instructionally.
The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation. Main Engines. In case of system comparison or system development. e. The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation takes place at the Kennedy Space Center Launch Control Center Firing Rooms. Among the main users are central banks who are generally responsible for the oversight of market infrastructure and entitled to contribute to the smooth functioning of the payment systems. The firing room used during the simulation is the same control room where real 14 . Navigation. To provide procedures to be used in performing failure/recovery testing of the operations performed in the final countdown phase. the observed data needs to be altered. This simulation is a virtual simulation where real people interact with simulated Space Shuttle vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) hardware. in case of possible bank failure) . reporting and evaluating system problems in a time critical environment. involves countdown processes that integrate many of the Space Shuttle vehicle and GSE systems. and Avionics. prioritize and respond to problems in an integrated manner within a time critical environment. To provide training for system engineers in recognizing.Central Banks have been using payment system simulations to evaluate things such as the adequacy or sufficiency of liquidity available ( in the form of account balances and intraday credit limits) to participants (mainly banks) to allow efficient settlement of payments  . also known as S0044. In these cases the physical models require dynamic similitude. To analyze the levels of liquidity. 11 Space Shuttle Countdown Simulation Firing Room 1 configured for space shuttle launchesSimulation is used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to train and certify Space Shuttle engineers during simulated launch countdown operations. naturally also the other settlement logics need to be implemented. This kind of analysis fall under the concepts of Stress testing or scenario analysis.A common way to conduct these simulations is to replicate the settlement logics of the real payment or securities settlement systems under analysis and then use real observed payment data. Some of the Shuttle systems integrated in the simulation are the Main Propulsion System. for example. ground Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen. The Space Shuttle engineering community participates in a launch countdown integrated simulation before each shuttle flight.g. in chemical engineering.Inference is usually done by comparing the benchmark simulation results to the results of altered simulation setups by comparing indicators such as unsettled transactions or settlement delays. process simulations are used to give the process parameters immediately used for operating chemical plants. rather than research uses. initial liquidity levels are varried. some payments delayed or removed. System comparisons (benchmarking)or evaluations of new netting algorithms or rules are performed by running simulations with a fixed set of data and wariating only the system setups. To exercise the launch teams ability to evaluate. External Tank.  The high-level objectives of the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation are: • • • • To demonstrate Firing Room final countdown phase operations. Flight Controls. 10 Payment and Securities Settlement System Simulations Simulation techniques have also been applied to payment and securities settlement systems. thus some of the studies have a focus on system comparisons  . Solid Rocket Boosters.g.mathematical and physical simulations.To perform stress testing and scenario analysis. Another application is to evaluate risks related to events such as communication network breakdowns or the inability of participants to send payments (e. Physical and chemical simulations have also direct realistic uses. such as oil refineries. The need for liquidity is also dependent on the availability and the type of netting procedures in the systems.
simulation can provide a distribution of NPV over a range of discount rates and other variables. for example. system designers and operators increasingly turn towards computer models of their systems to simulate real world operational conditions and gain insights in to usability and requirements prior to final product signoff. During the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation. the need for broadband connectivity on a moving vehicle has increased dramatically in the past few years for both commercial and military applications. satcom system designers have to factor in terrain as well as atmospheric and meteorological conditions in their planning. Modeling improves the understanding of the system by enabling the SatCom system designer or planner to simulate real world performance by injecting the models with multiple hypothetical atmospheric and environmental conditions. However. application software. and any other items used by the engineering launch countdown teams during real launch countdown operations are used during the simulation. engineering plotting and trending tools. 13 Communication Satellite Simulation Modern satellite communications systems (SatCom) are often large and complex with many interacting parts and elements. Risk-adjusted net present value. engineers command and control hardware via real application software executing in the control consoles – just as if they were commanding real vehicle hardware. There are stock market simulations. In addition. Since these math models interact with the command and control application software. computer simulations are often used for scenario planning.launch countdown operations are executed. For testing receivers that will use the new Galileo (satellite navigation) there is no alternative. launch commit criteria documents. can be tested under dynamic conditions without the need to take it on a real flight. To deal with such complexity. To accurately predict and deliver high quality of service. Using these simulations in a training program 15 . Instead. As a result. models and simulations are also used to debug and verify the functionality of application software. The Space Shuttle vehicle hardware and related GSE hardware is simulated by mathematical models (written in Shuttle Ground Operations Simulator (SGOS) modeling language ) that behave and react like real hardware. launch countdown procedure documents. 14 Finance simulation in finance. Command and control computers. the applications interface with mathematical model representations of the vehicle and GSE hardware. portfolio simulations. is computed from well-defined but not always known (or fixed) inputs. A receiver that may for example be used on an aircraft. hardware requirement documents. By imitating the performance of the project under evaluation. and there is full control over all the test parameters. risk management simulations or models and forex simulations. The test conditions can be repeated exactly. the simulations bypass sensitive and even dangerous mechanisms while providing engineering measurements detailing how the hardware would have reacted. as the real signals do not yet exist. Simulations are frequently used in financial training to engage participates in experiencing various historical as well as fictional situations. equipment used for real launch countdown operations is engaged. this is not possible in the 'realworld' using the actual signals. Consequently. these real software applications do not interface with real Shuttle hardware during simulations. 12 Satellite Navigation Simulators The only true way to test GNSS receivers (commonly known as Sat-Nav's in the commercial world)is by using an RF Constellation Simulator.
In comparison to training in an actual aircraft. the instructor can immediately preposition the simulated aircraft to an ideal (or less than ideal) location from which to begin the next approach. build their own simulator at home. For some large transport category airplanes. electrical system failures. While this involves solving the problem of matching hardware and software — and the problem that hundreds of cards plug into many different racks — many still find that solving these problems is well worthwhile. Once fuel. marine simulators train ships' personnel. The most common marine simulators include: • Ship's bridge simulators 16 . conducting multiple instrument approaches in the actual aircraft may require significant time spent repositioning the aircraft. Instructors can also provide students with a higher concentration of training tasks in a given period of time than is usually possible in the aircraft. most importantly.The simulator provides a constructive experience for the novice driver and enables more complex exercises to be undertaken by the more mature driver. Some are so serious about realistic simulation that they will buy real aircraft parts. 16 Automobile simulator A soldier tests out a heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator. the operating costs of an FSTD are usually substantially lower than the operating costs of the simulated aircraft. For companies. instrument failures.An automobile simulator provides an opportunity to reproduce the characteristics of real vehicles in a virtual environment. while keeping the pilot and instructor in a relatively low-risk environment on the ground. and insurance costs are taken into account. As with other industries. hydraulic system failures.allows for the application of theory into a something akin to real life. the operating costs may be several times lower for the FSTD than the actual aircraft. This permits people to simulate a hobby that they are unable to pursue in real life. Flight simulation also provides an economic advantage over training in an actual aircraft. simulation based training allows for the training of maneuvers or situations that may be impractical (or even dangerous) to perform in the aircraft. like complete nose sections of written-off aircraft. It replicates the external factors and conditions with which a vehicle interacts enabling a driver to feel as if they are sitting in the cab of their own vehicle. improved productivity and. 17 Marine simulators Bearing resemblance to flight simulators. the use of simulations can be technology or case-study driven. Scenarios and events are replicated with sufficient reality to ensure that drivers become fully immersed in the experience rather than simply viewing it as an educational experience. Some people — in order to further the realism of their homemade simulator — buy used cards and racks that run the same software used by the original machine. simulation provides the ability to enhance good driving or to detect poor practice and to suggest the necessary steps for remedial action. For novice drivers. at aircraft boneyards. it provides an opportunity to educate staff in the driving skills that achieve reduced maintenance costs. especially flight simulator software. For example.Some people who use simulator software. as soon as one approach has been completed. and even flight control failures can be simulated without risk to the pilots or an aircraft. truck simulators provide an opportunity to begin their career by applying best practice. For example. For mature drivers. maintenance. 15 Flight simulation Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD) are used to train pilots on the ground. to ensure the safety of their actions in all possible situations. while in a simulation.
They exist in many different forms. In recent times. 18 Military simulations Military simulations. to construction. or dipping into a tub of colored beads with a scoop. with operating desk(s). and a number of screens on which the virtual surroundings are projected. the NationLab series of strategic exercises in Latin America. are models in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. 21 Sales process simulators Simulations are useful in modeling the flow of transactions through business processes. Such games can simulate various aspects of reality. to government. A simulator also allows fast robot prototyping. and the quantity of transactions at various stages in the process. time. study sports performance. training institutions and navies. such as in the field of sales process engineering. 22 Simulation and games Strategy games — both traditional and modern — may be viewed as simulations of abstracted decision-making for the purpose of training military and political leaders (see History of Go for an example of such a tradition. these applications can be transferred to the real robot (or rebuilt) without modifications. or Kriegsspiel for a more recent example). Such simulations can help predict the impact of how improvements in methods might impact variability. A full-featured computerized process simulator can be used to depict such models. Robotics simulators allow reproducing situations that cannot be 'created' in the real world because of cost. with varying degrees of realism. also known informally as war games. simulate surgical procedures. design medical devices. labor time. Whilst many governments make use of simulation. Many robot simulators feature physics engines to simulate a robot's dynamics. from an initial proposal for providing goods/services through order acceptance and installation).Many other video games are simulators of some kind. to piloting vehicles (see above). their scope has widened to include not only military but also political and social factors (for example.• • • • Engine room simulators Cargo handling simulators Communication / GMDSS simulators ROV simulators Simulators like these are mostly used within maritime colleges. both individually and collaboratively. 19 Robotics simulatorsA robotics simulator is used to create embedded applications for a specific (or not) robot without being dependent on the 'real' robot. analyze joint loads. and animate human and animal movement. 17 . 20 Biomechanics simulators A biomechanics simulator is used to analyze walking dynamics. as can simpler educational demonstrations using spreadsheet software. from business. pennies being transferred between cups based on the roll of a die. to study and improve the flow of customer orders through various stages of completion (say. They often consist of a replication of a ships' bridge. or the 'uniqueness' of a resource. In some cases. little is known about the model's specifics outside professional circles. cost.
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