You are on page 1of 23

dMy vocabulary for GRE search lists for my precious exam

archaic /ɑːˈkeɪ.ɪk/ /ɑːr-/ adjective

of or belonging to the distant past (= a long time ago) ; from an ancient period in history an archaic system of government an archaic law/rule/language

groom /gruːm/ verb [ T ] SEX

3. to become friends with a child, especially over the Internet, in order to try to persuade them to have a sexual relationship with you

groom /gruːm/ verb [ T ] PREPARE

2. to prepare someone for a special job or activity She was being groomed for leadership. [ + to infinitive ] My boss is grooming me to take over his job next year.

groom /gruːm/ verb [ T ] CLEAN

1. to clean an animal, often by brushing its fur Polly spends hours in the stables grooming her pony.

grooming /ˈgruː.mɪŋ/ noun [ U ] TIDYING

1. the things that you do to make your appearance tidy and pleasant, for example brushing your hair, or the things that you do to keep an animal's hair or fur clean and tidy

sophisticate /səˈfɪs.tɪ.kət/ noun [ C ] FORMAL
a person who is sophisticated

sophisticated /səˈfɪs.tɪ.keɪ.tɪd/ /-ɪd/ adjective

1. having a good understanding of the way people behave and/or a good knowledge of culture and fashion She was slim, svelte and sophisticated. I don't suppose I have any books that would suit your sophisticated tastes. He was older than me and from London and I thought him very sophisticated. 2. clever in a complicated way and therefore able to do complicated tasks I think a more sophisticated approach is needed to solve this problem. These are among the most sophisticated weapons in the world. sophistication /səˌ fɪs.tɪˈkeɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ] the quality of being sophisticated Her sophistication is evident from the way she dresses. The sophistication of computers is increasing.
ə n t  s/ noun 1. [ C ] a group of countries, political parties or people who have agreed to work together because of shared interests or aims a military alliance NATO is sometimes called the Atlantic Alliance. 2. [ C ] an agreement to work with someone else to try to achieve the same thing The three smaller parties have forged/formed an alliance against the government. Some of us feel that the union is in alliance with management against us.

alliance /əˈlaɪ.

gossip /ˈgɒs.ɪp/ /ˈgɑː.səp/ noun

1. [ S or U ] (a) conversation or reports about other people's private lives which might be unkind, disapproving or not true Her letter was full of gossip. Jane and Lyn sat in the kitchen having a good gossip about their friends. I don't like all this idle gossip. I've got some juicy gossip for you.

Have you heard the (latest) gossip? 2. [ C ] DISAPPROVING ( MAINLY UK gossipmonger ) someone who enjoys talking about other people and their private lives She's a terrible gossip.

gossip /ˈgɒs.ɪp/ /ˈgɑː.səp/ verb [ I ]

to talk about other people's private lives Stop gossiping and get on with some work. People have started to gossip about us.

be a far cry from sth to be completely different from something This flat is a far cry from the house they had before.

nomad /ˈnəʊ.mæd/ /ˈnoʊ-/ noun [ C ]
a member of a group of people who move from one place to another rather than living in one place all of the time a tribe of Somalian desert nomads

nomadic

/nə ʊ  ˈmæd.ɪk/ /noʊ-/

adjective

nomadic people/herdsmen a nomadic life/existence

hedgehog /ˈhedʒ.hɒg/ /-hɑːg/ noun [ C ]
hedgehog

a small brown mammal with a protective covering of spines on its back

sluggish /ˈslʌg.ɪʃ/ adjective

moving or operating more slowly than usual and with less energy or power A heavy lunch makes me sluggish in the afternoon. Something is wrong with the car - the engine feels a bit sluggish. The housing market has been very sluggish these past few years.

slug /slʌg/ noun [ C ] CREATURE

1. a small, usually black or brown, creature with a long soft body and no arms or legs, like a snail but with no shell 2. MAINLY US INFORMAL a slow-moving, lazy person See also sluggish

slug /slʌg/ noun [ C ] BULLET

3. INFORMAL a bullet The poor guy wound up with a slug in his stomach.

slug /slʌg/ noun [ C ] AMOUNT OF DRINK slug /slʌg/ noun [ C ] COIN slug /slʌg/ verb [ T ] -gg-

4. INFORMAL an amount of drink, especially strong alcoholic drink, that you can swallow at one time I had a slug of vodka to give me courage.

5. US a piece of metal used instead of a coin for putting in machines

1. INFORMAL to hit someone hard with the fist (= closed hand) She slugged him and he fell against the bar. 2. US to hit a baseball hard

forage /ˈfɒr.ɪdʒ/ /ˈfɔːr-/ verb [ I ]

ə r / /ˈlɪt ̬ / noun BED .neɪt/ /-bɚ-/ verb [ I ] (of some animals) to spend the winter sleeping The turtle hibernates in a shallow burrow for six months of the year. The door squeaked as it swung back and forth on its rusty hinges. used in the past squeak /skwiːk/ verb SOUND 1.ɚ 3.to go from place to place searching.ɪ. hibernate /ˈhaɪ.pi.ɪdʒ/ /ˈfɔːr-/ noun [ U ] food grown for horses and farm animals winter forage forage crops. any of the long sharp pointed hairs on the body of a porcupine 2. ( ALSO quill pen ) a pen made from a bird's feather. possums and kangaroos. forage /ˈfɒr. platypus /ˈplæt. [ C + singular or plural verb ] a group of animals that are born at the same time and have the same mother a litter of kittens litter /ˈlɪt.bə. litter /ˈlɪt. If I hear one more squeak out of you (= if you say anything else) . squeak /skwiːk/ verb SUCCEED 2.pəs/ /ˈplæt ̬ noun [ C ] ( ALSO duck-billed platypus ) -/ an Australian river mammal with a wide beak whose young are born from eggs marsupial /mɑːˈsuː. The pigs foraged in the woods for acorns. [ I + adverb or preposition ] US to only just succeed in something such as a test or competition He squeaked through the exam.ɚ 4.ɚ 1. [ U ] small pieces of rubbish that have been left lying on the ground in public places About 2% of fast-food packaging ends up as litter. especially for food The children had been living on the streets.ə r / /ˈlɪt ̬ / noun RUBBISH .ə r / /ˈlɪt ̬ / noun BABY ANIMALS .ɚ 2. [ I ] to make a short very high cry or sound The mice in the cupboard squeaked. litter /ˈlɪt. squeak /skwiːk/ noun [ C ] a short very high cry or sound She let out a squeak of fright at the sight of the spider. [ U ] a substance that is put in a container to be used as a toilet by pets cat/pet litter quill /kwɪl/ noun [ C ] 1.ə r / /ˈlɪt ̬ / noun ANIMAL TOILET . there'll be trouble! . [ U ] dried grass or plant stems used by animals as a bed litter /ˈlɪt. foraging for scraps and sleeping rough.əl/ /mɑːr-/ noun [ C ] a type of mammal from Australasia or South or Central America which is not completely developed when it is born and is carried around in a pocket on the mother's body where it is fed and protected until it is completely developed Marsupials include koalas.

2. to treat waste materials in order to get useful materials.a narrow squeak UK INFORMAL a success that was almost a failure We caught the ferry but it was a narrow squeak. especially in order to reduce or prevent a punishment The teenager has been given leave (= allowed) by the High Court to appeal against her two-year sentence. [ I ] US FOR paddle (WALK) reclaim /rɪˈkleɪm/ verb [ T ] 1. small animals and insects that can be harmful and which are difficult to control when they appear in large numbers Flies. [ I ] to make a serious or formal request.pə r / /-pɚ/ noun [ C ] wade /weɪd/ verb a person whose job is to take care of wild animals and birds that are kept especially for hunting 1. gamekeeper /ˈgeɪmˌkiː. attractive or interesting The idea of not having to get up early every morning is rather appealing ( to me). especially to the public. I tried to appeal to (= ask for support based on) his sense of loyalty.mɪn/ /ˈvɝː-/ plural noun 1. suitable for farming or building 3. It's a programme designed to appeal mainly to 16 to 25 year-olds. He had a nice smile and an appealing personality. to make land. The footballer appealed to the referee for a free kick. such as glass or paper. vermin /ˈvɜː. appeal /əˈpiːl/ verb LEGAL 2. appealing /əˈpiː. lice. I reclaimed my suitcase from the left luggage office. [ I usually + adverb or preposition T ] to walk through water with difficulty because of the pressure of the water against your legs The river was full but we managed to wade across . to take back something that was yours You'll be able to reclaim the tax on all equipment that you buy. The police are appealing to the public for any information about the missing girl. that can be used again . 2. such as desert or areas covered by water. They're appealing to the High Court to reduce the sentence to a fine. We waded a shallow river. [ I ] LEGAL to request a higher law court to consider again a decision made by a lower court. OFFENSIVE DISAPPROVING people who are unpleasant and harmful to society He thought all terrorists were vermin and that prison was too good for them. [ + to infinitive ] Church leaders have appealed to the government to halt the war. [ I ] to formally request that especially a legal or official decision is changed The parents appealed against the school's decision not to admit the child.lɪŋ/ adjective 1. stressing how good the company had been to him. [ I not continuous ] to interest or attract someone I've haven't been skiing . rats. for money or help They're appealing for clothes and blankets to send to the devastated region. Opposite unappealing 2. foxes and cockroaches can all be described as vermin. I think what appeals to me about his painting is the colours he uses. 3.it's never really appealed. 2. appeal /əˈpiːl/ verb ATTRACT 4. describes someone's expression or way of speaking when it makes you want to help or protect them a little dog with appealing big brown eyes appeal /əˈpiːl/ verb REQUEST 1.

heat or weakness The intense heat from the fire had caused the factory roof to buckle. buckle under sth to be defeated by a difficult situation But these were difficult times and a lesser man would have buckled under the strain. 2. but she's deceiving herself. rubber. to trick The company deceived customers by selling old computers as new ones. 2. that one.i/ adjective DIFFICULT 1. wedged between (= fixed between and unable to move away from) two old ladies and their bags of shopping.l / verb BEND ̩ 1. deceive /dɪˈsiːv/ verb [ T ] 1. to make something stay in a particular position by using a wedge [ + adjective ] Find something to wedge the window open/closed with. to keep the truth hidden from someone for your own advantage.l / verb BE DEFEATED ̩ 3. I felt faint and my knees began to buckle. [ C ] a triangular-shaped piece. aren't they? I'm in a bit of a tricky situation really . The sound of the door closing deceived me into thinking they had gone out. to persuade someone that something false is the truth. often as a result of force. tricky /ˈtrɪk. etc. I was standing waiting for a bus. 2. wood. If a piece of work or problem is tricky. [ I or T ] to bend or become bent. [ I or T ] to fasten or be fastened with a buckle 2. it is difficult to deal with and needs careful attention or skill Those bird models are quite tricky to make. which is either pushed between two objects to keep them still or forced into something to break pieces off it Push a wedge under the door to keep it open while we're carrying the boxes in.i/ adjective DISHONEST 2.whatever I do I'll offend someone. wedge /wedʒ/ noun SHAPE 1. so that it cannot move easily Her shoe came off and got wedged between the bars.l / verb FASTEN ̩ buckle /ˈbʌk. buckle /ˈbʌk. with a pointed edge at one end and a wide edge at the other. used to fasten the two ends together buckle /ˈbʌk. Pieces of stone can be split off by forcing wedges between the layers. deceive yourself [ R ] to refuse to accept the truth She thinks he'll come back. Both wheels on the bicycle had been badly buckled. especially of food Auntie Ann put a huge wedge of fruit cake on my plate. a wedge of cheese wedge /wedʒ/ verb [ T ] 1. buckle down phrasal verb to start working hard He'll have to buckle down ( to his work) soon if he wants to pass these exams.l / noun [ C ] ̩ buckle a piece of metal at one end of a belt or strap. . likely to deceive people He's a tricky character. tricky /ˈtrɪk.buckle /ˈbʌk. [ C ] a piece of metal. to put something into a very small or narrow space.

də. to remove unwanted things from the bottom of a river.ə r / /-ɚ/ noun [ C ] ( ALSO dredge ) dredge /dredʒ/ verb [ T ] REMOVE a boat or a device which is used to dredge rivers. with a pointed edge at one end and a wide edge at the other. scenic /ˈsiː. He tried to distract attention from his own illegal activities. Pieces of stone can be split off by forcing wedges between the layers. because it is strange or old-fashioned "What a quaint idea!" she said.bl ̩/ /fɔːr-/ adjective causing you to have fear or respect for something or someone because they are large. laughing at him. which is either pushed between two objects to keep them still or forced into something to break pieces off it Push a wedge under the door to keep it open while we're carrying the boxes in.nɪk/ adjective having or allowing you to see beautiful natural features an area of outstanding scenic beauty a scenic drive/railway We took the scenic route home. 1.it's very distracting. He tried to distract attention from his own illegal activities. . etc. to search an area of water by dredging The police are dredging the lake for his body.wedge /wedʒ/ noun SHAPE 1. distracting /dɪˈstræk. Quaint can also be used to show that you do not approve of something. belief or way of behaving.tɪŋ/ adjective Please turn your music down . lakes. 2. [ C ] a triangular-shaped piece. rubber. etc. a wedge of cheese the seabed /ðəˈsiː. distract /dɪˈstrækt/ verb [ T ] distract /dɪˈstrækt/ verb [ T ] to make someone stop giving their attention to something Don't distract her ( from her studies). powerful or difficult a formidable obstacle/task a formidable adversary/enemy/opponent a formidable intellect DISAPPROVING the director and his formidable wife to make someone stop giving their attention to something Don't distract her ( from her studies). lake.bed/ noun [ S ] the solid surface of the Earth which lies under the sea The ship has been lying on the seabed for more than 50 years. using a sucking or other device They have to dredge the canal regularly to keep it open. etc. attractive because of being unusual and especially old-fashioned a quaint old cottage 2. wood. especially an opinion. formidable /fɔːˈmɪ. [ C ] a piece of metal. 2. especially of food Auntie Ann put a huge wedge of fruit cake on my plate. They dredged up (= brought to the surface) the man's clothes but not his body. quaint /kweɪnt/ adjective 1. See picture beds 1 dredger /ˈdredʒ.

ɪŋ/ /ˈsnɔːr-/ noun [ U ] the activity of swimming while using a snorkel We went snorkelling along the Great Barrier Reef.k ə l. especially great We've had spectacular success with the product.lə r / /-lɚ/ adjective 1. that are well cooked so that they are just dry and hard enough 3. describes sound or an image that is very clear Now that we have cable. of course.lˌ. spectacular /spekˈtæk.t ə someone who has experience of many different parts of the world Lisa is a real cosmopolitan.jʊ.lə r / /-lɚ/ noun [ C ] an event or performance which is very exciting to watch and which involves a lot of people snorkelling UK . is that it is expensive. describes a way of speaking. especially for decorative effect. skyscraper /ˈskaɪˌskreɪ.tʃ ə rˈesk/ /-tʃəˈresk/ adjective (especially of a place) attractive in appearance. 6. inflation and greater inequality are often the downside of a market economy. even on our old TV.ɪ. describes paper or cloth that is stiff and smooth a crisp new £5 note/a crisp white tablecloth crisp /krɪsp/ adjective MAINLY APPROVING CLEAR 5.saɪd/ noun [ S ] the disadvantage of a situation The downside of living here. 2.pə r / /-pɚ/ noun [ C ] a very tall modern building. US snorkeling /ˈsnɔː. hard enough to be broken easily 2. or the structure in a lake or pool from which this flows cosmopolitan /ˌkɒz. confident and effective a crisp reply a crisp. especially in an old-fashioned way the picturesque narrow streets of the old city crisp /krɪsp/ adjective MAINLY APPROVING HARD 1. efficient manner crisp /krɪsp/ adjective MAINLY APPROVING COLD 7. There was a spectacular sunset last night. very exciting to look at a spectacular view He scored a spectacular goal in the second half. describes fruit or vegetables that are fresh and firm a crisp apple 4. Unemployment.mˌˌ pˌ . writing or behaving that is quick. such as pastry and biscuits.məˈpɒl. describes cooked foods.tˌˌ   ̬ ɪ ˈ əɑ ˌ ə n/ noun [ C ] USUALLY APPROVING downside /ˈdaʊn.jʊ. usually in a city fountain /ˈfaʊn. Compare upside picturesque /ˌpɪk. dry and bright . n/ /ˌkɑːz. we get a wonderfully crisp picture.spectacular /spekˈtæk.tɪn/ noun [ C ] fountain a stream of water that is forced up into the air through a small hole. describes weather that is cold.

. treacherous /ˈtretʃ. nought /nɔːt/ /nɑːt/ number ZERO 1. We took a deliberate decision to indulge in a little nostalgia. nought /nɔːt/ /nɑːt/ number NOTHING 2.a wonderful crisp spring morning 8. MAINLY OLD USE A person who is treacherous deceives someone who trusts them. or has no loyalty Vargas plays the part of a treacherous aristocrat who betrays his king and country. a low point in a regular series of high and low points Investing small amounts regularly is a good way of smoothing out the peaks and troughs of the stock market. [ U ] naught (NOTHING) trough /trɒf/ /trɑːf/ noun [ C ] CONTAINER trough /trɒf/ /trɑːf/ noun [ C ] LOW POINT 1. SPECIALIZED (in the study of weather patterns) a long area of low air pressure between two areas of high air pressure A trough of low pressure over hilly areas will bring heavy thunderstorms overnight. describes air that is cold. waving flags and singing songs. sometimes with a flavour added. [ R ] I love champagne but I don't often indulge myself. a long narrow container without a lid that usually holds water or food for farm animals cows at the feeding trough 2.əs/ /-ɚ-/ adjective NOT LOYAL 2. [ C ] US FOR crumble (SWEET FOOD) ə r. especially because of bad weather conditions Snow and ice have left many roads treacherous. trough /trɒf/ /trɑːf/ verb [ T ] INFORMAL indulge /ɪnˈdʌldʒ/ verb to eat something quickly and eagerly. 3. and sold especially in plastic bags a packet of salt and vinegar crisps crisp /krɪsp/ noun SWEET FOOD 2. [ C ] MAINLY UK ( US USUALLY naught ) the number 0 or zero He said it was only worth £10. treacherous /ˈtretʃ. it is extremely dangerous. and motorists are warned to drive slowly. dry and fresh I breathed in deeply the crisp mountain air. especially more than is good for you The soccer fans indulged their patriotism. 1. If the ground or sea is treacherous. crisp /krɪsp/ noun POTATO 1. but really you could add a couple of noughts to that (= it is really worth £1000) . drought /draʊt/ noun [ C or U ] a long period when there is little or no rain This year (a) severe drought has ruined the crops.əs/ /-ɚ-/ adjective DANGEROUS 1. I feel a bit treacherous to my own sex if I ever make general criticisms of women. especially in large amounts She was sitting there troughing chocolate. ə r. [ C usually plural ] UK ( US (potato) chip ) a very thin. [ I or T ] to allow yourself or another person to have something enjoyable. often round piece of fried potato.

dʒ ə n t  s/ noun [ S or U ] engrossed /ɪnˈgrəʊst/ /-ˈgroʊst/ adjective giving all your attention to something.ɪ. but I'll just have another chocolate.ʃ projection /prəˈdʒek. ə n/ noun IMAGE 2.ɪ. a plaited leather bracelet/belt plait /plæt/ noun [ C ] ( US USUALLY braid ) plait a length of hair or other material which is divided into three parts which are then crossed over each other in a special pattern She usually wears her hair in a plait/ in two plaits. intimidating /ɪnˈtɪm. to spend time visiting a lot of websites Many towns and cities have cybercafes where you can surf the Internet/Net/Web. [ C ] a calculation or guess about the future based on information that you have The company has failed to achieve last year's sales projections by thirty percent.ʃ projection /prəˈdʒek.ʃ n/ noun DRAWING . windsurfing surf /sɜːf/ /sɝːf/ verb [ I or T ] INTERNET 1. See also bodysurf .ɪnˈdʌl.ɪnˈdʌl. while standing or lying on a special board They go surfing every weekend. self-indulgent /ˌself.tɪŋ/ /-t ɪŋ/ adjective ̬ making you feel frightened or nervous an intimidating array of weapons an intimidating manner She can be very intimidating when she's angry. [ U ] when a film or an image is projected onto a screen or wall ə n/ noun STICKING OUT 3. [ T ] to give someone anything they want and not to mind if they behave badly My aunt indulges the children dreadfully.2. plait /plæt/ verb [ I or T ] ( US USUALLY braid ) to join three or more pieces of hair or string-like material by putting them over each other in a special pattern She plaited the horse's tail.ʃ projection /prəˈdʒek. [ C ] something that projects from a surface or above the edge of something ə projection /prəˈdʒek. usually in order to persuade them to do something that you want them to They were intimidated into accepting a pay cut by the threat of losing their jobs.deɪ.dʒ ə nt/ adjective allowing yourself to have or do anything that you enjoy I know it's self-indulgent of me. intimidate /ɪnˈtɪm. self-indulgence /ˌself. to ride on a wave as it comes towards land.deɪt/ verb [ T ] do to frighten or threaten someone. surf /sɜːf/ /sɝːf/ verb [ I or T ] WAVES 2. absorbed She was so engrossed by/in the book that she forgot the cakes in the oven. They were so engrossed in/with what they were doing that they didn't hear me come in. ə n/ noun CALCULATION 1.

how much money they have and what they spend it on The demographics of the country have changed dramatically in recent years. 2.t ̬/ ɚ noun [ C ] a reporter for radio or television who provides a spoken description of and remarks on an event. Her hopes of success in the race dwindled last night as the weather became worse. UK to officially record on a driving licence that the driver has been found guilty of driving in an illegal way endorsement /ɪnˈdɔː. He hoped to secure quick endorsement of the plan from the President. [ C or U ] when a famous person appears in an advertisement saying that they use and like a product products which carry an endorsement from a famous person charter /ˈtʃɑː.tə r / /ˈtʃɑːr. . saying that you use and like a particular product They paid $2 million to the world champion to endorse their new aftershave.dl ̩/ verb [ I ] to become smaller in size or amount.tə r / /ˈkɑː. sceptical UK . demographics /ˌdem.mən. No one has exact demographics on (= information about the quantity and characteristics of the people who live in) the area. in order to make it able to be paid to someone else endorse /ɪnˈdɔːs/ /-ˈdɔːrs/ verb [ T ] PUNISH 4.teɪ. especially by criticizing in a damaging or annoying way My sister's always meddling in other people's affairs . as it happens a radio commentator a sports/football commentator.teɪ.4.t ɚ/ ̬ noun OFFICIAL PAPER 1. dwindle /ˈdwɪn.l ̩/ verb [ I ] DISAPPROVING to try to change or have an influence on things which are not your responsibility.k ə l/ adjective doubting that something is true or useful Many experts remain sceptical about/of his claims. to write something in order to give permission for something. which is agreed by or demanded from a ruler or government a charter of rights Education is one of the basic human rights written into the United Nations Charter. especially your signature on the back of a cheque . or of an organization or a particular social group. 2. FORMAL I fully endorse (= agree with) everything the Chairperson has said. People shouldn't meddle with things they don't understand.ən. [ C ] a formal statement of the rights of a country's people. [ C ] SPECIALIZED a drawn representation of a solid shape or a line as seen from a particular direction commentator /ˈkɒm.əˈgræf. especially in relation to their age.smənt/ /-ˈdɔːr-/ noun APPROVAL 1. endorse /ɪnˈdɔːs/ /-ˈdɔːrs/ verb [ T ] SUPPORT 1.ɪks/ plural noun the quantity and characteristics of the people who live in a particular area. meddle /ˈmed. The Government have produced a Citizen's/Parents'/Patients' Charter. or fewer in number The community has dwindled to a tenth of its former size in the last two years. [ C or U ] when you make a statement of your approval or support for something or someone The campaign hasn't received any political endorsements. to make a public statement of your approval or support for something or someone The National Executive is expected to endorse these recommendations. US skeptical /ˈskep. especially a sports competition. to appear in an advertisement. endorse /ɪnˈdɔːs/ /-ˈdɔːrs/ verb [ T ] GIVE PERMISSION 3.tɪ.

to officially start a new organization by giving it a charter Cambridge University Press was chartered in 1534. . [ + that ] The police have deduced that he must have left his apartment yesterday evening. deducible /dɪˈdjuː.ɪt/ adjective 1. When he got a job in a bank.tə r / /ˈtʃɑːr. [ + two objects ] I'll swap you my chocolate bar for your peanuts.nəs/ noun [ U ] deduce /dɪˈdjuːs/ /-ˈduːs/ verb [ T ] to reach an answer or a decision by thinking carefully about the known facts We cannot deduce very much from these figures. swapping (= telling each other) stories/jokes. clear and exact I gave her very explicit directions how to get here. explicitness /ɪkˈsplɪs.ʃ swap -pp. [ + that ] It is crucial that the problem is tackled immediately. [ U ] the renting of a vehicle boats for charter a charter flight a major charter operator noun RENT charter /ˈtʃɑː.t ɚ/ ̬ 2.nənt/ adjective famous. respected or important an eminent historian eminence /ˈem. eminent /ˈem.ɪ. Compare implicit 2.ɪ. She was very explicit about (= said very clearly and exactly) what she thought was wrong with the plans.bl ̩/ /-ˈduː-/ adjective FORMAL able to be deduced deductive /dɪˈdʌk. shall we swap? We swapped addresses with the people we met on holiday.) /swɒp/ /swɑːp/ verb [ I or T ] to give something and be given something else instead. I wasn't aware that I would be paying .tɪv/ adjective a deductive argument deductive logic/reasoning ə l/ adjective extremely important or necessary a crucial decision/question Her work has been crucial to the project's success. and I've finished mine. to exchange When you've finished reading your book. respected or important his eminence as a film director explicit /ɪkˈsplɪs.tə r / /ˈtʃɑːr.nən t  s/ noun [ U ] the state of being famous. We spent the evening in the pub.sɪ.li/ adverb I told you quite explicitly (= clearly) to be home by midnight. showing or talking about sex or violence in a very detailed way a sexually explicit film explicitly /ɪkˈsplɪs.you certainly didn't make it explicit (= state it clearly) . crucial /ˈkruː.charter /ˈtʃɑː. he had to swap his jeans and T-shirt for a suit (= he had to wear formal clothes instead of informal ones) .ɪt.( UK ALSO swop -pp.t ɚ/ ̬ verb [ T ] OFFICIAL START 2.ɪt.

FORMAL someone who tries to protect particular ideas or principles She sees herself as a custodian of the public's morals. custodial /kʌsˈtəʊ.sɪŋ/ /pɚ-/ adjective They find the company's attitude perplexing and unreasonable. perplexing /pəˈplek. usually caused by something pleasant the thrill of winning a competition So why do people still go hunting . a place where a particular group of people often go or meet. or the place itself We have a rendezvous for next week. acquiesce /ˌæk.deɪ. especially secretly. especially a child custodial care 1. so the teacher tried to explain once again. FORMAL a person with responsibility for protecting or taking care of something or keeping something in good condition the custodian of a museum/castle 2.wiˈes/ verb [ I ] FORMAL to accept or agree to something.vuː/ /ˈrɑːn-/ noun [ C ] plural rendezvous 1.əl/ /-ˈtoʊ-/ adjective CARE custodian /kʌsˈtəʊ. The video shows the thrills and spills (= excitement and accidents) of motor racing. by arrangement or habit This restaurant is a popular rendezvous for local artists. an arrangement to meet someone.əl/ /-ˈtoʊ-/ adjective PRISON 1.is it the thrill of the chase? It gave me a real thrill to see her again after so many years.di. (the title of) a British man who has the lowest rank in the highest social class 2. often unwillingly Reluctantly. US FOR caretaker (BUILDING WORKER) blonde ( ALSO blond ) /blɒnd/ /blɑːnd/ adjective with pale yellow or gold hair blonde hair/highlights a blonde woman/a blond man thrill /θrɪl/ noun [ C ] a feeling of extreme excitement. ə n/ noun [ C ] 1. custodial sentence a period of time that someone must stay in prison custodial /kʌsˈtəʊ. perplexed /pəˈplekst/ /pɚ-/ adjective The students looked perplexed. at a particular place and time. 3. 2. rendezvous /ˈrɒn. thrill /θrɪl/ verb [ I or T ] . an extremely powerful person in a particular area of business media/press barons a drug baron baron /ˈbær.perplex /pəˈpleks/ /pɚ-/ verb [ T ] to confuse and worry someone slightly by being difficult to understand or solve The disease has continued to perplex doctors. don't we? The lovers met at a secret rendezvous in the park. he acquiesced to/in the plans.di. relating to the legal right to care for someone or something.di.ən/ /-ˈtoʊ-/ noun [ C ] 2.

the movement of soldiers or equipment to a place where they can be used when they are needed The Chief of Police ordered the deployment of 2 000 troops to try to stop the rioting. a mongrel (= dog of mixed type) . they appear to be something which they are not. My job doesn't really allow me fully to deploy my skills/talents. to hide an opinion. Computers are used to store and retrieve information efficiently. disguise /dɪsˈgaɪz/ verb [ T ] 1. to give a new appearance to a person or thing. and which they may not be realise they are doing He's got some very strange mannerisms. objects or activities are in disguise.klɪŋ/ noun [ C ] DISAPPROVING 2. ə r. a person who is thought to be worth nothing or cowardly (= not brave) someone who is weak. either physically or in character It would need more than a few exercises to turn a seven-stone weakling into a heavyweight boxer. duke /djuːk/ /duːk/ noun [ C ] a man of very high rank in a country. We've spent so much time together that we've picked up each other's mannerisms. 2. a feeling. especially intentionally She usually goes out in disguise to avoid being bothered by the public. We tried to disguise the fact that it was just a school hall by putting up coloured lights and balloons. the use of something or someone in an effective way the deployment of technologies to address this challenge 2. especially in an effective way The company is reconsidering the way in which it deploys its resources/staff . Minor skin imperfections can usually be disguised with a spot of make-up. retrieve /rɪˈtriːv/ verb [ T ] to find and bring back something We taught our dog to retrieve a ball.mənt/ noun [ U ] 1. hands or voice.ɪ. mannerism /ˈmæn. He claims that most Western aid to the Third World is just colonialism in disguise. something that someone wears to hide their true appearance He put on a large hat and glasses as a disguise and hoped no one would recognise him. deployment /dɪˈplɔɪ. to move soldiers or equipment to a place where they can be used when they are needed The decision has been made to deploy extra troops /more powerful weapons .to make someone feel very excited and pleased Ballesteros thrilled the golf world with his performance.z ə m/ /-ɚ-/ noun [ C ] something that a person does repeatedly with their face. 2. deploy /dɪˈplɔɪ/ verb [ T ] 1. 2. especially one that is frightening or fierce cur /kɜː r / /kɝː/ noun [ C ] LITERARY PERSON weakling /ˈwiː. especially in order to hide its true form [ R ] He disguised himself by shaving his head and wearing a false beard. disguise /dɪsˈgaɪz/ noun [ C or U ] 1. to use something or someone. or the ruler of a small independent country cur /kɜː r / /kɝː/ noun [ C ] LITERARY DOG 1. in disguise If people. etc. I couldn't disguise my disappointment. .

/mæk/ noun [ U ] a measurement of speed which is calculated by dividing the speed of an object.ə r. watchdog /ˈwɒtʃ. a person or organization responsible for making certain that companies obey particular standards and do not act illegally The Countryside Commission was set up as the government's official watchdog on conservation.dɑːg/ noun [ C ] ORGANIZATION 1.kə. [ C or U ] the appearance or expression of someone's face He was of noble countenance.tə.tɪŋ/ /-t ɪŋ/ adjective ̬ 1. Mannerism /ˈmæn.tɪŋ/ /ˈprɑːm p  -/ noun [ C or U ] .leɪt/ verb [ I or T ] to make or become greater or more serious The decision to escalate UN involvement has been taken in the hopes of a swift end to the hostilities.dɒg/ /ˈwɑːtʃ. to approve of or give support to The school will not countenance bad behaviour.ɪ. prompting /ˈprɒm p  . was excruciating.nən t  s/ /-t countenance /ˈkaʊn. US FOR guard dog countenance /ˈkaʊn. [ U ] approval We will not give/lend countenance to any kind of terrorism. often an aircraft. ə n. extremely painful an excruciating pain in the lower back 2.leɪt/ verb [ I or T ] to (cause to) become less dangerous or difficult The government has taken these measures in an attempt to de-escalate the conflict.dɑːg/ noun [ C ] DOG 2. watchdog /ˈwɒtʃ. France and Spain.tə.ʃi. which did not follow traditional rules of painting and tried to represent an image of beauty that was perfect rather than natural Mannerism is characterized by a distortion of proportions and perspective. croissant /ˈkwæs.eɪ. when it came. The escalating rate of inflation will almost certainly bring escalating prices. the outskirts /ðiˈaʊt. usually eaten in the morning Mach /mɑːk/ .ən t  s/ noun FORMAL APPROVAL 2.ən t  s/ noun FORMAL FACE 1.tə. ə countenance /ˈkaʊn.nən t  s/ /-t n.kə.ən t  s/ verb [ T ] FORMAL to find acceptable. His financial problems escalated after he became unemployed. common in Italy. de-escalate /ˌdiːˈes. escalate /ˈes.sk ɜːts/ /-skɜːrts/ plural noun the areas that form the edge of a town or city The factory is in/on the outskirts of New Delhi. extremely boring or embarrassing excruciating boredom His confession.nən t  s/ /-t ə n. by the speed of sound excruciating /ɪkˈskruː.z ə m/ /-ɚ-/ noun [ U ] SPECIALIZED a style of 16th century art.ɒ/ /kwɑːˈsɑː/ noun [ C ] croissant a piece of light crescent -shaped pastry.dɒg/ /ˈwɑːtʃ. There are signs that the confrontation is beginning to de-escalate.

ɪd/ /ˈtɔːr. [ I ] to step awkwardly while walking or running and fall or begin to fall Running along the beach. 3. flourish /ˈflʌr. involving strong emotions. Amazingly . . stumble /ˈstʌm.without any prompting . planes on a bombing raid 2.bl / verb WALK ̩ 1. [ T ] to move something in your hand in order to make people look at it She came in smiling. such as repeating something or pausing for too long. He pulled on his clothes and stumbled into the kitchen. usually by a small group of people The commandos made/staged/carried out a daring raid ( on the enemy).bl / verb PAUSE ̩ 3. 2. and although he didn't fall it was enough to lose him first place. noun [ U ] when a group of people attempt to take control of their country by force The government is reported to be concerned about the growing insurgency in the South. while speaking or playing a piece of music When the poet stumbled over a line in the middle of a poem. In the final straight Meyers stumbled. someone in the audience corrected him. flourish /ˈflʌr. (of the police) to enter a place suddenly in order to find someone or something Police officers from the organized crime branch have raided solicitors' offices in central London.ɪʃ/ /ˈflɝː-/ verb SUCCEED 1. 4. usually secretly I caught Toby raiding the fridge . raid /reɪd/ verb [ T ] 1. she stumbled on a log and fell on the sand.my husband actually said how nice I looked in my new dress! torrid /ˈtɒr.ɪd/ adjective EMOTIONS torrid /ˈtɒr. a short sudden attack. [ I ] to grow or develop successfully My tomatoes are flourishing this summer .si/ /-ˈsɝː-/ stumble /ˈstʌm. when the police enter a place suddenly in order to find someone or something The drugs were found during a police raid on the house.ɪd/ /ˈtɔːr. and steal from it The post office was raided late at night.ɪd/ adjective WEATHER 2. especially those of sexual love a torrid romance raid /reɪd/ noun [ C ] 1.dʒ 2. to attack a place suddenly The nomads raided the enemy camp and captured over 100 camels. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to walk in a way which does not seem controlled We could hear her stumbling about/around the bedroom in the dark.ɪʃ/ /ˈflɝː-/ verb WAVE insurgency /ɪnˈsɜː. [ I ] to make a mistake. when people enter a place by force in order to steal from it Millions of dollars were stolen in a bank raid last night.it must be the warm weather. 2. Watercolour painting began to flourish in Britain around 1750. to enter a place illegally and usually violently.when you try to make someone say something [ + to infinitive ] Kids of that age really shouldn't need prompting to say thank you for things. flourishing her exam results. FORMAL extremely hot the torrid heat of August 1. INFORMAL to take something from a place. Compare counterinsurgency ə n t  . 3.

UK Why don't you shove up so that Brian can sit next to you? trump /trʌmp/ noun 1. Reporters pushed and shoved as they tried to get close to the princess. continuing forever in the same way They lived in perpetual fear of being discovered and arrested.u. shove /ʃʌv/ verb MOVE BODY 3. rebound /ˌriːˈbaʊnd/ verb [ I ] 1. to get control or influence I am sure that common sense will prevail in the end. you know. He has hard. If one of your actions rebounds on you. rouse /raʊz/ verb [ T ] to wake someone up or make someone more active or excited He roused himself ( from a pleasant daydream) and got back to work. it does not have the effect you hoped for but has an unpleasant effect on you instead His continual demands for sympathy rebounded on him because his friends finally stopped listening. I drew a trump. a perpetual student 2. The speaker attempted to rouse the crowd with a cry for action. And did reason prevail over (= become a more powerful influence than) emotion? 2. no trump(s) when all four groups of cards have equal value in a game of bridge perpetual /pəˈpetʃ. shove /ʃʌv/ verb PUT 2. to be common among a group of people or area at a particular time This attitude still prevails among the middle classes. "Where should I put this suitcase?" "Shove it down there for the moment. cold eyes and his mouth is set in a perpetual sneer.əl/ /pɚˈpetʃ-/ adjective 1. to bounce back after hitting a hard surface 2." They can't just shove motorways anywhere they like. Just wait your turn . 3. Luckily.there's no need to shove.prevail /prɪˈveɪl/ verb [ I ] FORMAL 1. shove /ʃʌv/ verb PUSH 1. trumps one of the four groups in a set of playing cards which has been chosen to have the highest value during a particular game or part of a game Diamonds are trumps. and make some room for me. Lena. [ I or T ] to push someone or something forcefully She was jostled and shoved by an angry crowd as she left the court. [ I + adverb or preposition ] INFORMAL to move your body to make space for someone else Shove over/along . [ T + adverb or preposition ] INFORMAL to put something somewhere in a hurried or careless way I'll just shove this laundry in the washer before we go out. 2. prevail on/upon sb phrasal verb [ + to infinitive ] to persuade someone to do something that they do not want to do He was eventually prevailed upon to accept the appointment. [ C ] a card that belongs to the group of cards that has been chosen to have the highest value in a particular game I played a trump. often repeated .

Local people have complained about improperly dressed tourists entering places of worship (= buildings for religious ceremonies or private prayer) . 2. Worship MAINLY UK FORMAL used as a title of respect when speaking to or about a mayor or a magistrate His Worship the Mayor will present the awards.eɪt/ /pɚˈpetʃ-/ verb [ T ] FORMAL to cause something to continue Increasing the supply of weapons will only perpetuate the violence and anarchy. to love someone very much. worship /ˈwɜː. often without noticing their bad qualities Her parents worship her.perpetual vandalism perpetuate /pəˈpetʃ. [ T ] to love. His/Your. especially in an admiring or respectful way. I absolutely adore chocolate. worship /ˈwɜː. adoring /əˈdɔː. worship /ˈwɜː. etc. often through praying or singing daily acts of worship Christian/Sikh/Muslim worship For Jews. the synagogue is the centre for community worship and study. .rɪŋ/ adjective showing very strong love for someone I refuse to play the part of the adoring wife. [ T ] to have or show a strong feeling of respect and admiration for God or a god In the various regions of India.ʃɪp/ /ˈwɝː-/ noun ADMIRATION worship /ˈwɜː.u. respect and admire someone or something very much. [ + -ing verb ] Don't you just adore ly ing in a hot bath? adore /əˈdɔː r / /-ˈdɔːr/ verb [ T not continuous ] RELIGION 2. often too much We're in an era of fitness and health worship.or US ALSO -p. [ U ] DISAPPROVING when you like or admire a particular thing or person very much. socialise together and worship in the same mosque.ʃɪp/ /ˈwɝː-/ noun RELIGION 1. Hindus worship different gods and observe different religious festivals.ʃɪp/ /ˈwɝː-/ verb -pp.ADMIRE 3. [ I ] to go to a religious ceremony They work for the same company. As a child. [ U ] when you worship God or a god.or US ALSO -p.RELIGION 1. 3. The aim of the association is to perpetuate the skills of traditional furniture design. FORMAL to worship Let us adore God for all his works. [ as form of address ] Thank you. The poll showed that over 40% of Americans worship on a weekly basis.ʃɪp/ /ˈwɝː-/ verb -pp. or to like something very much She has one son and she adores him.ʃɪp/ /ˈwɝː-/ noun TITLE 2. adore /əˈdɔː r / /-ˈdɔːr/ verb [ T not continuous ] LOVE 1. I worshipped my older brother. Your Worship. adorn /əˈdɔːn/ /-ˈdɔːrn/ verb [ T ] LITERARY to add something decorative to a person or thing The bride's hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers. worship /ˈwɜː.

jeopardize . SPECIALIZED a piece of music at the end of a longer piece of music.ə.si. 2.ə. or being uncertain about how you feel I felt very ambivalent about leaving home.mɒ/ /-mɑ͂ː/ noun [ C ] the end of a story.əˈdʒɪr. [ U ] talk or activity not connected with the most important matter addendum /əˈden. or someone or something that is difficult to deal with or change The union remains obdurate that any redundancies must be voluntary. describes a person who refuses to change their mind. 2.bl ̩/ .ɪt/ adjective FORMAL 1. Several obdurate facts/differences remain. in which everything is explained. He has fairly ambivalent feelings towards his father. or the end result of a situation panegyric /ˌpæn.lənt/ adjective having two opposing feelings at the same time.dəm/ noun [ C ] plural addenda SPECIALIZED something that has been added to a book. an ambivalent attitude to exercise insouciance /ɪnˈsuː. implacable /ɪmˈplæk. /priˈæm-/ noun 1.ə. .daɪz/ /-ɚ-/ verb [ T ] to put something such as a plan or system in danger of being harmed or damaged She knew that by failing her exams she could jeopardize her whole future.æm. UK USUALLY jeopardise /ˈdʒep. [ C ] SPECIALIZED an introduction to a speech or piece of writing 2. DISAPPROVING extremely determined to act in a particular way and not to change despite what anyone else says The President remains obdurate on the question of tax cuts. speech or document denouement /deɪˈnuː.obdurate /ˈɒb. preventing a compromise solution.djʊ.ɪk/ noun [ C ] FORMAL them a speech or piece of writing that praises someone very much and does not mention anything bad about She delivered a panegyric on the President-elect.ən t  s/ noun [ U ] LITERARY a relaxed and happy way of acting without feeling worred or guilty I admired his youthful insouciance. FORMAL the final or extra part of a speech.dʊr.də/ /ˈkoʊ-/ noun [ C ] 1. event or piece of writing In a coda to the main exhibition are various works which were once attributed to Rembrandt.bl ̩/ adjective SLIGHTLY FORMAL describes (someone who has) strong opinions or feelings which are impossible to change an implacable enemy implacable hostility coda /ˈkəʊ. which is usually separate from the basic structure The coda is often more technically difficult than the rest of the piece. essay /eˈseɪ/ verb [ T ] OLD-FASHIONED to try to do something The procedure was first essayed in 1923.rət/ /ˈɑːb. ambivalent /æmˈbɪv. preamble /ˈpriː.

DISAPPROVING Discipline in Mr Brown's class has become very slack recently. especially work Stop loafing (about/around) and get on with cleaning the windows! Use your loaf. loaf /ləʊf/ /loʊf/ noun plural loaves BREAD loaf 1. slack /slæk/ adjective NOT ACTIVE 2. showing little activity. slacks [ plural ] OLD-FASHIONED a pair of trousers. usually of a type that fit loosely slack /slæk/ verb [ I ] INFORMAL to work more slowly and with less effort than usual. [ C or U ] savoury food cut into small pieces then pressed together and cooked in a single solid piece meat/nut loaf loaf /ləʊf/ /loʊf/ verb [ I ] INFORMAL to avoid activity. abate /əˈbeɪt/ verb [ I ] FORMAL .di/ /-ɚ-/ noun in jeopardy in danger of being damaged or destroyed The lives of thousands of birds are in jeopardy as a result of the oil spillage. goof /guːf/ verb [ I or T ] MAINLY US INFORMAL to make a silly mistake If Tom hadn't goofed and missed that shot. or to go more slowly Everyone slacks off/up a bit at the end of the week. not tight. slack /slæk/ noun NOT TIGHT 1. we'd have won the game.jeopardy /ˈdʒep.ə. not busy or happening in a positive way Business is always slack at this time of year. [ U ] when something is too loose There's too much slack in these ropes. Slack off your speed as you approach the corner. DISAPPROVING You'll be in trouble if you're caught slacking on the job like that. UK OLD-FASHIONED used to tell someone in a slightly angry way that they should think more carefully about what they are doing slack /slæk/ adjective NOT TIGHT 1. [ C ] bread which is shaped and baked in a single piece and can be sliced for eating two loaves of white bread loaf /ləʊf/ /loʊf/ noun plural loaves FOOD 2. DISAPPROVING The job is taking a long time because the workmen are so slack. slack /slæk/ noun TROUSERS 2. She goofed her lines (= said the words in the play wrong) . loose These tent ropes are too slack .they need tightening. goof off phrasal verb US INFORMAL to avoid doing any work They've goofed off and gone to the ball game. The men pulled on the ropes to take up the slack (= to tighten them) .

no dancing. In many American schools.I scarcely heard him laugh all night. especially in an unacceptable way aberrant behaviour/sexuality abeyance /əˈbeɪ. flee the country to quickly go to another country in order to escape from something or someone It is likely that the suspects have fled the country by now. allegiance /əˈliː. aberrant /əˈber. [ R ] I wouldn't demean myself by asking my parents for money. especially not eating good food or drinking alcohol sober /ˈsəʊ. refrain /rɪˈfreɪn/ verb [ I ] FORMAL to avoid doing or stop yourself from doing something We refrained from talk ing until we knew that it was safe. group or belief Soldiers must swear allegiance to the Crown/the King. flee /fliː/ verb [ I or T never passive ] fleeing . country. to escape by running away. abscond /æbˈskɒnd/ /-ˈskɑ ːnd/ verb [ I ] ESCAPE 1. especially because of danger or fear She fled (from) the room in tears. especially something enjoyable that you think might be bad He took a vow to abstain from alcohol/smoking/sex. [ I or T ] If a king or queen abdicates.mənt/ noun [ U ] to cause someone to become less respected The entire family was demeaned by his behaviour. he fled to the mountains. fled . abase yourself /əˈbeɪs/ verb [ R ] FORMAL to make yourself seem to be less important or not to deserve respect abdicate /ˈæb. the students pledge allegiance (to the flag) at the beginning of the school day. Anthony was in a very sober mood . serious and calm In fact the whole wedding was a sober affair . abstain /æbˈsteɪn/ verb [ I ] NOT DO 1. to not do something. they make a formal statement that they no longer want to be king or queen King Edward VIII abdicated (the British throne) in 1936 so that he could marry Mrs Simpson.bə r / /ˈsoʊ. The fighting in the area shows no sign of abating. ə nt/ . abyss /əˈbɪs/ noun [ C usually singular ] HOLE 1.demean /dɪˈmiːn/ verb [ T ] to become less strong The storm/wind/rain has started to abate. The project is being held in abeyance until agreement is reached on funding it.bɚ/ adjective SERIOUS 2." abstemious /æbˈstiː. fled 1.r ə nt/ adjective FORMAL different from what is typical or usual.dʒ ə n t  s/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL loyalty and support for a ruler. /ˈæb. As an Englishman who'd lived for a long time in France. just people standing around in groups chatting politely. She absconded from boarding school with her boyfriend. a divorced woman. The sign on the wall said "Please refrain from smok ing . 2.əs/ adjective FORMAL not doing things which give you pleasure.keɪt/ verb KING/QUEEN 1. LITERARY a very deep hole which seems to have no bottom . he felt a certain conflict of allegiances when the two countries played soccer. See also unabated abatement /əˈbeɪt. In order to escape capture.dɪ.mi.ə. to go away suddenly and secretly in order to escape from somewhere Two prisoners absconded last night.ən t  s/ noun [ U ] FORMAL a state of not happening or being used at present Hostilities between the two groups have been in abeyance since last June.

və. to give some moral uplift to the delegates.hoʊld/ noun [ C ] 1. usually built in a high. a building or position which is strongly defended a rebel stronghold They captured the last stronghold of the presidential guard.tɚ/ noun [ C ] MEDICINE 1. He advocates the return of capital punishment.keɪt/ verb [ T ] to publicly support or suggest an idea. SLIGHTLY FORMAL interesting and exciting.ɪk/ /-ˈθet ̬ adjective -/ 1. glorify /ˈglɔː. ( MAINLY US aerie ) the nest of an eagle or other large bird which eats meat. adulterate /əˈdʌl. a place or area where a particular belief or activity is common Rural areas have been traditionally thought of as a stronghold of old-fashioned attitudes. piquant /ˈpiː. ( WRITTEN ABBREVIATION Dr ) a person with a medical degree (= university qualification) whose job is to treat people who are ill or hurt The doctor prescribed some pills.k ə nt/ adjective INTERESTING 1. relating to the enjoyment or study of beauty The new building has little aesthetic value/appeal. 2. works He went to the doctor's this morning for a checkup.mənt/ noun [ U ] FORMAL DISAPPROVING increase in power or importance He gives a lot of money to charity. far place stronghold /ˈstrɒŋ. [ as form of address ] Good morning. uplift /ˈʌp.tə.faɪ/ /ˈglɔːr.i/ noun [ C ] BIRD'S NEST eyrie 1. a very deep narrow opening in rock.reɪt/ verb [ T always passive ] to make food or drink weaker or to lower its quality.ɪ-/ verb [ T ] 1. 2.abyss /əˈbɪs/ noun [ C usually singular ] BAD SITUATION 2. describes an object or a work of art that shows great beauty furniture which is both aesthetic and functional aggrandizement .rɪ. ə m/ noun [ C ] 1. The room hadn't been cleaned for years and showed several accretions of dirt and dust.aggrandizement is his motive. 2. US ALSO catsup ) a thick cold red sauce made from tomatoes Do you want some ketchup with your burger? doctor /ˈdɒk. ketchup /ˈketʃ. especially a GP . She found herself on the edge of an abyss. a difficult situation that brings trouble or destruction The country is sinking/plunging into an abyss of violence and lawlessness. ice or the ground They leaned over the rails and peered down into the dizzying chasm below.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL gradual increase or growth by the addition of new layers or parts The fund was increased by the accretion of new shareholders. FORMAL a very large difference between two opinions or groups of people There is still a vast economic chasm between developed and developing countries. Doctor Smith/Doctor. to praise and honour God or a person . 2. eyrie /ˈɪə.həʊld/ /ˈstrɑː ŋ.tə r / /ˈdɑˌ k. but personal aggrandizement/ self. SLIGHTLY FORMAL improvement of a person's moral or spiritual condition We are counting on your speech. You should see a doctor about that cough. accretion /əˈkriˌ . advocate /ˈæd. aesthetic .ri/ /ˈɪr. development or way of doing something [ + -ing verb ] She advocates tak ing a more long-term view. US ALSO esthetic /esˈθet. chasm /ˈkæz. UK USUALLY aggrandisement /əˈgræn. the doctor's the place where a doctor. bishop. especially because mysterious More piquant details of their private life were revealed.dɪz.ʌp/ noun [ U ] ( UK tomato ketchup . by adding something else There were complaints that the beer had been adulterated with water.lɪft/ noun [ U ] IMPROVEMENT 1.

ɪʃ/ /ˈfet ̬ noun [ C ] RELIGIOUS OBJECT -/ 3. The patient had complained of vague pains and backache.ɪʃ/ /ˈfet ̬ noun [ C ] INTEREST -/ 1. such as fear or worry. alleviate /əˈliː.ti/ /-t i/ noun [ U ] FORMAL ˌ speed haste /heɪst/ noun [ U ] DISAPPROVING (too much) speed Unfortunately the report was prepared in haste and contained several inaccuracies.vi. to make someone a member of the nobility (= highest social rank) 2. LITERARY to make something or someone better so that people admire it or them more He has this theory that suffering can ennoble a person's character.ju.jʊ. The government has been ambiguous on this issue. The wording of the agreement is ambiguous.ti/ /-t i/ noun [ U ] FORMAL ˌ speed and eagerness She accepted the money with alacrity. amulet /ˈæm. sometimes intentionally His reply to my question was somewhat ambiguous. she knocked over a cup. ambiguous /æmˈbɪg. often when it is really not I didn't like the way the film glorified war/violence. a sexual interest in an object or a part of the body other than the sexual organs a rubber/foot fetish . described or decided I do have a vague memory of meeting her many years ago. known. 3. ennoble /ɪˈnəʊ.eɪt/ verb [ T ] FORMAL to make something bad such as pain or problems less severe The drugs did nothing to alleviate her pain/suffering. not clearly expressed.reɪt/ verb [ T ] FORMAL to make a bad or unpleasant situation better Foreign aid is badly needed to ameliorate the effects of the drought.əs/ adjective having or expressing more than one possible meaning.ljə. vague /veɪg/ adjective 1. ameliorate /əˈmiː. describes someone who is not able to think clearly. In line 20. sometimes as a way of hiding what they really think. Their report is studiously vague (= intentionally not exact) on future economic prospects. allay /əˈleɪ/ verb [ T ] FORMAL If you allay a strong emotion felt by someone. INFORMAL My word processor's really just a glorified typewriter. especially a law or a legal document MPs were urged to amend the law to prevent another oil tanker disaster. His father had just died and he didn't want to marry with indecent haste. SPECIALIZED an object which is worshipped in some societies because it is believed to have a spirit or special magical powers fetish /ˈfet. disease or unhappiness fetish /ˈfet.There are 99 prayer beads . 2. celerity /səˈler. amend /əˈmend/ verb [ T ] to change the words of a text. A statue was erected to glorify the country's national heroes.one for each way Allah can be glorified in the Koran.ɪ. alacrity /əˈlæk. Until the constitution is amended. to make something seem splendid or excellent.blˌ/ /-ˈnoʊ-/ verb [ T ] ̩ 1. not clear in shape. does not express their opinions clearly My aunt is incredibly vague . you cause them to feel it less or to feel calm again The government is trying to allay public fears/concern about the spread of the disease. the power to appoint ministers will remain with the president. [ + to infinitive ] In her haste to get up from the table.lət/ /-jə-/ noun [ C ] an object worn because it is believed to protect against evil.she can never remember where she's left things. 'men' should be amended (= changed) to 'people'. 2.rə. or who. or not clearly seen Through the mist I could just make out a vague figure.

an activity or object which you are so interested in that you spend an unreasonable amount of time thinking about it or doing it She makes a fetish of organization . especially one which happened or existed later than the period being shown.it's quite obsessive. archaism /ɑˌˈkeɪ.rə. thing or idea which exists out of its time in history. marriage is an anachronism from the days when women needed to be protected. talisman /ˈtæl. It seems incongruous to have a woman as the editor of a men's magazine. etc.He has a fetish about/for high-heels.gru.ɪ.ɪz.əs/ /-ˈkɑːŋ-/ adjective unusual or different from what is around or from what is generally happening The new computer looked incongruous in the dark book-filled library.nɪ.mən/ noun [ C ] plural talismans an object believed to bring good luck or to keep its owner safe from harm anachronism /əˈnæk. For some people.z ə m/ noun [ C ] a person.z ə m/ /ɑːr-/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED a word or expression that is not generally used any more incongruous /ɪnˈkɒŋ. 2. He has a fetish for/about cleanliness. . discussed.