This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SELECTED ECONOMIC ISSUES
No. 3 2000
Soil Classification in Ghana
Copyright CEPA 2000
Centre For Policy Analysis No. 35 Josif Broz Tito Avenue Switchback Road Accra Mailing Address: P. O. Box 19010 Accra – North Ghana
Tel: [233-21] 778035/779364/779365 Fax: [233-21] 773670 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.ghana.com.gh/cepa
CEPA: Selected Economic Issues, No.3
especially within the Savannah and the Forest-Savannah Transition Zones of the country with a view to ensuring increased and sustained agricultural production. However. Soil Classification in Ghana 2 . the extent to which classes will support increased and sustained production of traditional and non-traditional crops under both rain fed and irrigated conditions not only for home consumption but also for export to earn much needed convertible foreign currency. but will also promote efficiency in agricultural land use and development. the stabilisation of agricultural water supplies is essential to stimulate and sustain growth in that sector. There is the general notion that Ghana is endowed with extensive good arable land for a diversified crop and animal production. the true status of the land situation is not very clear to policy analysts. Introduction In 1998. Thus policies can be defined that are not only implementable. beyond water there is also the question of land. which identify the impediments that constrain agricultural development. in line with its objective of keeping policy research relevant to the economic necessities of Ghana. But. This could call for imaginative and diversified use of the large body of water in the Volta Lake and its tributaries not only for generating electricity but also for irrigating available arable land. anxious to obtain accurate data on land in Ghana: classification. CEPA will publish a series of discussion papers. potentially effective. CEPA is therefore. the half year drought and evidence of a failing agriculture became the basis for CEPA's policy recommendations that beyond macroeconomic stabilisation. Further.LAND CLASSIFICATION IN GHANA Henry Obeng 1.
They have looked helplessly on to science and technology to help them predict planting times for rain fed crops. and. but in vain. Policy attention must focus on breaking this recurring cycle of perpetually reinforcing poverty outcomes in the arable sector that make players therein the largest single group who earn below the poverty line in Ghana as outlined in the GLSS4. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. on the influences of markets to convert agricultural production outcomes into farmer incomes. Agricultural policy pursuit. The high 1 The analyses in this section are supported by the findings of a team of water and soil resources specialists. On the other hand. gluts force prices down and farmers are confronted with low incomes. those traditional farmers who hitherto held on to experience as their sole tool for predicting planting times and crop husbandry.1 Agricultural Production Outcomes versus Income It is an issue of major concern that arable agricultural production in Ghana is a nightmarish recurring cycle of poor farmer incomes irrespective of production outcomes. natural rains will successfully support one cropping regime every year. Global geographical changes have distorted rain patterns and left very well confounded. therefore. Water Resources2 Throughout Ghana. to a limited extent.3 3 . The need for supplemental irrigation as a means to reduce the risk of crop failure is dire. In this issue.1 2.1. the focal spotlight will be placed on the natural resourceswater and land. No. Thus when the weather is good and output levels are high. when bad rains lead to low production outcomes. there is nothing to sell anyway and production outcomes are limited to subsistence. The problem has been the unpredictability of the rainfall. 2 This section is an abridged version of a commissioned study by CEPA conducted by Dr Henry Obeng and Nii Boi Ayibotele which is forthcoming. has little choice but to dwell on the exploitation of water harnessing capacity to give the sector a much-needed boost.
a country right in the Sahara Desert is reported to be recording growth in arable agriculture over the last five years as a result of small irrigation schemes. appreciably high costs of up to 20 percent of gross returns can still be incurred in the current production environment3. The successful residential-plot-sized vegetable gardens of Denu have shown the way to the feasibility and benefits of tubewell irrigation for example. b) Social Factors. This must not necessarily be so. Irrigation will also allow multiple cropping especially of high value export crops. Soil Classification in Ghana 4 . pesticides both of production and storage)—for. Mali. On a general scale. even with „green/organic‟ farming. More readily available returns to farming will build up farm capital and lead to greater capacity of producers to meet the costs of improved technologies either of a mechanical nature (land tillage. water pumps) or of a chemical nature (fertilisers. organic fertilizer costs are in excess of 20% of farm returns to irrigated export vegetable farming. and c) Financial limitations. The history of irrigation in Ghana has been fraught with failure upon failure of large schemes. Nor do Ghanaian policy makers have to reinvent the wheel in a search for new methods of irrigation. So too has the relative success of the Okyereko small-scale irrigation scheme. in areas of high groundwater levels. the constraints that have so far played against extensive irrigation culture can be grouped into three—a) Physical factors.risks associated with the production environment scares away rational lenders and investors from the sector. A high degree of certainty in yield outcomes will translate into greater formal banking confidence in much the same way as lower risks of crop failure will translate into lower lending and investment risks. 3 As illustrated above from the Ketu district.
orderly and peaceful exploitation of irrigated land resources. 2.2. This has been proven wrong all over the world—a reflection of the danger of replacing advocacy in development work over policy research. a considerable amount of cultivable land is lost to submersion. Under such circumstances. The lessons of Aveyime are even more current. the effective strategy should be in the establishment of small reservoir schemes rather than expensive large-scale reservoirs. Further. No. In Ghana. the Vea dam was raised in 1979 and yet to date the conflict on land distribution still rages. In the lower half of the SGSG belt for instance. if the lay of land is hilly. These small schemes also allow more efficient management as responsibility rests on smaller sizes of beneficiaries. and the strategy that has made the arable sector in Nigeria currently the fastest growing agricultural sector in SubSaharan African.2 Social Factors The social implications of dam construction are often under emphasised probably in the belief that the benefits will be so overwhelming that the beneficiaries will work together to ensure legitimate. On the other hand. Sheer unavailability of ground water can constrain options open to irrigation. the lay of the land conditions irrigation feasibility.3 5 . Vast expanses of such shallow reservoirs also then allow high evaporation and water. dam walls need to be long to be effective. This is the system used in Burkina Faso. The cost of building a longer dam wall can be prohibitive. borehole-tunnelling work by the Ghana Water Company has revealed that groundwater is low yielding and groundwater cannot therefore be relied upon for extensive irrigation.1 Physical Constraints In general. than would be the case for huge reservoir schemes. Where land is relatively flat over large stretches. then on the need arises for huge investments in groundwork not only for dam building but also for ground levelling on crop fields. It is important therefore that potential beneficiaries from CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. This can be considerable if the surface condition of the land is uneven.
To reduce the cost of dam construction. The need therefore. offer them sufficient confidence to invest in. Even small schemes are expensive to develop. as well as the environmental correctness of lowered harvests of timber and forest products. road culverts in India and neighbouring Burkina Faso that are close to agricultural settlements are constructed to hold water in reservoirs. These point to the need for policy It has also been established empirically that the smallholder farmer will sometimes turn down apparently clear advantages of new technology because it is attendant with such increased use of labour resources as may be beyond their means.3 Financial Factors By far the most constraining factor to irrigation development is the lack of funds. for policy to explore new directions to harness natural resources and improve their marginal productivities. for instance. MoFA reports that their effort at facilitating irrigation have been frustrated by the high the high capital outlay required for putting up any form of irrigation infrastructure. 2. 3. This shares costs between road construction and irrigation development. An outright freehold title to the land will. maintain and improve their irrigated holdings. is a sine qua non for economic growth. Key to Soil Classification in Ghana 6 . research on land tenure in Ghana. The years of low and declining real income from the arable sector sits uncomfortably with vanishing incomes from lower global demand of our historically rewarding cocoa sector. It is however a constraint that cannot be solved in isolation.irrigation investments be assured of sufficient security regarding land tenure. rather than just allow the water to flow through as pertains in Ghana. Land Resources Agricultural sector productivity in Ghana is at the crossroads.
CEPA does not profess to be sole repository of knowledge or in deed the authority on solutions to land laws and legislative instruments that will revolutionise the system. In the Upper East Region. If the ordinary producers of Ghana are going to meet and overcome the current and future challenges of globalisation.3 7 . A paltry 4 percent is was under irrigation. widespread practices of land division and fragmentation through inheritance are resulting in ever decreasing holdings. Accra CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. Two such factors worthy of discussion are suitability and tenure.2 Tenure of Land Whereas outright landlessness may be unusual in this country. CEPA surveys are picking up indications that some scale of landlessness is emerging. MoFA reports that of the total land area of 23.1%) can be classified as agricultural land area but only 5. For land to be declared agriculturally useful though. a lot more factors must be considered than just the mere fact of availability.3 millions (22.1 Land Availability Published statistics of the MoFA reveal a vast amount of land that is potentially available for agricultural use. The 4 Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) Medium Term Agric Development Programme (MTADP) Document.9 million hectares. 4 It should not be a surprising therefore when causal observers assert that Ghana is a land abundant country. then land tenure and access issues are sufficiently important to warrant wider and much more rigorous policy research than is currently the case.2% of all agricultural land area) were under cultivation at the last count (1995). No.sustainability of agricultural development though will yet remain the land factor—its availability. 3.6 million hectares (57. access/tenure and soil quality. 13. 3.
just so long us there is no conflict or destruction to their respective interests. The first is that customary title is inalienable. any community member can exploit the land for a different purpose or use it in some other way at a different time. our survey identified that any person can pick sheanuts from a farm that may not belong to their farm household. those in whom ownership has been vested cannot cede full property rights. The second feature is that multiple claims can be made over a same piece of land. and statutory-backed versus customary-backed claimants to title can all add to such litigation costs as to dent the competitiveness of production if the such land would be a production. The Vea Irrigation scheme provides a further example where traditional landlords cultivate the land during the rainy season and tenant farmers cultivate it in the dry season. Thus in the SGSG belt. Thus. The now increased awareness of the export and income generating potential for cashew production to a hitherto unmindful rural sector has placed Soil Classification in Ghana 8 . until it has been acquired and is being used for income generating ventures. In general. These and other smaller features make long term development of customarily acquired and held land rather unattractive investment options. in most areas of the country. Whilst one party may have farming rights to a piece of traditional holding. in bringing this up for review is therefore to excite policy minds on what the need. long-term acquisitions on holdings for which rights have. efficient. customary tenure systems have two features. It is also the case that in some cases.primary objective. opportunities and challenges are. shifted from lineage to individual landlords tend to hold a huge potential for conflict. but also for much of the country. Competing claims for land as from aggrieved gender-based victims of land loss. In respect of agricultural land in particular. over generations. the value of land held under customary title is not immediately discernible to the landlord. but actually promotional to the agricultural sector. for providing a land policy that is altogether equitable. or between patrikin and matrikin. newcomers and latecomers. Thus. customary land tenure is more widespread in Ghana than statutory land tenure. sustainable and not just supportive of.
There was no possibility to organise these into land price categories. would collect and husband cattle from several owners for a fee. For instance. therefore. stretching from the western border of Ghana to the upper fringes of the Volta region. in many areas of the Northern Ghana (SGSG zone) as well as the Ashanti and Volta regions. in some parts of the Volta region. usually of the Fulani traditions who are known to be masters of livestock management. Generally. Even within a distance of ten kilometres of Wenchi. Along the same latitude to the West around Techiman. by intensive grazing is a practice that has as yet not widely practised in Ghana. tenant farmers. use to which the land will be put (cassava. tenant farmers are beginning to express doubt on the fairness of the sharecropping schemes that has existed for decades.000 per acre (¢450. outright and irreversible sale was said to be impossible. land sale prices differed by over ¢100. 5 Common grazing lands are however not demarcated in community settlements in Ghana and the headsmen are free to exploit CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. cashew. could itself be putting a new perspective to the meaning of „share‟. The survey sought to establish a picture of land prices in Ghana for agricultural purposes.000 per hectare).3 9 . as already mentioned. These included level of kinship. tenant farmers. The landlord owns the other third. Livestock development is particularly in jeopardy in Ghana. The MoFA has a series of pilot schemes presently. Our survey identified that in some areas of the Transition zone. irrespective of inputs cost. No. number of years land will be held and such others. Cattle breeding. In deed. No clear and consistent reasons could be assembled to categorise sales. headsmen. may be allowed to deduct costs of inputs before the sharing is done. Even this proved futile. if they insist. The fact that inputs such as pesticides and fertiliser are now becoming more and more a necessity as soil fertility is falling. Ambiguities abound. whether local or immigrants must only harvest two-thirds of their produce after farming. for instance). proximity to water or settlement. maize or tomatoes. friendship or other relationship with the landlord.new value on land and is upsetting longstanding tenant-landholder relationships.
the relief. as mentioned. Such is the importance of the climate among these 5 Our survey identified a wide variety of these forms of payment ranging from monthly cash and all milk to the herdsman. the drainage. The time is ripe for the encouragement and guidance by policy to communities to allocate communal grazing grounds with water wells. These include. different types of soils with different suitability rating for various crops and for different farming systems. soil is the most valuable natural resource a nation possesses.3 Land Suitability Physical impediments such as rocks and mountains have been cited earlier as constraints to irrigation. An even more critical constraint is the soil that the weathering of rocks and parent material produce. and yet. There are. It is clear that land policy in Ghana is required at the very least. In some cases the herdsmen are simply labelled as „Alien‟ over extending their welcome. through a calf at start and at close of contract to the more common Soil Classification in Ghana 10 . The soil type that pertains in any locality depends on several factors. 3. however. The conflict sets in when cattle move out of their communal lands into neighbouring or even distant communal lands. to redress the many ambiguities that prevail currently. the climate. confer such statutory rights that will engender such security as to attract and allow the private sector to sink capital investments in land development and agricultural production.all un-farmed land for grazing purposes. The challenge to policy thinking is how effectively to marry customary laws with statutory laws of acquisition and tenure. As natural medium for the growth of land plants. the living organisms on the land and the time taken for a particular parent material to break down into soil. the parent rock. But this is not specific to irrigation. Rocky areas and mountainous terrain are generally difficult to cultivate. Even better will be such policy guidance that will encourage the development of pastures. and the ensuing conflicts can often result in loss of stock. nor perceived threat of a future landlessness state for grandchildren yet unborn to current traditional holders. without sowing seeds of discontent.
No.3. namely forest and savannah. The soils of the Savannah belts are on the other hand. balsalt and upper Birrimian phyllites. namely. greenstones. 3. Forest Gleisols. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues.1 Soils of the Main Agro-Climatic Belts and their Potential for Agricultural Production The local classification system of soil in Ghana is based on characteristics that are the result of the major climatic differences that in turn have given rise to two major distinct vegetation belts. In addition. quartzites. and Forest Gleisol-Alluviosol Intergrades (on lowlands). They fall mainly within the „Great Soil Groups‟ of Forest Ochrosols. Forest Ochrosol-Rubrisol Intergrades. principally. such soils have unfavourable moisture relationships due mainly to the fact that rainfall is less reliable in occurrence than in the Forest belts.2 Soils of the Forest Belt The major soils are those developed as weathering products of metamorphosed and basic intrusive rocks.3 11 . Forest Lithosols (on uplands).3. generally lower in organic matter within the surface horizon due to the fact that grass is the dominant vegetation. sandstones and epidiorites. phyllites. 3. granites.factors that in Ghana. payment of the fourth calf of any flock to the herdsman. over extensive areas. Forest and Savannah. soil zoning can be grouped into two based on the two major distinct vegetation zones. The soils of the Forest belts of Ghana are easily distinguished from those of the Savannah belts by the greater accumulation of organic matter in the surface horizon resulting from the more abundant leaf-fall under Forest vegetation and the slower rate at which humus is oxidised.
or sandstones (Bediesi series). They are. (Kumasi series) or quartzites (Juaso series). however. are deep to very deep. Such soils have a marked concentration of organic matter in the upper topsoil (A horizon) with strongly leached lower horizons. They are. ginger. This group are the best for crop production due to the fact that they are non-concretionary and non-gravelly to considerable depths. red and brown concretionary and/or gravelly. They are . biotite schists (Swedru series). coffee. upper. they are not generally considered suitable for intensive mechanised cultivation of arable crops.575 hectares within Ghana. red and brown.144. Soil Classification in Ghana 12 . granite (Boamang series). sweet berry. middle and lower slopes. This subgroup constitutes the most extensive soils within the semi-deciduous Forest belt. oil palm. however. limited in extent. Due to their concretionary and gravelly nature and their occurrence over moderately undulating to sloping topography. Such soils are potentially suited to mechanised and hand cultivation of both arable and tree crops. associated mainly with weathered phyllite (Akumadan series). cocoyam and maize. moderately heavy to medium textured soils overlying mostly highly weathered phyllite (Bekwai series). The third subgroup. The upland Forest Ochrosols consist of three main subgroups of which the Wenchi series are not of much agricultural importance. cassava. well to imperfectly drained soils occurring on summits. They are red. well to moderately well-drained soils which are devoid of concretions and gravel at least to 60 cm and are moderately heavy to medium textured. plantain. eminently suited for extensive food crop and tree cash crop cultivation of such crops as cocoa. and should be permanently kept under forest to prevent undue accelerated soil erosion. quartzites (Bompata series). are mainly medium textured and occur on relatively flat uplands. The second subgroup is the moderately shallow to moderately deep.Forest Ochrosols Forest Ochrosols cover approximately 3. black pepper. in any case very minor in extent. brown and yellow-brown. nutmeg.
have a better moisture holding capacity and are more resistant to erosion than both the Ochrosols and the Oxysols. which are represented by the Wacri.400 hectares mainly in the Eastern. They are more fertile.Some Forest Ochrosols also occur on the lower slopes. under natural conditions contain adequate nutrients that are tied-up with the organic layers in their topsoils. nutty to blocky clays developed over basic rocks. it will be necessary for manure and/or commercial fertilisers such as a compound of NPKMgS to be applied. sustain good crop growth. They are thus capable of offering a better medium for the CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. mulching. They are formed from an underlay of hornblende and biotite granodiorites. firm or plastic. Forest Rubrisol-Ochrosols Intergrades Forest Rubrisols consist of dark red. and Ashanti regions). These are mainly deep to very deep. Those occurring along the lower slopes and derived from quartzites are predominantly medium textured and are recognised as Asuboa series. Those occurring along with sedentary soils over granite are mainly medium textured (Akroso series) or very light textured (Nta series). therefore. They are limited in extent. In areas where the topography is sloping especially where arable crops are to be grown.3 13 . Such soils. No. When they are associated with upland soils over phyllite they are moderately heavy to medium textured and are recognised as Kokofu series. For increased and sustained food crop and tree cash crop production. Forest Ochrosols are by far the most extensive and the most important soils within the Forest belts for both food and tree cash crop cultivation. epidiorites. however. the nutrient level is drastically reduced and crops are adversely affected. in addition to increasing the fertility level of the soils. contour ploughing or terracing and rotations that include legumes and long term crops like cassava and plantain will help to counteract erosion. the Koforidua and the Susan series constitute the most valuable within the Forest belt of Ghana. As soon as the Forest is cleared for cultivation. Western. occupying only about 524. moderately to imperfectly drained and medium to light textured. therefore. They can. Such soils. yellow brown. dolerite intrusions and green stones that have been found to give rise to soils that are intermediate between true Rubrisols and Ochrosols.
200 hectares of the country and consist of soils that are transitional between Forest Ochrosols and Forest Lithosols. unlike true Forest Lithosols.prolific growth of arable and tree cash than the much more widespread Forest Ochrosols. Forest Lithosols. Bibiani and Wiawso areas (Bechem and Wiawso series). They occur on high ranges within the Forest belts over basic rocks (Atukrom). 6 Forest Lithosols These soils occur mainly over Togo quartzites. Voltaian sandstones and Takwaian quartzites.400 hectares within the country are very shallow to shallow. Areas of such soils are found on the sloping flanks of some Upper Birrimian ranges around Bechem. Unfortunately they are very limited in extent. Any attempt to cultivate them extensively may result in severe accelerated soil erosion. usually on steep slopes. which cover an area of approximately 554. But it is suggested in the literature. they are considered generally unsuitable for arable cropping and are to be reserved for Forestry purposes in order to protect existing watersheds. They are found largely along the Akwapiman and Volta ranges and on the escarpment running through the Forest belt from Koforidua through Nkawkaw and Ashanti Mampong in a northern direction towards Wenchi. that with proper management. They are of such high inherent 6 Brammer (1962) Soil Classification in Ghana 14 . excessively well-drained soils directly covering incompletely weathered and/or hard rock. Forest Ochrosol-Lithosol Intergrades These cover approximately 65. The predominant soils within the Volta Region are the Adomi and Afeyi series. Due to their shallowness and occurrence around areas with steep slopes. These intergrades. the limited areas covered by soils of the Forest RubrisolOchrosol intergrades could by themselves produce about half of the total quantity of cocoa produced from the whole Forest belt of Ghana. are not too shallow for limited arable food cropping. granites (Nyanao) and Birrimian phyllites (Kobeda) especially within the vicinity of Lake Bosomtwi.
Pra. schists (Densu) and greywache (Debia) in which case they are clayey with considerable amount of silt. They occur in the wide valleys of the major rivers such as the Bia. Alluviosols are mainly deep. moderately to imperfectly drained sandy loams and loose sands developed along the levees of the major rivers (Chichiwere series). Unlike their sandy counterparts. they can be successfully cultivated to vegetables. During the rainy season. as such. Such soils are unable to retain enough moisture for good crop growth during the dry season. Such soils are. in such CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. imperfectly to very poorly drained alluvial soils developed in materials transported from upslope and deposited in the valley bottoms. Forest Gleisols These cover approximately 486. these latter associations have better moisture relationships and are. No. oil palm and bananas. black pepper.3 15 . Ochi-Amisa. sugarcane and vegetables. Within the high rainfall areas of the Forest belt the imperfectly drained. such soils border the rivers and the major streams within the Forest belts as very narrow bands. of sustaining good growth of cocoa. sweet berry and coffee. they can also be found associated with phyllites (Oda). however. near-neutral to moderately acid in reaction and generally medium to low in fertility. free draining. however. very deep to deep. more capable of being mechanised and/or hand cultivated for the cultivation of rice. sandstones (Sene) and quartzites (Pamusua) are characteristically coarse and/or sandy textured. very acid old alluvial soils such as Kakum series are capable. upon draining and the application of fertilisers.192 hectares of the country. brown to yellow-brown moderately heavy textured. Generally. Ayensu and Densu. grey. Ankobra.800 hectares within the country. However. Forest Gleisols associated with granites. Tano. Forest Gleisol-Alluviosol Intergrades These cover approximately or 104. (Ofin).fertility status that under strict management practices they can be successfully cultivated to tree cash crops such as cocoa. They are predominantly.
acid. Forest Oxysols are generally unsuitable for cocoa. Rainfall within areas occupied by Forest Oxysols is generally within the annual average of 2. occurring as a narrow band bordering the coast and stretching from Axim to the western frontier with Cote D'Ivoire. medium to moderately heavy textured upland soils either over phyllite (Boi series) or over granite (Abenia series) or developed in tertiary sands in which case the soil is mainly reddish brown to brown. mainly because of the high rainfall regime and not because of any special soil properties. They are generally are more paler in colour and more acid than Forest Ochrosols and characterised by deeply weathered. The soils consist of either deep.773 hectares. Soil reaction trends within the profiles of Forest Oxysols are very different from those found in the Forest Ochrosols.000 hectares. Also.000.000 mm. Detailed physico-chemical data for Chichiwere series is presented in Table 32 in the Appendix Section. Forest Regosols and Other Minor Soil Groups Forest Regosols cover approximately 40. moderately well drained. Forest Oxysols These are fond largely within the extreme south-western part of the country where they extend over approximately 647.000 and as a result they have been grouped with their associated Gleisols within the valley bottoms. weak Soil Classification in Ghana 16 . brown sands (Fredericksburg series) on the raised beaches or moderately shallow white sand grading into about 61 cm of dark brown.limited extent that they cannot be mapped separately on a map of a scale of 1:1. It will seem that these soils are best suited to tree cash crops such as rubber and oil palm. This high precipitation coupled with the poor nutrient retentive capacity of the existing parent materials is mainly responsible for the occurrence of strongly leached soil profiles. yellow. arable crops do not appear to do as well as on Forest Ochrosols and Rubrisols. well drained and medium textured (Tikobo series).
No. However. groundnuts and fibre crops such as cotton. Though the soils are quite low in inherent fertility and subject to erosion and droughts. Such a soil and other minor groups cover approximately 7. non-gravelly. 3. favourable moisture relationships due mainly to the over 2. highly acid. They have. The soils are however highly infertile and may therefore serve only a limited purpose other than for poor rough-grazing for some time to come.032m of well distributed annual rainfall which they receive. distinctly different from Forest Regosols (Mpataba series) occur. In perennial waterlogged sites. yams. manuring and the application of Nitrogen fertilisers will be required if good yields of the palms are to be obtained. These soils cover only about 1. sunflower. they are considered to be well suited to extensive mechanised cultivation of maize. urena lobata and kenaf. Substantial areas of level to near-level relief within the Savannah patches are covered by deep. soybeans.6 hectares of the Coastal Savannah belt and have been suggested in some literature as potential rice lands. Where the organic pan is compact a soil known as Atuabo series and classified as Regosolic Groundwater Podzol. peaty clays. guinea corn.4 Soils of the Transition belt The general relief is mainly level to near-level with isolated Inselbergs capped by the prevailing geological rocks that in this case are mainly sandstones. tobacco. Forest Regosols are highly acid in reaction and almost barren of nutrients. for increased and sustained crop production.3 17 . to very deep. sandy clay Savannah Ochrosols. Such soils are considered suitable for coconut cultivation but because of their poor nutrient status. however.organic pan underlain again by white sand occurring on the shoreward side (Princess series). black. mainly Ejura and Damongo series. cashew nuts. there will be the need to improve upon the fertility status of the soils through CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. is developed.200 hectares within Ghana.
During the long dry season. in areas with moderately deep and concretionary soils. strip cropping or contour ploughing and appropriate water control measures during the rainy season. phyllites (Bekwai series) and quartzites (Juaso series). especially. accelerated erosion will have to be controlled through crop rotations in which a leguminous crop is included. coffee. can be established for livestock production. The relief is one of several hill ranges. The major soils are those developed over or in the weathering products of Upper and Lower Birrimian rocks. sweet berry and ginger as well as food crops like maize. there will be the need to provide irrigation water. for all year round cultivation. Additionally. The Forest patches within the belt have soils developed over granites (Kumasi series). similar to those occurring within the Forest belt. respectively. In addition. plantain. improved pastures. Tano and the Birim. prominent among which are the Bogosu Hills and the Atewa range to the north and east of the belt. black pepper. Extensively developed along the banks of the major rivers and streams within the belt are Forest and Savannah Gleisols. can easily be irrigated for increased and sustained production of the crops mentioned above. parts falling within the Sene and Obosum basins. These too can be developed for the prolific and sustained production of rice. granites and quartzites. sugarcane and vegetables.manuring and the application of commercial fertilisers. mulching. such soils as occur near the Volta Lake. especially with a pangola grass-centrocema mix for extensive livestock production. generally inherently more fertile than their counterparts Soil Classification in Ghana 18 . It is interesting to note that in between the Forest and Coastal savannah is a somewhat illdefined narrow belt of up to 48 km wide between Kade and Kibi. Within these areas. The main rivers draining the entire belt are the Ankobra. cocoyam and cassava can successfully be extensively cultivated if management practices afore-mentioned for such soils are strictly enforced. The resulting soil are therefore. cash crops such as cocoa. Within the Afram Plains. especially a suitable compound of NPKMg.
They tend to have thin organic layers due to insufficient accumulation of organic matter. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. interspersed with fire resistant trees and tall grasses in sparsely settled areas with short grasses and scattered shrubs occurring around heavily cultivated areas. concretionary. 3. The predominant rocks within the belt are mainly basic and acidic gneisses with substantial areas of quartzites and tertiary sands.3 19 . there are three subgroups of Savannah Ochrosols. Such soils have characteristics that are transitional between the very acid. reddish brown and brown. Tropical Grey Earths and Regosolic Groundwater Laterites. Other soils that occur within the belt are similar to the Forest Rubrisol-Ochrosol intergrades. medium to light textured soils which belie directly over sandstones and/or Togo quartzite schists (Nyigbenya series) are unsuitable for any type of arable or tree crops production. Such rocks have given rise to a variety of soils locally classified as Savannah Ochrosols.5 Soils of the Coastal Savannah belt The vegetation here is grassland.880 hectares. They are thus mainly classified on the uplands as Forest Ochrosol-Oxysol Intergrades. Savannah Lithosols. Forest Oxysols and the moderately acid Forest Ochrosols of the semi-deciduous Forest belt. Coastal Savannah Ochrosols Savannah Ochrosols are mainly red and brown well to moderately well-drained. The shallow to very shallow. Like their Forest counterparts.730. Tropical Black and Brown Clays. Savannah Gleisols. No. Forest Literosols and Forest Gleisols already described above. medium to light textured soils that are very extensive within the Savannah belts of the Country with a total coverage of some 5.within the more limited Forest belt. Savannah Ochrosol-Lithosol Intergrades. Sodium Vleisols and Savannah Regosols.
Fete and Krobo series) or over phyllites. pepper and tomatoes. They cover some 1. especially with NPKMg compound fertilisers and protected against undue accelerated erosion through mulching. strip cropping or terracing. moderately heavy to medium textured soils. They are developed in the weathered products of either quartzites (Oyarifa series) or tertiary sands (Toje series). Within the Coastal Savannah belt. cassava.The second subgroup are moderately shallow to moderately deep. Coastal Savannah Lithosols Savannah Lithosols are very shallow. They must be put under tree crops in a Forest reserve system. While not quite suited to mechanised cultivation. concretionary and/or gravelly. this subgroup can easily be hand cultivated for the growing of both arable and tree crops. By far the best soils for both mechanised and hand cultivation of both arable and tree crops are the non-gravelly soils of the third group. concretionary and/or gravelly soils over little weathered and/or hard rock occurring over steep slopes.132. moderately heavy to medium textured soils overlying mostly weathered quartzites (Mamfe series) and phyllites (Jakiti series). pineapples. maize. Notably. soybeans. their inherent fertility is quite low and they are liable to be eroded if strict management practices are not followed. devoid of concretions and gravel to at least 60 cm from the surface. maize. They must be manured and fertilized. Crops that thrive very well on the soils are cashew nuts. sunflower. They are also quite suited for pasture grazing of livestock. Such soils are highly susceptible to erosion due mainly to their shallowness and occurrence over steep slopes.400 hectares within the country. shales and sericite schists (Salom series). red and brown. the soils have either been developed over quartzites (Kloyo. They are thus considered unsuitable for arable cropping. Soil Classification in Ghana 20 . rotation of crops in which a suitable legume is included and/or contour ploughing. They are deep to very deep. red and brown.
therefore. Coastal Tropical Black and Brown Clays Tropical Black and Brown Clays are dark coloured. The soils become saturated with water during the peak of the rainy season and dry out almost completely to develop wide vertical cracks during the dry season. Tropical Black Clays are not extensively cultivated.3 21 . indigenous small-scale farmers have avoided cultivating such soils mainly because of their heavy nature and difficult moisture relationships.710 hectares.400 hectares within the Savannah belts. somewhat less gravelly and deeper than true Savannah Lithosols. alkaline. they cover about 468. sugarcane and cotton on large scale. Clay content of the soils is more than 30% and base saturation is more than 50% throughout their profiles. In Ghana. rice. skilled management.Coastal Savannah Ochrosol-Lithosol Intergrades These are Intergrades between Savannah Ochrosols and Savannah Lithosols. 212. proper irrigation and careful drainage to enable the soils to be irrigated with a view to producing high yields of vegetables. cotton. Together. These soils consist predominantly of Akuse series and their shallow phase. of being cultivated mainly by hand to arable crops similar to those recommended for Savannah Ochrosols. the Prampram series developed over basic gneiss on low uplands. Under hand hoe culture. No. cracking clays occurring over level to near level gilgai micro-relief. They are. They require the use of heavy machinery. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. heavy. Organic matter content is generally less than 4% in the A horizon. vegetables and sugarcane. They are associated within the valley flats with very plastic somewhat acid variants that are referred to as the Bumbi and Lupu series. However. thus capable under strict management practices. The soils are. similar soils in India. South Africa and the West Indies are known to be intensively cultivated to rice. Within the whole country (SGSG belt inclusive) they cover approximately.
medium to heavy textured alluvial soils (Amo. Savannah Gleisols are more extensively developed and they. especially.000 hectares within the Savannah belts. predominantly. rice and sugarcane). Tefle and Hake series) which have tremendous potentialities under irrigation for large scale arable crop production (Maize. Due to the fact that the relief within the Savannah belts is more level than within the Forest belts. As a result of their lighter topsoil texture. tomatoes. which have been grouped with Tropical Black Clays are very minor in extent and generally lighter in texture within the topsoil (A horizon) than their Black counterparts. They are low in organic matter (less than Soil Classification in Ghana 22 . very deep. hard claypan soils occupying very gentle Savannah topography over acidic gneisses and schists (Agawtaw series) mainly within the southeastern section of the Coastal Savannah belt. and imperfectly to very poorly drained soils developed in materials transported from up slope and deposited in valley bottoms. Organic matter content is generally very low (less than 2%). nongravelly. grey. Coastal Tropical Grey Clays Tropical Grey Clays are grey. Within the Coastal Savannah belt extensive lowlands along the Lower Volta flood plains consist of very deep to deep. pepper and cassava. okro.608. They are. constitute potentially. garden eggs. cotton. They occur mainly within the Accra Plains (Ashiaman series) around the vicinity of the peri-urban settlement of Ashiaman in Accra.Tropical Brown Clays. non-gravelly. some of the most important agricultural soils in the country. they are more extensively cultivated by indigenous farmers with food crops such as maize. grey. Such soils are heavy to medium textured with moderately acid A horizon becoming alkaline with depth. Coastal Savannah Gleisols Savannah Gleisols are mainly poorly drained alluvial soils covering some 1. therefore. vegetable. around the Aveyime area of the Accra plains.
It will. They comprise of black or dark grey clays. an area of. guinea corn and cassava. Both groups together. cover some 150. However. though some drainage control.5) becoming increasingly alkaline with depth (8.2% in the A horizon) with a pH of near neutral in the A horizon (6. Songaw. sticky when wet and hard when dry. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues.728 hectares. Agricultural development of the Tropical Grey Clays is definitely a difficult undertaking. gravelly. where they are annually flooded with fresh water. they are considered to be one of the worst soils in the Ghana. 89. For increased and sustained crop production on such soils. Such soils when properly managed can be cultivated to groundnuts. with gypsum treatment (which will be very expensive) and the application of fertilisers under a suitable irrigation system. approximately. occurring extensively in highly saline areas. however. millet. Not only will it involve breaking up the hard claypan so as to allow deeper rooting but also improving the internal drainage to leach out the sodium. Agbozome and Muni series) border the saline coastal lagoons and creeks along the Lower Volta. Mapped with the Grey Clays are limited areas of Regosolic Groundwater Laterites which consist from few centimetres to several meters of pale-coloured sands overlying mottled. Simpa and Ziwai series).037 hectares within the Coastal Savannah belt. No. Coastal Sodium Vleisols Sodium Vleisols (Ada. covering. be uneconomical to attempt to bring the soils of the salt flats under cultivation for. mottled sandy loams and clay encrusted salt crystals at the surface occurring on the almost bare lagoon margins. irrigation and the application of commercial fertilisers will be required.4-6.3 23 .2-8. Indigenous farmers sometimes cultivate the less saline soils intensively to sugarcane and vegetables along the Volta.8). Oyibi. such soils can be developed for the cultivation of millet and vegetables and for the rearing of livestock under an improved pasture. sandy clays underlain by weathered acidic gneiss or granite (Doyum.
shales and mudstones. they may be utilised for intensive vegetable production. underlain mainly by Voltaian sandstones. shales. the Kulpawn. schists and basic intrusive rocks within the northern section. laminar. Sissili and the Nasia. Broad valleys are broken by isolated low-lying inselbergs characteristically capped sandstone.6 Soils of the SGSG belt The relief within the belt is predominantly level to very gently undulating. support coconut with a sparse ground cover of short grasses. they cover approximately 50. The underlying rocks of the sandstone. of Lower Birrimian age (late tertiary. They have therefore little potential for agricultural development. They are droughty and almost barren of nutrients. to a lesser extent. incoherent. greywaches. granite. characteristically. A greater part of the belt occupying the central and southern sections. Red and Black Voltas. The geology of the SGSG belt is quite diverse consisting of granites. especially over the sand dunes. Such rocks are very old. Junner 1940) and they suggest that a great part of the belt had been raised and degraded several times. predominantly. is however. They consist. The major rivers that drain the entire belt are the White. mudstone and phyllites and.Coastal Savannah Regosols Savannah Regosols are mainly sands developed on the coastal sand dunes. It is generally believed that such areas once formed part of an extensive peneplain which was later Soil Classification in Ghana 24 . 3. usually termed the Voltaian basin. calcareous pan (Keta series). Savannah Regosols. coarse sand grading into a layer of yellowish coarse sand containing shell fragments that are sometimes underlain by hard. though. Together. phyllites. shale and phyllite series are usually ferruginous with ironstone impregnations when they are encountered capping the inselbergs. With heavy fertilization involving chemical fertilisers or organic manure and the supply of irrigation water.7 hectares within the Coastal Savannah belt. of a few centimetres of yellowish.
Savannah Ochrosols The Techiman series lead a subgroup of three in this classification.3 25 . Savannah Gleisol-Tropical Black Clay Intergrades and Savannah Gleisol-Alluviosol Intergrades. Savannah Ochrosol-Groundwater Laterites. weathered granites (Puga series). No. In any case. Savannah Gleisols. The second subgroup is moderately shallow to moderately deep concretionary and/or gravelly. Majority of such soils have been classified locally as Groundwater Laterites but they may actually be Petrosols. phyllite (Dorimon series) and shales (Nyankpala series). except ironpan soils (Petrosols). with the rest of the period very dry and hot registering practically no rains at all coupled with the general gentle relief are conducive to alternating wetness and dryness resulting in the extensive occurrence of very shallow soils overlying impenetrable ironpan (ironpan soils).mostly eroded away leaving isolated remnants behind which are presently typified by the ironpan capped inselbergs. Savannah Lithosols. Savannah OchrosolRubrisol Intergrades. Other major soils are Savannah Ochrosols. heavy to medium textured soils overlying mostly highly. The prevailing climatic conditions of rainfall for half the year. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. all of which. Savannah Ochrosol-Groundwater Laterites Intergrades. they are by far the most extensive soils occurring within the SGSG belt. red and brown. Savannah Ochrosol-Rubrisol Intergrades. have already been discussed under soils of the Coastal Savannah belt. They are shallow to very shallow soils overlying in situ developed ironpan within 55. and mostly medium textured non-gravelly soils developed in weathered products of either sandstones (Mimi series) or granites (Varempere series) or phyllites (Baleufili series).9cm. The third subgroup is deep to very deep. Savannah Gleisol-Tropical Black Clay Intergrades and Savannah Gleisol-Alluviosol Intergrades. Tropical Black and Brown Clays.
Savannah Lithosols These are very shallow soils mostly on steep slopes either over Bongo granites (Nangodi and Pusiga series) or phyllites (Gbeshie series) or basimorphic rocks (Gbache). guinea corn. tomatoes and onions Soil Classification in Ghana 26 . Savannah Gleisols-Alluviosol Intergrades These soils have been developed. Tropical Black and Brown Clays Also rather limited in extent within the belt. beans. Such soils are predominantly. They are suitable for the cultivation of maize. loose sands which occur in pockets within the levees of the large rivers and streams (Kunkwa and Sirru series). mainly. these occur mainly in pockets around areas underlain by basic intrusive rocks within the northwest and along the White Volta to the extreme Northeast of the country (Pani and Yagha series). Brownish grey . In view of the fact that they are too minor to be mapped separately. Siare and Volta series) or medium textured (Dagere series) that are liable to the flooded during the peak of the rainy season. they have been grouped with their more extensive associated Gleisols. Pale. Savannah Gleisols Savannah Gleisols are mainly heavy in texture (Kupela. along the lower part of the White Volta and around the vicinity of the village of Walewale.
occupying the lower slopes and valley bottoms (Changnalili series). especially in respect of low-level ironpan soils associated with shales. ironpan horizon within 46-51 cm of the surface and are typified by Bianya series . CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. shallow to very shallow with sheet ironpan encountered mostly around the edges where it sometimes forms extensive bovals. These in turn may either be underlain by weathered or incompletely weathered rock. Within the west. in situ developed. Sierra Leone.3 27 . characteristically. like Niger. occurring within the east on the low lying uplands (Kpelesawgu series) and poorly drained. Guinea and Senegal. 7 They are also classed as Petrosols (See Obeng. super-hard.7cm of the surface) several centimetres of in situ developed ironpan horizons. for example. They are characteristically. hard. These are moderately deep. yellow brown mottled. They occur extensively within the SGSG belt of Ghana and are also reported to be very predominant in other West Africa countries. red to reddish brown. light to medium textured soils overlying. Togo. such soils have either been developed over granite (Gulo series). Ironpan Soils have distinct. sesquioxide-rich horizon at varying depths within their profiles. In Ghana. They are highly weathered. High level ironpan soils typified by Wenchi series are also associated with high level peneplain remnants mainly on flat summits. Cote D‟Ivoire. On lower slopes occur footslope colluvial ironpan soils often associated with the highlevel ironpan soils. or phyllite (Dugu series). Such soils are of two kinds: imperfectly drained. imperfectly drained sandy to silty clays overlying several centimetres of in situ developed. Benin. No. Liberia. highly concretionary. (within 12. Upper Volta. humuspoor and mainly kaolinitic soils that may contain considerable quantities of 2:1 lattice clays. They are characteristically. The low-level ironpan soils are the most extensive among the ironpan soils of West Africa. they cover almost 25 per cent of the land area of the country mostly within the SGSG belt. very shallow. 1970). footslope and low-level peneplain remnants. sesquioxide-rich.Ironpan Soils7 Ironpan soils are the associations with the geomorphic surfaces of high-level.
Such soils occur where drainage is more impeded than the Groundwater Laterites and may be due either to a more sandy bedrock in the case of Voltaian areas. They are droughty during dry spells. Ironpans restrict root penetration and are therefore a hindrance to crop production. possibly to a high biotite content in the case of granites or to recent slight dissection of the topography.082. Savannah Ochrosol-Groundwater Laterite Intergrades Savannah Ochrosol-Groundwater Laterite Intergrades are extensively developed over the Voltaian Basin within the SGSG belt. They are in the main. 3. Such soils only become waterlogged in the lower part of the profile. They are in general pale-coloured with marked manganese staining in the B horizon and with the layer immediately above it (B horizon) showing soft ochre mottles indicative of impeded drainage condition. spherical. They cover. true Savannah Ochrosols are developed. in situ developed ironpan (ferricrete) B horizon which cannot easily be broken up with ordinary iron implements. In these soils. ironstone concretions in an orange-brown. Soil Classification in Ghana 28 . gritty. porous. In general. mudstone and shale areas or of orange-coloured.800 hectares within the country. approximately. semi-hard. loamy matrix in the case of the Voltaian Sandstone. vesicular ironpan in granites areas (Babile series). the top layer just below the humus-stained layer may be yellow-brown to pale orange-brown in colour and the upper part of the ferruginous layer consists of darkcoloured. Where drainage improves still further. a mixture of Savannah Ochrosols and Groundwater Laterites but could also be true intergrades between the two.All the low-level ironpan soils are mainly coarse textured and concretionary in the A horizon with a hard.
260 hectares. In any case. In Box 1. reddish brown. Cocoa and Export Diversification for Sustainable Growth A topical issue of discussion in Ghana is the decision by cocoa producers in the West African subregion to influence world market cocoa prices via artificial shortages expected to be triggered through the destruction of cocoa already harvested. brown and olive mottled concretionary sandy clays over granite (Nakori series). Export diversification must not remain a political platform piece of rhetoric. this sits uncomfortably against a government grant pledged to private companies to rehabilitate the Cocoa industry for increased production of 75. Adding value for higher returns should be the strategy for increased incomes rather than physical destruction. red. there are alternative crops that hold as much potential for Ghana as cocoa had and sustained research could give them a boost.000 Metric tonnes in the next year. and if global research for alternative artificial replacements is then heightened. and in its raw form.Savannah Rubrisol-Ochrosol Intergrades These soils are limited in some extent within the Savannah belts of the country. moderately to imperfectly drained. 4. Within the SGSG belt they cover approximately 78. non-gravelly silty clays overlying basic micaceous intrusive rock (Kaleo series) on the flat uplands or moderately deep to moderately shallow. Both scientific and economic research must continue to identify new and suitable alternative crops and the associated cultural practices in production and marketing that will unearth Ghana‟s competitive advantage in the export of those alternatives. In Ghana. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. then would the producers continue to destroy more cocoa year after year? The better policy alternative is to diminish the importance of cocoa standing alone. should the destruction succeed in making cocoa more expensive. well-drained. The question that begs itself is.3 29 . one such an alternative is highlighted. They consist either of deep. as a foreign exchange earner. No.
Box 1: Alternative Commodity Exports: The Case for the African Sweetberry When in the 7th century sugar was derived from cane. this wild plant will not need any more labour or input that would have been required for the production of a normal crop. Soil Classification in Ghana 30 . The US Food and Drug Administration. It is reported that for purposes of cultivation. It is reported variously. The search for artificial sweeteners is on the upswing.000 accruing in a year. Saccharin about 300 times sweeter than Sucrose and Aspartame. will have an incomes of $150. If Ghana needs a new export opportunity for the country. It will seem. but tastes like honey’ 8 Today the consumption of sucrose or what is commonly called sugars is on the down turn. It will appear that with some scientific and socio-economic research commitment by policy makers. Ghana can tap into that search to diversify our commodity export base for. In its place. selected Thaumatin as one of 36 from an initial list of 400 chemicals. The vast rain forests of Ghana have the precipitation. The markets for Thaumatin will also need to be researched. it will appear the African Sweetberry is providing a solid basis for further exploration and economic exploitation. it was said to be a ‘curious foreign salt which looks like salt. that exporters of the berries are paying $(US) 150/kg for the crop and harvesting windfalls sales of $(US) 500/kg in Japan. What may be needed is the scientific enquiry into breeding that will turn it from a wild plant to a domesticated plant. harvests of berries can amount to 3 metric tonnes per hectare. the potential for export incomes of up to $5000 per metric tonne is much better than cocoa revenue. 180 times sweeter than sucrose. in their search for potent and low calorific sweeteners. though that there is a market for the African Sweetberry. Thaumatin a substance that is 2000 to 2500 times sweeter than sucrose is found in the African sweet berry plant. soils and shade that together make a tropical the rainforest natural habitat of this plant. are the popular sugar substitutes in drinks and medicines. But even at the conservative $5. various high-potency plant constituents have been used throughout history to impart sweetness to food.00 per kg that is widely perceived as the farm gate price. The scientific research aspect of this potential export has already been far advanced elsewhere. It also means that a diligent farmer who is able to coax a single hectare to yield the optimal three metric tonnes suggested by current research. It is known that the plant relishes rainfall of 1500 to 2000 and the alluvial soils of river basins. When it is well shaded and the leaves not pruned irresponsibly.
Toward Increased Agric.I.R. Ghana Ayibotele. Kwadaso-Kumasi.R. Memoir # 14.V.V.I..20 No. 1968. Kwadaso-Kumasi.G. Water Resources of Ghana.I.V. Central.R..R. 1977. A. Proc. Production in Ghana.. C..I. C. Ghana. Ahn. Lecture IV.I. S.A. In span-Progress in Agriculture. C. 1992. 1978. Reichel. Charter‟s Interim Scheme for the Classification of Tropical 8 Markakis. Development and Management of Groundwater Resources in Ghana-Some Current Problems. S. Scient... Penigia.B.K. H. Accra.Kumasi. Brammer. Adu. C. 1969. R. Kwadaso-Kumasi. and J. Div. G. Soils of the Ayensu-Densu Basin. Accra and Kumasi. C. S. Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI).T. Soils of the Kumasi Region.2 pages 63-67.I.I. Amuzu.. Memoir # 9. Symp. IDA and SRI. Ghana.I.R. Memoir # 8. Northern Region. Ghana. Vol.D. Northern Region.S.R.V. Memoir # 4.D.R. 2nd Int. 1956. No. S. S. Soil and Water Conser. Kwadaso-Kumasi.I.I.3 31 . Adu.R.I.. Memoir # 10.. Adu. C.S.S.I.B. 1995. Min.R. Soils of the Navrongo-Bawku Region. 1992. S.K..R. Ghana. S. S. Memoir #2 Kumasi. S. Ghana. Ghana. 1995.S. Volta Region. Ashanti Region. Advanced Course on Water Resources Management. (1987) ‘The Sweetener Revolution’ in Science and Food Agriculture (5)1 pp16-20 CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. S. Upper East Region. S.R. N.V. CSIR.S. S.R... C. Kwadaso-Kumasi. Kwadaso-Kumasi...S. Soils of the Ho-Keta Plains.I. Asiamah.References Adu. of Food and Agric..R. P 1961. Italy. Ashanti and Eastern Region. C. S. A and E.V. Memoir # 5 Kwadaso-Kumasi. Water on the Earth. J. Soils of the Nasia River Basin. G. Centre for International Studies..A. U. 1995. 1995. Soils of the Lower Tano Basin. Ghana. Eastern and Greater Accra Regions. Adu. Kwadaso. Soils of the Bole-Bamboi Area. The Quality of Groundwater in the Accra Plains of Ghana.R. Edited by Stevens. South Western Ghana. Ayibotele.R. Serv. Ghana. Asamoa. Ghana.R. CSIR.S. N. Soils of the Ochi-Nakwa Basin. and R. Memoir # 11. Mensah-Ansah. Baumquartner. P..F.. S.S. England. Soils of the Afram Basin. Asiamah. 1974. Derby..S... 1985.I. Adu. E. Memoir # 12.I. Ghana. S.LU.
Oxford Univ. Paper # 35. 1963.2): 62-69. 1963.R.S. “Information Building Block” Ghana Water Resources Management Study. Obeng. Ames. Ghana. H.. KwadasoKumasi..B.B. U. Land Capability Classification of the Soils of Ghana under Practices of Mechanised and Hand Cultivation for Crop and Livestock Production. 1970.K.S. Import Substitution Crops and. Water Resources Needs in Strategic Investment Plan.B. Obeng. of Sci. Accra. Obeng.R. Obeng. Land Capability Classification of the Soils of Ghana.B. J. Northwestern Ghana. Dissertation. H. Nii Consult 1998.. H. G.B. (MOFA). Min.A. 1962.. ed.. 6. Ghana.S. G.. Accra.R. Smith. Obeng. Min. Soil Classification in Ghana 32 . Soils of the Seilo-Tuni Land Planning Area. Asamoa 1962. Soil Science 4: 235-255.U.B. Ghana. Accra. H. A.A. Paper # 2. Obeng. H. of Works and Housing. Report # 62.Soils.. Tech. Export Crops. Ghana.I. 3 (No1): 52-65. Australia.. H. Accra. Methods of Soil Survey for Land Development in Ghana. 1965.L. No.Y. Adu and G.V. Ghana.. C. 88-`16. in Wills. Adelaide. The Ghana Farmer 11 (No. Italy. Consultancy Report. S. H..... Dept of S. Congs. G.D. U. Kwadaso-Kumasi. FAO/UN World Soil Resources Rpt. Brian. Nii Consult. Obeng. H. Hydrometeorology. Occ. Library. 1967. 1997 Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Development Strategy in Support of Ghana‟s vision 2020. H. 40: 93-98 Rome.I. Obeng.B. Min.A.I. Conf. Iowa State Univ.B. Ghana J. Characterisation and Classification of Some Ironpan Soils of Ghana. 1968. H. 1972. Brammer. Conf. Trans 9th Inter.R. 1997.S. pp. Agriculture and Landuse in Ghana Chap. of Agric.. Gold Coast. Obeng.. (2) The Major Soils of Ghana and Their Potentialities for Agricultural Development. New York. Unpublished Ph.K. S. Iowa. Paper # 33.... N. Food Crops. Erosion Hazard.. Obeng..B. Press.. Ghana. 1971. (1) Twenty-five years of Soil Survey and Classification in Ghana. 1971.S. Kumasi. Near Wa.I.. Soils of Ghana. H. Ghana. Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Ghana.S. The Development of Ghana‟s Natural Resources -Twenty years of Soil Survey and Classification in Ghana..A. S. of the AAASA 1(No1):L 19-27.B. of Food and Agric. Soil Survey and Classification in Ghana. Soil Map and Soil Suitability for Mechanised and Other Cultivation Practices. Kumasi.
Kwadaso-Kumasi. Y. Ghana. Soils of the Pra Basin. Obeng.R. Soils of the Dayi-Asukawkaw Basin... Kwadaso-Kumasi.R. Game Reserve or watershed Protection Purposes Maps of Ghana. Ghana.S.I.B. Atlas of Ghana.S. S.R. Memoir # 13. 1986. Memoir in Press.R. Eastern. CEPA: Selected Economic Issues. Ghana. Ghana.I. C.B. H.I. Accra. S... Opoku-Ankomah. Annual Stream Flow Characteristics of the Major Ghanaian Rivers.. No. C..Pastures for Livestock Grazing and for Forestry. WRRI.I. Accra. C. H. Volta Region.I. Obeng. Ashanti and Central Regions.S.R. Survey Department.3 33 .