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(a) How do substances move in an d outdo cells (b) Using suitable examples, explain (i) Diffusion (ii) Osmosis

(iii) Plamolysis (iv) Active transport in cells (c) What are the effects of excessive loss of water from a cell? (d) List the conditions necessary for (i)Osmosis (ii) Active transport

ANSWERS (a) Substances move in and out of cells by the process of diffusion, osmosis or active transport. The process is referred to as diffusion when the molecules of more concentrated cell relative to the environment leave through the microscopic pores in cell membrane to the environment or molecules move into less concentrated cell from more concentrated environment. The molecules do not pass through the semi-permeable cell membrane but through the openings called pores in the membranes. Respiration in many aquatic organism is by diffusion of dissolved oxygen in the water into the protoplasm of the cell. When the movement of molecules is from a low concentrated cell to a high concentrated medium through the partially permeable membrane of the cell, the process is referred to as osmosis. If the cell is higher in co cent ration than the surrounding medium, the molecules in the internal fluid of the cell will not leave but molecule from the low concentrated solution will enter into the cell through the semi permeable cell membrane. Active transport takes place in a living cell because energy is needed for the movement of the molecules from low concentration to high con centration. There is no much difference between osmosis and active transport except that the former does not require energy while the later does not need a semi permeable membrane. Diffusion is the movement of the molecules from the area of high concentration to low concentration without a semi permeable membrane. It occurs in both liquids and gases. In demonstration of diffusion in liquids, we drop potassium tetraoxo manganite (VII) on spot in a beaker containing water. It will be observed that the molecules will be moving from the spot to other areas in the water. The same thing happens if a cube of sugar placed in a cup containing warn water. (b)(i) Diffusion in air can be demonstrated using perfume which is applied in a corner of your classroom. Within a short interval of time students at the other part of the classroom will perceive the scent of the perfume.

DIFFUSION IN A BEASKER OF WATER

(i) Osmosis is the movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. Osmosis occurs in living and nonliving materials. The demonstration of osmosis can be carried out using yam tuber, two beakers half filled with water. The beakers labelled A and B. The two yam tubers are excavated on top using spoon. Common salt (NaCl) is poured in the excavated hole on top of the first yam. Drop of water is put in the salt. This is now placed in beaker A as the original experiment. Sand instead of salt is put in the second yam tuber and placed in beaker B to serve as control experiment. The two beakers and their contents are allowed to stand for about six hours.

Beaker A

Beaker B

It will be observed that the level of water in beaker A will fall.

(iii)Plasmolysis is the shrinkage of a cell placed in strong solution called hypertonic solution. If a red blood cell for example is placed in brine, molecules of the red blood cell will move into the brine thereby causing the blood cell to shrink as is shown below: (iv)Active transport is the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration across a concentration gradient. It occurs across the gradient. In the diagram at the next page, molecules moves from point X during active transport.

Time (seconds)

Active transport is necessary in blood circulation to transport the blood to various parts of the body and absorption of food substances. (c)A cell, which has lost excessive water, will undergo plasmolysis and wilting Plasmolysis is common with both plants and animals cells but is restricted to the cell membrane of a plant cell ass the cell wall is rigid. The inside of a fully plasmolysed cell will become more concentrated than when it has not undergone plasmolysis.

Plasmolysed plant cell Wilting is the frying up of plant parts and eventual shedding of the leaves. This is due to excessive loss of water by the plant. Wilting is common in plats during prolonged dry season or drought. (d) (i) Conditions necessary for osmosis are 1. there must be semi-permeable membrane 2. there must be two solutions of unequal concentration

(ii) conditions necessary for active transport are 1. The cell must be living to generate energy through respiration 2. Energy for the process must be readily available 3. There must be a concentration gradient.

QUESTIONS 9 (a) Define (i) matter (ii) energy (iii) Atom (iv) orbital (b) State Daltons ATOMIC theory and discuss the validity of each. (c) Draw the (i) Sodium atom (ii) Lithium (iii) Helium atom (iv) Chlorine atom and write their electronic configuration (d) Describe the various sub-atomic particles of an atom. ANSWER

(a) (i) Matter is anything which has weight, occupies space and can exist either as liquid, solid or gas. (ii) energy is the ability to do work.

(iii) Atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element that can take part in any chemical reaction. (iv) Orbital is an area in space where there is high probability of locating an election. (b)Daltons atomic theory states that: Matter is made up of small indivisible particle of an element called atom. (i) (ii) (iii) Atoms of the sane element are alike but differ from atom of other elements Chemical combination takes place between small whole numbers of atom. Matter can not be created nor destroyed.

The fact that matter is made up of small indivisible particles called atoms does not hold vividly because an atom consists of other sub atomic particles called proton, neutron and election. Also the fact that chemical combination takes place between small whole numbers of atoms has been disproved since the discovery of organic chemistry and the ability of carbon to form very longs chains or catenates. The other two points still hold to a high degree although we cannot discard any of the four points since there is a lot of scientific truth in them.

(d)the sub-atomic particles of an atom are (i) proton (ii) electron (iii) neutron Proton is located in the nucleus of an atom. It has a positive charge and mass of 1. The number of proton equals the number of electron in a neutral atom. The electrons are found on the shells where they determine the type of reaction an atom can undergo. An electron has negative charge and a mass of 1/1840 of that of proton . The neutrons are located in the nucleus with the proton. They are electrically neutral. They have mass of one.

QUESTION 10 (a)Define (i) Mass number atomic mass (v) Isostopy (ii) Isotopes (iii) Atomic number (iv) Relative

(b) list two ways by which elements can be combined to form a compound (c)Define illustrate. (i) Electrovalency (ii) Covalency using suitable anions and/or cautions to

(d) what are the differences between covalent and ionic compounds? (e) what is dative bond?

ANSWERS (A) (i) Mass number is the sum of the proton and neutron in an atom. (ii) isotopes are element having the same atomic number but different mass number due to differences in their number of neutron. (iii) Atomic number is the total number of proton or electron in a neutral atom. (iv) isotopy is a phenomenon whereby elements will have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. (v) relative atomic mass is the atomic mass of an element over the atomic mass of the normal carbon-12 atom.

(b) elements can combine to form a compound either by Electrovalency or covalency.

(c) Electrovalency is the chemical combination of electropositive element and electronegative element by transfer of electron from electropositive element to electronegative element.

.In the formation sodium chloride, sodium losses one electron to chlorine. Sodium therefore becomes positively charged while chlorine becomes negatively charged. The two ions(sodium and chloride ions) now become stable. The positively charged sodium ion attracts the negatively charged chloride ion to form sodium chloride thus Na+ +Cl NaCl. This is illustrated below.

TRANSFER OF ELECTRON

Formation of Sodium Chloride (Common Salt). (ii) Covalency is the formation covalent compounds from electronegative elements resulting from the sharing of electrons to form a weak bond know n as covalent bond.

The compounds or molecules formed due to covalency are usually in liquid or gaseous state. For example, during the formation of water electrons are shared between hydrogen molecule and oxygen atom. Since oxygen has six electrons in its outermost shell while each hydrogen atom has only one electron in its outermost shell, the two-hydrogen atoms bond with each of the lone pair electrons in the oxygen atom covalently. This means that the six electrons in the outermost shell oxygen will combine with two electrons from the two hydrogen atoms by sharing electrons to form a stable water molecule which exists as a covalent compound with covalent bond between the oxygen and hydrogen molecules as illustrated below.

Formation of water molecule.

Other examples of covalent molecules include hydrogen chloride, oxygen, ammonia, glucose and ethanol molecules.

Formation of hydrogen molecule

Formation of chlorine molecule

(d) Difference between covalent and ionic compounds

Covalent compounds 1-poor conductors of 2- Poor conductors of electricity 3-Do not appear in crystalline form 4-Exis in liquid or gaseous form 5-Insoluble in water 6-Low melting point 7-Attractyive force3 between the molecules is weak 8-Low boiling point

Ionic compounds 1- Good conductors of heat 2-Good conductors of electricity in molten form 3-Appear in crystalline form 4- Exist mostly in solid form 5-soluble in water 6-High melting point 7- Attractive force between the molecules is strong 8-High boiling point

(e)Dative bond is a special type of covalent bond, which also involves the sharing of electron, but the electron shared comes from one atom or molecule. For example, ammonia, (NH3) is formed when electrons are shared between nitrogen atom and hydrogen molecules as shown below.

However, during the formation of ammonium compound, electrons are, as well shared between nitrogen atom and hydrogen molecules. The electrons shared were donated by hydrogen but they come from an acid usually hydrogen sulphate(vi) acid (H2SO4). This is represented thus.

Formation of ammonium The arrows indicate the direction of electrons. It is a typical example dative bond otherwise called co-ordinate covalent bond.

QUESTION 11 (a) Calculate the formula mass of (i) H2O NaCl (vi) MgCl2 (vii) Al2O3 (ii)CO2 (iii) H2SO4 (iv)CaCO3) (v)

(d) what is (i) saturated solution ANSWERS (i) H2 =2 O=16 Therefore H2O =16+2 =18 (iii) H = 2 S= 32 Therefore H2SO4 = 2+32+64 =98

(ii) super saturated solution?

(ii) C = 12 O2 =32 Therefore CO2 = 12+32 =44 (iv) Ca = 40 C =12 O3=48 Therefore CacO3 = 40+12+48 =100 (vi) Mg = 24 Cl2 = 71 Therefore MgCl2 = 24+71 =95

(v) Na = 23 Cl = 35.5 Therefore NaCl = 23+35.5 = 58.5 (vii) Al2 = 54 O3 = 48 Therefore Al2O3 = 54+48 =102

(b) A mole is the Avogadros constant.it is the amount os substance, which contains the same3 number of atoms as in 12 grammes of the normal carbon 12 at6om. The Avogadros constant is measured at 6.02x1023. the relative atomic mass of element or compound expressed in grammes is also referred to as the mole. Based on this, one mole of NaCl will be 58.8 grammes. (c) Using morality=concentration x Molar mass But n =m/ where mass = 10g Volume = 1000cm3 =1 dm3 M(NaCl) = 58.5 Therefore n = 10/58.5 =0.20Mol Calculating concentration using C =n/v = 0.20/1g/dm Therefore Molality 0.20 x 58.5 = 1.17 Mol

(d) Concentration is defined as the quantity of solution measured in grammes or moles, which dissolved in 1000cm3 of solution. It is defined as the molality over the molar mass of substances. It is the mass of a solute dissolved in 1kg of the solvent. (e) (i) A saturated solution is a solution which contains the maximum amount of solute it can dissolve at that particular time and temperature. If more solute is added to a saturated solution, it will not dissolve in it again but may be seen as precipitates in the solution. (ii) The super-saturated solution contains excess solute than it can dissolve at that particular time and temperature. The solute may be seen completely dissolved.

However, if the solution is shaken, precipitates of the excess undissolved solute will be seen. The precipitates will disappear if the solution is allowed to stand for some time. QUESTION 12 (a) What is a pure substance? (b) Define (i) mixture (ii) compound. Give five examples each (c) How will you purify impure substances using appropriate examples for each purification process? (d) What are the differences between mixtures and compounds?

ANSWERS (a) A pure substance is a substance that contains no impurity. The constituents are the normal constituents in their right quantities as is found naturally. For example, water will only be in its pure state when it contains only two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen without dust, micro-organisms or any other element found in the water molecule. (b) (i) A mixture is a substance which contains two or more elements physically combined together and having each of the constituents maintaining separate identity. Examples of mixtures are sand and salt, sulphur powder and iron filings, alcohol and water, kerosene and water and brine. (ii) A compound defined as two or more elements chemically combined together. Examples include water (H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethanol (C2H2OH), glucoses (C6H12O6) and common salt (NaCl) or sodium chloride. (c) Impure substances would be purified using the following methods: a. Filtration as in mixture of sans and water. b. Evaporation and condensation as in water and salt. c. Distillation as in water and ethanol. d. Sublimation as in CaCl2 and NaCl (calcium chloride and sodium chloride) e. Magnetization as in nowdered sulphur and iron filing f. Solution as in salt and water. g. Chromatography as in ink h. Crystallization as in salt and sand after solution, filtration and evaporation. Differences between mixture sand compounds MIXTURES 1. Separated by physical means 2. Separation is not accompanied by heat change 3. It is heterogeneous i.e. each constituent maintains its separate identity 4. Not held together by covalent/Ionic bond COMPOUNDS 1. Separated by chemical means 2. Separation is accompanied by heat change 3. It is homogeneous 4. Held together by covalent or Ironic bond.

QUESTIONS 13 (a) How would you determine the formula MgO?

(b) Give the IUPAC nomenclature of the following (i) CO2 (ii) H2SO4 (iv) CaCO3 (v) MgCl2 (c) Balance the following equations (i) H2SO4 +NaOH (ii) Ca(OH)2 +Na2SO4 (iii) Na2SO4 + MgCl2 (iv) KCIO3 Heat KCI + O2

(iii) CuSO4

MgSO4 + NaCl

ANSWERS a) Weigh a crucible and record the weight Weigh the lid of the crucible and record Weigh the magnesium ribbon in a crucible and record. Half cover the crucible containing the magnesium and heat to allow oxygen to react with the magnesium ribbon Cool and record the weigh of crucible + magnesium + oxygen CALCULATION Let the weight of crucible = a grammes crucible + lid = b grammes crucible + lid + magnesium = c/ grammes crucible + lid + magnesium + oxygen = d grammes Weight of magnesium = c d grammes Weight of oxygen = d c grammes Weight of magnesium = c d grammes 24

Moles of oxygen = d c grammes 16 Ratio of magnesium to oxygen will be = c b ; d c 24 16 Accurate ezxperimental procesures and calculation will give us 1:1 Therefore the formula MgO (b) (i) Carbon (IV) Oxide (ii) Tetraoxosulphate (VI) Acid (iii) Calcium (II) Trioxocarboonate (IV) (iv) Copper (II) tetraoxosulphate (VI) (v) Magnesium(II) chloride

(c)

(i) H2SO4 + 2NaOH (ii) Ca(OH)2 + Na2SO4 (iii) Na2SO4 + MgCl2 (iv) 2KCIO3 Heat

Na2SO4 + 2NaOH CaSO4 + 2NaOH 2NaCl + MgSO4 2KCI + 3O2

QUESTIONS 14 (a) What do you understand by Radioactivity? (b) Give three examples of radioactive elements (c) Describe the three particles emitted by radioactive elements and give examples of instruments used to measure radioactivity.

(d) What is nuclear energy? (e) State (i) uses (ii) Hazards of radioactivity

ANSWERS (a) Radioactivity is a phenomenon whereby the nucleus of an unstable atom disi9ntergrates thereby emitting some particles, which blacken photographic plates. The elements, which exhibit this phenomenon, known as radioactive elements. The proton to neutron ratio of these elements is far from one and their atoms are generally unstable. The radioactive elements may be naturally or artificially occurring, the natural radioactive elements, which occur in nature, include uranium and radium. The artificial radioactive elements are manmade and include polonium, heavy carbon and phosphorus. (b) Uranium, radium and carbon -14 are three examples of radioactive elements. (c) The three particles emitted by radioactive substances are Alpha particle, Beta particle and gamma rays. The alpha particle is positively charged with high speed but very low penetrative power. It can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Alpha particle has two protons and two neutrons and so is equated to the helium atom. The Beta particle is negatively charged. It has low penetrative power but can penetrate a thin sheet of paper and skin. It has the same charge and mass as electron. The gamma ray has no charge but the highest penetrative ability. Only lead can stop the gamma ray. Gamma ray is extensively used in hospitals to study bone since it can [penetrate bone. (d) Nuclear energy is the energy released when smaller atoms fuse to form bigger atoms. The energy is otherwise called atomic energy. Nuclear energy may be used to generate electricity. (e) (i)radioactive elements are used in 1. Treatment of cancer 2. To generate electricity 3. To detect leakages in pipes carrying crude oil. 4. Used as tracers in biological research. 5. Used in carbon dating during archeologically research 6. Used in manufacturing nuclear weapons for warfare 7. Used in orthopaedic hospitals in study and treatment of bone disorders 8. Used in sterilizing surgical tools. (ii) The hazards of radioactivity are: 1. It causes cancer 2. It causes death in plants and animals 3. It causes mutation 4. It causes abnormal increase in atmospheric temperature 5. It causes illness such as vomiting, dizziness and headache. 6. It causes abortion.

QUESTIONS 15 (a) Define (i) Air (ii) water (b) State the composition of air and their percentage (c) Why is air regarded as a mixture and water as a compound? (d) How will you prepare nitrogen and oxygen qualitatively from liquefied air? (e) Why is water referred to as universal solvent? (f) List the (i) sources of water (ii) important of air ANSWER (a) (i) Air is defined as a mixture of gases consisting of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.03%, carbon (IV) oxide and 1% rare gases. (ii) Water is a compound containing hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1 and having a boiling point of about 1000 C and density of 1.0 x 103 kg/m3

(b) Composition of air Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon (iv) oxide Rare gasses Dust particles Water vapour Micro-organisms

Percentage composition 78% 21% 0.03% About 1% Variable Variable Variable

(c) Air is regarded as a mixture because: 1. It has no fixed formula mass and molecular formula 2. It has no fixed melting and boiling points 3. It can be separated by physical means 4. The various constituents of air maintain their separate properties, that is, air is heterogeneous. 5. Air has no constant composition Water is regarded as a compound: a) Water has fixed formula mass and molecular formula b) It has fixes melting point c) The constituents can be separated by chemical means e.g. by electrolysis. d) Water is homogenous e) Water has constant percentage composition

(d) Pure air is pumped into a plant and carbon (iv) oxide removed by passing it over caustic soda. Water vapour is also removed with H2SO4. The Air is repeatedly compressed and cooled before it is repeatedly [passed through a jet into very large chamber. It is then cooled by expansion until the air reaches a temperature of 200o C. At this temperature, the air now liquid. The liquid air is passed through fractionating chamber where it undergoes fractional distillation. During this process, nitrogen and oxygen are separated at 196oC and - 183Oc respectively and each collected through a condenser. This is because nitrogen boils at 196oC while oxygen boils at 183oC. The sketch on the next page will illustrate the entire process.

(e) Water is referred to as universal solvent because it dissolves almost all substances, that is both organic and in-organic substances. (f) (i) the sources of water are a. rainfall b.rivers f. pond. c.lakes d. stream e. sea

(ii) The importance of air are: 1. It used in hospitals during respiratory difficulties e.g. oxygen 2. It is used in oxyacetylene during welding e. g. oxygen 3. It is used for respiration by plants animals e.g oxygen 4. Carbon (iv) oxide is also used in the manufacture of soft drinks and refrigeration of food. 5. Carbon (iv) oxide is also used for photosynthesis by green plants, for baking bread and brewing of alcoholic drinks 6. Neon and argon are used in filling fluorescent tubes and electric bulbs respectively. 7. Krypton and Xenon are used in lighthouse lamps 8. Neon is used in advertising signs while helium is used in filling balloons 9. Nitrogen is used during the Haber process in manufacturing ammonia. Nitrogen is also in food packaging, fire extinguisher and by plants to manufacture chlorophyll as well as protein synthesis in animals. QUESTION 16

a) b) c) d) e)

Define hardness of Name two types of water hardness and their causes How will you remove (i) temporary hardness (ii) permanent hardness Explain the various possible processes used in water purification Define and describe water cycle.

ANSWER a) Hardness of water is the inability of water to easily lather with soap due to the presence of salts of calcium or/and Magnesium or/Calcium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv) in the water.

b) Types of water hardness are (i) Temporary hardness which is caused by the presence of calcium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv) i.e. Ca(HCO3)2 (ii) permanent hardness is caused by magnesium and calcium salts e. g MgSO4, MgCl2, CaSO4, CaCl2. c) (i) temporary hardness is removed by boiling and addition of calcium hydroxide thus Ca(HCO3)2 Heat CaCO3 +H2O + CO2 (for boiling) Ca(HCO3) + Ca(OH)2 aq 2 CaCO3(s) +H2O (ii) permanent hardness is removed by any of the following processes 1. Permitted method which involves the addition of sodium aluminium hexaoxodisilicate (iv) i. e. NaAISi2O6, thus CaCl2 +2NaA1Si2O6 Ca(A1Si2O6)2 + 2NaCl Ca(HCO3) + 2NaA1Si2O6 Ca(A1Si2O6) + 2NaHCO3 2. Distilation 3. Addition of trioxocarbonate (iv) thus Na2CO3 + CaSO4 Caco3 + Na2SO4 d) Water is purified by (iv) Filtration, (ii) Boiling (iv) Industrially . During filtration, white cloth is used to cover the mouth of a pot. For example, the impure water is poured on the cloth and allowed to filter through into the pot. The residue remains on top of the cloth. This is illustrated in the next page.

Distillation of water is a method of water purification. It involves heating, evaporation and condensation of pure water.

The impure water in the flat bottom flask evaporates when heated up to 100Oc. It then passes through the condenser, which cools and liquefies it. The water now drops into flask in a very pure form. The residues in the impure water ate left behind in the bottom flask.

Boiling is one of the ways of purifying water. Boiling kills the micro-organisms and other aquatic flora and fauna. These organisms and the other impurities settle under bottom of the container when alum is added thereby leaving the top water pure. Industrial purification of water is complex and involves many processes. It involves pumping the water from a source through strainers into a sedimentation tank where may be added to enhance sedimentation. The water leaves for the chlorination from the filtration tank. Here, chlorine is added to kill micro-organisms and also to bleach the water before it is pumped into the storage tank for distribution to the general public. The diagram below illustrates the water purification plant.

e) Water cycle is the process through which water is gained and lost to the atmosphere. The processes involved are complex. Water is lost into the atmosphere from sea, rivers, lakes, homes and industries by evaporation. Plants also release water to the atmosphere by transpiration. However, water is lost from the atmosphere by rainfall after condensation of the evaporated water. Man and other animals may urinate and release water to the ground. All these waters accumulate to form underground or surface water, which may be lost again to the atmosphere by evaporation. This departure of the water the atmosphere and its subsequent return is known as water cycle. This is illustration in the next page

f)

Water cycle is the process through which water is gained and lost to the atmosphere. The processes involved are complex. Water is lost into the atmosphere from sea, rivers, lakes, homes and industries by evaporation. Plants also release water to atmosphere by transpiration.

However, water is lost from the atmosphere by rainfall after condensation of evaporated water. Man and other animals may urinate and release water to the ground. All these waters accumulate to form underground or surface water, which may be lost again to the atmosphere by evaporation. This departure of the water from the atmosphere and its subsequent return is known as water cycle. This is illustrated in the next page.

QUESTION 17 a) b) c) d) What is force? Name four types of force State Newton`s laws (i) An aircraft travelled from Accra to Kumasi with an initial velocity of 120M/s. if it arrived Kumasi in 30 minutes time with a final velocity of 150M/s and a constant mass of 120 kilogrammes. Calculate the force at which the engine pulled the aircraft from Accra to Kumasi. (ii) A dust particle moving at the rate of 0.5m/s weighted 0.2 grammes on a top pan balance. Calculate the force at which it was moving with. Derive the equation of force from Newton`s second law of motion. ANSWERS a) Force is a pull or push on a body. It is also anything capable of altering the state of rest or the mass and acceleration of a moving body thus F = Ma, where F = Force = Mass and a = acceleration. The S.I. unit of force is Newton while the derived S.I. unit is Kg/s2. Since force has both magnitude and direction, it is a vector quantity. b) The types of forces are: 1. Gravitation force 2. Centripetal force 3. Frictional force 4. Electrostatic force 5. c) The three laws of Newton are: The first law states that a body will maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless compelled to do otherwise by an external force. The second law states that the rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the applied (resultant) force. The third law states that action and reaction are equal and opposite d) (i) u = 120m/s V = 150m/s T = 30minutes = 30 x 60 seconds = 1800 seconds M = 120kg Using F = Ma Where F = ? M = 120kg A=? But a =v u t a = 150 120m/s2 1800

30 1800 = 0.017M/s2 F = 120 x 0.017 Newton = 2.04 Newton. (ii) a = 0.5m/s M = 0.02kg Using F = Ma Therefore F = 0.5 x 0.02 Newton = 0.001 Newton. e) From Newtons second law; Fa mv mu t since a = v u t Fa Ma Therefore F = Ma

QUESTION 18 a) Define (i) mass (ii) weight b) Give six differences between mass and weight c) (i) mention the S.I. unit if mass and the measuring instrument (ii) Mention the A.I. unit of weight and the measuring instrument d) What will be the weight of a man in the moon if he weighs 60 Newton on the earth surface e) Mention three possible errors in measuring the mass of frozen chicken.

ANSWERS a) (i) mass is the quantity of matter in a body (ii) Weight is the attractive force by which a body is pulled towards the ear product of the mass of a body and the gravitational force. b) Differences between mass and weight Mass 1. 2. 3. 4. Weight 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ``th. It is also the

Measured in Kilogramme Constant Quantity of matter in a body Measuring instrument is chemical balance 5. Scalar quantity 6. Mass = Force over acceleration

Measured in Newton Varies Attractive force towards the earth Measuring instrument is spring balance Vector quantity Weight = mass x gravity

c) The S.I. unit of mass of kilogramme and the measuring instrument is chemical balance while the S.I unit of weight is Newton and the measuring instrument is spring balance. d) The force of gravity on the moon is 1/6 of the force of gravity on the earth surface. Therefore the man the man who weight 60 Newton on earth surface will weight 1/6 x 60N on the earth surface. 1/6 x 60 = 10N e) The possible errors in measuring the mass of frozen chicken are 1. Additional weight due to ice blocks 2. Inaccurate reading of the scale 3. Mechanical fault on the balances

QUESTIONS 19 a) b) c) d) e) What are the conditions for force to exhibit a turning effect on a body? Explain the moment of a force What is a lever? Give examples State the factors that determine a body`s state of equilibrium. Calculate X in the diagram below.

The conditions for a force to exhibit turning effect are a) The magnitude of the force and the distance between the line of action of force And the turning point must be equal. The clockwise moment must be equal to the anticlockwise moment. The sum of the downward force must be equal to the sum of the upward force. This is the law of moment. b) The moment of a force is the turning effect of the force. It is the product of the magnitude of the force and the distance between the line of action of force and the turning point. Therefore, the moment of a force depends on the magnitude and the distance. The S.I unit of moment is NM. Moment is a scalar quantity. c) A lever is a form of simple machine consisting of efforts, loads and pivots. It enables work to be done easily. When an effort is applied at one point on the lever, it is pivoted at another point located between the effort and the load, the lever is called first class lever. Examples include crowbar, pliers, and claw hammer. The second class lever has the load located between the effort and the pivot. Examples are bottle opener, wheelbarrow and nutcrackers. In the third class lever, the effort is located between the load and the pivot. Examples are tongs, forearms and tweezers

d) For a body to be a state of equilibrium the upward force must be equal to the sum of the downward forces and the sum of the clockwise moment should be equal to the sum of the anti-clockwise moment. e) M x 100N = XM x XM 200NM = 100N x XM X = 2M

QUESTIONS 20 a) Define pressure and state the instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. b) How is the principle of the pressure applied in everyday life? c) Pressure varies with depth but it is independent of shape. Explain this with the aid of a diagram d) (i) a girl weighing 50N exerted force on her high heel shoe in contact with the surface of 10M2. Calculate the pressure the heel will exert on the ground. A small boy standing by a swimming pool threw in an object to the bottom of the pool, which is 4 metres deep. Calculate the pressure the heel will exert on the water at constant density of 1.0 x 103. (Hint g = 10m/s2)

ANSWERS a) Pressure is defined is force per unit area. The instrument for measuring Pressure is Barometer. b) The principle of pressure is applied in emptying a liquid from one container to another by a device known as siphon, rubber pump for sticking poster on the wall and