An Easy Guide to Understanding Basic English Structure

Copyright © 2010 SANOOK ENGLISH

Mieder van Loggerenberg E-mail: ajarn_mieder@hotmail.com

Index
Index Spelling Rules …………………………..…………. Pronunciation Rules ………..………………….. Regular and Irregular Verbs ……………..…. Verb Definition …….……………………………… Basic Sentence Structure …….………………. English Tenses Exercises..……………………. Adverbs ………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 1 5 8 16 27 31 47

Spelling Rules

1

Spelling Rules for Regular Verbs, Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

IrrV: Regular verb V1: Verb 1 Adj: Adjective

RegV: Regular verb V2: Verb 2 CA: Comparative adjective Vowel: สระ

Vs: Verb + s V3: Verb 3 SA: Superlative adjective

Ving: Verb + ing

Syllable: พยางค์

Consonant: พยัญชนะ

Adjective: คุณศัพท์

Rule #1 1 syllable words with 1 vowel and end with 1 consonant * Consonant x2 V1 V2 (+ed) RegV hop hopped IrrV hit hit Adj CA (+er) Adj fat fatter * Verbs end with x or w should be used with rule #2 V1 V2 (+ed) RegV mix mixed IrrV sew sewed

V3 (+ed) hopped hit SA (+est) fattest

Ving (+ing) hopping hitting

V3 (+ed) mixed sewn

Ving (+ing) mixing sewing

Rule #2 1 syllable words with a. 2 vowels and ending in 1 consonant (Verb = end with 1/2 Consonants) b. 1 vowel and ending in 2 consonants V1 V2 (+ed) V3 (+ed) RegV look looked looked kick kicked kicked IrrV sweep swept swept fight fought fought Adj CA (+er) SA (+est) Adj weak weaker weakest strong stronger strongest

Ving (+ing) looking kicking sweeping fighting

2

Rule #3 1 - 2 syllable words ending with a consonant and e (Verbs can have 2 syllables) V1 V2 (+d) V3 (+d) RegV bake baked baked IrrV bite bit bitten Adj CA (+r) SA (+st) Adj nice nicer nicest * Special case – end with ie V1 Verb die

Ving (take out e + ing) baking biting

V2 (+d) died

V3 (+d) died

Ving (ie  y + ing) dying

Rule #4 1 - 2 syllable words ending with a consonant and y (Verbs can have 1 syllable) V1 V2 (change y  i + ed) V3 (change y  i + ed) RegV cry cried cried IrrV fly flew flown Adj CA (change y  i + er) SA (change y  i + st) Adj pretty prettier prettiest * Special case – end with ay V1 Verb play

Ving (+ ing) crying flying

V2 (+d) played

V3 (+d) played

Ving (ie  y + ing) playing

Rule #5 + 2 syllables words V1 RegV brainstorm IrrV forget Adj Adj beautiful

V2 (+ ed) brainstormed forgot CA (more + adj) more beautiful

V3 (+ ed) brainstormed forgotten SA (most+ adj) most beautiful

Ving (+ ing) brainstorming forgetting

Rule #6 Words ending with er/ow Adj Adj clever shallow

CA (+ er) cleverer shallower

SA (+ est) cleverest shallowest

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Rule #7 Words ending with -ing (gerund)/ -ed (past participle)/ * (past simple) Adj CA (more + adj) SA (most+ adj) Adj boring more boring most boring bored more bored most bored hurt more hurt most hurt

Rule #8 Irregular Spelling Adj Adj good bad many/much a few/a little far

CA better worse more less farther/further

SA best worst most least farthest/furthest

Rule #9 Double Spelling Adj Adj shy shy evil evil handsome handsome

CA shyer shier eviler more evil handsomer more handsome

SA shyest shiest evilest most evil handsomest most handsome

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Pronunciation Rules

5

Words endings 'ed'

Complete Letter Classification End sound b d f g ge k l m n p s t v z ch sh ng th th  verb - ed Type - ed verb - s
                   

Type - s

บ ด ฟ ก จ ค ล ม น พ ส ท ฟ ซ ช ช () ง ฟ () ฟ () สระ

                   

d ded t d d t d d d t t ted d d t t d t d d

ด เดิด ท ด ด ท ด ด ด ท ท เทิด ด ด ท ท ด ท ด ด

2 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2

z z s z ges s z z z s sez s z zez chez shez z s z z

ซ ซ ส ซ เจิซ ส ซ ซ ซ ส เสิ ซ ส ซ เซิ ซ เชิซ เชิซ ซ ส ซ ซ

2 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 3 2 1 2 2

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Words endings 'ing'

Rule #1

End sound

Verb

Verb + ing

อี อู

kick

คิค สี ดู เพล สทะ ดิ ไฟล / ฟลาย โช โก พอ พอ ส-แว

kicking

คิ คิง สี อิง ดู อิง เพล ยิง สทะ ดิ ยิง ฟลาย ยิง โช วิง โกวิง พอริ ง พอริ ง ส-แว ริ ง

สระ
#2 (-e)
 

see do

seeing doing

#3 (-y)

เอ อิ ไอ

  

play study fly

playing studying flying

#4 (-w)

โอ โอ

 

show go

showing going

#5 (-r)

ออ อา แอ

  

pour pour swear

pouring pouring swearing

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Regular and Irregular Verbs

8

Present Simple (v1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. answer argue arise ask bake bark bear beat become begin bend bet bid bind bite blame bleed bless blink blow boil bounce box brainstorm brake break breed bring broadcast brush build burst buy carry cast

Final Past Simple Sound =สระ (v2)   z k k k  t m n d t d d t m d s k  l s s m k k d ng t sh d t   t answered argued arose asked baked barked bore beat became began bent bet bid bound bit blamed bled blessed blinked blew boiled bounced boxed brainstormed braked broke bred brought broadcast brushed built burst bought carried cast

Past Participle Continuous / Gerund ed (v3) answered argued arisen asked baked barked born beaten become begun bent bet bid bound bitten blamed bled blessed blinked blown boiled bounced boxed brainstormed braked broken bred brought broadcast brushed built burst bought carried cast (v+ing) answering arguing arising asking baking barking bearing beating becoming beginning bending betting bidding binding biting blaming bleeding blessing blinking blowing boiling bouncing boxing brainstorming braking breaking breeding bringing broadcasting brushing building bursting buying carrying casting

3rd Person Singular (v+s) answers argues arises asks bakes barks bears beats becomes begins bends bets bids binds bites blames bleeds blesses blinks blows boils bounces boxes brainstorms brakes breaks breeds brings broadcasts brushes builds bursts buys carries casts s

Thai

R I R R I R R R I I I I I I I I I R I I R I R R R R R I I I I R I I I R I

ตอบ โต้ คารม ลุกขึ ้น ถาม อบ / ปิ ง (ขนมปั ง) ้ เห่า เกิด ตี (กลาย) เป็ น เริ่มต้ น ก้ ม / โคง งอ พนัน สัง เสนอ ่ ผูกมัด กัด ตาหนิ / กล่าวโทษ เลือดออก ให้ ศีลให้ พร กระพลิบตา เป่ า (ลม) / พัด เดือด กระเด้ ง ชกมวย ระดมความคิด หยุด แตก / หัก ผสมพันธุ์ พามา กระจายเสียง ใช้ แปลงขัดออก ก่อสร้ าง ระเบิด ซื ้อ อุ้ม / นาไปด้ วย ขว้ าง / โยน

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36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.

catch choose clap climb cling close comb come cook copy cough count creep cry cut dance deal describe die dig dive do draw drink drip dry dust eat erase fall feed feel fight find fit flee fling

ch z p m ng z m m k  f t p  t s l b  g v   k p  t t z l d l t d t  ng

caught chose clapped climbed clung closed combed came cooked copied coughed counted crept cried cut danced dealt described died dug dived did drew drank dripped dried dusted ate erased fell fed felt fought found fitted fled flung

caught chosen clapped climbed clung closed combed come cooked copied coughed counted crept cried cut danced dealt described died dug dove done drawn drunk dripped dried dusted eaten erased fallen fed felt fought found fitted fled flung

catching choosing clapping climbing clinging closing combing coming cooking copying coughing counting creeping crying cutting dancing dealing describing dying digging diving doing drawing drinking dripping drying dusting eating erasing falling feeding feeling fighting finding fitting fleeing flinging

catches chooses claps climbs clings closes combs comes cooks copies coughs counts creeps cries cuts dances deals describes dies digs dives does draws drinks drips dries dusts eats erases falls feeds feels fights finds fits flees flings

จับไว้ / ตระครุบ เลือก ตบมือ ปี นป่ าย เกาะติด ปิ ด หวี มา ปรุงอาหาร ลอก (ข้ อสอบ) ไอ นับ / นับจานวน คลาน / คืบ ร้ องไห้ ตัด เต้ นรา จัดการ อธิบาย / บรรยาย ตาย ขุด กระโดดลงน ้า ทา วาดภาพ ดื่ม หยดลง ตากให้ แห้ ปั ดฝุ่ น รับประทาน / กิน ลบออก / ถูออก ตกลงไป / ร่วง ให้ อาหาร คลุกแตะ ต่อสู้ หา เหมาะ หนี สลัดเหวี่ยง

I I R R I R R I R R R R I R I R I R R I I I I I R R R I R I I I I I R I I

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73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99.

float fly follow forbid forecast forget forgive forsake freeze fry get giggle give go grate greet grin grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hop hug

t   d t t v k z  t l v  t t n d  ng v  d t d p g t g p p l  d  d n

floated flew followed forbade forecast forgot forgave forsook froze fried got giggled gave went grated greeted grinned ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hopped hugged hurt jogged jumped kept killed knew landed laid led learnt

floated flown followed forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen fried gotten giggled given gone grated greeted grinned ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hopped hugged hurt jogged jumped kept killed known landed laid led learnt

floating flying following forbidding forecasting forgetting forgiving forsaking freezing frying getting giggling giving going grating greeting grinning grinding growing hanging having hearing hiding hitting holding hopping hugging hurting jogging jumping keeping killing knowing landing laying leading learning

floats flies follows forbids forecasts forgets forgives forsakes freezes fries gets giggles gives goes grates greets grins grinds grows hangs has hears hides hits holds hops hugs hurts jogs jumps keeps kills knows lands lays leads learns

ลอย บิน ตาม เอาอย่าง ห้ าม ทานาย ลืม ยกโทษ ทิ ้ง ทาให้ เเย็น (จนแข็ง) ทอด รับ ได้ หัวเราะคิกๆ ให้ ไป ขูด ทักทาย ยิ ้มเห็นไลฟั น โม่ บด ปลูก / เติบโต แขวน มี ได้ ยิน ซ่อน ตี อุ้ม / ถือ / จับ เล่นกระโดดขาเดียว กอดแน่น ทาร้ าย เดินเนิบๆ กระโดด รักษา ฆ่า รู้ เครื่ องลง วางไข่ นา เรี ยน / หัด

R I I I I I I I I R I R I I R R R I I I I I I I I R R I R R I R I R I I I

100. hurt 101. jog 102. jump 103. keep 104. kill 105. know 106. land 107. lay 108. lead 109. learn

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110. leave 111. lend 112. let 113. lick 114. lie 115. lift 116. light 117. listen 118. look 119. lose 120. make 121. march 122. mean 123. meet 124. mince 125. mislay 126. mistake 127. mop 128. open 129. paint 130. pass 131. pat 132. pay 133. peel 134. pick 135. plant 136. pour 137. press 138. pull 139. punch 140. push 141. put 142. quit 143. race 144. read 145. rid 146. ride

v d t k  t t n k z k ch n t s  k p n t s t  l k t  s l ch sh t t s d d d

left lent let licked lay lifted lit listened looked lost made marched meant met minced mislaid mistook mopped opened painted passed patted paid peeled picked planted poured pressed pulled punched pushed put quitted raced read rid rode

left lent let licked lain lifted lit listened looked lost made marched meant met minced mislaid mistaken mopped opened painted passed patted paid peeled picked planted poured pressed pulled punched pushed put quitted raced read rid ridden

leaving lending letting licking lying lifting lighting listening looking losing making marching meaning meeting mincing mislaying mistaking mopping opening painting passing patting paying peeling picking planting pouring pressing pulling punching pushing putting quitting racing reading ridding riding

leaves lends lets licks lies lifts lights listens looks loses makes marches means meets minces mislays mistakes mops opens paints passes pats pays peels picks plants pours presses pulls punches pushes puts quits races reads rids rides

ปล่อย ทิ ้ง ให้ ยืม ปล่อย ให้ เลีย นอนลง ยกขึ ้น จุดไฟ ฟั ง มองดู แพ้ / หาย ทา เดินแถว หมายความ พบ สับละเอียด ลืมทิ ้งไว้ เข้ าใจผิด ใช้ ผ้าถู เปิ ด ทาสี / ปายสี ้ ส่งบอล ตบเบาๆ จ่าย ปลอกเปลือก เก็บ ปลูก / เพาะปลูก ริน / เท กด / ทับ ดึง / ลาก ชกด้ วยหมัด ผลักดัน นา วาง ยุติ

I I I R I R I R R I I R I I R I I R R R R R I R R R R R R R R I R

แข่งขันด้ วยความเร็ว R อ่าน ขจัด ทาให้ หมด ขี่ I I I

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147. ring 148. rise 149. roar 150. rub 151. run 152. saw 153. say 154. scrape 155. scratch 156. scrub 157. see 158. seek 159. sell 160. send 161. set 162. sew 163. shake 164. share 165. shed 166. shine 167. shoot 168. shout 169. show 170. shrink 171. shut 172. sing 173. sink 174. sip 175. sit 176. sleep 177. slide 178. slip 179. slit 180. smell 181. smile 182. snore 183. speak

ng z  b n   p ch b  k l d t  k  d n t t  k t ng k p t p d p t l l  k

rang rose roared rubbed ran sawed said scraped scratched scrubbed saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shared shed shone shot shouted showed shrank shut sang sank sipped sat slept slid slipped slit smelt smiled snored spoke

rung risen roared rubbed run sawn said scraped scratched scrubbed seen sought sold sent set sewn shaken shared shed shone shot shouted shown shrunk shut sung sunk sipped sat slept slid slipped slit smelt smiled snored spoken

ringing rising roaring rubbing running sawing saying scraping scratching scrubbing seeing seeking selling sending setting sewing shaking sharing shedding shining shooting shouting showing shrinking shutting singing sinking sipping sitting sleeping sliding slipping slitting smelling smiling snoring speaking

rings rises roars rubs runs saws says scrapes scratches scrubs sees seeks sells sends sets sews shakes shares sheds shines shoots shouts shows shrinks shuts sings sinks sips sits sleeps slides slips slits smells smiles snores speaks

ระฆังดัง ขี ้น โผล่ คาราม ถู / ขัด วิ่ง เลื่อย พูด ขูดออก / เช็ดออก เกา / ข่วน ถู / ขัดด้ วยแปรง เห็น ค้ นหา ขาย ส่ง วาง ตั ้ง เย็บผ้ า / เย็บปะ เขย่า แบ่งกัน ทาให้ ไหล ทาให้ แวววาว ยิง ขว้ าง ตะโกน แสดง หด ปิ ด ร้ องเพลง จม จิบ นัง ่ นอน / หลับ ลืม / ไถล / เลื่อน ลื่นล้ ม / ไถล ตัด ได้ กลิน ่ ยิ ้ม กรน พูด

I I R R I I I R R R I I I I I I I R I I I R I I I I I I I I I R I I R R I

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184. speed 185. spell 186. spend 187. spin 188. spit 189. splash 190. split 191. spray 192. spread 193. spring 194. spy 195. squeeze 196. stand 197. steal 198. steam 199. stick 200. sting 201. stink 202. stir 203. strike 204. string 205. strive 206. stroke 207. suck 208. swear 209. sweep 210. swim 211. swing 212. tackle 213. take 214. talk 215. taste 216. teach 217. tear 218. tease 219. tell 220. think

d l d n t sh t  d ng  z d l m k ng k  k ng v k k  p m ng l k k t ch  z l k

sped / speeded spelt spent spun spat splashed split sprayed spread sprang spied squeezed stood stole steamed stuck stung stank stirred struck strung strove stroked sucked swore swept swam swung tackled took talked tasted taught tore teased told thought

sped / speeded speeding spelt spent spun spat splashed split sprayed spread sprung spied squeezed stood stolen steamed stuck stung stunk stirred struck strung striven stroked sucked sworn swept swum swung tackled taken talked tasted taught torn teased told thought spelling spending spinning spitting splashing splitting spraying spreading springing spying squeezing standing stealing steaming sticking stinging stinking stirring striking stringing striving stroking sucking swearing sweeping swimming swinging tackling taking talking tasting teaching tearing teasing telling thinking

speeds spells spends spins spits splashes splits sprays spreads springs spies squeezes stands steals steams sticks stings stinks stirs strikes strings strives strokes sucks swears sweeps swims swings tackles takes talks tastes teaches tears teases tells thinks

รี บ สะกดคา จ่าย หมุน ปั่ น ถ่มน ้าลาย สาดกระเซ็น ผ่า พ่น / ฉีด ขยาย ดีดตัวขึ ้น งอก สอดแนม บีบ / คั ้น / รี ด ยืน ขโมย นึ่ง ยึด ผึ ้งต่อย ส่งกลินแทงจมูก ่ กวน / คน โจมตี ร้ อย ขึง พยายาม ลูบคลา ดูด สาบาน กวาด / ปั ดกวาด ว่ายน ้า แกว่ง รับมือ จับ สนทนา ชิม สอน ฉีก ล้ อเล่น / ยัวเย้ า ่ บอก คิด ครุ่นคิด

I I I I I R I R I I R I I I R I I I R I I I I R I I I I R I R R I I R I I

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221. throw 222. thrust 223. tickle 224. tie 225. tiptoe 226. trip 227. turn 228. twist 229. understand 230. undertake 231. upset 232. vacuum 233. vomit 234. wait 235. wake 236. walk 237. warn 238. wash 239. watch 240. wear 241. weave 242. weep 243. whisper 244. whistle 245. win 246. wind 247. wink 248. withdraw 249. write 250. yawn

 t l   p n t d k t m t t k k n sh ch  v p  l n d k  t n

threw thrust tickled tied tiptoed tripped turned twisted understood undertook upset vacuumed vomited waited woke walked warned washed watched wore wove wept whispered whistled won wound winked withdrew wrote yawned

thrown thrust tickled tied tiptoed tripped turned twisted understood undertaken upset vacuumed vomited waited woken walked warned washed watched worn woven wept whispered whistled won wound winked withdrawn written yawned

throwing thrusting tickling tying tiptoeing tripping turning twisting understanding undertaking upsetting vacuuming vomiting waiting waking walking warning washing watching wearing weaving weeping whispering whistling winning winding winking withdrawing writing yawning

throws thrusts tickles ties tiptoes trips turns twists understands undertakes upsets vacuums vomits waits wakes walks warns washes watches wears weaves weeps whispers whistles wins winds winks withdraws writes yawns

โยน / ขว้ าง / ปา แทง ทาให้ จกจี ้ ั๊ ผูก มัด รัด เดินย่อง สะดุด หมุนกลับ บิด / ม้ วน เข้ าใจ ดาเนินการ คว่า ใช้ เครื่ องดูดฝุ่ น อาเจียน คอย ปลูก เดิน เตือน แจ้ งให้ ทราบ ซัก เฝาคอย ้ ใส่ ทอสาน ร้ องไห้ กระซิบ ผิวปาก ชนะ ลมพัด ขยิบตา / หรี่ ตา รับคืน ถอน เขียน หาว

I I R R R R R R I I I R R R I R R R R I I I R R I I R I I R

15

Verb Definition

16

Types of Verbs

The Verb's Role in a Sentence Verbs can be divided according to the job they do in a sentence. The grammar-expert's way of saying this is that we can divide verbs syntactically. These are the divisions and sub-divisions according to syntax: 1. finite verbs ◦ transitive verbs ◦ intransitive verbs ◦ linking Verbs 2. non-finite verbs ◦ infinitives ◦ gerunds ◦ participles  present participle  past participle  perfect participle 3. helping verbs (auxiliaries) ◦ primary auxiliaries ◦ modal auxiliaries Formation of the Verb-Word We know that verbs are words, just like any other part of speech. The words that represent the verbs follow different patterns of spelling or sound. Verbs can, therefore, be divided into various kinds depending upon how they are formed. Grammarians would call this a morphological division. ▪ regular verbs ▪ irregular verbs ▪ compound verbs ▪ phrasal verbs Verbs According to Meaning Those who know grammar well call this division of verbs a semantic classification. ▪ action words (action verbs) ▪ being ▪ having Now you know the names of different verbs and how they are classified. We can classify them according to their role in a sentence (syntactically), or their formation (morphologically), or their meaning (semantically).

17

Types of Verbs

Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs. Group I Normal Verbs Most verbs are "Normal Verbs." These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses. Normal Verbs to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc. Examples: ▪ I eat dinner every day. ▪ I am eating dinner now. Group II Non-Continuous Verbs The second group, called "Non-Continuous Verbs," is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses. They include: Abstract Verbs to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist... Possession Verbs to possess, to own, to belong... Emotion Verbs to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind... Examples: ▪ He is needing help now. Not Correct ▪ He needs help now. Correct ▪ He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct ▪ He wants a drink now. Correct Group III Mixed Verbs The third group, called "Mixed Verbs," is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs," while other meanings behave like "Normal Verbs."

18

Types of Verbs

Mixed Verbs to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh... List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions: to appear: ▪ Donna appears confused. Non-Continuous Verb DONNA SEEMS CONFUSED. ▪ My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Normal Verb MY FAVORITE SINGER IS GIVING A PERFORMANCE AT THE JAZZ CLUB TONIGHT. to have: ▪ I have a dollar now. Non-Continuous Verb I POSSESS A DOLLAR. ▪ I am having fun now. Normal Verb I AM EXPERIENCING FUN NOW. to hear: ▪ She hears the music. Non-Continuous Verb SHE HEARS THE MUSIC WITH HER EARS. ▪ She is hearing voices. Normal Verb SHE HEARS SOMETHING OTHERS CANNOT HEAR. SHE IS HEARING VOICES IN HER MIND. to look: ▪ Nancy looks tired. Non-Continuous Verb SHE SEEMS TIRED. ▪ Farah is looking at the pictures. Normal Verb SHE IS LOOKING WITH HER EYES. to miss: ▪ John misses Sally. Non-Continuous Verb HE IS SAD BECAUSE SHE IS NOT THERE. ▪ Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Normal Verb SHE IS NOT THERE TO SEE HER FAVORITE PROGRAM. to see: ▪ I see her. Non-Continuous Verb I SEE HER WITH MY EYES. ▪ I am seeing the doctor. Normal Verb I AM VISITING OR CONSULTING WITH A DOCTOR. (ALSO USED WITH DENTIST AND LAWYER.) ▪ I am seeing her. Normal Verb I AM HAVING A RELATIONSHIP WITH HER. ▪ He is seeing ghosts at night. Normal Verb HE SEES SOMETHING OTHERS CANNOT SEE. FOR EXAMPLE GHOSTS, AURA, A VISION OF THE FUTURE, ETC.

19

Types of Verbs

to smell: ▪ The coffee smells good. Non-Continuous Verb THE COFFEE HAS A GOOD SMELL. ▪ I am smelling the flowers. Normal Verb I AM SNIFFING THE FLOWERS TO SEE WHAT THEIR SMELL IS LIKE. to taste: ▪ The coffee tastes good. Non-Continuous Verb THE COFFEE HAS A GOOD TASTE. ▪ I am tasting the cake. Normal Verb I AM TRYING THE CAKE TO SEE WHAT IT TASTES LIKE. to think: ▪ He thinks the test is easy. Non-Continuous Verb HE CONSIDERS THE TEST TO BE EASY. ▪ She is thinking about the question. Normal Verb SHE IS PONDERING THE QUESTION, GOING OVER IT IN HER MIND. to weigh: ▪ The table weighs a lot. Non-Continuous Verb THE TABLE IS HEAVY. ▪ She is weighing herself. Normal Verb SHE IS DETERMINING HER WEIGHT. Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing: to be: ▪ Joe is American. Non-Continuous Verb JOE IS AN AMERICAN CITIZEN. ▪ Joe is being very American. Normal Verb JOE IS BEHAVING LIKE A STEREOTYPICAL AMERICAN. ▪ Joe is being very rude. Normal Verb JOE IS BEHAVING VERY RUDELY. USUALLY HE IS NOT RUDE. ▪ Joe is being very formal. Normal Verb JOE IS BEHAVING VERY FORMALLY. USUALLY HE IS NOT FORMAL. NOTICE: Only rarely is "to be" used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different.

20

Types of Verbs

to feel: ▪ The massage feels great. Non-Continuous Verb THE MASSAGE HAS A PLEASING FEELING. ▪ I don't feel well today. Sometimes used as Non-Continuous Verb ▪ AM A LITTLE SICK. ▪ I am not feeling well today. Sometimes used as Normal Verb I AM A LITTLE SICK. NOTICE: The second meaning of "feel" is very flexible and there is no real difference in meaning between "I don't feel well today" and "I am not feeling well today."

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Finite Verbs

1. Transitive 1. Transitive Verb

2. Intransitive

3. Linking

What is a transitive verb? Look at these sentences. 1. He met her yesterday. 2. She wrote a story last year. 3. Rust destroys iron. In these sentences, the verbs are the words: met, wrote and destroys. In each sentence, you ask the question, 'met whom/what?' You will get the answers as follows: ▪ sentence 1 — question: met whom? — answer: her ▪ sentence 2 — question: wrote what? — answer: story ▪ sentence 3 — question: destroys what? — answer: iron (Note that we use whom in the questions for human beings and what for things and also for animals.)The words her, story and iron in the sentences above are called objects in grammar. A transitive verb is, therefore, a verb which has an object. What is an object? An object, we may say, is the aim or purpose or destination or target of a verb's action. In our three examplesentences above, the verbs met, wrote and destroys have the words her, story and iron as their targets. These targets are called objects. With a transitive verb, we can expect these objects. Why do we use the word 'transitive'? We call these verbs 'transitive' because these verbs have the property of transitivity. What is transitivity? To transit means to pass through. Each of the verbs met, wrote and destroys in our examples has its action conveyed (carried) to the object. We might also say that the action begins with the subject (he, she, rust in our sentences) and passes through the verb to the object. This property of the verb is transitivity. Hence we call these verbs transitive. Understanding these verbs in this way helps us to remember what they are. Here's a list of transitive verbs. eat, drink, read, write, play, see, hear, answer, buy, find, love, like, understand, catch, bring, sing, meet, give, take, get, forget, buy, sell, pay, help.

22

Finite Verbs

Here are some of these verbs used in sentences. Sentence (a) The teacher answered the question. (b) My friend bought a house. (c) The children found the money. (d) Most Indians love cricket. (e) Children like football. 2. Intransitive Verb What is an intransitive verb? Simple, I suppose. It is a verb which is not transitive—a verb which does not take an object. Here are some examples along with some sentences. walk, jump, sleep, sit, lie, stand, weep, kneel, fall, fly, flow, remain, die, belong, wait, come, go. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) We walk to the railway station. The children jump with joy. Babies sleep for many hours. My brother stood there. Jesus wept. verb answered bought found love like object question house money cricket football

Some Exceptions You will often find transitive verbs used intransitively, i.e. without an object. ▪ They are eating. ▪ We play in the evening. ▪ I understand. At rare times intransitive verbs are used transitively. ▪ How did you cover all that distance? We walked it. ('walked' has the object 'it' in this sentence) ▪ I cannot stand such nonsense. ('stand' has the object 'nonsense' in this sentence) Besides transitive and intransitive verbs, we have linking verbs in the finite verbs family.

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Finite Verbs

Linking Verbs A + (v.l.a) Subject Present Simple I am You We are They He She is It

Present Perfect have been

Past Simple was were

Past Perfect

Future Simple

Future Perfect

had been has been was

will be

will have been

Linking Verbs B (v.l.b) Linking Verbs คือกริ ยารูปแบบหนึ่งในภาษาอังกฤษที่ทาหน้ าที่ Link หรื อว่าเชื่อมคานามหรื อประธานของประโยคที่อยู่ด้านหน้ าเพื่ บอก หรื อขยายประธานที่อยู่ ด้ านหน้ า ตัวอย่างของ Linking verbs ได้ แ่่ ก่ 1. to appear ปรากฏ 5. to be เป็ น อยู่ คือ 9. to become กลายเป็ น 13. to feel รู้ สึก 2. to get ได้ รับ 6. to go ไป 10. to grow เติบโต 14. to look ดู คล้ าย 3. to prove พิสูจน์ 7. to remain ยังคง 11. to seem ดูเหมือน 15. to smell กลิ่น 4. to sound เสี ยง 8. to stay พัก 12. to taste ชิม 16. to turn หมุน พลิก เลี้ยว

USE การใช้ The linking verbs above are often followed by adjectives instead of adverbs. In such situations, the adjective describes the subject of the sentence rather than the verb. Study the examples below to learn the difference. กริ ยา Linking verb ด้านบนมักจะตามด้วย Adjective แทนที่จะเป็ น Adverb ในบางสถานการณ์ คาคุณศัพท์ หรื อว่า adjective จะอธิ บายหรื อขยาย ประธานของประโยคมากกว่าที่จะเป็ นคากริ ยา ลองดูตวอย่างประโยคเพื่อความเข้าใจ ั Example: ▪ Mary seemed sad. ▪ Mary seemed sadly. ▪ The cake tastes good. ▪ The cake tastes well. ▪ The train is slow. ▪ The train is slowly. ▪ James grew tired. ▪ Sarah remained calm. Correct ถูกต้องเพราะ Linking verb "seemed" ตามด้วยคา Adj. คือ sad Not Correct ไม่ถกต้องเพราะ Linking verb "seemed" ตามด้วยคา Adv. คือ sadly ู Correct ถูกต้องเพราะ Linking verb "tastes" ตามด้วยคา Adj. คือ good Not Correct ไม่ถกต้องเพราะ Linking verb "tastes" ตามด้วยคา Adv. คือ well ู Correct เหตุผลเดียวกัน หลัง is เป็ น Adj. คือ slow Not Correct เหตุผลเดียวกัน คือหลัง is เป็ น Adv. คือ slowly Correct Correct

24

Finite Verbs

IMPORTANT สิ่ งสาคัญ The verbs in the list above are not always used as linking verbs. Compare the examples below. คากริ ยาด้านบนไม่ได้มีความหมายเป็ น Linking verb เสมอไป จะต้องดูรูปประโยคประกอบด้วย ▪ Sally grew angry. "Angry" describes Sally. In this sentence, "to grow" is being used as a linking verb meaning "to become." ่ ประโยคนี้ grew เป็ น Linking verb เพราะว่าหมายถึง กลายมาเป็ น และตามด้วย Adj. "Quickly" does not describe the plant, it describes the manner in which it grows. In this sentence, "to grow" is not being used as a linking verb. สาหรับประโยคนี้ grew เป็ นกริ ยาหลักของประโยค โดยสังเกตคาที่ตามหลังจะเป็ น Adv ที่มาขยายกริ ยาหลัก คือ เติบโตอย่างรวดเร็ ว

▪ The plant grew quickly.

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Non - Continuous Verbs

Mental and emotional states believe know prefer suppose Sense appear smell Communication agree impress satisfy Other states be contain fit matter possess belong cost include need concern depend involve owe consist deserve lack own astonish mean surprise deny please disagree promise hear sound see taste seem dislike like realize understand doubt love recognize want imagine hate remember wish

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Basic Sentence Structure

27

Sentence Structure

Basic Sentence Structure There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built. S-V Subject-Verb John sleeps. Jill is eating. Jack will arrive next week. S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice. She loves her job. He’s eating an orange. S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny. The workers are lazy. Karen seems angry. S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here. Flowers are everywhere. No one was there. S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my mom. The men are doctors. Mr. Jones is the teacher.

At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Other elements can be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to its formation.

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Pronouns

Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Pronoun Possessive Adjective Reflexive Pronoun

I me mine my myself -

you you yours your yourself yourselves You yourself You yourselves

we us ours our ourselves We ourselves

they them theirs their themselves They themselves

he him his his himself He himself -

she her hers her herself She herself -

it it its its itself It itself -

Intensive Pronoun

I myself -

Demonstrative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns

this, that, these, those all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, several, some, somebody, someone, something who, whom, what, which, whose, whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever

Interrogative Pronouns Examples: Subject Pronoun ▪ I will see you later. ▪ You have to come now. ▪ She lives in Bangkok. ▪ He makes me angry. ▪ It works fine. ▪ They missed the last train. ▪ We can’t see her.

Object Pronoun ▪ John hit me on the arm. ▪ I need to tell you something. ▪ Jill took him outside. ▪ The message wasn’t for her. ▪ Take it to the shop. ▪ Summer is hot for us. ▪ John took them downstairs. Possessive pronouns show who owns something described in a sentence. Possessive adjectives are similar to possessive pronouns. However, the possessive adjective comes before the object of the sentence; the possessive pronoun is the object of the sentence. 29

Pronouns

Examples: ▪ That is my dog. (Possessive Adjective) ▪ The dog is mine. (Possessive Pronoun) Intensive pronouns and reflexive pronouns look the same. However, they act differently in a sentence. Intensive pronouns put an emphasis on other pronouns or nouns. Reflexive pronouns rename the subject in a sentence. Examples: ▪ Intensive pronoun – She herself will go to the bank. (herself emphasizes the pronoun she) ▪ Reflexive pronoun – She cut herself on the arm. (herself renames the pronoun she) Demonstrative pronouns refer to things in relation to distance. This and these refer to things that are close by. That and those refer to things farther away. Examples: ▪ This is your shirt. ▪ That is my house on the hill. ▪ These good friends are sitting next to me. ▪ Those roads in the city are busy. Indefinite pronouns replace nouns that are not specified. Examples: ▪ We gave everything to the students. ▪ All were happy to see the children again. ▪ Give a pen to each as they come in. Interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question. Examples: ▪ Which of these do you like? ▪ Who was in the room? ▪ Whatever we say, he will still be angry.

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English Tenses Exercises

31

Tenses

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future

Simple

1. 4. 7. 10.

Present Present Present Present Past Past Past Past Future Future Future Future

Simple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous Simple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous Simple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous

Perfect

2. 5. 8. 11.

Continuous 3. 6. Perfect continuous 9. 12.

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Tense Key Words – Active Voice Tense v.aux 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future + Active v.i./v.t v1/vs v2 will + have/has + had + will + have + am/are/is + was/were/was + will + be + have/has + been + Perfect Continuous had + been + will + have + been + v1 v3 v3 v3 ving ving ving ving ving ving - Active v.aux do + not/does + not + did + not + will + not + have + not/has + not + had + not + will + not + have + am + not/are + not/is + not + was + not/were + not/was + not + will + not + be + have + not/has + not + had + not + been + will + not + have + been + v.i./v.t v1 V1 v1 v3 v3 v3 ving ving ving ving ving ving - Active v.aux don’t/doesn’t + didn’t + won’t + haven’t/hasn’t + hadn’t + won’t + have + aren’t/isn’t + wasn’t/weren’t/wasn’t + won’t + be + haven’t/hasn’t been + hadn’t + been + won’t + have + been + v.i./v.t v1 V1 v1 v3 v3 v3 ving ving ving ving ving ving

Simple

Perfect

Continuous

10. Present 11. Past 12. Future

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Tense Key Words – Passive Voice Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future Perfect Continuous + Passive (v.i./v.t.) / + Active (v.l.) v.aux / v.l. v.i./v.t am/are/is + was/were/was + will + be + have/has + been + had + been + will + have + been + am/are/is + was/were/was + will + be + have/has + been + had + been + will + have + been + being being being being being being - Passive (v.i./v.t.) / - Active (v.l.) v.aux / v.l. v.i./v.t am + not/are + not/is + not + was + not/were + not/was + not + will + not + be + have + not/has + not + had + not + been + will + not + have + been + am + not/are + not/is + not + was + not/were + not/was + not + will + not + be + have + not/has + not + had + not + been + will + not + have + been + - Passive (v.i./v.t.) / - Active (v.l.) v.aux / v.l. v.i./v.t aren’t/isn’t + wasn’t/weren’t/wasn’t + won’t + be + haven’t/hasn’t been + hadn’t + been + won’t + have + been + being being being being being being aren’t/isn’t + wasn’t/weren’t/wasn’t + won’t + be + haven’t/hasn’t been + hadn’t + been + won’t + have + been + being being being being being being

Simple

Perfect

Continuous

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? Interrogative / Question form * Only the 1st v.aux can swap with the subject

Normal form:

e.g. + -

Subject. I I

1st v.aux have have

Predicate eaten cake. not eaten cake.

e.g. ? -?

Subject. Have Have

1st v.aux I I

Predicate eaten cake? not eaten cake?

Contracted form:

e.g. -

Subject. I

1st v.aux haven’t

Predicate eaten cake.

e.g. -?

Subject. Haven’t

1st v.aux I

Predicate eaten cake?

No v.aux form:

e.g. +

Subject. I

1st v.aux -

Predicate eat cake.

e.g. ?

Subject. Do

1st v.aux I v.aux

Predicate eat cake?

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Writing Exercise (A) V-T v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.l. Subject Verb Object Clause Structure
S+V+O S+V S+V+Adj. S+V+O S+V S+V+Adv. S+V+O S+V S+V+N S+V+O S+V S+V+Adj. S+V+O S+V S+V+Adv. S+V+Adv.

36

Writing Exercise (B) V-T v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. v.l. v.t. v.i. v.l. Subject Verb Object Clause Structure
S+V+O S+V S+V+Adj. S+V+O S+V S+V+Adv. S+V+O S+V S+V+N S+V+O S+V S+V+Adj. S+V+Adv. S+V+O S+V S+V+N

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Converting Active to Passive Voice

Transitive Verb

Intransitive Verb

38

Example Structure PRESENT Active Voice v1 + +? -? -? I kick the ball. I don’t kick the ball. Do I kick the ball? Do I not kick the ball? Don’t I kick the ball? Passive Voice Simple vtb1 The ball is kicked by me. The ball isn’t kicked by me. Is the ball kicked by me? v2 I kicked the ball. I didn’t kick the ball. Did I kick the ball? Did I not kick the ball? Didn’t I kick the ball? Active Voice PAST Passive Voice Simple vtb2 The ball was kicked by me. The ball wasn’t kicked by me. Was the ball kicked by me? will + v1 I will kick the ball. I won’t kick the ball. Will I kick the ball? Will I not kick the ball? Won’t I kick the ball? Active Voice FUTURE Passive Voice Simple will + be The ball will be kicked by me. The ball won’t be kicked by me. Will the ball be kicked by me?

Is the ball not kicked by me? Isn’t the ball kicked by me?

Was the ball not kicked by me? Wasn’t the ball kicked by me?
had + been The ball had been kicked by me.

Will the ball not be kicked by me? Won’t the ball be kicked by me?
will + have + been The ball will have been kicked by me.

Perfect have / has + v3 + +? -? -? I have kicked the ball. I haven’t kicked the ball. Have I kicked the ball? Have I not kicked the ball? Haven’t I kicked the ball? have / has + been The ball has been kicked by me. The ball hasn’t been kicked by me. Has the ball been kicked by me? had + v3 I had kicked the ball.

Perfect will + have + v3

Perfect

I will have kicked the ball.

I hadn’t kicked the ball. The ball hadn’t been kicked by me. Had I kicked the ball? Had the ball been kicked by me?

I won’t have kicked the The ball won’t have ball. been kicked by me. Will I have kicked the ball? Will I not have kicked the ball? Won’t I have kicked the ball? Will the ball have been kicked by me?

Has the ball not been Had I not kicked the ball? kicked by me? Hasn’t the ball been kicked by me?
Hadn’t I kicked the ball?

Had the ball not been kicked by me? Hadn’t the ball been kicked by me?

Will the ball not have been kicked by me? Won’t the ball have been kicked by me?

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PRESENT Active Voice vtb1 + ving + +? -? -? I am kicking the ball. Passive Voice Continuous vtb1+ being vtb2 + ving Active Voice

PAST Passive Voice Continuous vtb2 + being The ball was being kicked by me. The ball wasn’t being kicked by me. Was the ball being kicked by me? Was the ball not being kicked by me? Wasn’t the ball being kicked by me? will + be+ ving I will be kicking the ball. Active Voice

FUTURE Passive Voice Continuous will + be + being The ball will be being kicked by me. The ball won’t be being kicked by me. Will the ball be being kicked by me? Will the ball not be being kicked by me? Won’t the ball be being kicked by me?

The ball is being kicked I was kicking the ball. by me. I wasn’t kicking the ball. Was I kicking the ball? Was I not kicking the ball? Wasn’t I kicking the ball?

I’m not kicking the ball. The ball isn’t being kicked by me. Am I kicking the ball? Am I not kicking the ball? * Aren’t you kicking the ball? Is the ball being kicked by me? Is the ball not being kicked by me? Isn’t the ball being kicked by me?

I won’t be kicking the ball. Will I be kicking the ball? Will I not be kicking the ball? Won’t I be kicking the ball?

Perfect Continuous have/has + been + ving have/has + been + being + I have been kicking the The ball has been ball. being kicked by me. I haven’t been kicking the ball. The ball hasn’t been being kicked by me.

Perfect Continuous had+ been + ving I had been kicking the ball. I hadn’t been kicking the ball. Had I been kicking the ball? Had I not been kicking the ball? Hadn’t I been kicking the ball? had + been + being The ball had been being kicked by me. The ball hadn’t been being kicked by me. Had the ball been being kicked by me? Had the ball not been being kicked by me? Hadn’t the ball been being kicked by me?

Perfect Continuous will + have + been + ving will + have + been + being

I will have been kicking The ball will have been the ball. being kicked by me. I won’t have been kicking the ball. Will I have been kicking the ball? Will I not have been kicking the ball? Won’t I have been kicking the ball? The ball won’t have been being kicked by me. Will the ball have been being kicked by me? Will the ball not have been being kicked by me? Won’t the ball have been being kicked by me? 40

+? -?

Have I been kicking the Has the ball been ball? being kicked by me? Have I not been kicking Has the ball not been the ball? being kicked by me? Haven’t I been kicking the ball? Hasn’t the ball been being kicked by me?

-?

5. Writing Exercise Active and Passive Voice PRESENT TENSE (A) PRESENT Simple Active Voice + +? -? -? PRESENT Simple Passive Voice

PRESENT Perfect Active Voice + +? -? -?

PRESENT Perfect Passive Voice

41

PRESENT TENSE (B) PRESENT Continuous Active Voice + +? -? -? PRESENT Continuous Passive Voice

PRESENT Perfect Continuous Active Voice + +? -? -?

PRESENT Perfect Continuous Passive Voice

42

PAST TENSE (C) PAST Simple Active Voice + +? -? -? PAST Simple Passive Voice

PAST Perfect Active Voice + +? -? -?

PAST Perfect Passive Voice

43

PAST TENSE (D) PAST Continuous Active Voice + +? -? -? PAST Continuous Passive Voice

PAST Perfect Continuous Active Voice + +? -? -?

PAST Perfect Continuous Passive Voice

44

FUTURE TENSE (E) FUTURE Simple Active Voice + +? -? -? FUTURE Simple Passive Voice

FUTURE Perfect Active Voice + +? -? -?

FUTURE Perfect Passive Voice

45

FUTURE TENSE (F) FUTURE Continuous Active Voice + +? -? -? FUTURE Continuous Passive Voice

FUTURE Perfect Continuous Active Voice + +? -? -?

FUTURE Perfect Continuous Passive Voice

46

Adverbs

47

Types of Adverbs

Adverb 1 - Certainty certainly Adverb 2 - Frequency A Adverb always nearly / almost always usually very often / frequently often sometimes occasionally seldom hardly ever / almost never never Translation แทบ / เกือบ / น้องๆ ปกติ / ธรรมดา / โดยปกติ ประจา / มักจะ / เรื่ อย บ่อย / มักจะ / เรื่ อย บางครั้ง / บางที Percentage เสมอ / เรื่ อย / ตลอดเวลา / ทุกครั้ง 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

บางครั้ง / บางครั้งบางคราว / บางที 40% เกือบ / แทบ หายาก ไม่เคย / อย่า 20% 10% 0% 0%

ever (normally used for questions) *** เคย Adverb 3 - Manner Adj. → Adv.3 Manner Adverb 4 - Place Noun Phrase (prep. + art. + n.) Adverb 5 - Frequency B generally / normally / sometimes / usually Adverb 6 - Time 1. 'how long' (all day, not long, for a while, since last year) 2. 'how often' (sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly) 3. 'when' (today, yesterday, later, now, last year)

Example: 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year. 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year. 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.

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The Royal Order of Adverbs
1. Adverbs Order with Intransitive Verb (v.i.) S - V Subject v.aux Adv.1 I am definitely Adv.2 always *Be Main Verb sleeping Adv.3 noisily Object on my bed Adv.4 in my room Adv.5 usually Adv.6 in May Adv.7 to annoy my sister

2. Adverbs Order with Transitive Verb (v.t.) S - V - O Subject v.aux Adv.1 I am surely Adv.2 always *Be Main Verb drinking Object water Adv.3 loudly Adv.4 in the kitchen Adv.5 Adv.6 Adv.7 for fun. occasionally on Mondays

3. Adverbs Order with Linking Verb (v.l.) S - V - Adj Subject v.l. I am Adv.1 Adv.2 *Be Adjective happy Adv.4 at work Adv.5 normally Adv.6 during the holidays Adv.7 because I want to be with my family. undoubtedly never

4. Adverbs Order with Linking Verb (v.l.) S - V - Adv Subject v.l. I am Adv.1 probably Adv.2 often *Be Adv.4 at home Adv.5 generally Adv.6 before dinner Adv.7 so I can prepare supper for everybody.

5. Adverbs Order with Linking Verb (v.l.) S - V – N Subject v.l. I am Adv.1 definitely Adv.2 always *Be Noun your teacher Adv.4 at school Adv.5 sometimes Adv.6 after hours Adv.7 so that you can improve your grades.

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The Royal Order of Adverbs
Adverbs Order Time Emphasis Time (when) Subject (who / what) Every morning John v.l. is Adv.2 (how often) always Main Verb (do / does) eating Object (what) breakfast Adv.4 (where) in the kitchen Adv.6 (when) at 7 A.M.

Adverbs Order Motion Verbs Subject v.aux Adv.1 Adv.2 I am definitely always

*Be

Main Verb going

Adv.4 to school

Object With my friend

Adv.3 (by) by bus

Adv.5 usually

Adv.6 every day

Adv.7 to study.

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The Royal Order of Adverbs - Vocabulary Guide

1. Certainty certainly 2. Frequency (a) always nearly almost always constantly continuously commonly 3. Manner well (after verb) badly (after verb hard (after verb) fast (after verb) abnormally accidentally accurately affectionately anxiously artfully awkwardly awesomely badly beautifully briskly brutally busily calmly carefully cautiously cheerfully clearly 4. Place Noun Phrase abroad ahead anywhere apart away down here down there downhill downstairs everywhere here indoors nearby nowhere outdoors over here over there overhead overseas somewhere there under here under there up here up there uphill upstairs cleverly colorfully comfortably competitively confidently cowardly crazily customarily deliberately delightfully desperately dependably distinctly doubtfully eagerly easily extraordinarily expertly famously fashionably freely furiously guiltily happily harshly helpfully hurriedly imaginatively irresponsibly jealously jokingly joyfully justly kindly knowledgeably lawfully leisurely lifelessly luckily lovingly loyally gently gracefully magnificently maturely mechanically mindlessly miraculously miserably musically naturally neatly noisily oddly officially painfully personally proudly punctually purposefully quickly readily regretfully religiously romantically sadly safely secretly silently skillfully sleepily steadily suspiciously tastefully tenderly terribly triumphantly uniquely universally untruthfully vocally voluntarily warmly watchfully repeatedly spasmodically habitually usually very often frequently largely often normally regularly chiefly mostly predominantly sporadically typically generally intermittently infrequently seldom rarely hardly ever almost never never definitely probably undoubtedly surely

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The Royal Order of Adverbs - Vocabulary Guide

5. Frequency (b) frequently generally 6. Time normally occasionally often regularly sometimes usually

all (day, week, month, year) all (morning, afternoon, evening, night) every (day, week, month, year, lifetime) every number (minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries) every (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday) every (morning, afternoon, evening, night) every now and again for (breakfast, brunch, lunch, supper, dinner) for (days, weeks, months, years, several years) for a (day, week, month, year, several years, lifetime) for number (days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries) from time to time once a (day, week, fortnight, month, year, lifetime) once in a while several times a (day, week, month, year, lifetime) since (1995, 2005) since (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December) since (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday) since (today, yesterday, day before yesterday, last week, last month, last year ) three times a (day, week, month, year, lifetime) twice a (day, week, month, year, lifetime) Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays 7. Purpose Noun phrase so that Verb phrase in order that Adverb phrase in order to to lest for because

* Noun Phrases = prep + noun Example: ▪ on the chair ▪ in the room ▪ with my friend

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Adverb with Tenses and Active and Passive Voice Adverbs Order with Intransitive Verb (v.i.) S + V Active Voice Tense Subject 1 4 7 10 I I I I have am have (v.a.) Adv.1 certainly certainly certainly certainly Adv.2 always always always always been * Be Main Verb sleep slept sleeping sleeping Adv.3 quietly quietly quietly quietly Object on the bed on the bed on the bed on the bed Adv.4 Adv.5 Adv.6 at night at night at night at night

in my room generally in my room generally in my room generally in my room generally

Adverbs Order with Intransitive Verb (v.i.) S + V Passive Voice Tense Subject 1 4 7 10 (v.a.) Adv.1 certainly certainly certainly certainly Adv.2 always always always always been being been being * Be Main Verb slept slept slept slept Adv.3 quietly quietly quietly quietly Object on by me on by me on by me on by me Adv.4 Adv.5 Adv.6 at night at night at night at night

The bed is The bed has The bed is The bed has

in my room generally in my room generally in my room generally in my room generally

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1. Writing Exercise using Adverb Chart - Adverbs Order with Intransitive Verb (v.i.) S + V Tense 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Active Voice

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2. Writing Exercise using Adverb Chart - Adverbs Order with Intransitive Verb (v.i.) S + V Tense 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Passive Voice

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Adverb with Tenses and Active and Passive Voice Adverbs Order with Transitive Verb (v.t.) S + V + O Active Voice Tense Subject 2 5 8 11 I I I I had was had (v.a.) Adv.1 definitely definitely definitely definitely Adv.2 always always always always been * Be Main Verb kicked kicked kicking kicking Object the ball the ball the ball the ball Adv.3 slowly slowly slowly slowly Adv.4 in the park in the park in the park in the park Adv.5 usually usually usually usually Adv.6 once a day once a day once a day once a day

Adverbs Order with Transitive Verb (v.t.) S + V + O Passive Voice Tense Subject 2 5 8 11 The ball The ball The ball The ball (v.a.) was had was had Adv.1 definitely definitely definitely definitely Adv.2 always always always always been being been being * Be Main Verb kicked kicked kicked kicked Object by me by me by me by me Adv.3 slowly slowly slowly slowly Adv.4 in the park in the park in the park in the park Adv.5 usually usually usually usually Adv.6 once a day once a day once a day once a day

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3. Writing Exercise using Adverb Chart - Adverbs Order with Transitive Verb (v.t.) S + V + O

Tense 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Active Voice

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4. Writing Exercise using Adverb Chart - Adverbs Order with Transitive Verb (v.t.) S + V + O Tense 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Passive Voice

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