Distributed Generation

Introduction: With the increase of the power demand and issues introduced by the large transmission networks, the concept of distributed generation, generates electricity from many small energy sources, has led to new considerations concerning the distribution networks (M.Sospedra, S.Vutukuru, J.Brouwer, D.Dabdub,2010). Compared to the traditional paradigm of large, centralized power plants, distributed generation has apparent advantages in terms of economy (energy loss), stability and environment. As s result of these benefits, according to A. Gravin, W. Patrick and W.William(2005), many private sectors and governmental organizations have already promoted the deployment of distributed electricity generation (DG) technologies for several years. This paper will analysis both advantages and limitations of distributed generation with the help of graphs, real life figures and mathematical models. Generation plants type: For centralized generation, as a huge power is required, the most common plant is the combustion plant, which is relatively independent of external conditions. For, distributed generation, according to N. Greene and R. Hammerschlag(2005), people usually take advantage of wind, solar, fuel cells, micro turbines, and internal combustion plant to generate electricity.

Advantage 1---Economic benefits (Transmission loss reduction) The distributed generation system can offer significant economic benefits. One of the most immediate benefits from introducing additional generators closer to the

Dokopoulos(2011). According to G. the cost per unit energy from DG is assumed to be much higher than that from centralized generation.9 percent of the electricity as a consequence of aging transmission equipment. the calculation equation is listed below. as shown below: In their calculation. Marinopoulos..consumer is that transmission and distribution costs can be dramatically reduced. Alexiadis and S. transmission of electricity from a power plant to a typical user wastes roughly 4. . LIU.2 to 8. These wastes are included in customers’ energy bills. BAO and WANG(2011) have done a cost calculation based 3 generators and 9 loads. This energy loss can be significantly reduced by DG system. C.

SD3=8+5j pu.03j pu. The matlab model is shown below: note G3 is used as a load. the cost of networks in DG is about 20% smaller than that without DG. SD1=8+3j pu. with the help of what I have learnt in the workshop. Given power demand and transmission line impedance (relatively small compared to the transmission line in real life). However.Comparing table1 and table3. SD2=5+2. ZTL12=0. a 2 generators with 3 loads model is used to show the benefit of distributed generation.5j pu. . To make the problem simple and apparent.01+0. the method they used to approximate the cost is too complicate for me.

433 pu] -74.296 pu] [19.8261e+009 W 1.05 pu] -32.04 pu] 21.042 pu] 29.26 pu] [4. rerun the simulation.ZTL23=0.m 13.025jpu ZTL13=0.24˚ 1.29˚ 3. Then.296j+4+8.05 pu] 30.7079e+007 N.65˚ 15637 Vrms [1.958j.492 pu [18.9578e+008 Vars 15 kV rms P & V generator Total line loss is SG1+SG2-SD1-SD2-SD3=18.m 15 kV rms [4 pu] [8.2204e+008 N.04j pu Report from matlab (note: only one phase is remained in the report to save space): [3] Machine Load Flow solution: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: Q: Pmec: Torque: Vf: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: Q: Pmec: Torque: Vf: G2 100 MVA -8.00˚ 15750 Vrms [1.2535e+008 W 2.02+0. the matlab report is shown below: [3] Machine Load Flow solution: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: G3 100 MVA -0.(8+3j +5+2.242 pu G1 100 MVA Swing bus 0.2961e+008 Vars 1.253 pu] 8.00˚ 68766 Arms [17.5j+8+5j)=1.958 pu] [4.917e+009 W 23.87 pu] -13.17 pu] [19.65˚ 36307 Arms [9.35˚ 15600 Vrms [1.9999e+008 W 4.254j pu Simulate DG is installed by add one more generator to load 3.0125+0.26+3.17 pu] 4.253 pu] [4.66˚ 8e+008 W [8 pu] 15 kV rms P & Q generator .26+4.35˚ 34833 Arms [9.

233 pu] [8.05 pu] 30.2825e+008 W 5.309 pu G2 100 MVA -1.94˚ 17342 Arms [4.m 12. this reduction in line loss leads to a significant saving.4409e+008 Vars 4.058 pu] 2.9094e+007 N.0579e+008 W 2.045 pu] [3.06˚ 15 kV rms P & V generator 15600 Vrms [1.2334e+008 W [5 pu] [8. it is quite safe to conclude that the line loss with DG is much smaller than the line loss without DG.441j+8+5j.m 6.3694 pu G1 100 MVA Swing bus -0.441 pu] [4.46˚ 4e+008 W [4 pu] [2.178 pu [9.506 pu] -32.123 pu] -19.153 pu] [9.2416e+007 N. the total line loss is SG1+SG2+SG3-SD1-SD2-SD3=9. In real life.283 pu] 3.283 pu] [9.00˚ 15750 Vrms [1.Q: Pmec: Torque: Vf: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: Q: Pmec: Torque: Vf: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: Q: Pmec: Torque: Vf: 5e+008 Vars 8.04 pu] 28.0453e+008 W 9.22˚ 9. This is shown in the research by DPCA (2000).00˚ 35114 Arms [9.045+3.045+0.5j+8+5j)=0.094j pu Based on the simulation above.(8+3j +5+2. .233 pu] 5.058 pu] [4.m 12.153j+4+2.1531e+008 Vars 15 kV rms With DG.5833e+007 N.

The figures grow more impressively for the semiconductor industry.000.000. the International Energy Agency (2002) estimated that the average cost of a one-hour power outage was $6. Take the voltage stability as an example: . In 2001. all synchronous generators contribute current directly to that fault until protective equipment acts to either isolate the fault or trip (switch off) the generators.000 for brokerage operations and $2.000 for credit card operations. The problem described above can be solved using DG system. it remains no mystery why several firms have already installed DG facilities to ensure consistent power supplies. thus decrease transmission and distribution costs and electrical losses. distributed generators can be sited close to the end-user. The Electric Power Research Institute reported that power outages and quality disturbances cost American businesses $119 billion per year. Based on the research done by Azmy(2011). Advantage 2---Stability In addition to economic savings. DG units are able to increase both transient stability and the voltage stability. When a fault or short-circuit occurs in an electric power system.580. DG technologies may also provide benefits in the form of more reliable power for industries that require uninterrupted service. where a two hour power outage can cost close to $48. Given these numbers.In conclusion. which leads huge economic benefits.480.

5e+008 Vars -3.3% penetration DG units is considered.06˚ 14564 Vrms [0.933 pu] -2.9709 pu] 24.m 15 kV rms P & Q generator .933 pu] [-3.858 pu] 142.94˚ 18699 Arms [4.5 pu] [-3.9327e+008 W -2. Without the extra generator (2 generator and 3 buses): Voltage before (from previous simulation): Uan phase: Uab: -10.The figure above shows the voltage deviation at two load nodes when a load of 1Mvar is switched on at the terminals of the first load of them (Azmy. The voltage decrease and the relative improvements in the voltage profiles at these terminals vary depending on their relative locations with respect to the switching point.5037e+007 N. The other load terminals in the distribution system incorporate also some improvements in the voltage profiles when DG units are used.8793 pu] 19.94˚ -4e+008 W [-4 pu] [-2. Change SD3=8+5j pu to SD3=4+2.58˚ Voltage after the 50% demand change: [3] Machine Load Flow solution: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: Q: Pmec: Torque: G3 100 MVA -5.42˚ 13190 Vrms [0. The second load node is about 2km away from the switching point. Back to the 2 generators with 3 loads simplified model to see the influences of load change on terminal voltages. A large voltage decrease occurs at the switching point when the DG units are not utilized. 2011).5j pu and compare the voltage performance with and without the extra generator. This voltage decrease is significantly reduced when the 28.

043 pu] 29. 1999). Therefore. modular units would also encourage the permeation of renewable generation technologies into the mainstream energy portfolio (Douglas. As mentioned before.6364 pu With the extra generator (3 generators and 3 buses): Voltage before (from previous simulation): Uan phase: Uab: -0. The chart of emissions for different generations is listed below.058 pu] [4.Vf: 5.4016 pu 15 kV rms P & Q generator Apparently.34˚ 17401 Arms [4. it can be concluded that DG can improve the stability of power systems if suitable types and appropriate locations are selected.66˚ 15651 Vrms [1. microturbines and ICE.65˚ 15637 Vrms [1.35˚ Voltage after the 50% demand change: [3] Machine Load Flow solution: Machine: Nominal: Bus Type: Uan phase: Uab: Ia: P: Q: Pmec: Torque: Vf: G3 100 MVA -0. fuel cells.058 pu] 2.0582e+008 W 2. The distribution of smaller. the change on voltage is almost ignorable compared to that change in the 2-generators system. Based on the results and discussion above.5 pu] [4. plant types for distributed generation are usually wind.m 6.5836e+007 N.521 pu] -32. 1998). with an extra generator (approximation of DG system). Advantage 3---environmental friendly Distributed generation promises a number of environmental advantages including reduced fossil fuel consumption and lower CO2 emissions (Shelor.042 pu] 29. factories can benefit significantly under a stable electricity system from distributed generation networks.5e+008 Vars 4. The widespread adoption of natural gas and displacement of coal would lead to gains in CO2 reductions and improved air quality. . solar.67˚ 4e+008 W [4 pu] [2.

the emissions could be significantly reduced by distributed generation system. and especially in states that are actively encouraging distributed generation. distributed generations plants are relatively easy to control. Photovoltaic and wind turbines are used to generate electricity. however.Apparently. 2005) In addition. Greene and R. Hence. combustion plants produce much more emissions than other plants. Based on the research done by Garvin. most of people have concerns on living near generation plants. Policymakers should encourage these measures wherever possible. 2005) Limitation: There are many potential benefits of the distributed generation model. Hammerschlag. as the generation is organized by individuals or small groups separately. Greene and R. and William (2005). particularly. Fuel cells are actually a family of technologies. and net metering laws to favor installations that take advantage of these measures. (N. Hence. Distribution utilities also have an important role to play in ensuring that distributed generation goes where it can do the most good in both economic and environmental terms. they should tailor system benefits charge funds. Firstly. Since neither technology combusts or reforms fossil fuels. plants introducing apparent influence to the neighborhood environment. Though some distributed generation technologies are environmentally harmful if uncontrolled. Patrick. tax incentives. Hammerschlag. a number of measures exist to mitigate the impacts. Abigail. the concept of distributed generation is unlikely to be accepted by citizens. To be specific. Fuel cells technically need only hydrogen. though all with the same fundamental chemical reaction at their core. . (N. each with a different mode of operation. As states adopt streamlined interconnection procedures. they produce no significant air emissions. limitations should also be taken into consideration. the placement of electric generation units within the community could face significant community resistance from poor public perception.

influence factors and the change rule are also different from the traditional power. as a new system. . the technology of DG and related policy need to be more mature. many new maintaining points should be constructed to ensure the operation of the distributed generation networks.unless safe. BAO and WANG (2011). In contrast to the use of a few large-scale generating stations located far from load centers--the approach used in the traditional electric power paradigm--DG systems employ numerous. In conclusion. This inefficiency can be as a result of the difficulty in resource distribution in huge networks. DG leads to a huge change in energy operating system and related policy and budget. DG has its apparent advantages over centralized generation while. to maintain the development of DG industry healthy and sustainable. For example. to meet the need of real life. the DG industry is a newly starting undertaking whose construction cost and operating costs are far more than the same scale coal-fired power project. Secondly. but small plants and can provide power onsite with little reliance on the distribution and transmission grid (Douglas. On the other hand. harmonic waves produced by different generators are unavoidable. Lastly. and the price structure. much more engineers are needed in distributed generation operation. cheap and clean generation methods are invented and this technology convince most people. such as lower-cost electricity and higher power reliability. These waves introduce undesired performance in load flow. Government energy policy and people’ perception need a huge change to fit this new generation system. In conclusion. the development of distributed generation networks also takes negative concerns. the efficiency of the distributed generation system may be not as high as expected.1999) However. Conclusion: Distributed generation is a relatively new generation approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. DG technologies often consist of modular renewable-energy generators. confirming the generation price and the government subsidies amount through the market and the competition is inevitable. According to LIU. wind generation and photovoltaic generation depend on weather. distributed generation will take some time to maximize its operating efficiency. and they offer a number of potential benefits. Compared with centralized generation. That means some of plants are not in fully active mode. The problem caused be the connection between multiple systems is being studied. Therefore. In addition.

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