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Wit

WmUsiciit s
N.

PRINCETON,

J.

:

//OU>U^ CP'qyU-yiy^/.
Division. X^. A.
Section

'/T/ty

f.NY'T:

Shelf.

Number.

The Vatican

Council.

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME
DURING THE

VATICAN OOUNOIL.
IMPRESSIONS OF A CONTEMPORARY.

By

POMPONIO LETO,

c^

translated from the ohio in at..

LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.
1876.

liOSS. : STAMFORD STRKKT AKD CHARINO (. .LUNUON PUINTED BY WILLIAM CUtWES AND SONS.

it is The general meaning of the original has^ . and there is abundant internal evidence to show that the writer had peculiar means and opportunities of closely observing the incidents which he depicts. and of recording them with accuracy. and are inspired by a genuine The marked by a spirit of frankness and moderation. The Translator justice is however sensible. and with the technical hoped. language in which those arguments are embodied. The Memoirs liberal of the Yatican Council which are here presented to the public. been invariably preserved but there are refinements a 2 . are the work of a sincere and Roman Catholic. that some little in- may have been done to the original. in a version is which has been undertaken by one who the Author frequently engages ac- quainted with the metaphysical arguments in which . to justify the attempt th^t is enough has been said made to render the work by this accessible to the generality of English readers translation. When to these desire to promote the welfare of that religion."^^^-iVE^f PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR. book is recommendations it is added that the subject is one of universal and enduring interest.

winch may not have been always rendered with perfect accuracy. perhaps. and which English language is. .IV PEEFACE BY THE TRANSLATOI?. alike extend their in- dulgence. it is hoped. To errors of this nature. distinctions in and the the Italian. scarcely fitted to reproduce. for which the Translator must be held responsible. the Author and the reader will.

having been placed in our hands. and indirect. TiJis manuscript. it has no kind of theological aim or pretension but treats rather of the the . and connection with the past. . containing a sort of chronicle of the Vatican Council. and to recalling their attention its that memorable event. and their religious state. This object being especially aimed at in the present work. excepting in so far as has been dealt with by the periodical contemporaneous press. of all that concerns the time and the subject in its both in itself. Author himself explains. particularly in relations. the question in Italy with the view of enlightening the public. Italy. it seems the better adapted for filling a gap much felt in our current literature. very few works have appeared future. because. influence likely to be exercised by the Council on the condition of our people. and the Moreover because. The book as is well suited for general readers. direct life with the reviving civil and political of the country. we have deemed its publication advisable on account of the great national importance for . the present.NOTICE BY THE EDITORS. since the proroga- tion of the A^atican Council.

Sixtus IV. the principle of authority. but a philosopher yet compatible with Catholic feelings and institutions. as the book itself proves whereas the name of Pomponio Leto can no more be accounted that of a contemporary at the Vatican Council. while the narration made with an all. and became himself the friend of two Popes. but subsequently numbered Paul among later his pupils. represents and investigation slowly progressive. and there will be at least for a loug time to come. and Innocent A'lII. opposition. that the Author Vv'as is the an eye-witness of all . .. ment is correct is undeniable. absence of party spirit and an impress of truth which may cause it to be useful and instructive for it We present it.vi NOTICE BY THE EDITORS. where stated that the book work of a contemporary. especially in Eome. Still there has always been. to our readers as we it is ourselves have received leaving untouched even the anachronism inscribed on the title-page. and was on that account and even persecuted by III. than it was at the Council of Trent. and by the Latin spirit with the It first source of resistance. Pomponio Leto was who taught in one of the Italian schools of thought and learning at the period of the Renaissance . in contact classical antiquity with Christian sentiment. and yet it bears That the former statethe name of Pomponio Leto. and was produced by the combination of the genius of of inquiry. he relates is beyond doubt. it a consideration which renders to especially important is Italians. regarded with much suspicion. Pomponio Leto in That name embodies a type which arose at the time of the Eenaissance. Paul II. a Italy.

We and only wish to point out that as Italy is morally intellectually. Catholicism. for the we desire to deal work in regard conditions to whicli we that have referred. or to set their imagination to our manuscript . as philosophy and the old classics have deeply modified her religious feelings. were more frequently met with in the fifteenth. and the questions pertaining to must ever have a part in the political combinations of the nation. if not politically. the product of the in her two great movements of world-wide interest evolved and by her.— NOTICE J5Y THE EDlTOIiS. For that reason philo- sophers are bound to attach great weight to spiritual influences. and a Pomponio Leto will always be forth- coming to indite the history of a (Council. than they are in the nineteenth century. vii Our readers must not suppose to in fables. . to which we have already alluded it.

.

their publication in that form was suspended. so to speak. To make an exhaustive study of such subject as effort a complex far a Council. would involve a greater than either the limits of the present work or the powers of the Author allow. These impressions. He in then continued to collect. before. and the work itself might have been laid aside. as he had done their proper sequence. Some one placed in more favour- a 3 . difficulties having arisen. the most notable particulars of that important period of contemporary history. had not some friends who regarded it with favour. as impressive and familiar as possible. recorded during the Vatican Council Rome.INTRODUCTION. were originally intended for a periodical Review but owing to certain at . but others which other purpose but that of endeavouring to fix in the memory of all those interested in these transactions. rendering its a true image of that great ex- ternal features. In so doing he had no the public. event. encouraged the Author to persevere in his design. and to this accordingly he has not aspired. as the events occurred. not only those which of right belonged to by good fortune were rescued from the official secrecy in which they should have been lawfully shrouded.

little method has The narrative was originally com- menced form an at the article end of each successive month. duce the results expected from them with the exception of some slight re-touches. Passing under review the impressions of those earlier months. and of the actual condition of affairs. in whicli disposed defecdis- and the materials themselves are sometimes . worthily who are intent upon the simple chronicle.X able circumstances INTRODUCTION. been observed. and which were recorded at the same time. to satisfy the desires of those may be enabled. study of the religious and political history of our age. These pages contain a retained by the or rather ihey embody the fugitive recollections and impressions memory of the Author. before long. or the memory of others (where such could be usefully invoked). the proceedings of the serves month just elapsed and pre- the form which the current development of . so as to : the same plan has been followed here. consequently not be surprising the materials are if the arrangeis ment tive. how many mistaken ! opinions appear ! how many antecedents which failed to proNevertheless. In collating these slender notes. therefore' every chapter bears the name. events produced each chapter moreover carries with it the impress of the opinions prevailing at the moment. and describes . has been thought preferable to alter nothing that was comfirst mitted to writing under the force of It will impressions. and indispensable it to preserve a certain unity in the composition. mingled with the reflections which occurred to him. after the lapse of all the phases which culminated in the declaration of Infallibility. rather affecting the form than the substance.

and may enable the book even now. not in its bearing on theology and canon law. not from within. xi connected or reiterated. yet possesses a certain stamp of Council. but in life . for there is very little related of which the Author was not a personal witness. to upon the events it records an amount of light which. perhaps. as the title-page It intended to indicate.INTRODUCTION. relation to civil and that it is studied. impossible for common is but from without. indeed. yet strictly by way of compensation they are . But it if for such reasons the present book does not pretend to be a history. oj^inion reality which. though cast here and there in scattered rays from contemporary publications. that the Council is it is hardly necessary to add its here regarded. consistently maintained during the eight months of the duration of the Ecumenical may. was. . which spectators. in the living present. only remains for us to assure the reader that. has not been as yet combined in any other quarter to exhibit them comprehensively and at once. After this preamble. nor a work of Hterary merit. or which he did not receive on authority of equivalent value. help others on tliis in forming an notable period of Ecclesiastical history when direct it shall belong to the distant past. though these sketches may be wanting in the depth conformable and research which to truth so grave a subject demands.

.

sion. Condition of Christendom. bodies. Description 7. *5. The longest interval without an Ecumenical Council. Opening of the Council 1. The Meeting of the Council 1. — 2. — — 7. Its first — 3. Impression it produces. The Fathers do homage. Importance of the Asscnihly. Entrance into St. 5. — 9. Character of this meeting. — 10. of the opening. — 8. II. 6. 7. First official document. of the Council Hall. Causes that brought about. rroces. First Session. 5. III. Reasons for the convocation of the Council. Invi- 4.— Hospitality . Further remarks on the same matter. of the Council. Proceed- 5.^ 8. — — 2. — 2.—— — — — TABLE OF CONTENTS. — 4. Causes of its divisions. The Council is opened. The Catholic party. Annonncemeut meeting. Bull of Convocation. The Importance of the Assembly. 3. Present state of affairs. tation to Protestants and schismatical ings of foreign ambassadors. Objects of the Council. Benediction by the Pope. — 6. — 9. Peter's. — — — 3. I. 4. PrEFACK BY THE TrANSLATOU Notice CY THE Editors Introduction ill v ix DECEMBER. the Council.

Peter's d2 on a Jeast-day. 15. lleasons lor i(s — 7. 4. discussion in the Council. Second Session. Thu De- — — 3. 12. 'i'he third question. — IV.—— — — — — TABLE OF CONTENTS. Its article of February 0th. Pastoral of the — Nomination of the Comniistiioiis. — — — The same subject. the Congregations. Their description. The Rules and Conditions of the Assembly 1.— 4. The 13. Opportune 16. First Pai^al allocution. 14. Importance of these events. ^1. Archbishop of Paris. The Papacy second question. 10. episcopate. Session St. 'I'he 11. 2. — 8. The Poman Curia in regard to the Church. scription of the ceremony. One Commissions for amendments. French Opposition.— Fjkst Session allocution at the first Papal Session. — — 7. Position of parties. Aspect of the Church of same. tholic bishops. and preliminaries. subject. III. — — 15. 8. German — — 14. tion of censures. — — Bull for the limitato 6. 6. 9. 14. 16. . First meeting ul comiilaints. — 5. tions. 13. Jubilee 3. Considered with regard to their nationality. The Fulda proclamation and Padre Giaciuto's letter. 2. — 13. Predictions. The same ofticials. Objections to the Order. essentially Italian. 9. Aspect of the Council Hull. v. declaration. JANUAPvY. — 8. Interests of the Papacy and of Italy. — — 9. French episcopate. Judges of excuses and Bull for the election of the Pope. and puMications of party. — 2. — 3. the anti-Infallibilist is Council unfolded. 10. — — 6. Nomination of the presidents and other 7. — — — — question should not prejudice another. Tlie other Ca- 17. Italian episcopate. offered to the bishops.— 12. — Order of Council. Objections to the nomina10. The Civilta CattoUca. tlie — 4. The programme of the The Archbishop of Westminster. Election of persons serve on the The gi eat questions under 8. I. — 5. — — — — 12. The first question. Profession of faiih. The Meeting of the Covscih— continued. 5. Defects of the same. 11. taking place. The Skconh 1.

The bishops ask for more information 22. bation. The Italians. On the proposals of the bishops. 5."— 18. signatures. 7. is Episcopis. 1. 3. 3. Addresses against its Order. 19. III." — IV. — 2. 11. Speech of the Bishop of Orleans. 5. — much result. 14. — 7. The scheme "Do 8. Discourse of the Bishop of Cologne. . Observations on the same. — — 9. 16. — Admonitions of the presidents. tlie — Commissions. — 2. — The scheme " De 16. The Assembly Papal appro- sanctions the scheme. Its contents. — Kevelations of *• 13. sition of the Council.-^ Duty C. —First Scheme 4G 1. address. Opinions en the duration of the .. — — 5. The scheme " De Catechismo. Debate on — 17. 22. 4. — 21. from 4. the same. The promoters of the address. — Promoters of the * — Singular situation. 15. Ecclesiastical policy is omitted 3. — 18. Council. 13. Compo''^ 12.. The predominant arguments. Its) G. The Scheme "De Ecclesia" 1. Their form displeasing. 'J'he Arrangement of the Work. — — On Infallibility. 19. Distribution of the schemes. Other provisions. — — 11." to — — 2. of the schemes. Nomination of the same. — Difference between an Ecclesiastical Council and an assembly of laymen. in Infallibility. 21. — — — -a j 9.— 10. Division of parties the Assembly. Its composition. — Undignified supposition.> Method observed in the debates. Efforts i^romote the Unita Cattolica. On ^ the Opposition. 8. — 14. — Distribution of new schemes. of the Commissions. — 20. II. Fid^. Classification of subjects. the Congregations without bishops diminishes. Manner of its publication. — 17. General features on the subjects of debate. On 10. Addresses against to Infallibility."— 15.—— — TABLE OF CONTENTS. — 12. Arguments be brought forward. The Opposition declares Itself. Number of — question. — 20. — The scheme "De Fide" sent back. — Other Schemes . Distribution of the scheme " De Ecclesia. First Step towards Infallibility. 4. 57 Petition for Infallibility. Continuation of The number of 6.

— Conclusion. — 7. Ques- 4. 83 The twenty-one Canons same. 4. Failure of the same. " De Ecclesia" of the scheme. 14. Letters of the Bishop of Orleans. gences. Tactics of the Opposition. — Project shortening the speeches. Holidays. Address of the Catholics 3.— — — — XVI 'IWBLE OF CONTENTS. — 14. — 10. Responsibility tions. 105 C)ljcctiouH to preceding arguments. 4. — The amended schemes.10. RicbULTs of the Scheme " De Ecci. Dilemma. — — — 5. for 11. by the publication of the Canons. FACE 1. Italian 10. lion. Catholicism and ]nodern society. Temporal power before Infallibility. Conclusion. 12. tions regarding France. The preceding Revolution. Intolerance and indul13. 111. Asceticism. — — — 3. — — 2. — 7. 11. Inlallibility sole object of attention. — — 3. . Excestfive authority. 5. of the majority. Explanation of the tardiness 8. — The new 7. — 16. Close of the 0. cations. Summary of their contents. New diplomatic intervention. Exceptions to of Institu- 8. The Scheme 1. — 7. G. — Judgment — — Speech phase of the Council. reconciliation. On the Canons contained in the scheme " De Ecclesia. — 14. — Attempt obviate — addresses. scheme " De Catcchismo. Anecdotes. Summaiy of the of Their probable effect on the world. —. — 12." II. 9. G. — Other plans bringing about an agreement. 13. -^5. OF the Catholic Nations [)! Displeasure caused 2. y. escape. first ^ Order.— The New Okdeu 1. Affairs of the East. — Project of — 12. Rebel- Centralisation. — CoMUiTiON 1.esia" 72 Summary of the proceedings of the three previous months. is Diplomatic interference aroused. Its ai>plication. — 13. — 4. Various publi- at the opening of the Exhibition. IV. — Debate on the in the deliberations of the Council. to this defect. FEBRUARY. 9. 17. — 8. Re- mainder of the scheme.— 9. Fate of the addresses of the Opposition. — 5. — Questions for the consideration of the Council. The Fikst 1. — Means 6. Different postulata. — observations. 2. of Coblcntz. — 2. Predictions. for 15. Conclusion. — — 11." 3. 8.

—— —

— —

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
MARCH.

xvil

PAGE

J.— Appendix to the Scheme
1.

"

De Ecclesia"
De
Ecclesia."

118

Distribution of Appendix to the scheme "
2.
4.

Foreign influence.

^^

3.

Plans for leaving the Council.

Great discouragement.

5.

More on

politics.

6.

Eecall

of the French ambassador.

II.—A Truce
1.

123

Death of Count de Montalembert. 2. Funeral service in his 3. More petitions by the bishops. 4. Article by^ honour. Dijllinger. 5. Suspension of the scheme " De Ecclesia."

III.

The First Schemes again
1.

brotjght

forward
Stormy sitting. Bosnia and Sirmio.
2.

126

The

first


4.

schemes again brought forward.
Protest

3.

of the Bishop

of

Speech of the Pope.

bishops.


9.

5.

Incidents relating to the Eastern

6.

Theme
of

for

a speech at the

Roman

University.

7.

Withdrawal

same.
nelU.

— —

some amendments. 8. Reasons for the Despatches of Count Darn and of Cardinal Anto-

10. Ambassadors.

11. Relations between France

and the Vatican.
part.

— 13.

12.

Catholic

The scheme " De Fide " voted Art Exhibition. 14. The same.

in

APRIL.
I,

The Scheme
1,

"

De Fide" for the Second Time

137

Cessation of diplomatic intervention.


6.

2.


XL

the scheme.
5.

3.

Result of the voting.

The
it

public Session fixed.

Definitive voting on
4.

Easter Festival. /_

Third Session.

7.

Im-

pression

produced.

The First Scheme "De Fide"
1.

141

Comparison of the
3.

first

and second schemes.
scheme.

Description of

first

same.
faith.

— —

6.

Considerations.

2.

4.

The same.

The same. 5. The

7.

Further

reflections.

9.

The connection

of faith and science.

— — —
10.

8.

On

Dog-

matic Theology.

— 11.

Close of observations on

first

scheme.

12. Annotations.

—— —

xvill

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PA (IE

-Kill.
>i.

The Second Scheme
1.

"

De Fide"

149
First

The scheme
3.

as a whole.

2.

and second chapters.

Third chapter.

the bishops.
tions.

4.

Foiivth chapter,

6.

Tlieir influence.

5.

Observations of

7.

Continued observa-

8.

Difficulties that beset the

scheme.

for describing

the scheme.

9.

llcasons

10.

Note of the North-German

Confederation.

MAY.
1.

The Scheme
1.

"

De

Ecclesia " for the Second Time

155

The scheme " De parvo Catechismo " for the second time. 3. Returns 2. The scheme "De Ecclesia" sent back. 4. The scheme " De parvo Catechismo " is voted, modified. 5. Its amendments are voted, and the scheme is laid aside. 6. The debate on the scheme " De Ecclesia " is opened.

— — —

7,

It is continued.

8.

Speech of the Pope on giving the

Prizes at the Exhibition of Catholic Art.
Infallibility.

9.

Speech against

11.

Foreign Policy
1.

IGO
Ollivier.

Despatch by
3.

2.

'Ce qui
publicly
7.

se
4.

passe au

Concile.'

Disquietude at the Vatican.

Kettler. of the

5.

Infallibility

Roman

parish
of

priests.

— Speech by Monsignor Address promoted. — — Unfortunate position of
6.

affairs.— 8.

Duke

Saldanha.— 9. Feast of

St. Peter.

JUNE.
-Close of the General Discussion
1,

167

Close of the general discussion on the scheme

2.

Speech of Monsignor Maret.

3.

"De Ecclesia." New protests. —
up

4.

Proposal for secret voting,
tlie

5.

Resistance to be kept

to

last.— 6. Feast of Pentecost.
the Arclibishop of Malines.

7.

Objections to pro-

])osal of

— —

— —

tablp: of contents.
II.— Summary of the Question of Infallibility
1.

xix
TAG I

17£
is

Summary
reduced.

of the question.

2.

The scheme "De Ecclesia"

3.

First

and second chapters.

4.

and

quotation from St. Gregory the Great. 5. Doctrines 6. The time for presenting of the scheme " De Primatu."
its

Third chapter,


8.

observations upon personal Infallibility limited to ten days.
7.

Text inserted in the
special

first

draft of "

De

Ecclesia."


179

No

Canon

for Infallibility.

III.

Debate on Infallibility
1.

Prognostications and state of

jxirties.

and
4.

Festival

f-7. History of the question of Infallibility.
9.

begins. — — The same. — The same. — Continuation and ending. — Speech of Cardinal Guidi. — Speech of Valerga. — 13. Speech of the Archbishop of Osimo, — Predictions. — 15. A third party. — 16. The Opposition pray a prorogation of the

Opening of the debate on Infallibility. Approach of summer. 5. Speech of the Pope on tlie
addresses.
3.

2.

Processions, prayers,

of

Corpus

Domini.

6.

The

fight

8.

10.

11.

12.

14.

for

Council.

JULY.
I.

Close of the Debates
''"1.

195

Effects of the
3.

climate.

2.

"Weariness of the assembly.

the scheme
discussion.
it.

The bishops begin to leave Pome. 4. The first heads of De Ecclesia" are voted. 5. Close of the
'^

G.

Peasons of the Opposition

for

accepting

7.

The same.

8. Discussion

on the amendments.

9. The Opposition consider their future course. mula of Infallibility. 11. After the proposal. third chapter is voted. 13. The fourth chapter is 14. The vote on Wednesday, July 13.

— —

— —

10. I'or-

12.

The

voted.

Jt

II.

Fourth Session
1.

20(i

Calculations well founded, but disa|Dpointed.
tion send a

message to the Pope.

2.

The Opposi-

3.

Adjunct

to the formula

.

XX
II.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Fourth ^essjoj^— continued.
of lurallibility.
f>

PAGE
4.

Protest of the assembly.

tempts of the
flections
9.

Opposition.

5.

G.

Fourth

Session.

Last at7.

Re-

on the vote.

After the event.

Infallibility.

— 8.
'I

Protests

of the

Opposition.

10.

extof the Canons that promulgate

11.

The future.— 12. Mneniosynon.
223

Conclusion

APPENDIX OF DOCUMENTS.
DOCUJIENTS.
I.

Bull of Convocation of the Council

259
'

II.

III.

French CoiTespondenco from the Civilta Cattulica Proclamation of the Bishops at Fulda
'

262 263
266

IV. Letter of Padre Giacinto V, Pastoral of the Archbishop of Paris

268 273 294 296 298 303
304

VL
VIL

Pastoral of the Bishop of Orleans

Promulgation of the Jubilee
Sistine Chapel

,

VII L Allocution of the

IX. Bull " Multiplices inter "

X. Allocution at the First Session

XL

Bull for the Pope's Election
for limiting

XII. Bull

Censures
'

306

XIII. The Canons published in the ' Siid-Deutsche Presse
'

AUgcmeine Zeitung

'

and the
311

XIV.

Statistical Extract

from Franscini

XV.

Last Letter of IVIontalembcrt

XVI. Address of the Catholics of Coblcnz to the Bishop of Treves .. .. .. XVII. New Order of the Council, &c. Article by Dollinger XVIIL The Scheme " De Fide " XiX. Formula of Adhesion to the Dogma of Infallibility given by the ' Italie,' at the end of June 1870 XX. The Scheme " De Ecclesia," from the Giornale di Pumia
'
'
.

320 321 321
326 332
337
337

f

— PEIIIGEITOH

EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME.
DECEMBER.
I.— OPENING
1.

OF THE COUNCIL.

Announcement of the opening
cession.
6..


1,

First
9.

of the Council. 2. Its first meeting. 3. Pro5. Description of the Coimcil Hall. 4. Entrance inlo St. Peter's. Session.— 7. The Fathers do homage. 8. Benediction by the Pope. The Council is opened.

— —

At

nine in the morning of December the 8th 1869, the salutes

from Monte Aventino and the bells of all the churches in Rome, announced to the world the opening of the Twentieth

Ecumenical Council, fifteen centuries after the first so recognised by history that of Nicea eighteen after that of Jerusalem, and

;

three after the last Council
2.

— that of Trent.
those called to attend the Council

At

the

same hour,

all

were assembled in the great hall above the portico of the Vatican Basilica, which on this occasion was arranged as a though it is generally used for the functions of the chapel Papal Benediction and of the Last Supper. The Pope, who on ordinary occasions never leaves his own apartments till all is prepared and ready for his reception, was to-day one of the first to enter the hall, as if to show that he desired to place himself on an equality with those present and remained quietly seated till the long cortege was complete which was to pass before him in solemn procession to the Church of St. Peter. There were 47 cardinals present out of more than 700 bishops out of the 1000 the 55 in Rome B
; ;
;

2

EIGPIT

MONTHS AT ROME.
;

[December.

supposed to form the entire Catholic episcopate more than 20 mitred abbots, five abbots nuUius, and about 30 Generals of Orders this being the computation given by the Official Index
;

published in Rome, of those
^right of sitting at the Council.
(

who were
the

present,

and had the
of

The

Civilta

Cattolica

gave

723, the Unita Cattolica at 720

—both

complete

list

names

as

differing from the Official
;

Index, which declared them to be over 760

but, in truth,

it

was
this

difficult to

make

the

calculation with

perfect accuracy,

only being

certainly

known,

that

the

polling

papers

gathered at the

first

sitting of the Council

amounted

to 678.

Nine of the Bishops present were Patriarchs, four of the Western Church, and five Oriental. There were five Primates, and above 130 Archbishops these, however, had not all the charge of a diocese, and among the Patriarchs were some who had never in their lives left Rome. There were also a considerable number of Archbishops and Bishops in partibus, who were not diocesans, and scarcely knew the geographical situation all of the territories whence they derived their designations these, however, were equally admitted to the Council and allowed to vote. Abbots and Generals of Orders had also a seat, together with the power of voting, although without any real
;

;

claim to that privilege.

The
a

result of all

these concessions was very materially to

Council by admitting to its assemblies numerous body of dignitaries holding no cure of souls and consequently, though equal in dignity to the other ecclesiastics, inferior to them in that practical knowledge and sense of responsibility which was required to render their vote disthey availed, however, to swell the interested and valuable numbers present, and to make the Vatican Council the largest While the hierarchy r"^ ever witnessed in the Catholic Church.
affect the action of the
;

;

'

were assembled in the upper hall, the rest of the Roman clergy, both regular and secular, arranged themselves along the great staircase, the portico, and the church, and formed two long lines
through which the procession passed. 3. When all were assembled, the Pope
self before the altar,

rose, prostrated

and began, with his singularly

clear

himand

distinct voice, to intone the

hymn

to the

Holy

Spirit, the choir

"

December.]

EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME.
moved onward

3
in the

took up the strain, and the procession
following order
:

first,

the chamberlains and private chaplains,

who headed

the cortege, then the consistorial advocates, the
;

next to them, the " Abbreviatori di Parco Maggiore," the " Votanti di Segnatura," the " Cherici di Camera," and the " Auditori di Rota," two
prelates

promoters of the Council, and the singers

in each

of the four

classes

last

mentioned
;

having

the duty of scrutinising the votes of the Council the

then came

Head

of the " Sacro Ospizio,"
tiara.

and two chaplains carrying the

Pope's mitre and
nullius,

The

abbots in ordinary, the abbots

the bishops, archbishops, prelates, patriarchs, and car-

dinals according to their order then followed, preceded
cross between

by an

incense-bearer, and the apostolic sub-deacon carrying the Papal

two

acolytes,

the

bishops and cardinals being

each accompanied by a chaplain or train-bearer.
Close to them were
the

senator

and

the " conservators

representing the municipality of

Rome,

the vice-chamberlain of

the Church, and the Prince of the Pontifical

Throne

;

then two

protonotaries, the cardinal-deacon, the masters of ceremonies,

and

finally the
;

Pope

himself, carried on his chair of state under

a canopy

the generals of religious orders, various other officials

and persons in the service of the Council, secretaries, notaries, and lastly, shorthand-writers, who completed the procession. 4. This long line of dignitaries of the highest grade then passed down the lines formed by the humbler ecclesiastics, and leaving the great hall above the portico, advanced through that which then descending the grand gives access to the Sistine Chapel staircase of Bernini, they turned to the right through the portico and solemnly entered the Church of St. Peter, which now appeared to be filled for the first time within the memory of man. The Pope and the bishops were vested in white, the day being the Feast of the Immaculate Conception ; and the Pope, who usually wears a tiara or a mitre of plates of gold, now had on a costly mitre made especially for the occasion. These particulars have some significance, as they were intended to indicate a certain equality with all the other bishops, which, however, did not extend beyond the minor accessories of cere;

monial.

At

the entrance of the Church, the

Pope descended from
B 2

his

Church of St. according to which they were inscribed in the printed catalogue hall is distributed to all adorned with various paintings. presents an imposing appearance. it was found necessary to commit the keeping of the great door equally to them and to the Knights of Jerusalem. representing the Doctors of the Church. and above the throne hangs a picture of the Descent of the Holy Spirit members of the Council. ticket given to each of the bishops. even unto the end of the world. and the perties. 5. and the space above is filled in by an attic and a tympanum. Papal altar. " Go ye. it is the special duty of the " guardie nobili " to accompany the Pope on all occasions. Above the door was inscribed in large I letters the appropriate text.. and they hastened to avail themselves of the privilege by placing their services at the disposal of the Council. The everything simple but striking. The guardianship of this door belonged. is There is. indeed. of ancient right and usage. and the Popes who have convened Ecumenical Councils. namely. to the [DKCEJinER. The Council Hall of the Feet is situated in the right transept of the which the ceremony of the Maundy Thursday it lies between the two pilasters which support the cupola of Michael Angelo. . during all the public sittings of the Council. to follow the deliberations from so favourable a position. Throne and. descending gradually in seven rows till they reach the level of Every seat bears a number corresponding to the the floor. however. rather than to hear them by report from As. its want of acoustic proThe immense height of the vaulted roof. however. next to it the benches for the and cardinals. 4 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and then the seats for the bishops. at the further end is patriarchs placed the Pope's throne. in the area in is Washing held on . uncovering his head. Peter. showing a natural eagerness afar. under which is a great door that remained open to satisfy the curiosity of the public during the ceremony and. only being shut when the private Congregations were held. though simply arranged. one serious defect in the building with reference to public speaking. proceeded where he took up his station. and teach all nations : am with you always." The hall itself. due to its own grand proportions . to the Knights of Jerusalem.

not for the extension. seemed to favour the desires of that portion of the Council which was accused of being inimical to discussion. the Bishop of after which.December. 7.Vicar intoned the mass Council having placed a copy of the Gospels on a superb lectern.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. No its spectator. many people believed that the Vatican Hal]. when such grand displays pomp are rare. not so much at at the moral power inherent in Papacy which could still avail. Russian. men of all nations. and that the closed meetings would be held in the " Sala degli Svizzeri. even own abasement. As soon . the Secretary of the Iconium. the cardinals and patriarchs in courts or churches of 6. and ready to contend with public opinion. that their vast depths before they could be Indeed. but for the restriction of their own prerogatives. ^ \ as the Pope entered. They their places. by human of presented one of the most remarkable spectacles ever witnessed eyes. Such a spectacle enables one to comprehend the sense of indomitable power with which the Popes have always acted . Greek. by swallowing up the most learned propositions and the wisest sayings in heard. Latin. them devoted to a degree to the furthering of their unknown in any other assembly. Bulgarian. the to could do otherwise inclined to sympathise with the than marvel. as from the furthest corners of the world. and the all Pope. delivered a Latin oration. after the lapse of centuries. Copt. received the allegiance of members of the Council. Roumanian. the Cardinal. and Arnienian. all vested in their pontifical attire. ) — ' and then the bishops. no other rulers have ever reached such a pitch of authority and grandeur in dealing not only with their own subjects. united by a discipline almost without perceptible authority yet many of . however little assembly. standing before the it." or some other of the great Rome. Chaldean. Syrian. in his pontifical vestments. Melchitic. draw together by a simple letter of invitation multitudes outward magnificence. but with human society at large. would only be used for public sittings and for the promulgation of decrees. This consisted in the bishops . Towards eleven o'clock all were seated in the Council Hall the Pope on his throne. prepared with such care. Maronite. 5 grand arches of the nave. this inconvenience was found to be so serious. especially in our days.

and how liable to strong excitement at that moment he seemed inspired by the deepest faith and enthusiasm. who bears the humble title of " Servant of the Servants of God. [Decembek kneeling before him. and kissing his knee. Spirit . Such was the opening of the Vatican Council called together eighteen centuries after Christ. they responded with the liturgical " Placet " . the Pope bestowed his solemn benediction on the assembly three times. and the hymn to the Holy Spirit. invoked the Holy and the Virgin. have or have no longer a religion. breasts of others. a thanksgiving followed. the decree for the opening of the Council was read. and the consent The Pope. . After other prayers." to keep ! in memory ceremony 8. notwithstanding his age. and the affections of apparent the Catholic world were agitating the breasts of those who formed its universal assembly. the second being fixed for the 6th of January. through all that long and fatiguing ceremony. . which supported him.6 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and to decide whether the Western nations of Europe. and the whole assembly shared his enthusiasm for it is in the nature of earnest conviction and intense feeling to find a ready response in the that modest designation during such a . one after the other. 9. when the whole assembly simultaneously rose None of the differences which were afteiit was a solemn sight. and pronounced the opening after which there was a movement of deep emotion allocution among all present. of the assembled bishops being asked. after pronouncing his allocution. with their present social and political institutions. What an effort must it have cost him. Every one who knows the Pope is aware how peculiarly sensitive he is. wards to cool that enthusiasm and divide those hearts were yet and all the fears. extended his arms towards Heaven. : . and then rising. the hopes. and then the first Session closed . This being ended. to consider and influence the fate of the Catholic Church.

Thus It far it we have treated of the Council externally. or who really represent a Catholic society. less universally. 1. — — — — — 3. all and in this respect tions. for instance. representatives of bygone ages and of ages yet to come.il Council. what do the American bishops in the same position ! really represent in connection with the titles of their dioceses ? Bishop of New York represent in Church? or. II.— December. Condition of Christendom. The longest interval without an 7. Causes of its — — 10. Present state of affairs. Character of this meeting about the Council. not to take the countries known to be anti-Catholic. was indeed splendid. Importance of the assembly.— THE 1. how many are the French bishops able to feel themselves pastors of the whole or the greater What. If the West has remained Christian. . yet more really in some parts of Germany. the Council. IMPORTANCE OF THE ASSEMBLY. with intentions and purposes of all parts such vast importance. ready to bend before him. or even a true Catholic majority? Among the great nations of Europe such a state of things could only be found in Italy. Reasons for the convocation of 4. met together at a period of highly-developed civilisation. But if one turns from these thoughts to bare matters of fact from the contemplation of externals to that of the subject in itself the Bishop of Chicago does not represent a Catholic — Chicago. or more probably in Spain in Ireland and Poland.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 5. any more than the Patriarch of Babylon represents a Catholic Babylon. sent Catholic societies but how many of the other bishops are Leaving out of the question all the prelates in partibus infidelium. since the . 9. It is no wonder that these two extreme examples do not repre. The Catholic party. 6. Bull of ConA^ocation. and to encounter on the threshold of the Vatican (as a French writer has observed) the Patriarch of Babylon and the Bishop of Chicago. divisions. 8. — — 2. Causes that brought Ecumenic. nevertheless. does the face of the Catholic or universal part of their flock. 2. and surpassed expecta- from was a marvellous sight to behold so many dignitaries of the world assembled at the Pope's invitation. if they be reckoned as nations. and lastly.

the Councils of Nicea. and thus throw numbers into revolution ? Such thoughts occupied all earnest minds. We repeat. which was the second stage of disunion. so as to embrace the greater portion of mankind within the Church. or would it — choose a narrow limit. nor later. from the opening of the Council. England. And the reason for this success is. is that which. not indeed at once but eventually. when. because for them both the moment and the subject were most serious. which was the first stage of disunion . and Chalconvened. or the Council of Trent the Reformation in the West. eighth century. What attitude would the Vatican Council assume with respect to this new phase how would it face this danger ? Such was the great problem which every one. and restrain the advance of Protestantism. triumphed and accomplished the end for which they were Thus. we may call by the generic name of Revolution. the Council of Florence. many great nations or races have detached themselves by degrees. sion. which for nearly a still Catholicism in the countries remaining having as yet no other designation. Would the Council proceed on a principle of selection or of elimination ? Would it take a wide limit. and no traces of those errors remain at the present day. The third phase. and cost the Catholic Church the loss of Germany. was endeavouring to solve. yet undoubtedly other Councils have. with but transitory exceptions. could hinder the schism of the East. with finally more or less difficulty. cedon really conquered. the question at stake was to decide whether the Catholic nations of Europe are. nor could the Council of Trent bring back the German races to the fold. and through Australia.8 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and that faith. the Catholic or universal Christian faith reached its culminating point. — 3. Ephesus. from and no Councils have been able to prevent their secesNeither the fourth Council of Constantinople. them of America and century has menaced to it. according to their separate tendencies and characteristics. are not to have a religion but a real religion in common. and be in harmony with their customs and institutions. the errors they condemned. that every time . Scandinavia. far more so than was apparent to superficial observers. If the Council of Constantinople did not prevent the schism of the East. or not a nominal or outward form merely. which should be manifest in their actions. [December.

she conquered with more or less ease. which for it. of the Council not so easily perceived at the opening and in order to form some conjectures and make an approximate judgment. to be sought principally in the calm which followed the crisis of the stormy Reformation. in the religious apathy which . To which of these two cases does the present state of things appertain ? Under what external and internal conditions has the Vatican Council assembled to meet the difficulty.] the Catholic EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. because in such a case the principle of authority embodied and represented the interests of the great majority of Catholics. the Church had some to confront great interests. Church had to 9 oppose a mere error of judgment. and to observe the present course of its deliberations. however. because there is Church ? no doubt that behind every inquiry suggested in the Council there lies a great social question of deep moment at the present day. yet weighty tendencies of a race or nation. it arising simply from differences of opinion. involving an immense amount of living interests. From the foundation of the this. then those tendencies strengthfinally ened the error which mentality. The second answer was there never Church up to the present time had been so long a period without the assembling of an Ecumenical Council. in those ages especially when they could find expression in no other way.December. it was necessary to review all that had preceded it. or by furnishing a pretext manifested it to the world. and how will its deliberations affect the progress of society and of the To find the first answer is not difficult. a just view may be obtained of the different powers fighting in the camp of Theology. sacrifice purely speculative differences for the sake When. . who were ready to of unity. according to its greater or less importance. Many reasons can be adduced for 5. old as the W of the old yoke. and in the other. and the general or partial. opposition to the If to all this new ? be added the consideration of the other great interests and secondary combinations also at work. intolerance tience for the future ? sentiments. that triumphed through their instru- Who does not recognise in the two great schisms have rent the Christian world the manifestation of those human race. either gave rise to error. pride in the past and impaho does not see in the one. 4.

the Vatican Council might prove her last deliberative assembly and her meetings. which had hitherto formed a monarchy. when troubles in Italy seemed to threaten her political existence. It is undeniable that the spontaneous act of the Pope in calling together the Council. But the political condition of Europe being such as to prevent her obtaining assistance from . Whoever doubted Indeed. and therefore. might become simply consultative. must logihave doubted also the character and disposition of the episcopate. But (without going into further particulars) the main reason is that the Church. the good-will of the Pope in the matter being apparent. 7. should If. turned for help. only slightly tempered and from this came the unwillingness.10 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. was an act of liberal tendency in the path of absolutism. by a further process of discussion. Rome. and even dislike. rather a solemn ceremony than a real event in the economy of the Church. cally the good effects of the Council. like the consistory of cardinals. [Decembek. because that is founded in the combined opinion of many rather sort of constitutional . and in the fact that the authority of the Pope having been secured on this occasion. though weakened in other respects . which resulted in the position of the bishops being strengthened as regards their flocks. as also in the great difficulty of calling together a General Council. . — than in the absolute power of one. after the last experiment at Trent. emerged from the Council of Trent by virtue of constant and progressive explanation and discussion as a monarchy. changing their character. and without the means of retaining them. subsequently shown to the assembling of her States-General. finding her territories slipping from her grasp. as she has always done in similar to the other Catholic nations. perils. In the year 1859-60. and a step in advance towards a larger and more complete restoration of the ecclesiastical constitution. in summoning this assembly his action was entirely free and spontaneous. the Church become an absolute monarchy. when nothing obliged him to do so. and when the episcopate generally was attached and subservient a step backwards to his wishes. he had no wish to expose it to another trial. 6. prevailed in the latter centuries. though up to a certain degree he may have been influenced by the force of circumstances.

with the world as now existing . in fact. such as the promulgation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.. the traditional policy of the Church oif Rome. had drawn most of its The adherents from the world that was past. and fought with good success against the adverse march of the times. . and all Cabinets of Europe.] the EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and the canonizing of consolidation was also assisted new saints. and created service. and a clear and definite programme. 8. and kept in Rome by means of the different gatherings held there on various occasions. of other means of influence . the centenary of St. a cosmopolitan which combined the strongest interests and passions. From this beginning there sprung. and was no sooner it arrayed for the combat than found itself in collision felt. to act Catholic party. or rather rose again. Peter. the so-called Catholic party. the shock was soon and was as violent as the toleration of the present age admitted. The Society of the Jesuits was an excellent instrument in the cause. which was renewed every year. Its by the institution of " Peter's pence " for replenishing the Papal finances. instead of to the moment) In that appeal she availed herself of the press. Rome addressed herself (with her peculiar power of adaptation to the exigencies of the to public opinion. 11 various Governments. instead of the Holy Alliance. since in so nearly connected as necessarily the Papacy the two powers are on one another. by civil and religious festivities. and of its authority and extension in all parts of the world. on account of its unique and extraordinary discipline. shifted for its its ground. field of politics All this could not be accomplished without quitting the and entering upon that of principles. though remaining essentially the same. Catholic party. by the issue of different publications and newspapers. which rapidly increased till it presented a well-organised body. which naturally personified the principle of absolute authority. December. and by many other means in fact. by the enrolling of the Zouaves for a short period of service. otherwise difficult to obtain. disciplined. with a strong will. she adopted the policy of partisanship instead of diplomacy. which enabled it to work in the matter with a unity of aim and action. of public meetings. This party was then constant communication with moulded.

and the barracks of the Zouaves were blown into the air. and was aware of the important help to be drawn him. maintain the equanimity in action which. 10.* * and dangerous moment See Ajipendix. 9. . On the 29th of June. he had from them in the present difficulty found many of the prelates favourably inclined towards an Ecumenical Council. Only the Bishop of Orleans seemed to view the course of events with some anxiety. it was too late to check the progress of events. being placed at the mercy of her defenders. on several occasions he had already been brought into contact with great assemblies of the bishops. the apostolic letter for the assembling of the Council was published . nor could she. Documeut I. . notwithstanding her authoritative position. which he indicated in his sibylline treatise on the Encyclical but it was of little avail. of Mentana. The retrograde step embodied in the declaration of the spirit of the Encyclical. and no one in the Church either raised objections or suggested doubts. had become familiar with them. she had hitherto preserved. a few months after Garibaldi had reached the gates of Rome. or perhaps even on account of it. trated beyond the walls of the city even to the doors of the Vatican. both combined to render the Pontiff more than ever desirous of finding in the episcopate a real help and support. having chosen this most grave for its convocation. showing wonderful reliance in his own destiny. all minds being occupied with the peril that threatened the temporal power. and of ob- taining the aid and advice of the whole Church for the purpose of lightening the responsibility that weighed so heavily upon Moreover. besides which. the Pope. [December. 1868. and the pastoral letters of some of the French bishops. times. for the impetus being now given.12 EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. Rome was unable to moderate the ardour of this conflict. While the religious movement was in its first stage and only showed itself in the pages of the Civilta Cattolica. when revolution had pene. had studied their opinions and dispositions. —that the Pope could not follow the — and the results of the unfortunate battle and officially. the Lhiivers. the Encyclical and the Syllabus came to light. not only privately but formally and solemnly.

14. Impression it produces. places harassed. who were in some sion for inducing the entire episcopate either to accept their views. Nomination of the Commissions. Its article of February tion and Padre Giacinto's letter. and the energy with which they had successfully fought for the interests besides. 7. thinking that the bishops. 12. party. The Catholic party easily acceded to the plan. tants 5. The idea mind from the of the Council sprang naturally in the Pope's desire of finding some shelter from the storms which beset him. 11. and publications of the anti-Infallibilist 13. the larger number inclining to the other opinion. Public opinion with matters not of imme- diate consequence. First official document. and also to form some conjectures though in these caution is necessary as to the direction in which it would probably move. and would readily meet the wishes of the party.— . and from them is and official acts of the easy to judge of the intentions and aim of the assembly. 9. — The programme of the 6th. 3. the present seemed a favourable occaof the Church in others found their powers diminished. and trusted that it might devise some remedy for the evils is which had been so long slow in these days to concern itself impending. Council is unfolded. — — 2." or a still smaller body of " prudent " men. Objects of the Council. Hospitality oflfered to the bishops. that which was sounding the dangers that threatened the temporal power. some viewed with unfavourable eyes the calling together of any assembly that could possibly be dispensed with but these were a few incorrigible members of the " Curia.— THE 1. or at least to It is true that become participators in their responsibility. turned for help to ihe Ecumenical Council. The rest of the Church having for the last eight years heard but one note of alarm. on account of the work they had done. — — 10. 6. The Archbishop of Westminster. 2. Further remarks on the same matter. and of lightening the burden of his heavy responsibilities. MEETING OF THE COUNCIL. Invitation to Protesand schismatical bodies. .] eight MONTHS AT ROME. The — — —— — — Civilta Cattolica. Decembicr. 4. — 1. We now come to the it public Council. 8. 13 III. reflections and did not trouble itself with any far-sighted on the subject of the assembly. . Proceedings of foreign ambassadors. — — — The Fulda proclamaPastoral of the Archbishop of Paris.

in all who should attend. in which it was decided that the ambassadors should not be present at the Council. as to tiations permission for the Polish bishops to attend the Council. From these preliminaries it gradually became evident that the great questions which divide Christendom would meet with no solution in a Council. by whom his expulsion from the Roman States was demanded as one of the conditions preliminary to the grant by the Czar of his " exequatur. the permission was . 4. desire for their presence. if the story be true.14 3. nor did the bishops ever arrive. was customary at all great ceremonies. not granted by Russia. from whose deliberations they were excluded one after the other. determined that as at the public Sessions a particular tribune. amount of participation in the deliberations of the Council and the publications of the Lihro giallo (yellow book) confirmed the acceptance of these conditions by the two parties reciprocally interested in the lil)orty of Church and State. but this attempt failed to be . rather with the pretence of all Christian denominations in its assembly. . a Polish priest. to the An invitation to join the Council was then sent Protestant and schismatical bodies. and. it was easy to come to an agreement on this point. but that the Secretary of State should keep them informed of all the business that was transacted. Further negowere carried on for a time with some hope of success. . nevertheless. who were obliged to rest satisfied with this . The was invitations were declined with more be expected." The priest was banished but. A Congregation of cardinals was held. its only result was to victimise an innocent person. An attempt was made to obtain from the Russian Government or less courtesy. than with any expectation that they would come for the letters were couched in terms which presupposed entire submission to Rome including . but these also proved in the end abortive. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. was on the propriety of admitting the ambassadors of Christian Sovereigns but as the Pope had very little and the several Governments had no wish to meddle in the matter. should be reserved for the diplomatic body. who happened obnoxious to the Russian Government. A great interchange of notes and despatches followed and it was finally to the meetings of the Council . [December. One of the first discussions that took place.

7. " " the secularisation " and. refused. 30th of June. At . of education " the increase of Sectarianism . finally. as the Pope had announced in his first allocution on the subject addressed to the bishops assembled for the Centenary of St.] 5. " " the confiscation of ecclesiastical property . Peter. " the corruption and impiety of . courteously . 15 The Papal Bull. as being able to dispense with it without thereby sufferthe Council it ing inconvenience. and to what end the Council was directed as a means of discipline. enumerates (in liturgical compilation) the reasons for assembling the Ecumenical Council as follows : — " The horrible threatening society and the Church tempest {horrihili tempestate) " " the authority of the .December. 1867. " the insults offered to the clergy . EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. served to defray the heavy expenditure occasioned by the Council. manners. amounting to several million francs. and placed at its head the Cardinal-Vicar of Rome the before the opening of the . 8. 1868. Apostolic See trodden under foot . 6. in part and by others. the Pope instituted a Congregation of cardinals to undertake all the preliminary work. and the unbridled license of thought. offering entirely Pope addressed a circular to the them hospitality this was accepted by some by others." " the perversity of the press " . it will be obvious how he viewed the matter with regard to dogma. the same time the bishops. : . in the its vestibule of the Vatican Basilica. the others being indebted to him for lodging only. . If it be borne in mind that the Council was convened on the day dedicated to the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. a short while Council some of the faithful had imagined a way of meeting the expense. " " the abolition of religious " corporations . so as to be under her patronage. At the opening of was reckoned that about three hundred bishops were guests of the Pope. again. published on the 29th June." also alludes to the discipline Further on it and instruction of the clergy. This was by instituting a festival on the fiftieth anniversary of the first mass celebrated by the Pope and the immense amount of money collected on the occasion. Before the meeting of the assembly. but as such a contingency had been foreseen. half of them living entirely at his expense. It hospitality cost the Pope's private exchequer about was calculated that this 2500 lire a day .

10 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. of the [Decemhei. and was commonly reckoned among the six principal Commissions. Bilio. and his commission remained on one side. that on Ceremonial being omitted as of little moment. under the Cardinal-Vicar . whose duty it was to classify the matters to be treated of in on Dogma. The members counsellors chosen in Rome received. deal of public attention by reason of the important nature of its subjects. information as to Commissions were theologians and by the Pope and the Committee of cardinals and in different Catholic countries. however. under the strictest seal of secrecy. displeasing to the authorities. and was not inteIt attracted. either fully or by degrees. these. under Cardinal Bizzarri Ceremonial. of course. notice was sent to the bishops of a fixed and limited number of subjects to be discussed in the Council. Together with the creation of these Commissions. members body being eight — Reisach.. and Capalti. Bizzarri. . under Cardinal Caterini. gregations. in the official organs. and all mention of it was omitted It was thus consigned to oblivion. PaneSix of these were bianco. They. in great measure. notwithstanding that its members had already commenced much business. as the Index were treated of in a large and liberal and the result was that after a few meetings it entirely It remained in public opinion as one of the six Condropped. Prefect of the Congregation " De Propaganda Fide . Caterini. themselves presidents of other Commissions branching out from it. — Commission Reisach Affairs of the East. though perhaps wrongly. first. but he was not included in the Directive Congregation. of these the matters to be treated of in the Council. under the presidency of Cardinal de Luca. important both in matter and in the manner of its affairs relating to the transaction. according as they were prepared in Rome. a good grally connected with the others. the Pope appointed a Commission on Biblical Studies and the Revision of the Index. The fact is. under Cardinal Syllabus was attributed) the Council in the following order ." Religious Orders. Besides Ecclesiastical Discipline. under Cardinal Bernabo. . the compilation of the Ecclesiastical Policy. but had no status. that they might have the oppor- . from the spirit. under the presidency of Cardinal Bilio (to whom. that the management of this Commission seemed. : Bernabo.

and a portion of the c . Having reached this point." in which." it set forth a full exposition of its own views on all the subjects that were The Jesuits had. own lot. and regarding which they would shortly be called to pass judgment but the reply from the Vatican was. 10. Rome and in Germany against this system which kept the bishops in ignorance of matters on which they had a right to give their opinion. which ever since the recent Italian troubles had fought valiantly for the Papacy. restrictions and things without fear of contradiction. the but. the Civilta Cattolica exercised great influence and especially in the Vatican this paper was a periodical compiled by the Jesuits. the press in Europe. these latter Much was said both in of concealment. The result of this was to place the bishops at a disadvantage with reference to those theologians who were admitted being also officially to a more intimate knowledge of the confell to cerns of the Council than their their inferiors. though many of their order were among the members but by reason of this. and of their authority in those assemblies. the ideas of their organ acceptable to the preparatory Commissions. For some time past. the Civilta Cattolica determined to pursue its advantage. should be the programme of the future Council. indeed. and fortified by the official " imprimatur. Vatican maintained absolute silence towards the bishops with regard to the matters for debate. and that the greatest reserve was necessary for fear of any interference from .] tunity of studying EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 17 saving these. being under a favourable aegis. that these being subjects on which the Pope voluntarily consulted the bishops. difficulty in making . without fear of opposition. and began openly to manifest their intentions. and commenced a series of heading of " Matters pertaining to the articles under the Council. and to show. what in their opinion. them beforehand . . it took an imposed on the press active part in preparing and directing the preliminaries of . notwithstanding the consequently. the manner and time of the communication must be left entirely to him. in the Church.December. the Council. found some to be treated of. Meanwhile. they felt confident of ultimate success. and was able. a spirit of opposition to this sort of dictatorship had arisen in the Church. without circumlocution. to discuss sundry persons 9.

last ten years. had caused serious apprehensions. [Decembkr. in extenuation of the mistake. Document II. and the dispute was from that moment carried on by the press with an eagerness very unusual Catholic Opposition broke forth openly the first. under the heading of " French Correspondence. The articles of the Civilta CattoUca. that the party represented by that periodical had become uneasy it as to the ultimate success of the Council. The Civilta itself CattoUca endeavoured. as emanating from Rome. which announced that the work being all arranged. . this reply was of no avail. had hitherto dragged on a painful and had been reduced to silence by the events of the now again showed signs of life. 18 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME." giving clearly and exactly the whole programme of the Vatican Council. See Appendix. and. or a large propositions. and tended to increase this feeling of mistrust wherever it existed. 1869. between the absolutism of the so-called Catholic party on the one hand. on the 6th of February. and announcing that its principal objects were the declaration of the Syllabus. of the Infallibility of the Pope. . and it was April number. and would be of short duration. it is certain that hitherto there had prevailed in Rome full confidence in the power of the Vatican majority. the Council would have little further to do. to excuse said. fearing that their wishes.* At this. and the opinion of the Church so evident. openly refuting those ideas as injurious to the episcopate.. an article was published. and the general carelessness of Freethinkers on the other. However that may be. till at length. so that the intelligence of these was most unexpected. and the article remained as the signal of assault. among the Bishop of Orleans known. the existence. for differences of opinion * to obtain a unanimous consent. No one could imagine the reason of such an indiscreet and inopportune because premature attempt on the part of the Civilta CattoUca . as is well in such matters. . Liberal Catholics who. and of the Assumption of the Virgin and a further notice caused yet more astonishment. in the by saying that the letter in question was only the production of a French correspondent but being entirely in accordance with the well-known opinions of the paper. had adopted this pressed — forcing the all its might not coincide with means of as it is sometimes ex- — situation.

The pamphlets. is the ablest among the French documents. by those even who disliked it most. were treated in a hasty manner. articles. . or the indifference of the Italian character.December. took no notice of the work. acting with magnanimity and shrewdness. as emanating from a reunion of the higher orders of the Church. drawn up in a broad and liberal spirit. . by the advice of influential friends. able to the . being the fragment of an animated disquisition.* It was signed by the bishops of all the principal sees in Germany. and from its nature was only adapted for publication in the newspapers. and. for that very reason. and was the only protest which had hitherto appeared bearing a local. 19 letters. Dupanloup sharply but courteously disapproved it the French Catholic Liberals were silent on the matter and Father Giacinto. It was a letter written by a Carmelite friar. not of individual the first ecclesiastical opinion. in which the subjects. and carries the most weight I its language and style were displeasing at Rome. strength of the Opposition increased . J Unci Document V. but . Document IV. This document. was the pastoral or proclamation of German bishops dated from Fulda. but great document in a moderate sense of any importance. and this. ecclesiastical world. and pastorals succeeding one another with rapidity. though somewhat intricate and diffuse. neither think lightly nor act rashly. the first document emanating from France was of a noisy and personal character. it attracted the attention of the profane. The number and this opinion. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Rome. instead of being calmly argued. Next in order comes the pastoral letter of the Archbishop of Paris. and not merely a personal character. 12. * See Appendix. Father Giacinto and.f It was not accept. | Ibid. c 2 . by natural disposition. went off to America. but of the majority of those Catholic populations who. was the expression. fortunately for them. Document HI. that by reason of the authority of its subscribers it was considered entirely beyond the reach of censure. On the other hand. as it nature of the signatures bore testimony to was evident that some of them were affixed to the document only by reason of the strong force of public opinion in their country and the pastoral itself was in every respect so well and forcibly framed.] 11. are not afflicted either with the levity of the French.

where alone the Opposition has held its ground and maintained a constant and local character. The Pope and the Council. * Sec Appendix. such a religious excitement had not been seen for years. they were not conformable to Roman doctrine. . which had hitherto remained quiescent. ardent official apologist . " Janus " was put in the Index. was of great importance. that the bishop should find the exercise of his championship so difficult. Italy. were not only written on the subject of the . how characteristic is it of the times. in his pastoral. observe.* his pamphlet. and Rome. in France. entitled. The book by the Bishop of Sens. was prohibited though the Congregation did not consider its tenets reprehenWe may sible. it [December. from its subject. The General Council and Religious Peace. other document he more explicit.' next appeared and then a publication in Germany. if only the Western nations had a more lively feeling of religion and. the most complete exponents of the plan of Opposition. after appeared the publications of the Bishop of letter to Veuillot. Orleans —his pastoral. The two books above mentioned are. All sorts of stories were circulated. What a grand office might that be. special organs of the Press opposed with great vigour that paper which had for so long held possession of the field. from and from the distinguished position of its author. The question was more hotly debated every day and in addition to these clear and decided expressions of public ! ' . Documout VI. and becomes once more the he constitutes himself the head or champion of Liberal Catholic opinions in the Latin world. on the contrary. and his fiery is The defender of the temporal power. next to the pastoral from Fulda.' besides many other works of a Liberal Catholic tendency. under the assumed name of Janus. its moderate Shortly spirit.20 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and the sale or circulation of Maret's work the Secretary of the Index declaring that. ' . opinion. and the latter really sets forth the programme of Catholic resistance in Germany. that the two works thus severely reprobated. and Germany. Monsignor Maret. in fact. now seemed fully aroused. entitled. however. for it is worthy of notice. envelops his repugnance to the doctrine of personal Infallibility with many expressions of devotion to the Holy See in the .

in which he supported the doctrine most vehemently. of the Pope's personal Infallibility. and at first maintained beyond all expectation. with a view of modifying the authority of the different orders of the hierarchy. sense addressed to The CattoHca. Council. but Monsignor Manning. public Father. at least for the way in which they were brought forward. it was a Papal opinion. and of the Assumption of the Virgin in soul and body that being the series of propositions announced on the 6th of February by the Civilta Cattolica. The it principal support of the Syllabus lay in the fact that act. certain 21 it. wishing to supplement this deficiency." its only exposition had hitherto been carried on in the pages of the Civilta Cattolica . There may have been exaggeration in this belief but whether the prevalent rumours were true or false. by reason of the secrecy imposed. and with the intention of promoting the advance of the Church from the possession of a limited to that of an absolute sovereignty. The result of all these — . as the Bishop of Orleans was of those who opposed it. and the Ujuia Cattolica sufficed minor publications of the Opposition. without the risk of seriously affecting the authority of the Holy As to the question of " Infallibility. polemics was to lift in some degree the thick veil which ecclesiastical secrecy had so closely drawn over the mysterious work of the Committees. by his activity and energy he became the principal champion of the supporters of Infallibility. and the public began openly to discuss the questions of the Syllabus." and of " the Syllabus. and the opportune moment chosen for their expression. Nevertheless. but without any certainty of their accuracy. casting aside all secondary considerations. His opinions on the point were already known. Anecdotes and opinions were circulated. public attention. the work of the Committees was shrouded in profound darkness from the gaze of the outer world. fastened on the questions of " personal Infallibility. Archbishop of Westminster.December. if not for the ideas themselves. Indeed. wrote a pamphlet. To these was added a scheme of clerical reformation." 14.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. carried considerable weight. but were in a Civilta to confront the other 13. the Univers. and once brought before the Council by could scarcely be afterwards invalidated. . and by reason of his rank in the Church.

— Italian episcopate. 9. — — with regard to Opposition. Opportune declaration. Nomination of tie presi- French 16. Manning was [Decembek. the Pope made an allocution. 13. . 7.— THE RULES 1. Their description. — — — 2. The same subject. 4. and as the solemn opening of the Council drew near. — On 12. document was When the bishops were assembled. it seemed likely that his authority would be somewhat diminished in the estimation of that portion of the clerical world whose principles. 8. 2. and on this occasion the published. the On the 2nd of December all Pope convened a preparatory meeting of Sistine the fathers in the Chapel. 14. — dents and other officials. bishops thronged in greater numbers to for the . and not only joined : became Archbishop of Westminster none are so devoted as converts and the fact of having been in error the first half of his life did not hinder his becoming in At any rate. the 11th of April appeared the second Papal document which concerns the Council the apostolical letters announcing the Jubilee * to be enjoyed by all Catholics during its Session. The 1. Document VII. Objections to the order. — The day Rome . — — — — The French episcopate. See Appendix. 11. — 5. Objections to the 10. 15. The same subject. as a preliminary to the opening of the third public Council. Jubilee aud preliminaries. Considered nominations. the municipality invited the citizens to hail the auspicious event with rejoicings and festivities. — German episcopate. ordering the public prayers which are usual on great occasions and lastly. as the latter an ardent advocate of Infallibility. being conservative. the Cardinal-Vicar issued an edict on November 18th. — their nationality. IV. Position of parties. his antecedents justified the supposition that he was lacking in the traditional ecclesiastical spirit which is seldom acquired save by early habit and long usage. 17.— 6.22 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. AND CONDITIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY. not long since a Protestant. judgment. other Catholic bishops. 3. are best able to exercise a calm and impartial the Catholic Church. though more vaguely. but . Order of the Council. in which he again * reverted. First Papal allocution. a presumption further supported by his own immoderate restlessness.

— Fathers. Foremost among these of the all is that which orders " all officials Councils. attend and from such is required the further obligation list of an oath. 3rd. 4. but with That they be previously communicated in writing to a Congregation of cardinals and bishops specially deputed for this purpose. containing all the regulations for which is document its managethe Fathers. servants at its meetings by reason of some office. The appropriation of seats then followed. archbishops.] EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. That they be in harmony with the mind and traditions of the Church. is of the Council. theologians. saying it was " to supply a remedy for the many evils which disturbed the Church and copies society. the abbati generali and Generals of Orders followed in succession in the hierarchy. . to the aim of the Council. according to which. or. That they be of general importance. 2nd. doctors others of the sacred Canons. and or who in any way assist the Fathers and work of the Council. not themselves bishops. The patriarchs." official dated November 27th. the cardinals. . * See . are either of the Council. not to divulge manifest to any outside the Council. the same injunction is repeated who." to those Further on. the abbati nuUiuSy and lastly. Document VIII. That they can be shown to be opportune. and thus seven tiers of seats were arranged in the Council Hall corresponding to the same ranks Appendix. the right. occupy the first places. the power of proposing questions the following stipula- conceded to the : tions 1st. primates. " Multiplices the fourth inter. 23 and with fewer details." * On and this occasion. or the discussions or opinions of any the aforesaid officials in the that are present. the fathers received of the apostolic letter.December. Document IX. yet enjoy the privilege of a seat the Roman who being without and the power of voting in the Council. 4th. is In the same of rules. the decrees or other matters to be examined. t Ihid. ment. bishops. not possessing the episcopal dignity.! 3. to by reason of a singular prerogative peculiar Curia.

the notaries. Capalti.a 24 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. the sub-secretary. Reisach. a German professor of Canon Law in Vienna and with him. The subject to the control of a Congregation. to mainand thus terminated the preparatory meeting which preceded the opening All the officials swore to fulfil their obligations and . 5. who were the two princes assisting at the Pontifical Throne. the prohibition against leaving Rome was interpreted as an attempt to shorten the duration of the Council suggestion for which the Civilta Cattolica had been much blamed and as an endeavour to prevent any actual protest against the work of the Vatican. Some. went still further resistance and of the attack. The Order produced a most unfavourable impression on . though 8. shorthandassistants. examiners of voting papers. writers. the greater part of the bishops in Opposition distrusted the article they especially by which the power of their absence from initiating a ques- tion was to be subordinated to a Congregation of cardinals. and the guardians of the Council. They — — . and predicted that scandals would arise in the Church in consequence. In the same act the following cardinals were appointed Bilio. tain the secrecy prescribed in the apostolic letter of the Council. beginning with the Secretary. promoters of the Council. and that one which prohibited Rome during the Order left no way open for legal opposition and it was reported by tale-bearers in the city. was an unexpected Council. who took exaggerated they added to the vigour both of the views. and were determined. . power of initiative given to the bishops. . 7. said that the . Colonna and Roman Orsini. masters of the ceremonies. and that they would take every means of subduing the Opposition. 6. and along with them the other officers of the Council. the Pope being with them. that the dominant party would use it for their own advantage. Above all. De Luca. and were therefore released from the obligation of residing in their dioceses for that time. The Fathers were forbidden by the regulations to leave Rome during the sittings of the Council. the clerks. advocates. the Bishop of Sant Ippolito Monsignor Fessler. [December. but to maintain it to the end. presidents of the Council : — and Bizzarri. the . not only to adhere to their programme.

Of these by far the greater number represented the Roman Curia. In fact. — . De Rauscher. to be brought before the Council. There were cardinals : Patrizi. Moreno. pretending only to be of secondary consideration. the Archbishop of Tours. it was evident that this Congregation. Archbishop of Westminster. of the Opposition. and Antonelli these. which had the power of allowing or preventing discussion on these proposals. in consequence. and of the most strenuous supporters of the prerogative of the Vatican to serve in the Congregation. who. Monaco. . in all twenty-six Fathers.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. a bishop from Chili. 9. Angelis. and the strength of the contending factions was The Opposition were fully aware of anxiously reckoned up. Di Pietro. Riario Sforza. constituted an assembly which. even those of serious import- ance. apprehensive. most of the matters . its 25 concession. Archbishop of Baltimore. from their pastoral office and practical knowledge of the needs of their people. The Congregation. Archbishop of Malines. without appeal.December. and the Opposition were scarcely represented at all some of the bishops clearly inclined to the Catholic party. really judged them a priori in a more absolute manner than the Council itself. in virtue of the number and rank of its members. Barili. increased by the fact all that the persons composing this Commission as well as the others were almost exclusively drawn from the ranks of the majority. such as the propositions of the bishops. the members twelve clared. All this did not escape the notice of the Opposition and the appointment of so many cardinals. Corsi. in reality had the power of determining. their small number. already existing. Cullen. The fears and hopes of the different parties grew stronger day by day. and were. but value was greatly diminished and the feeling of mistrust. taking also into account the disfavour . the Bishops of Valenza and Paderborn. little inclined to favour the proposals of the Congregations were de- A De little later. and besides Manning. might often bring forward questions well worthy of consideration. which. Bonnechose. and others were of no particular shade of opinion. and the rest of the Commissions being two Oriental Patriarchs composed of Italian bishops making. caused great alarm among those who were already .

well to it remember how the bishops were from group themselves in their meetings according to their nationality. presentatives of the small Catholic nationalities. in consequence of all they have suffered from the effects of the revolution they are drawn towards it as a person stumbling in darkness. 12. and almost all the re. and only twenty of the Italian favoured the Opposition. but . as the Spanish bishops could not be counted on in as yet this respect. and thus by their separate action they indicated their views and their dispositions. it All these estimates were. showed them in the Order of the Council. . and more determined among them constituted the Opposition. predominated with different graas also among most of the in the small body of English bishops. they would be as one to two. but scarcely among the North American among the Orientals with but slight exceptions among the bishops in partihus . and doubting which way to go. properly so called.26 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Glancing at the assembly. [Decembek. leaving out of the calculation all the bishops of undetermined opinion. it appeared that. but if considered only with regard to those who decidedly opposed them. taking it as a whole. In making these reflections. and owing to this inclination the strength of Gallicanism has been weakened. for difficult to was very form any with accuracy. the opinions of the rest were of a less decided character. the Opposition might be reckoned as one-fourth or onedifficult for fifth . . The obtain that number. or the Infallibilist. for massed together. was their habit the time of their arrival in Rome to . rendered it very them to carry out their designs. shared the like views. The Catholic party. The French bishops have certainly a leaning towards Rome. turns eagerly to the light that shines from afar to guide him. immature. however. as it tried to designate itself. 10. excepting the Portuguese. One of its members reckoned that if they had been able to draw over to their opinions fifty Italian or Spanish prelates they might have held their own in the contest but it was not easy to . The same opinions prevailed among all the South American bishops. and those who though nominally adherents of the majority were still susceptible to the influences exercised by the other side. more strongly among the Irish. it is 11. dations in the Spanish episcopate French and Italians.

Only the Archbishop of Paris. among the rest of the Catholic episcopate . without radical modification. always desirous of increasing her influence. it . partly from his dignified position. turned not unnaturally towards Ronae for two reasons first. as well as there. The exaggerations of the Catholic party have too often the result of exposing its ecclesiastical adherents to the danger of witnessing the gradual diminution of their flocks. he became the centre and rallying-point of all that yet remained of the old . However. on account of the preponderating authority which their numbers and importance would give them there the result of a pure . their ministerial office. but The bishops. they could not afford to lose any of the influence they possessed and so were restrained from directly opposing the tendency of the age and the general spirit pervading their country. they could not forget that they sidering their own interests. this decided proclivity of the 27 French Church is not and simple abdication of her autonomy. and could not. after the endeavouring to curtail prerogatives still example of their predecessors before the French revolution. however. instead of further. is for the great docility shown of all late by the French prelates towards the Holy See in disputed matters. While. 13. even in those of to which traditionally they had reason for be jealous. because France. and of the in its recent reits solicitude they manifested the Papacy verses. to the Owing Roman Curia. being consistently moderate in his opinions. Gallican Church.December. Accordingly. those bishops who were influenced by the considerations we have indicated. compact and peculiarly Italian nature of the is very exclusive. whereby they have anticipated rather than followed the Ultramontane movement This also accounts afterwards developed in the French Church. formed a sort of confederation. though more in form than in substance. the bishops were thus drawn towards lived in France con. a party distinct from the others. stood firm and partly from his individual qualities. was more likely to support them abroad than at home . diminishing at home. secondly. and that they judged rightly proved by the military occupations in Italy effected by the various French Governments.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Rome. yield to the wishes of the French prelates. feeling their powers a change in its direction.

Their opposition was the most clear. [December. . . Protestantism has the ascendency. because they various tendencies refer only to such differences of we the secret of their wishes. He was better adapted for the position than Darboy. as a rule. serious opposition was that of the German bishops. but simply remained as they always had been. moderate the most disinterested. Germany. because they embodied and represented the made no . with Manning at their head. naturally became the chief. . and difficult position were it not tor the liberty they enjoy. real opinions of the majority of their flocks. The German the influences bishops derived this character of moderation from the fact of their representing a people whose religion had felt of cultivation and progress. among whom the Ultramontanes bore the same proportion as the Liberals among the Spaniards. the bent of his mind. who remained in a sort of isolation. serene and unmoved even by the prospect of a cardinal's hat. they could never hope to exercise much influence in the government of the Church and the most serious.28 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The same state of things does not. disinterested. because they pretended no change of opinions. by reason of his unlimited devotion to Rome. as well as the state of Germany. considerably modified working of Catholicism in that country. and thus Protestantism only works as a rival religion whereas in England. where many of the bishops. because by reason of their antecedents and small numbers. The German bishops are surrounded by Protestants. . sincere. which were well known most sincere. 16. 15. It is unnecessary to remark that in discussing these thought and opinion as the force of circumstances necessarily produces among men. appear in England. The most clear. make themselves famous for their Ultramontane opinions but there is a reason for this. and also to the Protestantism which. but their people are Catholic. and the obligations imposed on him by his literary and social proclivities. and therefore the bishops would hold an isolated prevailing so extensively in the . . and which have little bearing on great and important questions. and they constituted the French Opposition of which Dupanloup. 14. being more Catholic than the Pope himself. and we do not allude to those deliberate individual purposes which it would be unwise to canvass.

and the fact that many of them were educated of Torquemada. it was sometimes remarked that the Irish bishops showed themselves less inclined to the doctrine of Infallibility than the English. the Vatican. ettu qiioque Brute. in greater or less measure. The Belgians in this matter followed the French Monsignor de Merode trod in the steps of Dupanloup. and provided there was no question of of which they are extremely jealous. or surrounded by schismatical Greeks in the midst of wretched and untaught populations. living isolated in heathen countries. Still even they never forgot their country they concealed the independence ideas predominating in . the most reason- able and liberal ideas prevailed among them. As for the Spaniards. than towards that branch of their Church which exists in England only by toleration. fill mi ! The constitution and liberal tendencies of Belgium naturally influenced its representatives. As to the Orientals. is so much gained are satisfied with being simply Ultramontanes. They made a grand display with their splendid vestments.] EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. and both having been champions of the temporal power. became afterwards adversaries of Infallibility. are Liberals. The bishops from the United States have a character of greater simplicity and individuality. 29 which much exceeds that to be found in France.December. '. which is entirely different from that of Europe. They are surrounded by Protestants. . This disposition. it imbued as they are with the traditions for humanity when they The South Americans are merely Spaniards who have crossed the sea and the Portuguese. Indeed. and consequently they are more strongly attracted towards the Vatican. the result of the society in which they live. themselves most subservient to votes to the Ecumenical Council. of citizens of the United States under their ecclesiastical dignity. and sooner or later. rendered them more favourable to the Rome than was expected. the universal centre of their faith. and gave the surest . as well as the little small amount of consideration they enjoy in a country so Catholic as America. showed . for the most part. and are little accustomed to ecclesiastical politics. for clerical life in the colleges of Rome. they naturally looked to Rome as their one object of existence their privileges.

be adduced. real reason of the conduct of the clergy is found in the fact that the Papacy itself is Italian. Romana." and were. The reason for this is to be found in the nature of the traditional education which prevails among the Italian clergy. and in the little experience they had had up to this time of the questions to which modern Various other reasons might also civilisation had given rise. Nor is it so only because the irritation resulting from recent events so worked on their minds as to render that result could only them more devoted adherents of Rome. that if they could reckon fifty hoped and Spanish prelates on their side. simply the Italians. was concerned in many of the questions at stake. they might have but no reliance could be based on the prevail Spaniards and as to the Italians. carry the most weight. with few exceptions. which at the present day has subjects in the most remote corners of the earth.30 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. Italian episcopate might have been the and that those who inclined to the opinions of Maret and of Dupanloup were very few in number. were the only body able to set themselves against the French. it is nevertheless true that the arbiter of the question. could also. [December. If this estimate be incorrect. but the principal one must on no account be forgotten. but essentially. though it occasioned a feeling of displeasure. when it chose. which. and . The . still more devoted to Roman intehaving no dioceses and no flocks in connection with the titles conferred upon them by the Pope. for be of a transitory nature and even . What is the authority which has for centuries commanded the obedience of kings and of nations." There remain. which is that they were Italian. then (leaving out small fractions). could never have accounted for the uniform and coherent line of action which they subsequently adopted. them. beyond any other. bishops in partibus were rests for naturally subservient to the " Curia 17. The. which would be difficult to prove. thej formed together with the Orientals a nucleus directly dependent on the Congregation " De Propaganda Fide. it was impossible (for such an end) to count on the support of more than twenty among Italian to : . not politically. and they being very numerous. We have already alluded to the saying attributed to one of the bishops of the Opposition. The Italian episcopate.

— Predictions. Tlie Roman Curia in regard to the Church. — Election of persons to serve on the Commissions for amendments. 11. — Bull for the election of the Pope. — The great questions under discussion in The the Council. v. — The Papacy essentially Italian. Judges of excuses and compLiints. — 14. First meeting of the Congregations. these events. contrary dispositions began to show themselves in some of the bishops.— FIRST SESSION. which was the 1. that cherished formula of the Catholic party. One question should not prejudice another. the cardinals. Importance of 3. In this state of affairs at the fifth public act of the Council. and on behalf of the Curia to resist the resumption by the Church of her own proper authoritv. and a few Roman prelates. 5. therefore. 1. — Interests of the Papacy and of Italy.— 12. This is the reason why the Opposition of Dupanloup. meet on the whole with any port. it was not prepared to follow its determination to set at open defiance the exigencies of modern society. — 2. the opening Session of the Vatican Council. 4. first 9. It warm sup- seemed. indeed. — The third question. which touches the Pope's authority. In the allocution then held. we come to the ceremony described beginning of this narrative. that if the Italian episcopate were up " to a certain point in accordance with the " Catholic party on the matter of Papal authority. 8. Document X. neither did the Syllabus. prepared to defend the Church from the aggressions of society. found but few followers among the Italian bishops . . 6. Bull the limitation of censures. the :* would contend was again specified * enemy against which it " Ilia impiorum conjuratio See Appendix. — Tiie second question. In the midst of all these conflicting opinions. the Pope.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. but according to an invariable tradition By an assembly of Italian prelates. not occasionally. 13. remained inflexible. its 31 can assemble round throne the dignified representatives of its distant churches for the purpose of acknowledging supremacy ? ? By whom has this authority for many centuries been wielded. for 7. and. 15.— December. Papal allocution at the — — first Session. 10. IQ. — question.

however. After the first Session. on which. Ecclewas maintained here as well as in the Commissions. The style is expansive and full of confidence." An indication vague certainly. " Ecclesia est ipso ccelo fortior. as is shown by the expression. et velamen habens acerrimum adversus sanctam Christi ecclesiam bellum omni scelere imbutum urgere non desinit. All these judges are chosen by the votes of the Fathers in and "judices querelarum. "judices excusationum.." and the dignity of the Papal See is maintained by calling the Council " Unio sacerdotum Domini cum supremo gregis ejus pastore. there followed the voting for the election of the five judges of excuses. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. In the first and second Congregations. Council. 3. but refer the matter to the assembly and the second have to judge any controversies arising between those who are gathered together." is the duty of the to receive ." Particular mention of the City of Rome is also made in the allocution. from which the public were excluded. and as many first of complaints. alluding to the reasons that guided him. opibus potens. under a " velamine." Nothing else was said which could throw more light on the subject. malitiae libertatem. though it was impossible to prevent something transpiring to the public of what occurred in an assembly of seven or eight hundred in these siastical secrecy persons. and citing the examples of Julius II.32 fortis. held on the 10th and 14th of December. and was unfolded the whole work of the Council. by which the Pope. or ordinary assemblies. and examine the procurations and excuses of the absent bishops. 4. and Pius IV. commenced the Congregations. munita [December. 2. the . institutis." According to Conciliar discipline. during the Council. and the applications for leave of absence on just grounds. in the event of liis death during the Council. the barest formalities only being officially known. they do not decide themselves. The most important event in the first Congregation was the publication and distribution of the Papal constitution in the form of a Bull. after mass and the usual ceremonies. but of which the application." was not difficult. " Quae Dei munere tradita non fuit in direptionem gentium. ordained that.

the cities. Bull had been compiled in November. which bhuuld from moment of his death be ipso facto prorogued. Document XI. and under this title ecclesiastical censures were again published. " Apostolicae Sedis. but a church in which to celebrate their worship outside the Porta del Popolo ? These censures refer to last the cases of those who possess prohibited books — of schismatics — of those who appeal a future Council —of those who injure dignitaries — of those who obstruct jurisdiction — of intermeddling with the judgment of eccleto ecclesiastical ecclesiastical laity siastical things or persons — of those who falsify apostolic letters: . 5.* From this document it is clear that some apprehension was the ancient rights and privileges enjoyed by the Curia election of a felt lest at the question. The Pope being well aware of this. JL> . 33 new the Pontiff should be elected as usual by the Cardinals." their abettors. territories. f Ibid.f Every one knows. but published. one against all those who either invade. for would furnish a good moral theme for young students how would it apply to the Roman hotel keepers and to the Pontifical Government. or retain.Dkcemdeu. without any intervention on the part of the Council. and those that give them shelter. These censures are preserved in their ancient style. every one does not know. or who disturb. so that the whole penal ecclesiastical system is maintained intact. beginning with " heretics. Pope should be disputed and called in In his allocution the Pope provides for the Church This was only now in her relations to society. destroy. or retain the supreme jurisdiction therein. abrogates them entirely in the constitution. and in the Bull he provides for the privileges of the Curia in its relation with the Church. or. rather. XH. usurp. who not only give shelter to heretics. places. then comes a special censure against the unauthorised bestowal of absolution in confession and.] eight months AT HOME. or rights that appertain to the Church. The second Congregation was occupied by another Bull on the limitation of censures. This in theology. for themselves or others." with the exception of certain titles which virtually include them almost all. how great in number and how various in character these may be. It is useless to give here the long index * Roman See Appendix. finally.

and of judging all matters touching ecclesiastical discipline. many of those contemplated in the Bull. those that remain include the must be observed that although whole force.34 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. or at least had not thought well to inflict in it some cases? But we must leave such questions to the bishops. It is penal ecclesiastical code in full obvious that the Pope in abolishing some censures. 7. . and those who. twenty-four for each Commission. the names of those who should compose these commissions — were the same subject settled. The infallibility of a single man is a more striking miracle. as solution. and consequently. Commissions are instituted instead of the six that undertook These four are composed of ninety-six the preparatory work. and Religious Orders. it This act one of apparent moderation. it is evident that there are three grand questions of principle before the Council. East. is which may examine for themselves. Discipline. and a greater infraction of the laws of nature. bishops in all. but it certain titles are abrogated. between those who maintain a direct supernatural agency it. while he confirms others. 6. in that liable to limits or contracts the cases punishment. though careless observers might pass them over. What if the Council had not deemed all those acts worthy of punishment. exercises supi'eme authority in matters of discipline. beginning with that on Faith was discussed in the Congregations held on the 20th and 28th. all [December. for the very purpose of exercising it. corresponding to the four parts into which the matters to be treated in the four Council are divided namely. we freely confess ourselves unable to arrive at their In the Brief that regulates the proceedings of the Council. than the infallibility of a large and well-organised assembly under the security . without rejecting believe also in secondary causes. Faith. in all matters. and with such matters the year 1869 drew to a close. From all that has hitherto occurred. on the solution of which very important results depend. Affairs of the In the second Congregation. The first is the ancient conflict always going on in the Church from the earliest ages. and it should be remarked that he thus acts propria motu in the face of the Church assembled in the plenitude of her power.

85 so. in it. previous Councils. should take be in a certain sense reasonable but that away from an individual man the liability to error. will readily agree in the desire for peace. it for us . under one form or another. enters into the its region of dogma. In the first case Faith allies herself with reason. the social As to the question —those who can rightly interpret public opinion. The first matter. and in the hope that some settlement of these social and political questions D 2 . . will find (notwithstanding the prevalent religious indifference) this to be expression. who belong Christian or merely civilised nations. reasonable to believe that God may protects the Church. The and as matter. discussion is neither useful nor desirable certain point 9. office should be infallible. second.December. and as such. the decision has always been in favour of Thus is we have considered the matter as regards Faith. and . the speculative question.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. which in all its results upon conscience among Catholic populahas gone far towards depriving them to of any conscience whatever. that is to say. second question the position of the modern world. It is its clear the ardent longing of society (looking and emphatic beyond the narrow limits of party to the wide interests of nations) for the cessation of that antagonism between the claims of civil and religious authority tions. and this I may call the political question. relatively to the Roman Curia. two opinions has been waged in far. The third touches the position of the hierarchy of the Church. and that the Church in her own . of a strong and severe discipline it is much more is because its the infallibility of a society with regard to itself nature relative. or the practical it is part of the the social question. which is characteristic of humanity. but in its practical application at a approaches the third question. as we believe that God God world. would be an absolute and standing miracle. while that of an It individual is very towards society protects the by cannot be other than absolute. 8. the greater part of its institutions as confronted with the Syllabus this concerns Discipline. the conflict between these the absolute miracle. the second she subdues In the various cases in which. considered as a principle. Indeed.

this strife between the bishops and the Curia has been renewed. limits it should cast out into un- many of those in heart adhering to their ancient 10. almost every time that a Council has been convened to consider her organisation and interests. so viz. shade of opinion. and must. regarded merely in its philosophical aspect. between the dogmas of the Unita Cattolica and those expressions of opinion. other than at [December. that which regards the internal policy of the Church. of faith Besides this. Infallibilists or Anti-Infallibilists. most serious because the displacement of the material aims of great societies. therefore. on the other hand. not Indeed. The bishops assembled in Rome might be of different opinions on the various questions proposed to them but there is one point on which they would all. rather than that in narrowing certainty faith. the authority of the Roman Curia. be considered as dangerous by all of whatever . their constant oscillations between the theories of the Univers and may be found rebellion. in far as ecclesiastical discipline allowed. are especially repugnant to the spirit Everything at this time seemed to strengthen of the age. we consider the external dealings . This was the momentous question now before the Vatican Council. it presents itself to Italians under a special form. should meet the new wants of society by extending itself which do not influence practice. and consequently in resisting and modifying. the alternative of absolutism lot of which seems our day to be the those of the Ba])])cl.. the desire that the discipline of the Church. which is by nature flexible. the preservation and aggrandisement of their own if pre- rogative. to as large a number of adherents as its still it could embrace. AVhen. and most Catholic The strength of the Latin nations is exhausted by countries. . it is undeniable that matters and practices which do not spring from faith. or rather unbridled instincts oscillations which sway backwards for which nothing is sacred and forwards between revolutionary barricades on the one hand and coups (Tetat on the other. is fraught with serious risk to their moral perceptions. notdiminishing.36 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. unlike that in which it appears to other Catholic nations. As to the third question. be inclined to agree. withstanding the marvellous power of the ecclesiastical institutions of the Church.

or. at any fate. But we must leave these almost retrospective reflecand turn to those facts which may enlighten us on the . involved in the question of Infallibility. owing to their recent struggle the episcopate own strength and power. The only portion of to which this observation does not altogether apply. however. what they take away with the other. There is. and which may be termed the instinct of self-preservation that has always existed with varying fate and intensity. and if her sons of all ranks had not been influenced by the spirit of intestine divisions. the and. is an institution by nature profoundly and and in a certain way the most ardent defenders of the Papacy render back with one hand to Italy. Would that both one and the other could comprehend^ easy to understand —that —what. ! . a barrier to this tendency. when of less importance. it will be plainer still.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. what profit might she not have Every day this fact becomes drawn from such a combination and perhaps in the future. no strife would ensue between them. the Italian prelates showed 11. wonderful to relate. had not always had the art of ruining her own productions. in the internal question. indeed. regarded as If Italy an abstraction. they were followed in the by many of the bishops. and from time to time has shown itself in the Church this feeling. as little we have already observed. cardinals. though often subdued and vanquished. On the contrary. and consequently no important change could be effected by the Council. who for many centuries have stood firm as personifying the best organised institution in the and. inclination to join the Opposition. the interests of the " Curia " and the episcopate being here identical. Italian .December. and of late have been less than ever. of the that Church her contact with civil we find the differences between Rome and the episcopate were never very serious. and that is represented by the Pope and the world . and which is has not the same interests as others in this question. clearer to the Papacy and to Italy The Papacy entirely Italian. seems is all power which inevitable should be so directed as to least evil ! effect the greatest good. the tendency of the its own rights. the tions. that on whichever side the balance of power inclined. in 87 society. and for this reason . has again appeared episcopate to enlarge or simply to guard that feeling .

and notwithstanding all the dangers to which it has been exposed l)y the course of recent events. and has them the aid of men and money. enter into which has always mainthe contest with the Roinan Curia tained a firm and inexorable policy. special affinity of the internal policy of the Italian nation. indeed. because it is by no means certain that all parties. though Dupanloup and De Merode. and up to the meeting of the Council they had supported the cause of the Pope unanimously. both of the supporters and the antagonists of Infallibility. has never admitted the slightest change among its members. question of the rela- tions of the foreign episcopate to the Roman Curia is in many ways owing to the complex nature of human interests mixed up with that of Infallibility. who were the principal upholders of These particulars must be borne in his spiritual supremacy. this being here very much the same. to parties. received from . they branched off in two divisions. even the most devoted to Rome. 12. they would never desire to take This part themselves in the supreme direction of the Church. common with the doctrine of have proved the contrary the in. but since has resorted to the means by modern society. mind. They. least modification in its institutions. Still. is a point that has nothing in Infallibility. [Decemder. for the most part. 38 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. continued as ardent champions of the temporal power of the Pope. the leaders of the Opposition. as Manning and Deschamps. were strangers to Italy and to the Curia. never permitted it decrees to be subjected to discussion of help furnished . and had fought valiantly for him in his recent reverses but having reached the cross roads opened before them by the Council. properly so called. . this latter being the ground and the pretext on which the tendencies above alluded to. As long as the Papacy existed by its its its derived from the principle of plication of authority.. traditions. and the appeal made to all Catholic nations. or the . that is. in the course of events. events terests. the force of circumstances has given to those very auxiliaries a new and powerful influence on the Papacy. Church with the inherent strength. the practical apit and the place which it held in the its political organisation of Europe. would invariably consider it their duty to strive for the greater glory of the Italian prelates and that.

we could imagine a fundamental change in the economy of the Church. into the hands of foreigners. of which no one as yet could predict the end. tract is due to the cohesion and tenacity of the Roman Curia. but the manner in which she so actively interferes directly and indirectly. or If for the of the Catholic world. or are to find. will the conditions of the Roman Curia remain as they have been till now. remaining as firmly rooted as ever in the Church.December. it follows that the Papacy. and Italy could not remain indifferent to such a vicissitude. Italy has already committed the mistake of endeavouring (more than was either necessary or advisable) to thrust the Papacy into the hands of foreigners . . because the national preferences that foreigners bring with them would make an intrenched position in the very heart of Italy. However. in the Council. nor benefit the world in general. the world. Perhaps. and would enter upon a new and untried course. in all the most important social and political questions.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. it would lose the traditions that animate it. affecting not her temporal power only. of which and with all countries by turn would try to hold the keys regard to the world at large. But as that is not probable. and that these mistakes have not as yet produced the evil that was to be expected. — — . the change would be detrimental. that are identified with it as its second nature. Italy would neither derive any advantage herself. state of things last? 39 But how long could such a Whatever solutions the other great questions at issue have already found. This contingency rest is not an unimportant one for Italy. birthright of indigenous tradition and losing thereby that which is natural to it and guides it. because if once the Papacy ceased to be Italian. when the course of this religious movement is accomplished ? 13. 14. on more than one occasion. with On her or without modification. but ceasing to be Italian. in such a case. Italy would be as disinterested as other nations. such secondary considerations must not diswhich prove us from those of a more important character . own account such a course would be prejudicial. by surrendering the Papacy. and would change its character as an active agency in become a problem for all. But to resume omitting the consideration of what is convenient for the Church a question which it is not our object to discuss.

and as and under every aspect. should be to connect the religion of the great majority of the Latin race with the increase of their civilisation and the spread of their greatness. At the opening of the Vatican Council it would have been day . or still less to imprint a character of liberal reform on the Council. [December. and exercised a predominant The Liberal Catholics had to contend with the authority. and Opposition. reckoning on the tions of opinion. the general constitution which was so arranged as to prove a great bar to the initiative of the According to various esti- mates. We . and that her aim conciliatory as possible . which counsels an equally cynical resignation to events which it was unable to anticipate. Church should be as broad. presumptuous to prognosticate its success . influence which might be exercised on the wavering. were Conservative . . putting aside unforeseen contingencies. . smallness of their of the Council. speaking in parliamentary language. rather than to for bigots. to place herself at the head of the religious movement of cmand to carry out the needful reforms in the discipline of functions for which her peculiar position renders the Church her well fitted. no one could predict the course of an assembly of about 1000 persons. It was only known that the great majority.40 EIGHT MOXTHS AT ROME. so that the promoters of absolutism had more followers in the Council than those who were in favour of a comparatively Liberal policy. desirable it is. was about 150 or 200 . for. embracing different gradaand. own numbers. Italy should strive to maintain the initiative of all that is useful in secular concerns. though in truth she seems too little disposed to take the task upon herself. make it a religion fit only for should learn to be very cautious in the means we adopt promoting the good. it seemed probable that they might suffice to neutralise the efforts of the partisans of Infallibility. and the enunciaand also espetion of grandiloquent and foregone conclusions cially resist that cynical indifference. how that on every subject the decisions and the policy of the as reasonable. . though not to take the initiative themselves. In order to reconcile conflicting interests. the strength of the Opposition. both of the Church and of Italy we must avoid the vulgar oratory of declamation. 15.

] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.December. though some hope was derived from the general acknowledgment of the needs of modern civilisation. and. . At any rate. 16. Would this longing suffice to prevent the execution of those in the higher spheres : programmes of absolutism now circulating of the Vatican ? Optimists answered this question hopefully but as for the prospect of obtaining any real change in matters of discipline long rooted in the Church. nor the conditions necessary for such a result existed. if it judgment as to the future. 41 Certainly the state of affairs was unpromising for the Opposition. was then impossible to form a correct it was at all events very useful to is follow the course of events so important. fraught we propose to with such momentous results and that do in writing the present work. all were fully aware that neither the desire. for Italy especially. what . and from the longing for reconciliation which extended on all sides and to all classes.

presents a complete image of Catholic society. Aspect of the Council Hall. Aspect of the Church of St. The same. sweep past one another with an incessant movement (Inf. Reasons for its taking 7. of every shape Cardinals. 2. su per lo ponte Hanuo a passar la gente modo tolto. dared to depict with congenial energy is the characteristic of the scene. From time to time a single group. 8. The motley crowd moves under those immense arcades with the easy freedom of men who feel themselves at home.— 42 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. running through all the varieties of style from Michael Angelo to Pinelli. peasants. Peter on a day of festival a mixture of the sacred and the profane of the majestic and the vulgar of the sublime and the grotesque such as Shakespeare. been at Rome knows the peculiar 1. 4. : . fession of faith. Session.— THE SECOND SESSION. a mixture which. Pro5. — — — — — place. forces its way with . favourites of fame." and of a public tlioroughfare. Second 6. Peter to the Magdalene. and to whom by long usage the most solemn and mysterious acts of to the squalor of a — worship have become familiar. [January. .) that reminds one of the description given by Dante " Come i Eoman per I'esorcito molto L' anno del Giubileo. followers of fashion. xviii. — perhaps. princes.— 2. I. from the splendour of a first — Pope faith of tbe boor from the faith of St. JANUARY. beggars. 1. preceded by an official from the palace. EvEKY one who has physiognomy of the Church of St. in garments and colour. Defects of the same. Description of the ceremony.— 3. Peter's on a feast day.

were removed during the public Sessions. a venerable assembly of distinguished persons. 4. it will easily be understood that the appearance presented by the hall when filled (though in one sense imposing) was rather that of a closely packed and numbered multitude. and presented a striking appearance. had been decided to change the hall for the Congreon account of the serious acoustic defect we have already mentioned. The third Session of that Council was occupied in drawing up . the grandeur of the effect was somewhat marred by the necessity of placing the seats very close together. on the Vatican Council was held. and to crowd the bishops more closely together round the throne. this occasion to indicate that any special event occupied the public mind the general concourse was smaller. The pi-ocedure of the Council of Trent was followed and imitated on this occasion. but. owing to the number of Fathers present and as each seat was marked with a figure of large dimensions. the Council Hall was better filled than at the first Session.Jancaky. when the bishops were Interrogated on some proposition. Peter on the 6th of January in this year. and an attempt was made to remedy the defect. however. that they answered " Nihil intelleximus. and the same hall served for both assemblies." instead of " Placet . a serious embarrassment in the long discussions carried on in an unfamiliar language with every variety of 5. when the second Session of There was nothing. but at the cost of much inconvenience and without a satisfactory result. pronunciation. owing to the arrival of more bishops. 6.] difficulty eight months AT EOME. . though with a different intention. for it was related that in one of the first meetings. being only used for the Congregations. Unfortunately. . 3. prostrate in devotion in some corner of the church — a pilgrim who has come from the depths of Galicia to kneel at the shrine of the Apostles. by stretching awnings across so as to reduce the size of the area about one-third. or one while every now and then you may — — wayworn traveller with flowing hair. It gations. as it was still very difficult if not impossible to hear. These awnings. Such was the aspect presented by the Church of St. as it should have been." but this plan was soon abandoned. than. ' 43 of the great of the earth find a through the surging crowd probably a king.

and because it is the one used in all public acts. the enlarged and precise formula of Pius IV. At the Vatican Council the confession of faith served to occupy the second Session . read to their raidv. surrounded by his court. in our days. and the Pope. when they do occur. and it after him . With this view. was seated on his throne. after which the Secretary of the Council The prayers placed the book of the Gospels upon the altar. was celebrated. showing themselves. the Bishop of Fabriano. the Pope first recited the formula himself. in order to give proof of fellowship. no important business could be transacted. because it contains the additions made at the end of the Council of Trent on account of the Reformation. and of the unexpected resistance evoked by the first matters proposed. aloud then all the Fathers.44 • EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. is [January. praying to him to allow the profession of faith be made by the Fathers. especially the more ancient ones. ascending the ambo. and kneeling with the right in turn. On the 6th of January. used on such occasions. 7. and no decree prepared for promulgation. no other work was ready. without. according approached the throne. voveo et juro hand on the Gospels repeated . the confession of faith which contained in the Creed of the Roman Church. was selected. as. the solemn mass. when such divisions are either much lessened or no longer exist. crossing himself six times. " spondeo. after the Fathers had taken their places in the hall. This being complied with. the two " avvocati promotori " of the Council approached the Pope's throne. owing to the tardy arrival of the bishops. should commence its deliberations by reciting a creed or common pro- fession of faith . followed. and obligatory at the University for those who wish to obtain their degrees at the end of the scholastic course. like many other old traditions. becomes a mere ceremony. because on account of the shortness of the time. It was a common practice in all Councils. on account of the great divisions within the Church which drew people away in all directions. and the Pope. such a profession of faith. that the assembly. blessed the The reading of the Gospel and the invocation of assembly. the Holy Spirit took place. and then the ritual being completed. one by one. not within the Church.

Matters. and with a hymn of thanksgiving the second Session was closed. dogma which no wonder that having reckoned six months as long enough to spend on the questions most open to dispute. and the ceremony lasted over two hours. When it was completed. before proceeding further we will call to mind the rules that guided the progress of the assembly. but for which nothing was ready.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. so that it was heard in six or seven different tongues. it was supposed that one month would amply suffice for the consideration of the others. was certainly the shortness of the time but also in making the arrangements. however. .January." Each one repeated this phrase in the language of his own ritual. so public opening. and that the decrees relating thereto might be published in the first Session after the first The propositions contained only matters of it is did not admit of doubt . no doubt had been entertained as to the celerity with which they could be carried the second Session. . 45 juxtaformulam prelaectam. having. through. went contrary to the expectation subjects provoked unlooked-for discussion . the two " promoters " of the Council requested the apostolic protonotaries to draw up the record of the proceedings. The reason for having recourse to this expedient to occupy which had been fixed beforehand. But the better to understand this. consisted merely in ceremonies. like the first. 8. : the first and as the public Session was announced for that day. no other way was found of occupying the time save in having recourse to the profession of faith.

Consequently. —Faith. Nomination of the same. Religious Orders. when the Council selected by vote the five Commissions to take the place of those previously nominated by the Pope. 21. Debate on the same. Other provisions. 16. 10. Difference between an Ecclesiastical Council and an assembly of laymen. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — back. on Discipline receiving the chief accession.— THE AERANGEMENT OF THE WORK. to diplomatic considerations and set aside There remained then the four first. 18. probably. it was limited to an inquiry from the bishops of what the Pope desired to know. Addresses 11. 9. which naturally included the relations between Church and State. G. that on Policy no longer appeared. Admonitions " De Fide " sent of the presidents. The section for Ecclesiastical Policy. Duty of the Commissions. [January. which were named by the Pope at the convocation of the Council. The Opposition declares itself. TMethod observed in the debates. the section . The scheme — — Com- 4. .— 8.— . The Italians. 17. 19. Eastern and Ecclesiastical Policy (omitting the section on Ceremonial as less important).'" 15. The assembly sanctions the scheme. On the 12. On the Opposition. 20. The matters to be treated of in the Council were classified in five sections Affairs. whereby the primary object of the Council was very much restricted and instead of being a general discussion on the wants and condition of the Church. 1. 14. n. The scheme 13. missions. Classification of subjects. 22. against its Order. any more than that on Ceremonial. Observations on the same. 7. Composition of the Council. 5. On Papal approbation. and among their results. Ecclesiastical policy is omitted from the 3.— FIRST SCHEME. up to the present time these subjects were nothing but propositions set forth by the Pope in order to obtain the opinions of the bishops. Its composition. proposals of the bishops. Distribution of the schemes. The Commissions chosen by the Pope for the preparatory work. " De Fide. no longer existed officially at the opening of the Council having completed their duty of compiling all the su])jects to be discussed in a series of schemes {schcmafa)j each of which comprised one set of suljjects. . — — 2. 2. these the subjects of the fifth section were divided. Discipline. and were prepared in the Commissions corresponding to these titles. 46 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 1. Accordingly. was subsequently owing.

like sion to prepare his propositions. but four only were named. the Bull — " Multiplices inter " — which left declared that they should the bishops in complete be maintained in their integrity. In fact. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. that on Eastern Affairs remaining suspended. only three were chosen at first. the only business of these Commissions was to receive at second-hand the schemes which. so number to undertake the amendments. contributed to this suspension . generally speaking. It also followed that the order in which the different subjects were presented to the Fathers greatly influenced their reception by the assembly. The gravity and the delicate nature of this subject. perhaps. Such a method of proceeding ignorance of what would be the next subject. terious proceedings. together with the international questions it involves. and prevented their forming a just opinion of all on which they had ultimately to judge.January. . according to the progress of the deliberations. and the difficulties experienced by the Oriental bishops the only competent judges in such matters — — all. the entire Opposition viewed this part of the arrangement as derogatory to their dignity. and ought to have had great weight in the progressive treatment of the Eastern question. one of the chief complaints of the Opposiwhich. now the Council chose an equal Not five. 4. As the Pope at the beginning had named the first Commistion. belonging to free countries America. till finally nominated in the Congregation of January 19th. as sometimes the mere collecting and placing together an assemblage of laws may suffice to prove their value and desirability. . in fact. and injurious to the success of the Council. some might not be laid aside or modified otherwise than was indicated by arrived . and in their original form or if. Neither could they learn whether they would all be preserved. as the time of their discussion and thus it was impossible for the bishops to know a j)7'i07'i their number and contents. having met with partial or entire disapproval in the . corresponding to the classification explained at the beginning of this chapter indeed. of that portion especially.] 3. was accustomed to subject all matters to the They could not understand such mysfullest investigation. 47 These schemes were only communicated separately by the Secretaries to the Council. and. This was.

in proof of the trouble of copying them. after which comes the real debate. Y^y the Bull. moral violence exercised. Those who intend to speak. many of whom on their arrival.. knowing nothing of the persons in question. especially at the beginning. it is certain that the opinions enough. the discussion properly so called. 6. that some of the Fathers. 48 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. having been placed there by some of the Fathers who wished to avoid the It was also said. might return Council as the proposals of according to 5. This part of the arrangements might have been sensible its good effect on the Opposition was the choice of the individuals elected on these Commissions. and modified what was believed to be its own opinion. own Commissions. placed blank polling papers in the urn from a feeling However that may be. when the polling papers were scrutinised. contributed greatly to bring about the election of those Commissioners. It was said that tickets bearing the names of candidates were photographed in large numbers and distributed to the bishops. Council. If the scheme is either universally accepted. [Januaey. Without overlooking the part that the contending forces in Council might take in the matter. so that the amended according to the views of the same schemes which had failed on being again to the its presented as the Pope's initiative. " Multiplices inter. names drawn. it is put to the vote. that these tickets were actually found in the urn. were likely to accept them at once and it was added. who may then study it with the assistance of one or more theologians. feeling that it was impossible to contend against this sort of electoral influence. chosen by themselves. and promulgated in the to . which provoked much comment. or meets with few objections. and bound to secrecy." was established the order be followed in the discussion of matters already arranged and settled. it is undoubted that the of disdain. but that which diminished prevailing among the majority of the Fathers. either for or against the matter. The proposed scheme is communicated to all the Fathers. . they then assembly . the first especially. inscribe their names by turns in a register and in one or more Congregations the speakers are heard on every question. agreed on. pi'oved to be exactly such as the Civilta Cattolica would have chosen.

and having received their answers " Placet" or " Non placet " inscribe the answers and the names in a book. to be modi- A and then again brought before the assembly. Opposition. however deliberate. who interrogate the Fathers one by one. the point is settled. may be of equal value . According to the very extended application thus made of the principle. although the decree speaks of the number or unanimity of the consenting bishops. but if it meets with serious resistance. to depend on their memory for the impressions received in the Congregations. few copies of the speeches and discussions.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and thus ascertain the majority. the canons of the Vatican Council of it by Rome begin with the formula. and who may cither give or withhold his sanction. But in this assembly the vote of the majority.January. the matter is here decided. further entangling ourselves in these questions. to whom it is then submitted. which shows that the Council is a deliberative. to Commission which it belongs. are then put definitively to the vote in the public Sessions this is done orally by the scrutineers. and on this occasion full advantage was taken indeed. and the issue of the vote. that according to canon- E . although even they allow that prudence would never permit the use of such a power. but the " Curialisti " maintain that the vote of the minority. the Church. namely. . does not constitute the decision. as reported by all the shorthand-writers. servus servorum Dei. Without. Only when the vote of the assembly is approved by the Pope does it become law. sacro approbante Concilio. ad perpetuam rei memoriam. According to the ideas of laymen on the constitution of an assembly." a title which gave rise to no small complaint on the part of the — — . however. " Pius Episcopus. one thing is certain. The schemes approved and compiled in the form of decrees . with the Papal approbation 9. other persons having 7. 8. not only does the vote of the majority require the Pope's sanction in order to become a binding decree. 49 it is next public Session sent back to the fied. unless approved by the Pope. and not simply a consultative This rule has generally prevailed in great assemblies of one. as the opinion of the majority being ascertained. are printed at the private office of the Council for the use of the presidents only.

and interests of far more importance than did special reasons. Infallibilists. the bishops would only deliberation ? . obtain it . with. In forming a judgment on these points. returned to other Commissions composed almost entirely first. they passed into the category of Papal propositions . After all this preparation. and finally of the Pontiff himself. it follows that some minorities may. reasonable hope of success to the Opposition in the present Council. actually outweighs it. Being left in ignorance of the questions to follow. it became a very difficult matter for the latter to bring forward any subject themselves. for as the reason of a decision may. the appro- bation of the Pope alone gives the authority of a canon to the decision of a general Council. of the same elements as the By the Bull. This distinguishes the nature of it a Conciliar assembly from that of a civil or political one. this fact must be borne in mind. the bishops possessed the right of initiating questions. institutions. but as according to the provisions of the schemes taining they were only communicated separately to the bishops. because. for more weight with them than is warranted These grounds afforded a by their numerical composition. the minority. how could they make propositions that might not be in accord- ance with the course of deliberations? Who can tell what is wanting without knowing what already exists ? How is it possible to prejudge a question which may be reserved for future According to this plan. because it follows.50 ical theory EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. of a consultative character. but these could not come before the assembly until they had received the sanction of a special Congregation nominated by the Pope (and con- twelve cardinals). proceed from expediency and not from numbers. carry most of the given. It will now be apparent. in the Pope's mind. and the practice of Catholic [January. on the other hand. as whatever weight is still really may be attached to the vote of a Council. since the power of the Pope. instead of being subject to it. 10. societies. that if in ecclesiastical assemblies the majority lose the authority they possess in meetings of the laity. they represented populations. and when they did not meet with a favourable reception. though few in number. from the explanations we have how many difficulties the Opposition had to contend All propositions proceeded from Commissions nominated by the Pope.

that the half of these. like a simple decree. was submitted in the accustomed manner to the " Placet " of the Fathers. was settled in its second by which the whole procedure was fixed but this Order. 51 end of the piY)ceedings many things on which they to deliberate and then. of no small consequence. if we consider the numbers of the bishops in partihus . from their independent (as. which contributed to keep up the feeling of irritation and suspicion. what proposals would be accepted know at the might wish . it will easily be understood how much suspicion was awakened among the Opposition. for discussion in the Council in the state of affairs just described ? 11. legates or presidents over the five. presided also over the second. Session in a sort The corresponding act to this in the Vatican Council was a Papal Bull. who dependants of the Propaganda Fide. and how everything concerning the Order of the Council was received by them with greater mistrust than the To all this propositions in themselves seemed to warrant. how could they take up again matters already discussed. and not the representatives of the opinions of their dioceses. of Orders. might be expected to be . of the Council of Trent of Order The work . and connect questions that had been considered separately. who directed the whole procedure of the Council.January. the French cardinals) were guests of the Pope. who are are all subject to the Curia. The same cardinals who presided over the first Commis- sions. with reason. was added another consideration.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. the Generals of remember. If to this it be added that (in the present condition of the Church) a great proportion of the bishops present at the Council were simply nominees of the Pope. bv which the whole Order of the Council was E 2 . of the Vicars-Apostolic. the 23rd of January but the Opposition asked. who form a sort of Papal army and over. discussed and approved by the whole assembly. which prepared the schemes. morewho. including men dignity and position. The Commission nominated by the Pope to examine the proposals of the bishops met for the first time on Sunday. . whose duty it was to modify them when they proved unacceptable and three of these cardinals were. for example. at the same time. or would now be most difficult to modify by reason of their previous treatment.

and in order to guard against the dangers threatened by the superior numbers of the majority. and continuing to the present day. they might have been spared great 12. praying for the reform of the whole Order other. and. and could be put down almost as soon as it appeared. and had shown themselves firmly united from the beginning. a priori without discussion. every ancient error as well. opinion that the modification of the Order should at once be insisted on. and therefore such declarations 13. discontent occasioned by the difficulty of hearing by the names of the Commissioners. the Opposition began to conon certain principal points. and did not even receive an answer. and as soon as it could be legall}' manifested. centrate their efforts : . It condemned Materialism. The scheme " De Fide " was the first published. it increased and strengthened the Opposition. Now it is clear that in a Catholic assembly no doubt could arise on these matters. trouble in the end. The in the hall. if the Opposition had insisted further. by attracting to it some of the uncertain and irresolute. Pantheism. above all. It contained a sort of dogmatic decree against every modern error. Professor of Theology in the Roman College. and especially to Father Franzelin. indeed. scheme was attributed to the Jesuits. beginning with the creation of the world. and all kinds of philosophical systems under a series of heads. they insisted especially on the necessity of unanimity for any declaration of dogma. it became very formidable. being signed by a great A small number of the French also prepart of their number. With this view two addresses were made to the Pope the one signed by twentythe eight bishops. 15. which. as without it. sented a petition in the same sense. and by the sole authority of the Pope. and. 14. but these addresses produced no effect. . [January.52 settled EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Perhaps. and upheld the importance Some of the wisest bishops were of of this maxim to the end. the assembly having no voice whatever in the matter. set forth and affirmed The compilation of this the whole body of Catholic doctrines. In consequence of this. asking for its partial modification. all resistance would be impossible. by the regulations of the Council having been disregarded. and it was discussed in the last Congregations in December.

scheme " De Fide . regarding those with in whom we have nothing Every unauthorized conus. or Islamism. or are silent. they took exception to other things. being mean. The effect of all on account of the vehemence of the Opposition. Besides. philosophers . but we either argue with. Moreover. own philo- to that of the Rationalists.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. or understanding. demnation is common. and who cannot hear useless." as was usual in the principal Councils. are aware of its importance. invidious. on all those bishops who. in some measure. said some. . trifling. and injures. rather than enhances. as it implied a solution of the whole question. those 53 the can only concern Catholic arose. and of a few theologians. Only conceive the impression produced by the mournful lucubrations of the Fathers of the Civilta Cattolica. here a dispute together A Catholic those assembly. Of this title we shall speak hereafter. or confront German ground those . depend upon it. the great movement of modern society. the manner in which the scheme was compiled was obnoxious to the assembly. it called to legislate who recognise and. and can estimate when we come to discuss the the great value of the questions this was. even if not sharing. Such were the principal arguments of those who opposed the first scheme. that it involves. but those who are out of the Church are with regard to these dealready condemned by their own act nunciations the Council might just as well condemn Buddhism . being either themselves highly cultivated. they added oppose its if it pleases.January. sophy Then. the dignity of him who pronounces it. little versed in the ways of the world. as to philosophical systems and opinions. and likely to render its contents anything but acceptable tO' the ears and the intellects of the nineteenth century. which divided the Council before it had been discussed." but as soon as it appeared it gave rise to vehement objections on the part of the Opposition. Rosmini with the fight on the same We can condemn who hear us or are subject to us. especially that of Trent. which began with " Pius Episcopus " instead of " Sacrosancta Synodus. that is would be to but to condemn not to discuss. who are beyond but is pale of the Church for and of Christianity. —the Catholic Church may. and especially to the title that headed the scheme.

it was sent back 17." to which it belonged. Above all. [January. discussion was continued by Strossmayer. Roumanian Greek bishop. a prelate profoundly versed in ecclesiastical learning. and showed that matters would not progress as easily as was pretended by the Civilta Cattolica. Indeed. the scheme. though it was impossible yet to judge of the final result. instead of being promulgated in the second entirety to the as had been intended. and a On the 30th Genouhilhac. . spoke extremely well. and the Archbishops of San Louis and of Nisibi. being almost unanimous. was sent back in its "Congregation on Faith. had really acquired importance. . as we shall now proceed to point out. was prohibited. all unanimously opposed the scheme for the reasons before specified. De16.5i EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. which had hitherto taken place. Session. and Monsignor Hofele. The same subject was under deliberation on January 3rd but from that date the publication of the names of the orators in the Official Gazette. 18. it was clear that the vague and uncertain divergences of opinions which had but hitherto prevailed were now concentrated in a real opposition. Smyrna. and Malta. that of cember 28th being the first and the most important. 8th. and then. and the Archbishop of the Halifax also spoke against it with great effect. and 10th of January the scheme was discussed without interruption. that which gave it weight and constituted its impoitance was the elements of which it was composed. Bishop of Rottenburg. The German episcopate standing very high l)oth in intellectual culture and in social condition. most probably on account of the interest they had excited in the On the 4th. their leaders being such men as the Archbishop of Vienna. Caixal y Astrade. in which people had hitherto been slow to believe. The Archbishops of Sorrento. The German bishops. not as yet very unanimous and well organised. but far more serious than was expected. public mind since the preceding Congregations. for revision. the debate being closed. were foremost in the Opposition. This fact rendered it evident that the Opposition. This discussion occupied six Congregations. Cardinal Schwarzemberg. in order to be revised. because in it the Archbishop of Vienna.

The Archbishop of Vienna in one of the recent debates showed such vivacity. The rest of the Opposition was made up as follows About one-third of the French bishops. These taken together formed a body which. and considered liberal in his opinions. the best Latin scholar. Monsignor Haynald. The Archbishop of Colocza. on his nomination to the post of president as being the senior. The Bishops of Hungary and Croatia. such as the Archbishops of Mayence and of Cologne. ceedings . and the Archbishop of Colocza. and caused the president so much embarrassment. Schwarzemberg was highly distinguished on account of his birth. that to him was attributed by the public. and on account of the death of Cardinal Reisach.' almost the whole of the American episcopate. on account of the learning of its members. the Bishop of Orleans and Maret. was much esteemed for his learning. which had recently occurred.Januaey. the substitution of De Angelis for De Luca in the direction of the debates the change being effected after that stormy meeting. and almost all the other bishops were for some reason or other highly esteemed and remarkable men. author of the book. the illustrious names it contained. his courteous manners. the former a most remarkable man. ecclesiastical regulations. of the greatest aptitude and vigour in discussion. about twenty Italian bishops. The line of action even those German bishops gave proof. the Bishop of Bosnia and Sirmio. and the final decision regarding the unlucky scheme was attributed to a speech of his. had drawn together into a common members of their body the least disposed towards it. and other small parties. moreover. : — . and the decision of his language. led by the Primate of Hungary (Strossmayer). 55 and being firmly united. ' On the General Council and Religious Peace. made up in importance the weight it lacked in numbers. though it may have been only in consequence of . and others.] eight months AT ROME. formed one group with the Germans Monsignor Strossmayer being universally considered the most splendid orator. and the nations it represented. that office fell to Cardinal de Luca but he in turn had to cede the place to Cardinal de Angelis. and the person of highest authority. The eldest of the five presidents usually conducted the pro. who followed with various gradations the steps of the Archbishop of Paris . .

. very well preserved. Biella. because. we must allow that notwithstanding these opinions. though same time they made but little stir in the opposite camp. and declared that although this secrecy was a it just and mutual obligation for convenience sake. Bishop of Nisibi in partibus. and the little that did transpire was gathered from the few words indiscreetly dropped by many.. and the strength The Bishops of Casale. [January. asked how such an obligation could possibly be made binding upon them. and Salerno. of his arguments. and on many occasions a spirit of moderation seemed gradually gaining ground among Italian bishops them. 56 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. guilty of mortal sin. showed themselves able orators in the succeeding discussions. never so guilty. they inclined towards Rome. Those who considered the Council a sovereign assembly depending only on itself. were by no means inclined to surrender themselves blindly into the hands of the so-called Catholic party. as we have already explained. . secrecy as to the Council was. 20. made some stir among the Italians by the speech already mentioned and although blind and aged. considering that more than a thousand were present. the and timid. Monsignor Tizzani.. adding to the simple injunction given in the Order the further threat that those who is transgressed it would be considered rei gravis culpa. A Avas the more rigorous observance of the Order of the Council consequence of the vote of mistrust which sent back scheme for revision. but with slight success Italians at the It . persons rather than by the revelations of one. January Congregations that followed. he was able to exercise considerable influence in the assembly by his eloquence. and the useless repetition of things already discussed by others and admonished them solemnly on the necessity of secrecy. but they . was very difficult to judge correctly of the disposition of the the Opposition were few who joined as a rule. 19. The effect caused by this last admonition varied according to the different shades of opinion prevailing among the Fathers. and of the clearer perception of which prevailed after the public Session of In one of the first the the first situation 6th. the presidents warned the Fathers against the length of speeches. especially at first. that to say. fetter the it could conscience as to render those who infringed Nevertheless.

— Speech of the Bishop of Orleans. ended by bringing about results very different from those intended." 2. was studied anew and if we are correct in believing that this work was entrusted to its original compilers. — — The predominant 5. ' had been done that those for the first Congregations. — schemes. . 13. Its contents. — 20. — Efforts to promote — Kevelations of the Unita Cattolica.Januaky. The bishops were forbidden to print their speeches. morals.— FIEST STEP TOWAEDS INFALLIBILITY. III. Petition for Infallibilit}'. — Promoters Addr-esses against of the address. along with a to letter addressed to the bishops. Their form The scheme " De Episcopis. the dominant question of the . 1. question. is 17. — The promoters — Its arguments. 18. — The scheme " De Catechismo.] eight months AT ROME. 11. for 22. 3. but was the important point. Infallibility. 7. 19. . li. It really seemed who guided the Council were trying to justify the apprehensions to which the given rise. Infalli- bility. 1. 12. 6. of the address. The Infallibilists continued their work outside the doors of the Council. the scheme. — Number of signatures. against whom every sort of moral violence was adopted all of which. its opponents could hardly expect any such modification as was likely to content them. even for the use of their colleagues just as the Diario di Roma was not allowed to publish the names of the orators. 22.— Manner of publication. and the Fathers of the Civilta Cattolica. Meantime." — Discourse of the Bishop of Cologne. — 16. as might naturally be expected. A notice was circulated by the Archbishop of Westminster. soliciting the Council proclaim the personal Infallibility of the Pope in faith and 2.— OTHER SCHEMES. — Division of parties in the assembly. — Distribution of new displeasing. its 9. 8. having been returned to the Commission on Faith. 10. — Undignified supposition. first appearance of the Order had and to foment the prevailing discontent by pushing it to its extreme limits at the expense of the Opposition. General features of the schemes. 57 21. 15. this There was abundant excitement on other matters. as ' . — — Singular situation. The bishops ask more information on the subjects of debate. 4. — 21. and among them to Father Franzelin.

as far as its microscopic proportions would allow. had only up to the present time met with the sanction of a Provincial Council (recently held in Holland. The contents of the address were calculated to impress very deeply all who considered them calmly. 5. American Infallibilists. and was the first episcopal document of importance presented with the view of obtaining leave for its discussion and was all that the Infallibilists had been able to carry out of the programme announced by the Civiltd Cattolica. from its inconsiderable numbers. But the most learned of the Opposition affirmed that these examples were neither exact. which said that the Council at its first sitting would proclaim Infallibility . has. The address was headed by the signature of the Archbishop of Westminster and it was said also by that of the Archbishop of Baltimore. and reflected that they were the expressions of men in whose hands are deposited the religious interests of multitudes. nor to the point. the classic ground of Protestantism and Positivism. ideas and interests. by acclamation. filled the Roman State with Zouaves. tone of indifference. Who can explain the reason why Holland. or we might almost say of disdain. was signed by eighteen bishops from different any of them Italian. could carry no weight whatever. because such an explicit and personal declaration as the Infallibilists required. and the Council with Infallibilists? Perhaps it is owing to the strength and energy which characterise the movements of robust and determined nations. if I mistake not) which.58 . but scarcely . [Januaky. felt that here was the to he or not to he of the matter. as previously manifested. the few 4. with to which the writers regard the separations and schisms likely . and according to his own 3. one of The letter countries. EIGHT MOxNTHS AT ROME. and on the necessity of the dogma in order to preserve which it had to a great extent been recognised. and turned Vatican Council on this. Every individual in his own way. The address was with much subtlety addressed to the Commission. and who act as the guides of whole nations the insisted her unity. whose duty it was to receive the proposals of the bishops. all else was of minor consequence. citing other Councils in . The address was based on what it declared to be the universal opinion of the Church.

with the prospect of additions. what would have been unbecoming if the Papal authorities had directly sanctioned such a request. when the address had been circulated. particularly on the festival of the centenary of St.] EIGFIT tlieir MONTHS AT ROME. as to preclude a discussion that should have taken place when the question of the Prerogatives of the it Roman See were under deliberation. and the declaration of Infallibility. as . . the omission was evidently intentional. the Council those . Peter. It lated without bearing was remarked that this notice or pamphlet was any sort of licence and in Rome. already stated." and all sorts of addresses are absolutely forbidden. Some tried to point out to the compilers that the address itself. nothing can be printed without an " approbation. 6. or even 100 but on the whole the most probable calculation was the second one. though there never was entire certainty on the matter.January. On subtracting from the whole number of bishops sitting in 200 who formed the Opposition. second restriction could not apply to the Fathers in Council but with regard to the first. Of course this . though between that act of respect. and the person in question apparently assumed that all these would consent to sign the address or perhaps he founded his hypothesis on the numbers who had done homage to the Pope. Later on. being so entirely variance with their mission. subscribed was them had affirmed that they could count on 500 bishops. is 59 at ensue from address most striking. and that therefore should not have been . and the best-informed individuals and those above suspicion were satisfied as to the correctness of this total. there remained certainly about 500. The promoters of this address took much pains to obtain in order to avoid signatures. 8. but this was perhaps rather the expression of an arithmetical venture than of certain and individual but the precise number of those never ascertained. as made by the promoters of the address. a very wide distance intervened. and some tried to reduce it to 200. One of knowledge. 7. circuis well known. Any one judging only from the external aspect of opinions in the Council would have considered this number exaggerated. the signatures were with greater accuracy calculated at 400. was not only questionable in tending but actually inopportune.

Having been a priest and a Protestant at the outset of his career. and left them to seek a new formula for interpreting the judgment of any Pope who should take a like . it was impossible for them to be behindhand but the comparison was inexact. He was well acquainted with the many divisions and sub-divisions of Protestantism. which. and the constant exercise of the conscience and reasoning powers neither did he understand the dangers did not appreciate the . . as they truly observed. involving much that concerned their own existence and many reasons. rity as the slave adores the idea of liberty most . In fact. The persistence of the Archbishop of Westminster was perhaps the logical result of his own antecedents. did more harm than good to the cause they were intended to defend. He good effects of allowing a moderate degree of liberty. without any sense what was becoming. discrimination and of real Catholic perception in his dealings with the Council was a matter of reproach to him even by the and devout clergy at Rome.. [January.Cardinals had been obtained to the step. he was enamoured of the principle of autho- and this want of . mooted beforehand but thej met with the answer that the assent of the presiding. . For the Jesuits.CO EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. to bring about its own apotheosis. and admired the majestic unity of Catholicism. who did much the same. The reason adduced by the Infallibilists for the publication of this address was that the Opposition having first done the like. The more moderate among the clergy were much satisfied dis- with these proceedings. arising from the excessive authority exercised by United Catholicism. and the Catholic religion from without but not from within. who annulled their order. The addresses of the Opposition faithful Infallibilist bishops. The only result of so indiscreet a proceeding was to expose the Curia Romana to the imputation of having sought. the question of Infallibility was a complex one.. As for all the other we can only again remark that the ardour they manifested in following out their end was a phenomenon beyond the comprehension of the very Council itself. step hereafter. and Pius IX. 9. induced them by a sort of fatality to declare retrospectively Infallible both Clement XIV. 10. he knew his own religion from within and not from without. too numerous to analyse.

the number of representatives of different nations who than the signed addresses against Infallibility amounted to more 160. joined that portion of the A tion.] eight months AT ROME. assuming that the figures of the Infallibilists were correct. and the result was The Infallibilists numbered about 400. it was possible assembly with tolerable accuracy. The Primate of Hungary was at first among . and in no way prejudged matters that were to be brought forward for discussion. sary that their addresses should be directed personally to him. tion of a Can anything be imagined more singular than the posiman who receives in his house a vast concourse of people assembled with the intention of proclaiming his apotheosis. appeared the addresses of the bishops of the Opposition in a contrary sense. Some of the French. third addr 'ss which was prepared by the Italians had twenty or twent_^-five signatures. no discussion was possible. tion reached 160 or 200. The Infallibilists it had directed their document to Council. but he afterwards signed an address. gation. while others declared that they reserved selves to oppose the Infallibilist address themwhenever the occasion these latter should present itself. but after the address of the Infallibilists was published. After the appearance of these addresses. thus giving the form of an episcopal proposal. and between twenty and thirty of the French did the like. by about forty-five out of fifty-seven of the They were signed German and Aus- trian bishops. figures of the Infalli- . because where his sanction was withheld. and at the same time listens to their earnest prayers beseeching him to forego that honour to divide the ? 12. 61 which preceded the publication of this one. had to was absolutely neces- like the other acts concerning it receive the approbation of the Pope.Jaxuauy. especially the Germans who held back from making a protest. Taking all into consideracardinals. who preferred to watch the If the combat rather than take part in it themselves. and there remained about 100 of the timid and irresolute. and so the Opposition were obliged to address theirs directly to the Pope. 11. As all proposals after being accepted by the Congrethe Council. only concerned the Order of the Council. the Opposias follows.

memory of the extension of Chris. were incorrect. that fifteen hats were visibly hovering in the air. and the owing to adoration of the Magi. made ardent circulated. one of the most about whom many stories were already and who was noted for the rudeness with which he had received Maret at his arrival in Rome from France. in tianity to all nations. was especially violent. excited in his mind. the numbers taken from them would sum of those who had not yet made up their minds. with the Holy Family. tation lasted for which that event prefigured this represen-. in a speech. being mistake them for tongues of inspired. though well disvenerated in the other posed to judge him favourably. allusion to the recent death of several cardinals. Bishop of Ebrun in partibus. on their part. exhibit in the church of St. it was usual to Andrea della Valle a representation Bethlehem. and of these a large proportion were Italians. the Shrine. a week. might and speak accordingly.G2 bilists EICtFIT months at ROME. and during that time long discourses were made in the church in different languages. The Bishop of Thule. Father Gallerani. left no means untried in swell the propagating their doctrines outside the walls of the Council. and at that time. making his sermon a vehicle the for politics quite after the style and fashion of Unitd Caitolica. considered his language quite Such flights of imagination seemed exaggerated extravagant. in order that the world. even to the most vehement Infallibilists present and one of the clever descendants of the old " Pasquins. worn out with vacillation and . [Januaky. in rectly tion of that of the Civilta Cattolica. The Infallibilists. The Feast of the Epiphany was celebrated early in January. and the Vatican and so close an analogy between the Infant adored in the one and the old man that the audience. Monsignor di Ginevra. all bearing directly or indibilists availed on their favourite subject. Infallibilists. a Jesuit. The Infallithemselves of this ceremony to make during those eight days a series of addresses. of the Grotto of some old custom." remarked. — — . much fire. 13. asserted so strong a likeness between the Grotto of Bethlehem. and that possibly some as if Father of the Council. a long speech to prove the importance of proclaiming Infallibility. the style being a concentraand sometimes even eclipsing it.

but this kind of argument and treating of is akin to those which in political matters. Uordre regne a Varsovie. The titles were three. Three or four schemes instead of one. The orator then proceeded to point out that the present was a suitable time and being very bold for the proclamation of Infallibility in this part of his argument. the Unita Cattolica commenced a new campaign. eight months AT ROME.] uncertainty. the reason for such an outburst of joy being probably none other than the old habit which causes the public to show transports of delight when some sort of yoke is to be put about sided. 14. . all concerning matters of discipline. the — — first. containing the following headings : — " De . its neck. . chance phrases. the sort of peace following on one of the numerous experiments made with that view upon mankind. 63 might find at length a place in which truth reand a person by whom truth could be proclaimed whenever it was sought. and thus to bring the pressure of public opinion to bear on certain. comparing them so as to compromise their authors. Wishing to profit by the enthusiasm of the last few years." Each of these was divided into several chapters the 15. That such a consummation would be very convenient is undeniable. In this condition first . In the meantime. and thereupon promised universal peace and rest for the conscience. " De Episcopis chismo. the whole repertory of the protestations and addresses put forth by the various bishops under the pressure of recent political events.— Jakcaky. using for this purpose extracts from letters. the second scheme was had occupied six Congregations before it was sent back. because the fourth pamphlet was merely an appendix to the De Mori bus Clericorum De Cateothers. and the second seemed destined to meet with a like fate. for Synodis —De Officio — De Yicariis Generalibus—De Sede Episcopali Vacante Episcoporum — De Residentia — De V^isitatione example. which was on that day almost exclusively French. and matters of a private nature. the timid and un- published of affairs. was expressed in the wellknown words. was loudly applauded by part of the audience. were distributed at the same time to the Fathers as subjects of the next discussion. it promised to its readers. and began to publish.

while he and those . therefore strenuously opposed every measure tending to diminish own Six persons spoke as in the Congregation of January 15th. and thus vindicated the position of the General Assembly of the Church but his views by no means resembled those of the proposed scheme. tained to the resistance. &c. met with much That which generally irritated the Opposition in beyond the manner in which the these projects of decrees was the shape or form in which they were subject was treated brought forward. and tended to circumscribe vacant ment that of vicars. as this always implied that they must be accepted in their entirety as presented. alluding to the mighty power of the age which makes itself felt by all who cooperate in its movement. but he preferred the simple satisfaction of doing . — — was shown on every opportunity. On the latter occasion. bishops. though its subjects were such as per- De — ordinary ecclesiastical law. for this scheme also. the appoint- of vital concern for the episcopate. : who shared his opinions followed the light . The Congregation of January 12th began to consider these new matters. and not otherwise." 16. in which he insisted on the necessity of restoring to the bishops the consideration and dignity due to their office. Paoli Sarpi had said of the bishops who attended the Council of Trent. either by active labour or mental work. and dioceses. [January. the Archbishop of Paris many on the made a most eloquent discourse. Monsignor Darboy had only to stretch out his hand to secure a cardinal's hat. least. The scheme " De Episcopis their rights with reference to " touched several questions benefices.04 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and other matters of great importance. 17. to they . and 19th. combined with that caused by the impossibility of in any way shaking off the yoke of the Order of the Council. he reproached them with walking in darkness. which occupied it during several sittings . entered the Council come out simple at the idea priests so now of the at bishops attending the Vatican Council. Obligatlone Visitandi sacra Limina — De Conciliis Provinclalibus— De S^nodis Dioecesanis De Vicario General!. His language was very severe addressing himself to the partisans of Infallibility. and this irritation. or a part them were much alarmed of finding themselves further their authority within their despoiled of their dignity.

his last cry to warn the Church of the danger that threatened her. an eminent English statesman. In the meeting of the 21st. It voices. like a stranger from a world that was unworthy of him. in of the Opposition. was considered one of the most Roman in opinion. The described. of all the Germans. 18. an elect and noble victim. when speaking of the political constitution and traditions of Rome. and then his voice was drowned for ever in one of those terrible convulsions by which society is from time to time degraded. (the first especially) This story. his speech struck very deeply as an indication of the general state of torrent.January. and he disappeared unregretted and unwept. the inhabitants of which. perhaps. if not true. owing to the difficulty of hearing in the Council Hall. having been asleep for three centuries. however. is at all events well calculated to describe the effect produced by these schemes on the most enlightened and intelligent part On another occasion. 20. It appears that the bishops of the Opposition found great fault their ideas. has swept him away . 21. 19. Some amount of concession was determined on. This speech was. to obtain an accurate report of his words. the bishops never ceased demanding fuller communications on the subjects to be discussed during the Council. Meantime. and arose . opinion. with the authors of the schemes for the narrowness of and it was reported that one of them comipared the City of Rome to an enchanted island. after several Fathers had spoken. who. F . The deepest impression was made that day by a stirring speech of the Archbishop of Cologne. The views of Darboy had long been patent to all but as the Archbishop of Cologne was not supposed to favour the Opposition. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.] his duty. which was very trying to orators not possessed of strong him. the greatest attention many prelates left their seats in order to surround was impossible. 65 whose impetuous course he so accurately into its eddying depths. the Bishop of Orleans prevailed. were quite astonished on awakening to find that the habits and customs of the world had considerably altered. observed that their consideration produced the same sort of effect on the mind as is felt on raising the marble slab that covers an ancient monument.

the information. it seemed probable that all the subsequent schemes would follow the first. avail to divide those dissentients who were united by the pressure exercised by the majority but the accuracy of all these reports. though so urgently needed. [January. and every one is aware how difficult it is to interpolate changes in matters of tradition. finally order to calm these disturbances and it was announced that the Pope. which prevails at the present day. . though emanating from trustworthy sources. was disposed to order the compilation be distributed to the bishops for their It was also said that Cardinal de Angelis. to the office of the Commissions for amendment. is often repugnant to and vehemently resisted by human nature. which rather seeks unity in an allowable variety a certain measure of liberty affording the only hope of obtaining an agreement between difl'erent races and nations on any one subject. . 22. now the question arose of modifying that catechism.that present arrangements were not likely to lead of a general index to any conclusion. although two of the four last were not yet completed . had been found for the very involved state of affairs. The tendency towards concentration and equalisation in all laws and institutions. appeared likely to share the fate of the others. Meanwhile. which might be acceptable to both parties. was about to circulate some project of adjustment on the question of Infallibility. senior president. Even the scheme " De Catechismo." which from its nature was closely allied with the daily life of the Catholic populations. which are identified with feelings and habits contracted at an early age. by time. the fifth scheme was promulgated (being the sixth since the beginning of the Council).— G6 EIGHT MONTEIS AT ROME. could of course only be proved to . We must remember that the Catholic catechism has different formulas though the substance of all is the same sanctioned by long and — constant use in the various churches . and might. seeing. but as no remedy. at any rate. .

that. result.— 3." — 2. Under the heading " De Ecclesia. — — De Ecclesia. this opinion was in some measure corits spirit. in fact. came into the hands of the Fathers scarcely dry from the press. the battleground on which the character and fate of the Council were to be decided. Opinions on the duration — of the Council. " DE ECCLESIA. tion. after careful observait appeared that the question. Indeed. not only would the conclusions of the past receive a solemn confirmation. it assumed still larger proportions from the fact that it involved most of the decrees of the Church. " De Potestate . 67 IV. but any future modification through the united action of the episand yet this latter course was surely the most legitimate and constitutional excopate would be rendered very difficult pression of Catholic opinion. we gave most serious questions before the Council Primatu Pontificis. 1.January. reason to believe that any such considerations had influenced its compilation. entitled. it was better written. roborated. religious system developed in these latter years. and consequently revised and reprinted." it was. but with regard to the essential point. it . On Infallibility. Arguments 4. so far as treated of absolute F 2 .] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. the pivot on which all else turned. especially the more recent ones. " De and was said to contain a chapter Temporale . little ." it really contained all the shall see. treating especially of the Pope's authority. The number of bishoi^s diminishes. In this scheme the question of Infallibility. A question of the gravest import from its own nature. and great part of the political and for instance. the Syllabus &c." Distribution of the scheme " to be brought forward. Continuation of the Congregations without mucli 6. as.. and on that decision depended the solution of all those questions which the volition of men and the force of circumstances had brought before its tribunal." it was a purely dogmatic scheme. If the question of Infallibility were settled in the affirmative. which was distributed at the sitting of the 21st January. a fact which suggested the surmise that it was a fresh edition made under the impression caused by the As as bad success of the first.— THE SCHEME 1. 2. The sixth scheme. was again brought under discussion. 5.

towards a dogmatic declaration of personal Infallibility and the like sentiments prevailed even among the clergy up to a . the promoters of that doctrine might well have been satisfied with such a favourable result. had declined the expi-ession of that wish. and if. ignorant of the details of the matter. do^ma. is that. there was a large majority in favour of Infallibility. [January.C8 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. even of those who in the recent troubles had manifested the greatest zeal for the Papal cause. on probing the opinion of Catholics. that in order to make a sort of compromise. it constitution of the episcopate. that if the Council (or the Commission had accepted the petition in favour of 400 signatures. This phenomenon can only be explained by taking into consideration the present certain rank in the hierarchy. the days to come would certainly be this it : that to posterity. the Pope had accepted the address as an act of homage. they had no defence against 3. the Opposition did not believe in the full and decisive success of the dogma of personal Infallibility. and those who simply submitted to it. had enjoined silence on the matter. the address of which we have spoken had already so far prospered. those who adhered to it. from considerations easily understood. said to carry result of all these proceedings in bring forward a counter-proposition in favour of fallibility. But as no bishop was likely to for receiving proposals) Infallibility. Meantime. at the time of which we write. they showed a great amount of indecision. A rumour also prevailed. and not wishing the question to be formally proposed. in default of the unanimity they desired. because even the partisans of Infallibility were well aware of the difficulty and danger that exists in forcibly proclaiming a dogma in the face of an intelligent minority amounting to a fourth of the whole assembly. was found that between the defenders of the dogma. but that the fact remained recorded by the Curia Romana. if not of repugnance. Future generations would imagine that the Pope. its being declnred proxiiJic Jidei. was already won by the minority. The most singular part of the whole proceeding But on entering the Council Hall. would appear that the great majority of the Vatican Council was in favour of the personal Infallibility of the Pope. for the conditions that regulate the nomination and election of l)ishops naturally induce them . as what is caWed jn'oxime Jidei .

the former were willing to temporise. all made fifteen meetings in . Italy for the . though slowly. a familiarity with all ecclesiastical policy. Beyond all doubt. the interests of the Catholic party and of the Opposifor if the latter desired tion became in some cases identical that matters should go slowly. whenever a strong resistance was made. than to the people among whom they exercise it. gaining ground. was opened two months previously and as no conclusion had yet been arrived at. Congregations were held on the 24th and 25th of January. it was evident that the hope of its short duration would be disappointed. as events had turned out so differently from what had been expected. 4. and sometimes even to prorogue an assembly so little amenable to since the Council . and which possessed not only a complete system of education and legislation.] to turn EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. which. Moreover. the habit of authority with the greatest power and means of enforcing it. their wishes. to the source 69 is more readily from which their authority derived. rather than the public opinion of their flocks. " that it was impossible io treat with removal of the French army of occupation while the Council was sitting. there existed in the very centre of Catholicism a certain spirit of opposition. on account of the weighty reasons we have already mentioned. not only to hold Catholic its own . but also exact the reforms so urgently needed by the age and this opposition was not only constantly engaged in the conflict. destruction to the edifice which minister. because it had opposed and moulded hy the lapse of centuries." tended considerably to strengthen these the The new French twenty years they had been carefully constructing. It was impossible. in order to avoid being overcome by superior numbers.January. and the prerogative of dispensing the honours and dignities of the hierarchy. but what is to it all the strength and vigour inherent in an ancient well-disciplined institution. prepared. and thus they reflect the ideas that prevail in the Curia. but was actually. which had been gradually of still greater consequence. to form any conjecture as to the length to which this opposition might be carried . words attributed by the Coiistitutionnel to Ollivier. against the aggresto sions of the so-called party. including the public Sessions. as to threaten for the last 5. so. on the other hand.

conceal their hope that. which in cases of difficulty is the best remedy and the best counsellor. — As these opinions gained ground. Moreover. and nothing would in that case have remained of all that had been proposed. and some persons to their dioceses it From these facts consequently advised the prorogation of the Council but if this course were once adopted all would be uncertainty in the future . after all. only the most resolute Infallibilists were against it. save the fact that the Council had been opened. the Commission for Affairs of the East took place. that the number of bishops present had diminished by seventy. that it could emancipate itself from a rapid and summary fulfilment of the programme of the Civilta Cattolica. The Opposition desired it openly. Of these the greater part had others and it was reported that four were dead left Rome had absented themselves owing to some concealed discontent. and they would triumph more quickly f^n<l easily than was at first supposed. although neither did their tactics point to its being of short duration. the number of absentees would increase. thus rendering very bad service to their own cause. if any of them spoke . —no small thing. some of the French prelates had been obliged to .for the prolongation of the Council. considerations. they coincided with an increasing desire. They maintained the Opposition . and gain time. a passive demeanour in the Council before few. The Catholic party were assured of the permanency of the French occupation bishops. [January.70 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. seeing that politics were. who on returning to their respective dioceses. escaped from the authoritative atmosphere of Rome. once aroused. must necessarily exert some influence over them. . would be able to consult the feeling of their flocks public opinion. and it became apparent. when first the spirit of opposition had ex- hausted itself on these matters of common the fnria franccse would calm down. return on account of political disturbances. the Curia acquiesced . . and they did not interest. at the bottom of the affair and Catholicism secured this advantage. But they forgot . by the polling-papers collected. The for during the prorogation changes might take place. became evident. . that as the summer drew on. 6. and to reconcile the Catholic party to the longer On the 19th the election by vote of duration of the Council.

who possess traditionally a more intimate acquaintance with the battle-field than any other nation. 71 had also to deal with the unimpassioncd German and with the tenacity of the Italians.Jakuahy. in order to profit by their advantages. should have clearly recognised the influence they might exercise with regard to the Papacy and the other questions agitating Catholicism and their own great responsibility. At the same time the Italians. eight months AT EOME.] that thej nature. . of which they must render an account to history.

[February. cording as Catholic feeling 2. 4. 5. answered by inquiring when it and in this story we have a true picture of the which prevailed last month. Letters of the Bishop of Ork-aus. Summary of their contents. FEBRUARY. such as vehemently stir up the members of the Church. — — — to defect. Through some indiscretion. is exercised thereon." of the East. contained in the scheme " Ue Ecclesia. — — New diplomatic intervention." 1. like that " De Fide." it would finish. — Affairs Debate on the scheme " De Catechismo. One of the Fathers. I. addresses of the Opposition. 13. and was full of the most diflicult ([uestions. -THE FIRST RESULTS OF THE SCHEME «DE ECCLESIA. — The amended schemes. — — Project shortening the speeches. ful. and are of more or less importance to society. Summary 2. on being asked how soon . which still existed. — 8. 16. 12. for 11." been sent to the Commission on amendments.— 72 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. for 14. On the canons of tlie proceedings of the tliree provions months. 15. for which we should be grate- the canons of the scheme " De Ecclesia" were published in . Fate of the 7. — Attempt obviate this rations of the Council. all appearance would continue in future. Tactics of the Opposition. But decided resistance was expected when the scheme "De Ecclesia " came under discussion it had been distributed in the Congregation of January 21st. 9. ac. and had been closely followed by those " De Moribus Clericorum " and " De Catechismo. bringing about an Other plans Failure of the same. or any on which the opinions of the Council were substantially divided. agreement. would begin state of affairs and which to scheme " De Episcopis " had. 1. The Up to this time the subjects under consideration were such as did not touch any serious question. — — addresses." 3. Explanation of the tardiness in the dehbeG. The Ecumenical Council had now been sitting tliree months without arriving at any result. at least directly. Italian 10. — Project of reconciliation. 17.

but. The Opposition. This address followed very closely on the distribution of the scheme " De Ecclesia. the Infallibilist bishops had last month prepared an address to the Council. the exaltation of Papal authority. tifice. the very doctrines in fact which settle and define the practical action of the Vatican Council on civil society. having been for long used regarding the Pope in official documents. quum et in rebus fidei et morum. the known (though nothing was cernumber and strength all. and was addressed to the Commission on " Postulata. viz. qua^ ab omnibus Christi fidelibus creet tenenda. in order that the Council. the first being at the same time cause and effect of the other two. ea statuit ac praecipit. as that document esse expresses it." were the rules briefly yet fully expressed. with regard to Infallibility. in the Sikldcutsclie In the part of the scheme entitled " De Romano PonPresse. and could not be. which. of those who opposed it a viso aperto were patent to by means of the various addresses which they had signed. by which not only the most unlimited power was attributed to the Papacy. the Temporal power. " apertis omnemque dubitandi locum excludentibus errore A'erbis sancire velit supremam. the doctrine doctrines which have agitated the Catholic world of late years. It was not difficult to predict how the assembly would receive the other propositions. ideoque ab immunem Romani denda Pontificis auctoritatem. quaeque rejicienda to light in a damnanda sunt. and also in a gether with the doctrinal part of the scheme. 4. the principles of the Syllabus." as an amendment to be added to the propositions of the scheme itself. more detailed form. and in the doctrinal part were all those designations such as doctorem etjiidicem supremum." Thus were brought verted into a scheme or to be afterwards con- decree. But as the explicit declaration of the personal Infallibility of the Pope was not. but in which the temporal power was also indirectly sanctioned. not wishing to make a positive proposal. supreme Infallibility." so as to complete it. as the respective opinions of the Fathers on these points were tain) . but only to put forth a negative opinion in reply to the decided " postulatum " of their . 73 to- the Augshiirr/ Gazette.Fedruary. inserted in a scheme which emanated directly from himself.] eight months AT ROME. and. in which that declaration was formally demanded. though much more indirectly and in a less absolute form than these. have prepared the way for the declaration of his 3.

However difficult it be to comprehend the organisation of the Council. and the (juestion. was." which had already received the address in favour of Infallibility. it is plain that this Pope was equivalent to a distinct refusal." the great diversity of opinions on the matter. but if in accepting a it. proposal they received also the observations in opposition to the subject in itself to the question of the general discussion would have been insensibly diverted from its expediency. they had a right to expect that the respectful expression of their wishes should meet with a better reception. refusal. open to the Commission to accept or reject a proposal once made . owing to that great ally of the Curia Komana. and desirous to [February. as in the case . 5. and its consideration transferred from the general assembly. the fear of scandal. besides including in their body the most illusti'ious men in the Church. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. of course. it They had done had previously been this immediately on hearing a report of the address of the Infallibilists." which would have overturned the order of Conciliar treatment. who had subscribed the address. were obliged to address themselves directly to the Pope. his approbation being necessary for every matter to be brought forward in the Council. a feeling that generally governs all its dependants the most remote as well as the nearest (sometimes really from motives of Christian charity )^the discontent of the Opposition was kept under control outside the Council Hall. and only manifested itself from time to time by small explosions. and have displaced and prejudged the though conveyed with all legal formality. make their views known before the debate commenced. and not to the Commission. to the This was displeasing bishops — pastors of the principal Congregations both in Europe and America. giving as a reason for inducing the Pope to grant their request and withhold his approbation from the " postulatum. The Pope sent all the addresses in this sense to the identical Commission on " Postulata. and praying him to use his authority to impose a dignified silence on so dangerous a subject. as they considered that being 137 in number. and representing about one-third of the Catholic populations. though accepted by the Commission. However.74 adversaries. to the Commission on " Postulata. for those documents were addressed to him. and it was obviously impossible for the latter to entertain a action of the negative their demand —a demand which asked them It not to make own petition.

important matters brought before the Vatican Council in such different circumstances. The Council of Trent lasted eighteen years and it is evident that months and years were necessary for the full consideration of the . and some. although nothing Every one knows remarkable occurred during that time. many as. in which he reimprimatiir refused by the censorship. . the length of the Council of Basle and its vicissitudes. so that he was obliged to publish the letters himself. They awaited beneficial results of time. acquainted with parliamentary procedure. there remained for them no 6. of them being well acquainted with public life. itself resource but so far as possible to temporise. Within the Council however. treats of the In his answer to the Archbishop of Malines. in which they undoubtedly had the advantage of their adversaries. These considerations gave a significance to three months of unproductive labour and vain expectation.] eight months at ROME. To this end they occupied the time with lengthy orations. but had taken such a definite form as alone answered to the position in which the minority were placed. the Bishop of Orleans points to that very fact as a proof of the treatment to which bishops were subjected in Rome and in writing to his Chapter. which was no longer a simple diversity of opinion. which were published in the newspapers. Being only a small body under pressure of rules by which everything was definitively submitted to the action of the legates and the Pope. 75 of the letters of the Bishop of Orleans. the Hungarians. the words said of Fabius. and fully expressed his discontent. the awakening of public opinion they looked to the future and Would such tactics render applicable to them the unknown. Even their adversaries admired the mira vcnustas of these the . from the learning and eloquence of most of their body.Feeroary. and which. after having given such numerous and undoubted proofs of his devotion to the Church and the Apostolic See. and after the lapse of three centuries. that ^^ ciinctando restituant rem ?" 7. for ex- ample. seems to lament the persecutions falling on him . this discontent showed openly by a systematic and continued opposition. notwithstanding their vivacity. from experience gained in their national Diets. speeches. were never repudiated by their author.

was. and not an event of real importance. and the length of the speeches. in order to obviate this con- sumption of time. in this it was more especially so on account of the loss occasioned to those who composed it. could be as would suffice for accomplished in the same short space of time and they desired that the voting a budget . to which it . It was proposed. and the same arguments were frequently repeated. and of the legates. In the English Parliament. and influencing its duration. 9. on considering how few were the means allowed to the Opposition for defending themselves. if the time squandered in useless words is to be regretted in all assemblies. opinion of the majority. and also controls their length. a rule which limits the number of orators. Yet one becomes tolerant of such an abuse. who began to seek some means of providing against this. was exactly what many wished to avoid. Indeed. 8. which occasionally occupied entire " Congregations. such laments were worthy of consideration. on this point one disadvantage attending this Council as compared with others. by a protracted absence from their Sees and their duties at home. with the view of bringing it into harmony with the new wants and conditions of modern society." as many Fathers spoke on the same subjects. that no distinction of parties being recognised. . and the orators only spoke so that any number might speak on the their individual mind same subject and in the same sense. or even simple revision of the Catholic legislation. however. danger. Of course this strategy was very displeasing to the majority. Therefore the fact that the proceedings assumed the character of an actual discussion was in itself a notable was impossible not to attach importance when the cause of it was known. was not the the upper hand in Catholicism. They pre- tended that a work so important as the reform. and preventing the influence of the dark traditions of the Middle Ages from gaining Such. speeches are not read. and even grateful for it. there could be no colle(.tive expression of opinion. because. who complained of the waste of time. as yet unforeseen. that in the . but delivered viva voce . but for the reasons above given. Moreover. Council should be merely a grand ceremony for the solemn fulfilment of a pre-arranged programme. But that [February. circumstance.7G EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. in imitation of this practice.

It was said that this project was brought forward by some of the Italian bishops. and that the orators should depend only on memory . in fact. belonging for the most part to the southern provinces. stop the matter from being carried further. on their part. according to the subjects of which they treated. offering the fruit of its reflections in writing to the Cardinal legates. did not take exactly the intended shape.February. at the same time the permission of placing their manuscript. though the idea was not entirely laid aside. with this difference. The Augsburg in Gazette published a telegram from Rome. who saw themselves threatened in their last and those of them who held the highest position prepared to take more definite and determined meaThey endeavoured to procure a protest sures to avert the peril. and that it would thus form an answer by the addresses of the French and Infallibilist party to the first German bishops of the Opposition. yet another proposal to the same effect was soon made. by the laity from such a quarter as would best insure its being heard. in a restrictive sense . the project. certain Italian bishops. but 10.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. These precautions did. went dropped out of notice. had prepared a petition in favour of Infallibility. . if they wished. with the hope of obtaining certain reforms in the Order of the Council. had sought for a liberal and extended reform of the same Order. having. however. This was a less radical innovation than consigning . Although the attempt to modify the Order of the Council. A short while before this. the opinions of the Italian episcopate no further. who. which caused great apprehension among the bishops of the Opposition. Thomas Aquinas and St. and leave it merely the empty consolation of means of defence . which a similar project was set forth. for the fuller information of the legates. and thereby to defeat the plan which. 77 Vatican Council written speeches should be prohibited. that the manuscripts were to be consigned to the respective Commissions. on the president's desk. with regard to the method of discussion. would deprive the Opposition of the greater part of its means of action. however. interspersed with quotations drawn from the writings of St. if successful. for their particular information. Alphonso di Liguori and these proceedings would by no means have conduced to imprint the stamp of liberality on .

the oral discussion and the voting were to take place. signatures of the less resolute dissentients to a formula in favour of Infallibility. but allowed them to be given in writing to the Commissions (as in the case of the second project difference. to serve like the first-mentioned (or instead of it) as scheme. trust. Afterwards. and made it impossible to maintain those cona strict control over the most important matters tained in the written speeches — which — are of course fuller more detailed than such as are made from memory only. and distributed to the Fathers. and a special meeting was held for its consideration. which provided that the observations and objections of the Fathers could not be simply negatived. like the other. It was said that a clause was added to this project. " De Romano an appendix to the matters contained in the Pontifice" its aim being to obtain the . printed. With this view. 11. prohibited the reading of speeches. the party predominating in the Council continued to seek for some solution of the . however.. no doubt was entertained that every the discussions. and This last project. way was tried which might serve to limit The Sunday Congregations. greatly embarrassed the proceedings of the Council and to endeavour to bring over some part of its members to the opinions of the majority. that they we have mentioned). [Februaey. to the presidents . as being more conciliatory. A last project. with this were to be condensed. on which devolved the duty of examining the petitions of the previous month. a new kind of " postulatum " was circulated. 78 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. did not entirely contradict the truth of this last hypothesis. difhculty. but more moderate in tone than that which had provoked so much resistance. included a proposition for resolving questions by silence where unanimity was impracticable. it them but at the same time. which met with greater favour. . hindered them from being pul)licly known. which. and though it was not carried into effect. also took up the subject. though minority. Meanwhile to it was necessary to remove the existing misquite in the divide the Opposition. but must have appended to them the affirmative opinion of and though this contheir opponent on the matter in question dition was not ultimately brought forward. a journal usually well-informed in these matters. L^Unita Cattolica.

the Opposition only saw in an attempt to divide them and the Infallibilists." solution of difficulties would be arrived at. is due to the judgments of the Pope thirdly. 12. feeling that if it were successful they would be considered beaten. cussions among theologians as to the conditions required for proving a case ex cathedra. the only one. . the only way in which the matter must be considered It was observable. for the latter. This project was followed by a long commentary on its utility and it was declared to be more convenient than a pure and simple declaration of Infallibility. as would obviate the trouble of solving for those bility . are as absolute and exclusive as the sentiments from which they have sprung.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. it . which would always afford ground for innumerable dis. regarded it with no sort of satisfaction.February. . the condemnation (but without an anathema) of those who appeal from the sentence of the Pope to a future Council secondly. and was a return to the ancient Roman which are far more moderate and less definite than the new. It was so worded as to certain point) the Infallibility bility of the be in favour of blending (up to a of the Pope with the Infalli- Church. the condemnation of those who affirm that there may be such a real discordance between the episcopate and the Pope as to render it necessary to judge which of them is the greater as such a discordance could not occur. according to its own promoters. was. and therefore should not be considered at all by the Church. then possible. that being. The project was certainly welcomed by those who in all assemblies seek for peace and agreement but these quiet spirits are never possessed of much authority. theological opinions. As is usually the case. and not real obedience. also. the condemnation of the opinion of those who say that only apparent. the idea of a third party did not . : 79 This new project contained three principal points First. many it historical questions very embarrassing who desired to reconcile them with personal Infalli- and ultimately was strongly urged as the best means It of obtaining such a measure of unanimity as was requisite for attaining grave decisions with any safety. . how by this plan such a as " of faith. perhaps. . please either one side or the other . being produced by the mingled enthusiasm and terror of the Catholic party. indeed. a real attempt at conciliation.

augmented the fears of the Opposition to such a pitch. constrained to submit to the " riverenza della 14. which had already been sitting a considerable time. began to divide itself into intrigues were foimed. and though the plan obtained of the Opposition. 101. . it was most difficult to ascertain. must be placed on the liberty of discussion. it the support of a few active members it failed diffi- in regard to the end for which culties was designed. that they (the French especially) turned for succour to diplomacy. . and to assist them with some arguments which might prove * " The reverence for the keys superliitive. and find itself finally . said to have been originated by one of the most illustrious. the origin and the truth of which . this plan would have been on his part equivalent to an abdication. any rate. a proposal attracted considerable attention. Among others. Inf. xix. at somme Chiavi. without admitting any idea of accommodation that as a last resource the utmost pressure of authority would be used. settle great [Fedruaky. The most violent Infallibilists declared that they must remain firm. acquired particular value. this was a method of accommodation founded on the acceptance by both parties of the formula of the Council of Florence. and the remained the same as ever. As the reputed author was one of the heads of the Opposition." * The ever-increasing rumours indicating that some check. the assembly. and the dogma defined on the strength of a simple numerical majority. leaving the minority out of the question as in their opinion it would melt away on meeting with such firm and vigorous resistance. strengthen the anti-Infallibilist bishops with their authority. which seemed at length inclined to emerge from that state of supine neutrality hitherto observed in all matters concerning the CounTlie Catholic Governments instructed their ambassadors to cil." LoNCU-'KiLow's Daiito. continued to occupy the minds of those most deeply engaged in the impenetrable recesses of ecclesiastical politics. if not the most influential persons in the Council . 13. and therefore the report. questions . Whilst the eager desire to overcome the obstacles that hindered the consummation of their plans. with some slight modification.80 nor can thoy EIGHT IMONTIIS AT ROME. whether true or only circulated from party spirit. and all sorts of reports different parties and projects were spread abroad.

* "A little spark is followed by great flame. The on which the Opposition were agitated. the Opposition would be utterly defeated."* One of the fixed ideas that the Church and the Propaganda. G . 81 convincing to calm the enthusiasm of their adverthird point 15.— February. It was already known that in the Commissions for emendation the schemes were revised either by the persons who had originally drawn them up. in that zeal for unity which is now so much felt. Farad." The . becomes of immense importance. Then again. but even supposing that they were amended in this way. every little incident that would otherwise have passed unnoticed. particularly those regarding episcopal elections. considering the temper of the party predominant in the Vatican. they could be . that si nihil obstiterit. as usually happens when men's minds are excited. ?A. put to the vote " v/as. was the desire of finding out what became of the schemes once sent back as by this only could they measure the real value of their own resistance. but their laws and privileges. In this case would the judgment of the majority suffice to change those schemes into decrees ? If that was so. what other criterion would be thought sufficient ? Such were the speculations. besides the Order of the Council. and other special matters of jurisdiction and discipline. there once amended remained nothing but to submit them to the definitive vote. 16. but put to the vote as entire schemes according to the opinions of the Council. and the proposal of Infallibility. what came of it ? According to the Order. it is at such moments that " Poca favilla gran fiamma seconda. was this judgment sufficient in matters of discipline of great importance. and if this course was not adopted. i. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The next Session was to make known openly what they had to expect. Meantime. the result of which the Opposition awaited with little satisfaction. which would be an impossible work. or by others of like opinions. Rome had long been able to count for support on two . and of dogma ? Was it entirely free from danger.] sufficiently saries. is the uniting of the different Oriental rites not their liturgies. universal opinion they ought not to be again subjected to partial disfor cussion. of which the Orientals are exceedingly jealous. have been indefatigably working out in these latter years." Longfellow's Dante.

and was followed by a considerable and influential portion of the Eastern clergy. Monsignor Hassoun. he one day invited the old Patriarch Being reduced to this either to submit or to resign his office. and provoked very undesirable The rumour analogous recollections of the detested name of the Holy Inqui- Events of this nature are of common occurrence in eccleand might be repeated a thousand times without acquiring great weight or attracting much notice but in sition. was simply a Roman ecclesiastic the second. The . The Pope could not suffer such resistance and in the presence of Valerga. who were her sworn lieges. Altogether. The first. the Latin and the Armenian. Infalli- on their part held that a defeat would be followed by very disastrous consequences for the Pope's authority and. 17.82 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. The matter in question was no less than an attempt to abolish . who had manifested a want of docility in seconding its projects. the state of affairs was most complicated. the scheme " De Catechismo " came under deliberation in the Congregations. both regular and secular. as he remained a firm supporter of the privileges of the Oriental churches. created a great sensation. at the of certain retrospective processes to be carried on same time by means of the Propaganda before the Holy Office against some bishops under its own immediate jurisdiction. before his promotion to the episcopal dignity. they acquired exceptional importance. extremity by his imperious brother. on the other hand. was as devoted to Rome But the Propaganda had as a Roman ecclesiastic could be. and this episode. also excited much notice. siastical administrations. [FEBEtTARY. and the large numbers who inscribed their names as orators on the subject awoke some displeasure. threatening in the East. the Patriarch chose rather to resign than bend to the Pope's authority. never been able to induce the old Chaldean Patriarch to further its designs. While events were in this stage. . Monsignor Valerga. . the Opposition were so entangled by public opinion and the wishes of their flocks that they could not recede from their position. such a moment as the present. and betokened no ])ilists sort of approach to a conclusion. who was the interpreter and only witness of his in-r terview with the Chaldean. which was reckoned as the herald of a new schism long of the Oriental Patriarchs . and under prevailing circum- stances.

— 6. par to every vicissitude of II. and the other points which. more or less. Means of escape. The moment for the discussion of the scheme "De Ecclesia " was approaching. SUddeutsche especially those parts tutions of those countries actually in connection with her are included in the same condemnation. but even a great part of the customs and instipropositions. as reported Presse.* The scope of the twenty-one Canons given by the Augshurg Gazette is partly to reaffirm ancient beliefs and traditions. and to substitute for all. 83 the catechisms in various forms in the words of which different nations had been ever accustomed to lisp their religious belief. and the way in which not only many of the most cultivated and flourishing nations of the world are condemned as dissentients from the Church. directly touch on the Pope's authority. SCHEME "DE ECCLESIA. — — — 1. . but for an individual at Rome to object to the City. Their probable effect on the world.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Document XIII. and partly to sanction certain opinions in their most absolute form.— THE 1. — 3. Temporal power before Kemainderof the scheme." of the sclieme. — 2. and in the sense of what would be called on the other side of the Alps the purest " Ultramontanism. It Roman. one common catechism. excellence. it all Catholics that these differences having been already * was observed by many irreproachable condemned G 2 See Appendix. could scarcely have expected. in the heat of discussion. and I might almost say geometrical form of the system to which these points are all reduced. ventured to take exception to the pattern thus set forth as a type to be universally adopted . Conclusion. Roman Catechism was a liberty which the Holy though accustomed fortune. 7.February. the temporal dominion. Its application." If there is anything new in them. its Very serious reflections arose from a study of by the Augsburg Gazette and the which refer to the primacy. 4. The twenty-one Canons Infallibility. probably the happened that some bishop. As to the first point. 8. it is the precise.— 5. Summary of the same.

the side of tolerance. was useless. certainly requires to be deepened and enlarged rather than narrowed and restricted. The fifth lays down that the Catholic Church The sixth declares. Then. The twelfth authorises temporal punishments for disobedience to the Finally. into the habits and feelings of their religious education. and their position with regard to the Freethinkers will only class Church has been clearly settled. [February. that no other confession of faith can be tolerated. the law of the Church. In the is withdrawn from the control of the State. these Canons with those that preceded them. Divine authority. even for reasons of eccleand irritate great and powerful nations by reiterating a judgment which there was no hope of their accepting. rightly and properly so called. and in so doing claims for the Church unlimited and supreme power over all human society. and to narrow and restrict her limits. a duty indicated by instead of endeavouring to enlarge them her very name and mission ? Such were the considerations to which the publication of this document gave rise. which. many asked of what avail could be the endeavour to cast Governments and nations out of the Church. it own siastical policy. by is the one only way of eternal salvation. doctrines are concerned. eleventh establishes the supremacy of the episcopate. as published by the Augsburg Gazette^ affirms the identity and autonomy of the Catholic Church the the third its exterior and sensible second its immutability and the fourth reverts to its autonomy excluding all action dissentient bodies. if it needs anything. The first Canon. so that there remain only the They seldom err on Catholics. 2. and indeed a perusal of its contents makes one wonder with what object it was compiled and to whom the So far as dissentients from its greater part of it was addressed. and the day. and all these judgments enter. The seventh affirms the infallibility of the Church. . tenth the Church The . as to the second point. and that the only result of such a course would be to give them a most unfavourable idea of a religion thus intolerant and aggressive. and see an additional reason for disregarding them all. even to its perfection. more or less directly. unrevealed truths.84 in their EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. they (as we already remarked) have been long since condemned. to offend — . as a corollary of all this. eighth The ninth extends its Infallibility. .

what do they amount Sole religion the Catholic to? sole head the Pope "qui habet plenam et supremam potestatem " his laws superior to those of the State on which he exercises his judgment " de licito et de illicito. The relations between Church and State are thus adjusted upon a system of gentle gradations. such a declaration can avail to the millions of Catholics who. scheme to consider what. and in the twenty-first these latter are withdrawn entirely from the cognisance of the State. 3." may determine what power can remain to diocesan their own churches after such a declaration as this the comprehension of secular persons. which the seventeenth Canon explains. . there would remain the Pope only." and also " ordinariam et immediatam in omnes ac singulas Theologians bishops in but it baffles Ecclesias.] thirteenth EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. who between them should direct the world but if the idea of these Canons were fully carried out with regard to civil society. reach their culminating point in the sixteenth. Now. in our days. . Dante has imagined an Emperor and a Pope. are thereby again condemned. The nineteenth condemns those who uphold the supremacy of the civil right.February. What feelings and expectations would be awakened in other religious and constituted powers. which. on summing up these Canons. . by the enunciation of an authority so complete and absolute as that set forth in these articles? This question was asked on all sides by those bishops especially who. along with all the rest of the human race. where it is said that he has " plenam et supremam potestatem jurisdictionis in universam Ecclesiam. living in — — . so we limit our considerations to the social and civil aspect of the question. Canon pronounces an anathema against all 85 who say that salvation can be found out of the one holy Catholic Apo- We leave it to the authors of the stolic Church of Rome. By the twentieth all secular power is declared to be in subjection to the laws of the Church. It is not the aim of the present work to discuss the theological view of such decrees." and disposes of permissions and punishments. With the fourteenth Canon commence those declarations on the primacy of the Pope within the Church. by progressive steps. The eighteenth vindicates the Divine right in all power that governs civil society.

Its condemnation." : 4. taken individually. should be . the scheme. the same. when taken collectively thus carrying out the syllogism to its last result. having mind. and is not left free to the choice of man. there follows This term has many the condemnation of liberty of conscience. and restricted to cases which have no relation to our society. expressed his feelings in the apposite quotation from Tacitus " non obtrectari a se urbanas excubias.86 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. — Rome the point of divergence between the just and the — to ecclesiastical power . and for that reason is accepted neither by its eulogists nor by its enemies. but after describing the intimate union between Church and State as the source of great advantage to the latter. and among liberal [February. meanings. which is a union of believers. pleases no one. Such a condemnation carries with it an antithesis. asserts that if individual believers are to be in subordination to the Church. the scheme proceeds to assert that that union is a Divine law. to submit to the true and religion. in return for its submission . for instance. by excluding the testimony of conscience from being the justification of invincible ignorance. which it limits to the material incapacity for acquiring knowledge. though that is a state of things rarely met with in our day. The same may be said of the civil power. It would appear that it was intended in some degree to mitigate the condemnations of the doctrinal part of the scheme . civilised countries. to which is conceded the sanction of Divine right. it is no less their duty. are obliged to these points. . making the Church of unjust between light and darkness up to an absolute dualism between good and evil between Christ and Belial. or between Rome and all that is not of Rome. If it is the duty of mankind. and the only one which is true. and would seem as a commentary on this distinction. and should be agreeable to all. thus simply expressed. the State. a distinction is made with regard to errors of faith between invincible ignorance and that which are is wilful. sibi tamen apud horridas gentes e contuberniis hostem aspici. But how it we to define invincible ignorance ? for immediately. different religious professions. answers the question we have proposed. this in It and cultivated nations of form an opinion on was said that an American prelate.

it 87 the State has both the right that. the scheme speaks of the temporal power. liturgical phrases It reverts on the benefits of that temporal power. is 5. seeing that the Pope supreme judge. and has equal care of both. style. and embodies in himself the judgment of the Church under the severest penalties. not from fear. in these terms. for the same reason. it returns to the old style. has an excellent effect. on the contrary. and considered apart from the claims of unlimited power that otherwise predominate in the scheme. but in order to exercise justice. The doctrinal portion of the scheme (as we have already pointed out) that to persons concludes by observing Father. those Sovereigns who have not the Church for a mother. The one we refer to. which it says " singulari divinae Providentiae consilio dato " to the Roman Church." and in consequence con- demns those who affirm " repugnare juri divino ut cum spirituali potestate in Romanos Pontifices civilis conjungatur." Now. but for conscience sake God has created both small and great." and also the perverseness of those " qui contendunt Ecclesiae non esse de hujus principatus civilis ad generale Christianae reipublicae bonum relatione licere Catholicis quidpiam cum auctoritate constituere adeoque hominibus ab illius decisionibus hac de re is editis recedere aliterque sentire. and all on the impiety of " quovis insidiarum et violentiarum genere labefactare ac convellere adnitantur. which may be to perhaps well adapted to the political question." When. and the duty (irrespective of the obligation of maintaining public order) of inflicting penalties on In another place adds as a corollary the Church belongs the supreme judgment over all questions of morals in civil society and of what is lawful in public affairs and that as she is the guide and teacher of men in the way of salvation. because power was given them not to satisfy the desire of dominion. Sometimes the scheme rises above this narrow and jealous and delineates with vivid colours the benefits to be derived from the influence of religion upon the State and a passage of this sort taken independently. have not God for their . who offend against religion.] eight months AT EOME. .Febeuary. it also enjoins on them the care of their people. " that religion teaches submission . . for authority. to lawful and while it inculcates obedience to kings.

One of the greatest difficulties arising from the want of any limit to Papal authority in the constitution of some bounds to the matters on which the Pope has the right of judging ex cathedra. according to this proposition. indeed. namely. either from humility or from eccentricity. Who habitually directs the Church in the absence of the exceptional and comprehensive influence of Councils? The How would the Church proceed if this guidance could Pope. it cannot be denied that the formula we have just quoted was relatively moderate. should voluntarily abdicate his temporal power (though we admit such a thing is very unlikely). . an eternal State. Many similar instances might be cited to prove what. And here a hypothesis presents itself: supposing that one day a Pope. though it acquired great importance from the general character of the decree in which it was incorporated. like the King of Phrygia who turned all that he touched into gold. in such a case. all the vicissitudes and necessities of the age. and argued thus. . but would rather consider themselves be suffering from the caprice and tyranny of an individual. but old as the world itself. hence the danger of his making everything dogma. The Infallibilists made no account of such considerations. liberty affords protection to both. but rather from sincere conviction promote its continuance. Tliat would constitute in the public law of nations a State which. and therefore his decree would. follows that. as being itself superior to law. in the heart of Europe. be a priori strengthened by the judgment issued against all those who are not of his way of thinking. then think of the doctrine of Infallibility ? In such a case the chances are that they would not care to recognise in the occurrence a natural condition of the Church expressed by to its living word.88 it EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. what would the Infallibilists who are so fond of that the Church. to entertain it [Ferruauy. is that of assigning power. be false? By this argument they showed that they were unable to appreciate the slow but collective action of society and like . It is most unlikely that the Pope should himself decree the downfall of his own power. would set at defiance. that all absolute power is a two-edged sword that wounds both friends and enemies whereas. Still. is nothing new. is unlawful for differing' any one opinions on the temporal power from those of the Pope.

in compiling the treatise . it is often giving instruction . confuses itself. and so forth. could not relish an authority which was not distilled through the arbitrary will of one individual. 7. With regard that those only are the scheme certainly specifies condemned who exclude ecclesiastics from but with regard to universal suffrage. In speaking of these things the scheme. and thus becomes. the evils of a system with the system and passes judg- ment on a whole category of really reprehensible . who are the authors of this scheme. it seems indistinctly to condemn all those who guide their actions by public opinion or the voice of the majority . but opporfeasible nature . It is evident that all conceptions destined to become matters of deliberation in an influence civil tune.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. in the formula we have described by whom civil society is to be directed and guided thus rendering it the object and instrument of the absolute and exclusive regime imposed by his irresponsible and unlimited will. Still the tenor of the whole document tends to enforce the ideal set forth one fold and one shepherd. interspersed with the It arguments of the Syllabus. 89 all men who submit to the influence and allurements of despotism. among other things suffrage less distinctly — liberty of con- ecclesiastical immunities tary service from ecclesiastics. therefore. assembly whose object it is to society should be not only specious. whereas. and in so doing society carries into action the mind of the Church. like the Syllabus. of course. and of a and. as it were. if the report of it be true. the theologians. taking a part facts. her embodiment and the truest. many cases the only one to be had in modern There are some just remarks to be found in the scheme mixed with the most exorbitant exactions. was and the favourite doctrines of the Catholic party — lay teaching—the suppression of — the abolition of religious orders— the confiscation of the property of the clergy — the exaction of miliscience enunciated. and in society. — — representative. infallible. for the whole.February. as if only some of which are one were to say. The rest of the scheme. —universal more or condemned. abounds too often in that sort of metaphor which. " thirst is wrong because it leads to inebriety. 6." to lay teaching. though such a criterion is not.

as portrayed by the schemes. but in exile. man and explicitly condemns all those who say that the of Church and State is requisite for the good of society and thus. and all the other evils which have already resulted from that system sad remedies indeed ? If. programme. Of and as of the greatest intellect of the age in Italy. but as its doctrines are inseparable from the working of civil institutions. [February De institutions it Monarchia. when it is once accepted. in schisms. only concerns those who believe in it. considered merely in its specuan argument of faith. and The other is to reflect practithe misfortunes it would entail. — . the "Chiesa libera in Stato libero. the second separation . the conditions of which are The scheme implicitly rejects such an Church and State. in what would this society." as the only logical solution of the eternal and difficult problem." failed to render it serviceable to the living and practical interests of the day. and the poverty of the means of sustainingIn both alternatives the mind reverts to the Bull of Conit. though they made closely accord with the ideal of their own minds. idea. and you receive a very different impression from the disproportion between the grandeur of the challenge. considered the separation of Church and State. in imprisonment. which states that it was assembled for the purpose of providing a remedy for the needs and evils of If the first case were possible. remedy consist. did the theologians who drew it up in very indifferent Latin under the safe shelter of the Vatican. in religious warfare. only two hypotheses The one is to consider speculatively any Catholic remain. vocation of the Council." well-knowing the inflexibility of the traditions of Rome. cally on the number of adherents that such a programme would find among Catholics themselves. with which they are substantially identified.90 " EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. in the Inquisition. on the other hand (as is more probable). 8. ere this scheme could be carried into effect? The course. and as their practical application is distinctly contemplated. trying and you to carry out its ideal at the present day in the world tremble at the thought of the resistance it would provoke. and the blood that must be shed. their lative part. ever consider what its result would be ? Did those theologians ever attempt to estimate the harm that must be done. . society active and powerful. " Cavour.

. and several persons slightly con- nected with the Council of their office. fell into trouble. though of equal consequence to Catholicism. 8. 9. OF THE CATHOLIC NATIONS. matter of serious import that Europe should receive. Asceticism. Rebellion. Questions for the consideration of the Council. 2. either with indifference or with disfavour. the principal causes of this discontent was the sensible effect produced by these documents. Displeasure caused by the publication of the Canons. 2. The Revolution. 4. Public opinion. If. 1. Catliolicism and modern society. Intolerance and indulgences. where then absolute is 91 alternative were accepted. caused the Vatican a searching investigation was the result. tyranny or impotence. according to power or its object. might not the attention of the Council be turned to matters of more general importance. Central- — — — — — — isation. Questions regarding France. others were obliged to leave all Some were deprived Rome. in those countries especially where such questions are of great importance but this was unreasonable. 12. a fatal remedy ? dilemma Cruelty to which is sooner or later every its and inexorable system reduced. Excessive authority. 11. Responsibility of Institutions. than later. Conclusion. so severelyreprobated by the scheme. Dilemma.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. as they were of much greater consequence than the simple propositions of a number of theologians.— 14. the decrees of the Catholic Assembly. the or contempt. 6. very often of the it and the refusal to take any account of is sometimes the cause of serious and irremediable mistakes. The publication of the documents in the greatest excitement at the German papers .— CONDITION 1.February. greatest utility . 5. 3. 7. as to substitute for the Canons we have described some other scheme treating of the subjects that now occupy men's minds. Exceptions to preceding observations. III. It was a . nevertheless. as it was far better for the Vatican that its schemes should be known beforehand. public opinion could be so far heard in the Church. is. even though emanating from the Vatican. — — — — — 13. and punishclear that one of ment followed plices those supposed to be the authors or accomIt is of these indiscreet revelations. for example.— 10. and loudly call for a rational solution.

however. we must remember that in the conflict both of the same former. would it not be a suitable inquiry for the Ecumenical Council of the nineteenth century. in those useful institutions by which mankind can and science. in order to point out the epoch at which began not only the consolidation of those great differences which have divided Christendom. civil. and their relative inferiority. Wc will not. called together with such solemnity after the lapse of three centuries. [February. has the opportunity of observing the relative condition of the Savoyard and the Swiss villages ? Again. . . German between the Austrians and the Prussians race the advantage was not for the — Or latter to take another test. moral. render homage to the Creator in the pursuit of art and in grand undertakings? I say in recent times. but also the formation of that system of Catholic Government which the V^atican Council has striven still further to enforce. what progress has been made in these days by the first-named countries as compared with the all second. proceed further . one can and of civilisation to be found in Spain as compared with England. and in Ireland or as between Portugal and as compared with the sister Isle between Italy Holland between South and North America and in this and Germany between Savoy and Switzerland latter country between the Catholic and Protestant cantons ? Does not the contrast involuntarily strike the mind of any person who. sailing along the shores of the Lake of Geneva. and political? an inferiority which is in proportion to the greater or less prevalence of the system described in the scheme. .— 92 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. very profound statistical knowledge is No necessary . than the scholastic subtleties contained in the Canons ? Are there no defects in the Catholic religion save those regarding Is that the only subject worth consideration? its authority? Is the loss of the temporal power the sole evil on which we should deliberate tion ? Could no other matters be found worthy to occupy the attenof the Ecumenical Council. to examine into tions of our age the cause of the various evils that affect the Catholic populathe their abnormal condition in many ways — — slowness of their growth. to deliberate on the interests of religion ? For instance. see with a glance the difference in prosperity — .

what nation is more deeply affected than France by grave and dangerous social questions.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. both of throw light on our subject. her science. which concerns her social and political state.original form. would have been of necessity lost to France. France affords ample material for the reflections. on the political condition of the Catholic populations. men of the present day. as the rival of the By . which we shall shortly make. . The best illustration of these reflections is found on turning to France. to the learned and her Beginning from the encyclopedists down culture. but only observe that as the scheme "De Ecclesia" asserts that the Church exists is a visible society of men. the first. or is in a condition less favourable for their resolution? Considered from this view. on earth for their salvation. By the one she appears as the centre of life and of civilisation. but at the same time. and 3. or are influenced by her.February. how many institutions. how many of the savants^ and of those who have in any way assisted the growth of modern France.* adopted by its own party). for she presents them well adapted two views to the observer. but it seems well to leave them in then. To whom nations ? does France owe that part of her civilisation which enables her at the present I time to rank among other great mean her material prosperity. and what an amount of learning. would have been recognised by Rome as her children ? Flow many laws. had her intellectual progress been subjected for a century to the corrections and revisions of the Roman Index? What part can the influence of Catholicism (using the terms in the very sense the civil glory and intellectual progress of France? what part can that influence claim in So far we have considered her under the aspect in which she equals the most cultivated and civilised nations of the world. * When so soon to fall these pages were written no one could have foretold the misfortunes upon France. and that have before them a dark and uncertain future. by the other to she affords matter for serious consideration to all who either observe her. 93 with these comparisons. had the voice of Rome prevailed in that country ? Imagine the consequences to France as regards culture and science. she appears she greatest nations but by the second seems to share the lot of those countries that are less prosperous. her industry. she cannot be entirely indifferent to the conduct of her followers.

Rome . again. through the diffusion and expansion of the European. though more quietly. cism ? Has not the Catholic Church. effected in North America a country entirely free. brutal. but their existence cannot be denied. and therefore Christian race and what part in the miracle can be attributed to Catholi. and how many of these latter beginning even from the days of Galileo have been carried out in spite of those doctrines ? institutions. which. may Another question might also be asked. and therefore they ought to be considered. and envious form of revolution. on the contrary. following. the violent. entering into details — — — — .94 4. in Australia ? These two parts of the world came into being. in a moment. which are entirely under Here one would think are plenty of subjects her sway? well deserving the whole attention of the Catholic hierarchy assembled in ciated. EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. and attributed to this or that cause . . reason for sad meditation on the spectacle presented by Mexico. to [February. which. for such facts may be more or less appre- be understood in one sense or another. in the same track of discovery. spirit by which in our days Catholic societies exclusively are In using this word I do the spirit of revolution ? agitated that which not here intend to apply it in the widest sense expresses a universal law felt more or less deeply. seems to be the settled character of society in our days ? What Philip part did Catholicism of Torquemada and of II. after much the useless destruction of humanity. in which all religions emulate one another and. enterprises. general light. — — What place can Catholicism claim for its tenets in the increase of liberty. as it were. the toleration. . which. how have the doctrines of absolutism view the matter in a more to which we have already alluded — affected — the progress of the great and discoveries of modern times. take in the grand discovery and colonisation of those new countries which are the glory of the two last centuries? Who has profited by the work of Christopher Columbus and of Amerigo Vespucci? What has Catholicism. but common I use it in that special way which signifies to all humanity. without that are liable to be questioned by many Whence comes that disordered is really matter of fact. But turning from France. and the other unhappy republics of the South. and the amicable and peaceful intercourse. 5.

but they are free from that terrible social plague chronic revolution the not being able to say to-day what may happen to-morrow and what is more. both of which are equally deserving of the most serious consideration. but they forget that the same results are . and how many of them can look forward to a more secure future? Here we have another series of inquiries which. and in a state of constant social and political agitation. because humanity can never be exempt from such. involving irreparable evil . for humanity. and has prospered best among the nations that exist under those conditions. to take into consideration. like us. Germany. have their revolutions in ideas.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. . and America. Which of the Catholic nations can live like England and America in the exercise of the greatest activity. their all changes for the better or for the worse. and. Switzerland. we necessarily return to one of the two parts of the dilemma. we might expect the — . They may have other evils. and in different latitudes first met with among different peoples and even if their hypothesis were from ever side the subject is admissible as to the the second. without blows and bloodshed. Some try to explain away these facts by alleging the unfavourable effects of climate and the fatality of race. according to the promises contained in the Papal Bull. alternative. which seems at the present time to have become our sole means of persuasion. first At sight only two answers seem possible a state of things is to these questions. The partisans of the absolute prefer to accept implicitly the second solution as being the most easy. their progress. these nations have not. if true. 95 from the end of the last century up to the present day. Either such the effect of the education that prevails among the populations we have men- tioned. they could not escape Thus from which viewed. February. their only hope of existence in the exercise of force. though humiliating. has rent and distracted the most beautiful countries of Europe. Council 6. ried on without anger But this is car- and violence. their modifications. or else the form of religion in question has assimilated itself. England.. without a large standing army? In how many Catholic countries has not the Government more than once collapsed during recent years .

resisted the spirit prevailing at the would be not only unjust but useless upon Catholicism itself. At same time it to fasten the responsibility of these results . as. but as the set about their work means they use for carrying out their intentions. but they really parisons more clearly. the chain which begins with the inquisitor and the partisan of Mazzini stands at . [Febrdary. there is another way of measuring these exceptions. they overlook the responsibility inherent in these institutions. Moreover. culminates in the prosperity of Belgium. and that is. Up to the sixteenth century there were no effective and visible distinctions amongst 8. at least her existence is not daily threat- ened by similar publications. but as to the way in which they and not only as to their aims. but more convincing for Catholics. existing institutions from all responsibility as to the evil wrought within their range. Events balance themselves in human affairs. But then. who the in the Council. by means of those bishops Vatican. and affording the best hope Those who adhere to the former opinion exonerate of remedy.96 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. less precise. and extreme severity in a law secures impunity to the law breaker. neither has she inquisitors nor revolutionary fanatics. or rather to that which has been lost by the contrary ideas. excess of zeal often leads to a contrary effect . taking the Campagna di Roma as a starting point. as being within the bosom of the Church itself. the opposite point of which is occupied England does not possess either the by the " Sanfedista. not only as to the substance of their teaching. an . Indeed. they correspond in very exact measure to the influence that has been exercised by large and liberal ideas. because com- among the Catholic populations where they are found. Of course there are exceptions to the comparisons that illustrate those we have made in this chapter. 7. for example. and Fenians come only from the neighbouring shores of Ireland. considering it sufficient that they oppose that evil. and thus they from a scale which. indeed. one might as well charge them upon that Christianity which has animated all modern civilisation. first while generous and liberal minds are content to take the hypothesis as the least discouraging. absolutism generates rebellion. as." finishes with the sectary Univers or the Bajjpel. they do to the uttermost. one end of the diameter.

had always hitherto preserved an indefinite character. though habitually possessed by the Curia. reacted again upon the Curia Romana. where revolution seems particularly rooted lutionary spirit. though the chief causes of that rev^olution were the very system and the very ideas which in their latent state had prepared the way for it both in France. to specify. Still West. asserted by the party calling itself " Catholic all Ijar excellence. which some may consider evils not only confirmed by the example of those countries which are the most deeply affected by the we have enumestrict rated. and as a reaction from it. rapidly increasing after the Revolution. Gaining ground there by little and little. Perhaps even this reformation was affected by the resistance it encountered and it is possible that both crises might have been moderated. H . This became gradually visible at every outbreak of the revofirst in France and then generally in the world. pressed forward its own aims. Now." February. which has exercised so great an influence in that concerns the Vatican Council. daring. the instituticms. the 07 Christians in movement which was formally accomplished affected the civil date. the laws (and very often their interpretathe customs. the habits. and the abuses. tions). or even prevented. conformably with the variations of the times and of moral conditions. it disclosed its own desires. It would not be difficult one by one. of eternal truth. by the nations of the North. and the influence of the religious in that century only political condition of and Europe at a later later within the bosom of the Catholic Church herself was more decidedly manifested that spii'it (called in France Ultramontanism) which. having been wisely shrouded in the prudent and traditional policy of that body. in our day.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. those ideas are crudely. and with much exaggeration. is This idea. and succeeded in giving a distinct and separate existence to those political and religious conceptions which. . by a slow and progressive transformation moving continually round the immutable centre . but receives satisfactory illustration from a and dis- passionate investigation of the spirit that generally prevails in the education of Catholic populations. where it had first originated. in such cases a tardy rebellion takes the place of the reforma- tion undergone two centuries before. and in the other countries (principally because Catholic).

the excessive use of authority in relation to the masses has the result of weaken- ing and sometimes of suppressing the working of individual consciences. Nor is this only with regard to questions of principle. study the matter in good faith. thereby isolating the clergy from the rest of society. characteristic . and It so the perception of good and evil ceases to be personal and spontaneous. it is not more likely that such remedies only serve to increase the evil. first instance by the insubordination of the age. Moreover. that on all subjects. which have long prevailed. and like the doctors of an old Italian medical school who are much addicted to bleedunderstood. and has produced the blindest submission corresponding to the most This thirst for authority. owing to the natural tendency of the institutions founded upon it. in Catholic education . of which. is the strength and but this principle. some few salient points naturally occur to the mind. called forth in the absolute power. on the other hand. many of which have been already well discussed who but wishing to assist with a few general outlines those . tends to paralyse the collective action of the hierarchy of it the Church. too often results in destroying the first and impairing the second it . and concentrates in the Head. where such help may be sometimes both . which in many cases is represented by any chance individual. it ing. indeed. When these particular evils are remains for us to judge whether they can be remedied by empirical restrictions and fresh condemnations. [February. or whether.98 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. often happens that a Catholic. in 9. The endeavouring to cure they do not really kill the patient. by absorbing their sense of personal responsibility in the sole conscience of Church authority. principle of authority by its very nature is predomiit nant in Catholicism. It is certainly neither our desire nor our business to investigate fully these gi'ave and complicated questions. and in every way. but more especially in the latter and are the principal causes of centuries. has been always exaggerated to such an extent in Catholic education. and kept up with the view of maintaining order and unity in the Church. it has usurped the first place. the evils we have indicated. and becomes reflective and obligatory. unless gifted with an unusual superiority of mind. has no knowledge of good and evil other than that which he derives from the external authority.

Hence arise the to wrong meet contingencies so that there many cases in subtleties. and the recoil from such a despotism at the present day frequently throws the pupils loses the last weaker. who well knowing his duty. never having learned to reflect and judge capacity for so doing. yet in the ' Dante lived H 2 . is Another tendency much while they regard with the disposition of the of Catholics to inculcate great intolerance for intellect. action or to discern the secret human all heart. and at of the Jesuits into the wildest revolutionary excesses. In the first place. he surely less so than a man it. brought up as we have described. results from this state of things. A double evil.. just as the members of the body. in the every-day trivial of the people. among our people. grows gradually becomes impotent. at it any rate. February. and the disingenuousness to too frequently 10. met with. whereas of the will (making every allowance for human frailty) in an age that are far less excusable. and a very serious one. being often illguided. be deplored. in all contingencies. but the same external applied on life occasions. lose their strength. is . can only ascertain the right course by consulting the delicate and indefinable instinct of his own conscience. is The consequence of such an excessive submission to that the human conscience. the mental compromises. know and understand is what is but if he is guilty. and details. In the second place. all errors much leniency errors of the will yet these latter are surely infinitely It is deplorable that a right . if never used. man should not more culpable than the former. cannot give a rule of right and must still remain which an individual being without that guidance. indifference or to be over was certainly not given to religious Divina Cornmedia' he places heresiarchs among those who err from want of tolerant.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. authority likely to go astray for itself. either neglects or transgresses Faults of intellect faults do not deteriorate the character. and being unable to follow the infinite complexities of recesses of the human . he has no rule or restraint to keep him straight. is carried by simple natures into and matters of no importance. is deprived of the external guidance which supports him. when a Catholic. the external authority can only find expression through words spoken or written. and all 99 direction is desirable salutary.

as often occurs among the most faithful of the Catholic populations. human nature. but up the exercise of its own judgment to a certain set or whose duty it becomes to think and to judge for the rest. and an inflexible severity on the second been abused. when united with wisdom and moderation. into The first is. A third point for reflection. and charity towards frailty. and following only the inclinations of nature. its followers from the numerous duties of and to incline them to an ascetic and speculative existence which does not always correspond to the inexorable Two evils result from this necessities of human nature. Human nature soon takes advantage of such a dis])ositi()n to plication of a men . have yields distinct class of persons the promise of greater tolerance than the mind. seeks what is pleasing to the feelings and affections. Catholic populations. are not. intent. and the other to the adoption of a systematised indulgence. is the tendency of Catholic education to turn aside practical life. thereby showing. Such a society becoming disinclined and inapt for the exercise of thought on account of the trouble it involves. and less Avorthy of punishment than that Besides. and readily transgresses by yielding to the passions which appear not only attractive in themselves. while the indulgence of the passions brutalises society educated for many centuries under A the stimulus of the double direction we have described. they led. not only loses the power of exercising the individual conscience. 11. as we have already remarked. tendency when fully developed. like many other good things.— 100 self control. that this tendency. apart EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.that from the abode of those who had sinned with he regarded the guilt of the first. disgo through the world with their eyes turned upwards. and their thoughts entirely abstracted from the earth. but. poses when to carried private life by a mistaken ap- sublime contempt for terrestrial matters. ennobling effect. as distinguishable from. two marvellous characteristics of Christianity more true to human nature than a vague indecision on the first but having point. and such subjects are surely well worthy of deep consideration on account of their influence on . [February. the one to the institution of the Inquisition. is extended to errors of We do not mean to say that severity in principle. the working of the mind has always an of the latter.

or if he resists. are yet incapable of judging and of appreciating the varying feelings and needs of populations so to many and so different. 12. in others. industry and independence give place to idleness and mendi- cancy and this disposition when coupled with an abuse of outward forms often inclines people to superstition. evil. really weaken Catholic communities. . In such cases the Church either draws him to herself by a powerful attraction. though for good subject. from a very small nucleus a narrow centre of individuals. his station in life. Besides those eternal moral laws on which there can be but one opinion. The second . though rarely. if ever. is not always a good citizen. world. with the weighty sanction we have mentioned. A is fourth source of great difficulty for Catholic popu- lations exercise of authority. and the affections of the rest of the nation. which inform and regulate the consciences of the Catholic the . the phenomenon frequently met with in Catholic societies. proceed. lOt most common and pernicious propensities . who. with the best intentions and the greatest solicitude. subverts religion. Hence.] justify one of its EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. abandons him and casts him out. and it is this these tendencies and impulses if developed to . the highest degree might form a society sui generis. the interests. there are an infinity of subjects which do not absolutely represent either good or evil and with regard to which the Catholic is often placed in a difficult position between his kinsmen. is. that a Catholic. and that patriotism the most part a . There remains a yet greater evil than any we have spoken of. and one of equal importance. his country. that religion hinders the advancement of the nation. and his Church. because though his religious education teaches him the duty of passive obedience. which are seldom able to unite the two interests and to conciliate the two powers. general and particular. This fact tends form instead of a Catholic world a Catholic party. little dis- . undue centralisation which prevails in the All the laws. at the same time it tends to absorb him.February. 13. gradually separating it in all countries from the habits. though sometimes useful as counterpoises. and to draw him away from the civil society in which he moves and these conflicting attractions of the Church and of society.

tion they confuse God with the priest. but as soon as they set about it. no rebellion so desperate as that of a slave. and blinded by the heritage of hatred and of rancour that results fi'om the moral conflicts they have experienced. they into another snare equally dangerous. confounding the In their retrospecabuses of a system with the system itself. especially the among the young. is that as such a regime can only apply to a restricted number of people. posed to intellectual or material growth. age are necessarily affected by the influence of the times and being without the safeguards of solid instruction. [Fx^bruary. and in so doing fall into serious errors. and turning their backs on religion altogether. the stronger is this reac- tion. unused to exercise their judgment. if in some ways less deplor- Their ardent and youthful minds endeavour to find some means of reconciling the old faith with the newly enlightened reason. the fetters imposed on the heart and intellect by this jealous authority. and never to society in general. either rush headlong into the pursuit of pleasures. of making the two compatible. they discover such a process to be quite impracticable . become equally unmindful of both. whose negation. and little fitted for the production of civil greatness. face of this impossibility they are driven to revolt is . a corresponding reaction. for the Church endeavours in every way to repel them. they look backwards. They become involved standard politan is in that terrible is revolution . and unless may yet more deeply avenge such outraged souls. able. and In the liberty presents every attraction that can allure them. and such restrain. but without conscience.102 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The practical result. meanwhile. and more intelligent such people are. Those. and whose aim destruction that cosmo- revolution restrained by Providence which has already avenged. often pro- duce. on whom devolves the re- . and this artificial state of mind. A great proportion of the young on reaching mature . or if of fall too noble a nature to incur such moral suicide. burying in them all the aspirations and regrets of a wasted life. and the mischief would stop here. however. and youthful multitudes of great promise. an acquaintance with practical interests as would serve to or at least to occupy their minds. are driven to swell the ranks of revolution in increasing numbers. as one generation succeeds another.

The happy results of combined with the desire of progress. The first class are second revolutionary instead of progressive immovable instead of Conservative. is to diminish the number of the faithful in Catholic societies. for such usually relapse into confusion and disorder as soon as the strong pressure which an absolute Government exercises over them is removed. trines of absolutism prevail. at first sight less may be but The defects of the lower classes apparent than those of their superiors. but both are proficients in the art of destroy. but are alike incapable of establishing one on a solid basis.February. are found in all well-governed and prosperous nations but from their very nature are difficult and almost impossible of attainment in Catholic countries. applies equally to the less cultivated and more impulsive multitudes. pass through the like moral sciously phases uncon- and mechanically. that a just balance is indispensable and the moral and material world . are disastrous. and their differences instead of finding expression in changes of administration (as tries) find it instead in is happens in all rational counchanges of Government. especially those in which the doc- and a defeat a Conservative spirit. the consequences The result of this deadly conflict between spirit more authority and reason. when they do break out openly. 103 sponsibility of such misfortunes will learn perhaps too late. and to drive many into rebellion in will or in deed real force. and this com- . the they have no com: mon ground. All that has been said of the superior and intelligent portions of society. both in and that by endeavouring to make a man grow in the swaddling-clothes of an infant. the first for want of power. . or his bands will be rent into shreds. Disorder and anarchy are too often the lamentable political condition of the southern nations of Europe. at too dear a price.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. as compared with the state of regular and uniform progress found among the northern . in which there always a conqueror and a conquered. ing Governments. either he will become a cripple. . the second for want of knowledge. who with the same defects of character and reasoning power. and therefore a triumph Avith the usual consequences. between the and the the letter. the first class are wanting in very often morality second lack not only order and discipline.

. and would only remark in conclusion. and though usually sufficient in externals (though even here greater events. is too often lacking in substance. with fluctuations of submission and rebellion they are characterised everywhere by a craving for authority. that and practical part. We find in them many churches. and therefore we merely leave this in the moral outline for the consideration of those who desire to study the matter more deeply. ri'^EBiiuAUY. In addition to these primary considerations sugg-ested by populations. though of course varying in different countries according to their respective conditions. but without any appreciation of the real nature of authority. . is desirable). . and virtue scanty prosperity. 14. . but few schools more devotion than more passion than judgment general intolerance. that the religious education of our people is negative rather than positive. These remarks have already led us beyond the limits we had assigned to our subject. . It is a true picture of the state of things all prevailing at the present day in communities governed by the Ultra-Catholic regime. which is alternately adored with servility and subjected to outrage.104 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. whether in a convent or a sect. others of still the condition of Catholic greater importance might be cited contingent on the ordinary course of men. and leaving untouched the defects of : elevation is to say. which naturally have deeply affected their institutions but we will not proceed further. parison affords ample grounds for reflection on the causes revolution is why so specially rooted in Catholic countries.

Society of Jesuits has for the Liberals .— 2. in which they are generated as insects in bodies. Predictions. Freemasonry has served much the same purpose for the Catholic party as the for instance .— THE 1. — Different Fostulata. Diplomatic interference Speech at Conclusion. who doubts Then. or afford them no resting-place. and. In nearly the publications they have issued of late years. such observations as we have made are usually considered to bear a hostile character. 11.— 3. the Freemasons. — 12. 9. Tlie 8. the is permitted by the spirit of the age. they are respectively that if they accused as being the cause of all the evil in the world. This is illustrated by the fact that healthy and virtuous communities which live in the exercise of liberty. Even is among so-called religious all question rarely treated on general grounds. are either free from such organisations. and by Such persons are accustomed to to all re- lieve themselves of any responsibility as human affairs by charging the blame on particular associations. Objections to precccling arguments. OKDEE. with regard to Governments. NEW — 6. 105 IV. — days. at the present day. Owing to the entire lack of independence in judgment. on the Government of the But the existence of those associations affords better ground for incrimination than for apology. and have no means of affecting society except by its institutions. and are therefore held to be injurious by those to whom who follow in their steps. 4. The address of the Catholics of .— Fkcruahy. Adtlrcss of the Cutliolios of Cobleiitz. — new Order. is con- and not with that fulness which alone presents it in a true light. Judgment 7. — aroused.— 5. a phenomenon depending on their own decay. the subject sidered only partially. they are displeasing. — HoliVarious publications.] eight months at ItOME. 2. Infallibility sole object of attention. and persons either as slaves or just to a determination to look on all enemies. inasmuch as they are not produced. — opening of the Exhibition. tlie is 13. they are obliged to content themselves with such a measure of authority as Liberal Catholics. Close of the first phase of the Council. 10. country. so far as they could ? whereas. 14. 1. — of the majority. had the chance they would very soon act up to the Pope's principle. Anecdotes. in recent times.

to rise to find a to a more elevated tone the and any Catholic wishing for the evils remedy within the Church : we have already noticed. address concludes by praying for the re-establishment of and diocesan. and followed it with that intensity of purpose which is peculiar to religious sentiments and passions. The organisation of the Church ought to establish in its various parts. the address is a full and wellarranged scheme for applying the principle of liberty. the majority had no other object but this. the whole consideration of the Council was irrevocably concentrated on the question of Infallibility. Instead. or synods. Ddciimeiit XVI. Taken as a whole. might well adopt words of the address. of attending to these questions. 106 Treves* to EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. however. The definition of this dogma weighed on the Council and hampered all its movements. so far as all the evils which . on the maxim. and despises what is past as if that in turn had . though of a special character. under the sincere conviction that it is making progress overturns with infinite labour the despotisms and the oracles it originally fabricated.— ." The those assemblies. Human nature alternately builds up and destroys the same things. iScio Ai»peu(lix. one of the most remarkable documents produced on these subIt contains an answer and a remedy for all the questions and the relations between we have pointed out and its theory of Church and State is the most precise and reasonable commentary. not been equally its * own work. always under the belief that it is accomplishing something new. [February. and then begins to reconstruct them." In few words. this address is jects. such agencies as may best overcome evil. . provincial. the Archbishop of Coblentz. seems. with freedom to develop their powers in the most salutary manner. to 3. however. for the different which have always considered and provided needs. which are as follows " We cannot hide from ourselves that it General Council to is impossible for a undertake the particular examination and solution of the difficulties arising from the numerous wants of mankind which are rooted in the manifold life of the Church. of the Church in general. both old and new. is possible. Catholic institutions. " A free Church in a free State. national. and for their portion of it in particular.

on Towards the end of February. but to create within country a condition of things which. Congregations. and although no mention was actually made of Infallibility. that failed in gaining public favour. in one of the last every subject. were held between the 16th of December and the 22nd of February.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 107 Ask the Infallibllists what they think of the apotheoses of the ? ancients which by other nations with a faith as lively and sincere as their own ? and they would shrug their shoulders in compasAgain. and proposed short all difficulties its . including the two Sessions. the allusion allowed to drop without producing any Another bishop in the same Congregation made an open and violent attack on the Opposition. this second attempt on the part of the majority was received with vehement cries of " Sufficit. In fact. which was finally sent back in the Congre- gation of the 24th. in which about 150 orators spoke. in the he evidently alluded to the bishops in declarations issued in the Church. circle. a French bishop time. named Infallibility for the first speedy declaration as a mode of cutting but his speech was coldly received. a matter which had been strongly pressed by the Catholics of Cologne in their address.February. 4. In saying this. in which he urged the re-establishment of and diocesan synods. found outside their they would not even condescend to discuss Human i-eligious nature never displays such violent . He also insisted all on the necessity of the intervention of the on the authority of the Pope alone. what are the Infallision without deigning to answer. matters passions as on and though the form of their manifestation may be milder at the present day. and deprecated their publication shape of Bulls or Briefs. Bull on the limita- . Thirty-one meetings. after a splendid speech by the Bishop of provincial Bosnia and Sirmio. but his speech met also with disfavour. and effect." it is enough which has always been the answer to propositions . it pervaded the minds of all. Great part of January was occupied by the scheme regarding the episcopate. the intensity of feeling when is applied to such subjects always the same. or of the simplicity of certain religious beliefs are entertained bllists their if own Church and ? themselves striving for so earnestly.

that the attempt to reduce mere officials the bishops to the position of of the Pope was of contrary to the true spirit of the Church. 5. issued by the Pope before the opening of the Council." The French and the Spaniards warmly supported the former but among its aim being priests. after forty members had spoken on the subject. Ten days' holidays were announced. in which he pointed out the tyranny and hardships that must inevitably result from those who opposed it. and complained of the which attended the admission of eminent men of different countries into its ranks. " De finally settled in the Congregation held on the 22nd.108 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and in proving the utter fallacy of that part of the programme announced by the Civiltd Cattolica. The opinion of the Fathers was not asked. . On the 22nd of February the new Order was published. the result of the deliberations carried on with the view of imposing some limit on the length of the debates. February was occupied with the scheme. when he was said to have equalled the famous speech made at the opening of the Council by which he took rank as one of the principal The scheme " De Moribus Clericorum " was under orators." which was ment among members of the Council. The Bishop and Sirmio (Strossmayer) difficulties also reflected in this speech Bosnia on the constitution of the College of Cardinals. and start again with renewed vigour along the road in which Rome never ceases to advance.wid the assembly . [February. Its time had been occupied in sending back for revision all the propositions brought before it." but not so brilliantly as on this occasion. On this day the first phase of the Council concluded. tion of censures. discussion from the 26th of January to the 8th of February. and he concluded by observing. which promised a spontaneous and unanimous agree- The rest of Catechismo. as . Strossmayer spoke later on the scheme " De Moribus Clericorum. to give the bishops unlimited power over the an equivalent to the authority asserted by the Pope over the bishops in the scheme " De Episcopis. the adoption of such a system. in order that the Council might rest. even though her progress be slackened for a while. Monsignor Scissmor attracted much notice by a convincing and eloquent speech.

" on the proposal of not fewer than ten Fathers.February.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. it was communicated to the Council. and the president immediately requested him to stop. Bishop of Colocza. since it could either permit them or stop them entirely at its own pleasure. as emanating from the directive body in the Council. It declared also that when the closing was proposed it should be decided at once. 109 was not consulted on this new Order any more than on the former one but. a simple expedient for regulating the discussion. a Pope had expressed an opinion contrary to that of the present majority in the Council . at first sight. them. made some historical quotation. the Commissions should print those speeches in a compendious form. like the first. that the presidents entertained of the new authority given to was still more important. they should be allowed to . course it followed that when the Fathers preferred simply do and therefore no real innovation was made but the same document contained two articles. Commis- and providing that when they did so. and distribute them to the bishops. Of so. . one of the most prominent bishops in the Opposition. with this difference. It contains pretty nearly all those injunctions we have noticed. Monsignor Haynald. for it provided that any debate might be brought to an end when the subject had been " satis excussa. and carried into execution by the same authority. Such interference on a slight matter the first day that it was practicable plainly indicated to the Opposition the view . and to descend from the tribune. article The second ly/ . The first article authorised the president to cut short an orator every time he wandered from the subject under debate this seemed. and that the opinion of The practical the majority alone was requisite on the matter." and contained the spirit of the new Order. which were its " raison d'etre. that in future it should be optional and not obligatory on the Fathers to present their speeches in manuscript to the sions . which showed that on the occasion of the reform of the Roman Breviary. result of such an arrangement was to constitute the majority sole and absolute arbiter of the debates. and with the intention which had prevailed from the beginning. but one of the presidents took occasion to make it severely felt on the very day on which it came into operation. to recite or to read their speeches.

110 It is EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. in its decisions. this last being. was that. ." but majority again? In who was fact. of the necessity of unanimity The immediate danger for the Opposition. but to bring forward some This proviso would have been useless had tlie intention of the authorities been to impose the schemes but it is well to point out illico et immediate on the minority what might have been the logical results of the new Order. an authority which will not endure the slightest diminution or qualification. namely. by its individual action can change the definitive oral vote The saying "Placet" or " Non placet. arrest the discussion on the scheme " De Ecclesia. in fact." but nothing further scheme into a decree. by the new Order everything was left to the judgment of the majority. and present it to the Pope for his approbation." and that by it "decernetur" the result of the vote of the majority. themselves of this from the fact that an injunction was inserted in the rule obliging those who objected to any measure not to be content with opposing other proposal in its stead. that. must have been " satis excussa. of any scheme. within a week. the Infallibilists might. It may be inferred that they did not intend at once to avail facility. by the aid of its provisions. to jutlg-e of this condition ? The judgment by the majority prevailed for it throughout the new Order. under the new Order. G. and amendments on the whole scheme was given by was decreed with regard to it. The power of the majority once established. its provided that the different parts also." vote its acceptance. as it was impossible unanimity in the Council. and this arrangement gave great importance to a clause which could prejudge to the detriment of the interests of the Opposition one of the gravest questions before the Council. it. as here the Pope's authority is touched on. true that the article says the matter [February. was be content with the vote of the majority. this was the that full trust might be placed in it. Moreover. already so well organised and homogeneous. . The idea that pervades these modifications to obtain is clearly it that. the minority was as much at its mercy in the Council as in any secular assembly . necessary to most obvious and legal means of subduing the Opposition. Accordingly. should be voted by the " rising or sitting" of the Fathers. and which.

it was said. At first the Opposition did not make the same objections to Most of the bishops were orithe new Order as they did later. from the second now to be inaugurated on a new system. The Opposometimes the majority were wrong in pressing opinion. from the fact of their dealing with absolute truths. can be revoked. with regard to an Assembly. together.Februauy. whereas those of the Council. in the Congregation of February 22nd. they was unknown. the put forth against the for those first Order was by no means encouraging inclined to who were now make a similar attempt. are irrevocable. that like the ship which is its always floats. that the judgments of the mistaken. their situation would become daily more difficult. however. that. we may mention certain occurrences which plainly indicated the popular feeling at the time. sition felt that if Order was. Before closing the narration of February's events. the working of which was as yet uncertain and dangerous in proportion as the pressure of the majority and consequent resistance of the minority were more deeply felt. Ill latter. " On Religious Orders.] eight months AT ROME. but would adopt some 8. and after all these important events. since the rest on its own unlimited authority. the principle of which seemed. but the danger lurking beneath it soon became apparent and the Opposition felt . and their ultimate defeat undoubted. This interval divides the first phase of the Council. and from the mode of their enunciation. if with this difference. no easy matter. if To their it. with a general index of the business before the Council. in the Order it approves 7. began the promised ten days' vacation." was distributed it. which we have already considered. two decisions equally A without fearing to seem contradictory. The prorogation of the assembly left all in doubt it the future course of the Opposition that. ginally in favour of a reform. natural and useful. Church. however tossed by the waves. the Papacy established is an institution so well organised and in the it symbolical image. the minority were certainly wrong in disregarding reject the fate of the addresses Moreover. was expected definite line of action. after deliberation. new scheme. Indeed. Dupanloup in one of his speeches had given the cardinals to understand that they would do well to . . once accepted. however. In the scheme the Papacy condemns the majority.

The Liberal Catholic party continued to issue publica- tions of great interest. Prague. Bonn. 112 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. that the Church and limit the rights of war. and furnished ample scope for conjecture to those who were in anxiously looking out for gossip concerning the Council fact. all sorts of new propositions sprang up. follow the example of their predecessors in those ages when the Sacred College manifested greater independence and firmness. and other great intellectual centres . which provoked among the venerable Fathers of the Council. and . like another mortal. and the bishops spent the time in collecting fresh materials — as if there were not enough already — wherewith to put to the test the small amount of faith yet prevailing in the nineteenth century. It is pleasing to find this charitable thought amid so many anathemas and condemnations. without any mysterious or extraordinary results. in his answer. Dupanloup lost part of the event his manuscript between his house and the Vatican in itself was entirely unimportant. but it arrested public attention. ceived the congratulations of Cologne. It happened. however. Tiibingen. it was difficult to make them believe that a bishop might . Fribourg. Ureslau. much merriment During the vacation. Some amusing incidents occurred from time to time. but it was due to Copts and Armenians and reported in the Univers. by observing that if any strictures could be passed on the Sacred College they were due to the conduct of cardinals of Perhaps the prelates old. Cardinal Di Pietro. and among these Dullinger's article on the DoUinger readdress of the Infallibilists holds the first place. . One of these propositions on the Assumption of the Virgin had been already announced by the Civilta Cattolica and there was another brought forward by the Oriental bishops. and not to those of the present day. [February. Milnster. and such encounters were common between the Opposition and the majority. tried to turn the tables upon Dupanloup.! . served to enliven the monotony of the meetings among these may be mentioned the speech of a Neapolitan bishop on the long coat worn by the clergy. should issue some declaration to the effect to repress 10. were both right up to a certain point : there was nothing remark- able in the reflection. lose his papers. 9. that the day on which these speeches were made.

and which . for in he made was certainly out He affirmed that it was not only of place on the occasion. on the other hand. they would only be receiving the same treatment which they tried to inflict on the I . Romano. in order vex them. If this latter Catholic. in the present condition of the public mind.— February. took a malignant pleasure in pressing this meaning. on opening the Exhibition of Art it applied to Catholic worship. of the universities and theological faculties. hastened to give a contrary view. and encouraged him to persevere. In Italy pamphlets appeared with increasing frequency. expressed their concurrence with . him. and the Liberal Catholics thought that they recognised in his allusion a condemnation of their leader . wrong. awoke great interest. though vague. was entitled The Pretended ' Infallibility of the Pope. view were the true one. but blasphemous for any to say that the Church needed reform. by asseverating that the Pope had speci" fically attributed these words to " the great Italian demagogue a denomination which. The Pope's speech. It phrase.. but anonymously. were really directed against the French Liberal Catholics. not named but a double interpretation was put on the Pope's a declaration little expected. the Ultramon- tane papers. referred to '93. have to The Osservatore . even those whose opinions were unlike his own and all these addresses praised his firmness. 113 Germany. the Pope had apparently mistaken the date for though a French Catholic might naturally on such an occasion have alluded to the year '89. moreover. This is the first interpretation.] in EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. alluding to words recently used by a distinguished indiThis person was vidual which had provoked his displeasure. party. one written with great force and accuracy. If the Pope's speech. On the other side of the Alps. an Italian demagogue would rather. in conversation with a friend. as appears most probable. irritated seems that one of the leaders of the French Liberal by the proceedings of Rome. had. the principal publications were Maret's defence of his own book and the letters of Pere Gratry. expressed himself openly on the matter by declaring that the Church needed an " 89.' 11. of which he had once been a warm supporter. and condemned the speech. certainly excluded a French This was the second interpretation." The Pope cited.

and even of phrase in . Accordingly there was some talk of ambassadors being sent to the Council by the Catholic Powers. the existence of the Council proves its If there were nothing requiring change.114 Italian Liberals EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and France in particular. with her great diplomatic ability. and supposed that the fall of the Bavarian Ministry at that time was due to her influence. having no certain meaning. especially the knowledge of the maxims of public ecclesiastical law contained in the scheme " De Ecclesia. he condemned himself for having summoned the Council and this opinion would be perhaps in accordance with that of several prelates. the use of summoning the Vatican Council three centuries after the last that to But supposing there were something was held? change. it is knew how to avert their interference. . thus renouncing the policy of abstention. taken bj If the itself. lends itself equally to the favourable If and unfavourable comments made upon it. from which Rome . some cardinals of the Roman Curia. the reform of Luther be understood. what was desirabilitv. and had acted with an amount of energy hardly warranted by the rank she held among it other Catholic Powers. . Bavaria was the only country that comprehended the gravity of the situation. only are understood. . it phrase which produced such an effect be just as indefinite as most of those in the Syllabus. the an absolute sense. that the great might have been supposed Powers would come forward and act in the matter. Recent events. and to bring their influence to bear upon the proceedings at the Vatican. Rome. instructed their ambassadors to pay closer attention to the subject. however." produced a change in the attitude of the Catholic Powers with regard to the Council and according as the Church seemed indisposed to recognise the liberty of the State. Now that Rome was freed from an embarrassment by the downfall of the Bavarian Ministry. and under is this aspect their punishment would be merited. present time little notice had been taken of the Council except by the representatives of the smaller Catholic nations but now the great Powers. and. [Febeuary. the Pope could not be expected to praise it if necessary changes . there was something to reform so if the Pope used . 12. they began to Up to the look with suspicion on the liberty of the Church. by the word Refonn. according to ancient usage.

and public opinion occupied Geritself with the Council more than was desired at Rome. Archbishop for not signing the petition for Infallibility. where schism appeared probable in consequence and schisms flourish many persons are quite ready to foment them parent at The danger became apto their own advantage.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. continued the same. in addition to the Holy See.February. On the other hand. though she exercises considerable influence in such matters. for we must admit that. action. and by the subserviency at . and some steps were taken to quell the storm. and no common knowWhatever these official intentions may have been. Christian communities were so irritated by the attempted abolition of their prerogatives. Some symptoms of discussion also appeared in Italy. meanwhile. many was the source of the greatest disquietude to the Vatican. and Ijesought him to uphold the rites and the dignity of the Am- would give proof of no brosian Church. which are not new to her. Italy is very slow to move. although the authorities continued to pursue the same line of conduct with regard to the East as before. In all respects the condition of the Council remained unchanged of its . said " that his return to Paris would be undoubtedly 2 . its made of an amRome. the probable results . had so well learnt to play part as " a free Church " that any ambassador who should slight dexterity. Special mention was also 115 drew all the profit. succeed hereafter in taking part in a Congregation of the Council ledge of his profession. no notice was taken of the opposition of the West. Its duration was uncertain but the Archbishop of Paris. Rome. in a letter to the Archdeacon of T Notre Dame. the relative position of its parties. bassador to be sent from France to one already there accredited to the mentioned. that a wonderfully in the East. but no name was The Vatican. and none too soon. to Rome manifested by some of their bishops the Council. and it seemed strange that the threatened loss of a few Armenians should stir the Vatican more deeply than the representations of numbers of the most intelligent men in Europe. The Oriental In the East heavy storms were gathering. 13. it is nevertheless true that the attention of Europe was now turned to the Vatican. and usually waits to follow the initiative The clergy of Milan thanked their of the Northern nations.

there only remained to the Council six weeks of the current year in which to complete its deliberations. Supposing the Opposition to be vanquished and unable First. A sense of alarm prevailed gene- . and even the Council itself. more in form than in substance. notwithstanding the position of its author. as they were relatively secondary and unimportant and here three hypotheses were possible. [February. Avhether the pleted by that work of the Council were already comit were to be resumed the December following. at any rate. Peter in June The real variable cessation of work in Rome at that season. would be violently driven forward on a perilous course. the suspension of the Council at the feast a supposition strengthened by the inof St. or. the Thirdly. — — . was not considered Other people. leaving the others unnoticed until a fresh opportunity should arise of resuming the interrupted work. Should the Opposition really succeed in arresting movement towards absolutism. very little real change would be effected in the economy excepting that the Curia Romana would conof the Church . sider the results of the Council as a new precedent to be remembered favourably for those who had sided with it. a reform might begin. to control the majority. more patient. at present Catholic. and therefore this opinion. who hitherto had remained within the bosom of the Church and the Church herself. or whether — struggle in the Council remained unaltered as to its purpose the Opposition succeed in preventing absolutism from gaining supremacy in the Church ?" This was the great question " Would on which all others depended. would only be the proBut this end. and bringing it to an end." According to this calculation. time. the proposals of the majority. would cease to be so in fact.— 116 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. at Easter. looked for the to be well founded. and finding herself at the mercy of an individual will. though a very modest one. . closing. at least in regard to the principles and with them a large that govern modern civilised institutions number of the noble and intelligent minds. logue. of which this fact. Should the Opposition succeed in modifying in any degree. Secondly. seemed already most difficult of attainment. that most of the States. it was probable. weakened by her losses. the issue of which no human being could estimate or foresee. from the prevailing temper on both sides.

which it could The Oppohandle. did not disguise its fears as to the final success of the great question of Reform. from long practice. . and expedients. sition. however. or any of . Facts were. entangled the Opposition in the confused mazes of ancient laws.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. one of its most authoritative organs. and striving so pertinaciously for what it considered the ideal development of the Church. The majority which ruled and was in its turn ruled by the Catholic party.February. the others submitted to its deliberation. while involved in these toils. 117 rally in the Opposition. no solution had yet been found for the principal question. were kept in good order and obedience by ecclesiastical discipline and the respect due to the Holy Keys and found great difficulty in throwing off the yoke of a party possessing so many advantages. traditions. 14. with consummate art. and during the three months the Council had lasted. opposed to these just arguments. and the Aur/shurg Gazette.

h. . The Appendix was. — — 2. in fact. 4. This document affirmed that the Infallibility of the Pope should be considered as — entirely infallibility of the and on every point equivalent whole Church. [Maucii. by the algebraic formula a = a -\. on the ground that it was desired by most of the bishops in the Council. . Great discouragement. TO THE SCHEME to the " DE ECCLESIA. the Opposition regard to cisive This Appendix was put forth at a moment when had scarcely recovered from their amazement in the new Order. people might be unwilling to admit the idea suggested by this paper. and when many of the bishops maniit fested their increasing disapproval of the fact that vested de- power in the majority. leaving the Council. MARCH. Foreign influence. the famous bilists '^ poshdatiim" contained in the address of the Infalli- which had aroused so much ill-will. a formula which can only be verified when : Some which in this case represented the episcopate. On the evening of Monday." — R. More on — 1. to the in This axiom was clearly expressed in a periodical published North Italy. and now reappeared with the approval of the Commission on " Postulata" the ground having been prepared by the new Order. 5. in faith and morals.118 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.— APPENDIX 1. the 7th of March. Plans for politics. which proposed the declaration of the personal Infallibility of the Pope. and so Maret proposed another view of the difficulty he h. rather than in the unanimity of it the Fathers. I. called The Ecumenical Council. — 6. it was discovered that an Appendix to the scheme " De Ecclesia" had been distributed to the bishops. Recall of the French ambassador. is zero." Distribution of Appendix scheme "De Ecclesia. and that enabled the presidents to encroach on the liberty of discussion.

which had never before professed doctrines either so absolute in themselves. but subsewas said that eighty might be depended upon quently even the most ardent admitted that from thirty to fifty only would be found prepared for so extreme a measure as that under the conditions . . and the Opposition were in a state of confusion. astonished at it even those not immediately occupied in eccleIt involved a departure from the prudence siastical matters.MARcn. however. or expressed in so absolute a form. if they consented to continue the discussion it established. of which we by expressly declaring that every one professing a disbelief in Infallibility must be considered beyond the pale of the Catholic Church. tion began to reckon up the names of those who would agree At fust it to this step. The publication of this new Appendix caused much alarm and disturbance in the ranks of the Opposition. On the publication of the new Order. and leave the Council entirely. such a course being the only one yet open to them if they did not take the road of When." and (together with the presidents) greatly influenced the direction of the Council. the closing a debate at the judgment and desire of the majority. and rendered its proposals more A great commotion ensued cutting by its chilling influence. It seemed as though a northern Ultramontane blast had blown over the cautious and patient Curia. are treating. their number was found to be small. their position would be and they debated whether it would not be advisable to protest. 4. and certainly had never employed such violent means to attain its ends.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 3. of leaving the Council. and patience usually characteristic of the Roman Curia. the bishops in Oppositheir own dioceses. it was evident to the doctrine of the Trinity. 110 affirmed that Infallibility was a mystery as incomprehensible as The new Appendix. This last declaration broke like a thunder-clap over the No one expected such an assertion. concluded — . for its intenThe new Order had already authorised tion was unmistakable. 2. almost amounting to despair. The proposal of Infallibility included a monitum of the Commission that had approved the " postulatum. by which the time for presenting written observations on the . and all were Opposition. hopeless . the Opposition that.

with a settled line of action.120 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. every one turned for help to the representative of his own country. . it will easily be understood that the bold step of the The majority caused the utmost dismay among the minority. the Opposition now had recourse to the aid of diplomacy . Civilta Cattolica 5. most sincere and resolute leaders of the Opposition were greatly discoui'aged. and then they would find themselves out of . and it almost seemed at that moment as if the were right. and the intolerable position in which they are placed by being cast out of the pale of the astical discipline Church. According to their usual practice in moments of imminent peril. and now the Council benefited by it likewise. No excuse can be found for this carelessness at a peiiod when such important matters were under discussion matters in many ways directly concerning those very Governments themselves. affected great negligence for all that concerned religion. If the natural timidity of persons under ecclesi- be remembered. and they returned to their former attitude of inaction. the Church. Rome had long profited by this liberty. The Governments being imj)ressed with the general decline of religious feeling. easily present age. and by the indifference of the Such a policy. The attention of the different Governments of Europe which had been aroused and directed to the Council had again subsided. has always possessed the extramisfortunes as well as it ordinary faculty of turning cesses to its its suc- own advantage has profited equally by the enthusiasm of bygone centuries. to the declaration of Infallibility. — The traditional policy of Rome its . [March. and therefore with the slight influence it would exercise on the life and interests of nations. but on this occasion with less success than before. The Governments laid aside the prevision and caution they usually exercised. as well as all the considerations and precedents that. The Opposition saw the danger of their situation the majority might vote the scheme " De Ecclesia " and the Appendix in ten or fifteen days. bind them. adaj)ts itself to the difficulties it tneets with in order to obtain of Europe the desired end this course. and that the Jesuits had conquered. . subject itself was limited to ten days. the Vatican party during the Council followed it and succeeded. A clause was also added which distinctly aflfirmed that all who did not submit to the dogma were out of the Church.

Whatever may be the future relations of Church and State in conjunction with modern races." and as extreme in the one . Bavaria only seeming to understand its importance.March. France ought not to have remained deplorably indifferent while her own religion was being remoulded and modified anyhow. cannot be indifferent to civil rulers. All the Catholic Governments failed in discharging this duty of vigilance with regard to the Council. and though Italian she did not respect the liberty of others. without endeavouring to intervene and to exercise a legitimate influence on the Council though in her own case the sad result would be that of showing herself. France held in her hands the fate of the Papacy. institutions if . iterated appeals of The French and Austrian ambassadors had met the remade to them by the bishops on the publication the new Order with' the greatest official suavity. and unable to influence her in any way. and Italy (as Visconti . 121 The Vatican was its not slow to take advantage of this calm. not the sole religion of the majority of the Latin and therefore the manner in which it is taught and exerand the individuals to whom is confided its direction. with a precision never yet adopted in the formulas Roman Curia. Whatever opinions may be entertained on the decay of religious feeling in general. Venosta observed. character as in the other. de facto et dejiire. dissevered from all relations with Rome. Some countries were by a singular chance incapacitated from exercising any influence in the matter Spain being in a state of utter disorder. in reply to a question on the subject in the Chambers) being. according to circumstances. to overlook what was going on in the Vatican Council. 6. she ought at least to have respected the liberty of her own religion.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. was undoubtedly to confound the political with the historical question." asserts the entire subordination of society to the authority which of the of the Pope. Catholicism is. France guarded the doors of the Vatican Council. the pre- dominant. alternately " the Catholic nation " or the nation of " 89. The only exception to this fact be considered of any . from political circumstances. and adherents immediately drew up the scheme " De Ecclesia. Their reGovernments had never first spective really changed the instructions strictest given them from the — to maintain the (if it neutrality. cised.

of his definitive recall. but the Spain and Italy declined to move at idea was coldly received. The bold and rapid majority. Indeed. was. in referring to the tremenda vanita di Francia^ which as he expresses it. France had undoubtedly proposed to exercise some interference in conjunction with the other Catholic powers. for it was easy to take shelter from their representations under the authority of the assembly. when the entire programme of the Council was known. in fact. foreseeing what would be the position of its ambassador. only for an account of his conduct but this sign of some days was there a talk . the excellent Monsieur de . the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs sending a circular to that effect to his diplomatic agents. thought well to let the matter drop. Rome no longer objected to receive the ambassndors from France. the pub- lication of the proposal of strides of the sition. no danger was to be apprehended from any Caesarean envoys . and Visconti Venosta in the speech already mentioned. mistake not. which produced on the Court of Rome the effect already described by Monti. the success of which it was already easy to foretell. sul Tehro e nehhia die dot sol si doma. It is true that the only result of the last remonstrances made by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. and its discussion commenced. The French ambassador was summoned to bined action having failed. with a view to the reform of the Order. which then proposed to send orators or envoys to the Council but the result of this slight movement was to cause the hasty and unexpected distribution of the proposal of Infallibility to the bishops. all in the matter of the Council. and the faint resistance of the Oppo. Paris to give displeasure was transitory. there the opinion of the Italian Government. or because the French Government. and in the event of their arrival their sole office would be quietly to watch the logical development of the official part of a drama. and it was said that this sort of coiip d'etat once accomplished. had for a moment aroused the French Government.122 importance) letters of EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. may be noticed in the official and semi-official Count Daru. declaring This attempt at comwas no further talk of orators being sent to the Council. and. [Uahcu. either because the Pope interposed difficulties. and the diplomatic movement found vent in an interchange of letters and explanations between the Vatican and the Tuileries. if I Infallibility.

de Montalembert great talents . as well as his political and religious career. and arranged a funeral service in his honour at the Church of Aracceli. that after having striven all his life to sacrifice his liberal ideas for the sake of his religion. before a large auditory in very unfavourable terms. and the Pope went so far as to speak of M. 123 Banneville very soon reappeared at his post in Rome. is well known * its frank and noble language is a legacy for which generous and liberal minds will ever hold him in grateful remembrance but it produced a very different effect on the ruling party at the Vatican. however. aroused in some measure the religious passions of the Vatican. were determined to render The friends homage to his memory. Death Count de Moiitalembert. Suspension of tlie scheme " De Ecclesia. or as the representative of a great idea. and could therefore feel his loss as a politician. 3. This church was particularly connected with the Roman municipality. 2. Article by Dollinger. Appendix. He. TEUCE. 5. man only a few private friends and an inconsiderable party .] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. could follow him in his laboured mediation between the tem- poral power and Infallibility. had found himself placed in so hard and painful a position by the moral condition of France and his own convictions. however. of the Count. where his influence mainly contributed to encourage the Infallibilists and reduce the Opposition to despair." of — — — — 1. . II. It seemed to arouse the ancient enmity against the liberal Catholic party. Dooiinunt XV. and his had helped their cause.March.— A 1. . The letter with which Montalembert closed his life. Funeral service in his honour. His death. More petitions by the bishops. excepting in so far as his name had strengthened the Opposition. The Count de Montalembert was just dead. and Montalembert had been made a Roman patrician for Government on the occasion * See the good offices he rendered to the of the French expedition to Rome. like a few others. on his death-bed he found himself almost abandoned by his religion on account of Many lamented him as an eloquent and learned his liberalism. 4.

and now ventured to forbid the celebration of a loving and pious service to one who bore the name of De Montalembert. The reasons adduced by the friends of the Vatican for having thus endeavoured to prevent a demon- on account of the nature of Montalembert's later opinions. As soon as the Pope was aware of the intended service. and they were . with the reform of the Order of the Council. had perassisted without made a deep impression on sonally assisted at a service for the repose of his soul. at which they would have any pomp or grand solemnity. or because they were making up for it aware of the unfortunate impression caused by the intolerance of the previous day and were desirous of —had during the night arranged this funeral celebration. he proits hibited celebration. might seem undesirable. appointed day. held in the Church of the Traspontina. And now we come to a truce.124 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. wishing to testify his recollection of all the services rendered to the Church by Count de Montalembert. which commencing. a few bishops and members of the diplomatic body. but on those who were cognisant of this event it produced a very strange impression. This occurrence all. Europe received by telegraph the announcement of the honours paid by the Pope to the memory of M. obliged to depart without even being able to obtain the celebration of a low mass for the departed. 2. because they were really unaware of the interdiction issued by the Pope. had already attained the unlookedfor proposal of Infallibility. stration which. They found at the church a notice similar to that sent round to their houses. so that the friends of the Count had no chance of being present. [March. The truth was that the advisers of the Vatican — either of their own accord. and more. and was the culminating point of that phase of oppression. at which the Pope assisted next morning unknown to all. went to the church at the time fixed some because they would not yield to such an arbitrary injunction. avail to . however. along with some personal friends of Montalembert's. could not. or rather a movement which might be called a step backwards were it not to be succeeded by The Osservatore Romano announced that a bound forwards. de Montalembert. and those who were invited to attend received notice that the function would not take place on the Notwithstanding this prohibition. the Pope.

According to this principle. which set forth clearly the grounds on which the Church of Germany would be compelled to secede. bishops. 1st. had again adopted. the plans which had already proved so unsuccessful. justify the effect produced and the employment of force.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The article also affirmed that no solemn declarations were ever made in the Church. but can only render testimony to those which rest on the universal consent of the Church. invariably. . The abolition of the limits of time imposed on the study and discussion of the schemes. admitted by but it cannot even making dogmas (which is attest them for the very . but on the moral unanimity of the Fathers. from rendering to their friend what even the poorest anxiously procure for those they love after death. The the Order. 4. otherwise than with unanimous consent. ideas of a majority and a minority are at variance with the idea of universality. in which controverted points might be orally debated 3rd. as in the more recent Councils. an article signed by Dollinger appeared in the Augshuj-g Gazette. for this reason that the Council in a certain sense cannot create .* out that no Council had ever been fettered by an Order. it was always voted unanimously by the Fathers themselves. At the very time when the bishops in Opposition made these protests in Rome. That decisions should depend. before being altered. The all creation of a mixed Com- mission. this important By sub- document * See it appears that a Council which is Appendix. and seeing how little aid they could expect from diplomacy. Fathers of the Council. Document XVII. in order to prevent dignitaries of the Church. not only is the majority incapable of all). recovering from their first stupor. that the principal Councils had none at all. new dogmas. not on the vote of the majority. who had deserved well of the Church. and other persons of position and eminence.— March. and that when an Order was first introduced. In these they demanded chiefly three things 2nd. by the intervention of the 125 authorities. of framing protests and petitions against trious 3. —the last offices And yet this happened in the case of one of illus- name. after much wavering. the latter beginning where the former ends. unless the Council stopped short of the fatal precipice to which The object of this article was to point its course was tending. .

— 14. was dropped. 8. 4. which. on which point they are extremely jealous. " De Ecclcsia. was yet felt. March 18th. — III. and thus the Opposition obtained a little respite from the severe and unexpected pressure which had reduced them to such extremities." now brought forward for when. though slight. important events had occurred the scheme " De I'ide." and of the Appendix to the declaration of Infallibility. certain ." but with the amended schemes. SiDecch of tlie Pope. Stormy sitting. Such was the state of affairs the Congregations were resumed after a holiday in . 7. [March. sity. Withdrawal of Despatches of Count Daru and of Cardinal Antonelli. make the immediate discussion of the scheme. Whatever weight may be attributed to these manifestations of public opinion. or be ascribed to the influence of laymen and diplomatists.— THE FIEST 1. Theme for a speech at the Eoman — — — — 1. Instead of lasting ten days. it an Ecumenical Council. itself. on Friday. which occurred on the sending back of the first schemes and the publication of the new Order. 2. one thing is words. some amendments. Protest of 5. Eelations bctwcn France and the Vatican. which many the sitting was occupied with the second . under its present conditions. The sclicmc " De Fide" 11. All that we have described took place during the adjournment of the Council. means that the Vatican Council. Ambassadors. The schemes again brought forward. — — — — — — 3. first rehvting to the Eastern bishops. 12. voted in part.— 126 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. until an actual split took place among the Armenian Catholics on the question of the nomination of their bishops. this adjournment lasted twenty-five days and when the Council met again it was not occupied with the scheme " De Ecclesia. Catliolic Art Exhibition. The same. Such was the language of Germany while in the East protests and menaces increased. lieasons for tlie same. has not the characteristics This opinion. and in addition the decision of the majority only. jected to a rule not framed by a Council which creates to this accepts dogmas by necessary to in plain its own authority. the Bishop of Bosnia and Sirmio. would not be accepted as an Ecumenical Council by those whose opinions were described in the article. 5. . as announced in the Congregation of February 22nd. SCHEMES AGAIN BEOUGHT FORWARD. 10. 9. Incidents univer- G. 13.

which the Opposition asserted were likely to produce a bad rather than a good effect on those who were not Catholics . Three Infallibilists but only a small number supported him orators contributed to bring it to a climax. and if the had really pre-arranged this surprise during the recess they must have been much disappointed at its results. then the Bishop of Grenoble." to obtain a declaration of Infalli. No other incident marked the opening of the Congregations. for its emendation. for the Pope on a Friday in March to descend from his apartments to the Church of St. and rejecting the judgment of the majority and all the provisions of the new Order : . The principal subjects that provoked the anger of the majority were first.] time. EIGHT MONTHS xiT ROME. as bility. 127 Notmet with much opposition. which was admitted by all to be faulty. withstanding its amended form. the effect of whose speech was such that the adjournment of the sitting was called for. The next sitting. by the proper Commission. as on that occasion the storm which had long been gathering under the pressure of recent events burst forth. that the Fathers might attend one of those ceremonies which have become frequent of late years. owing to the Pope's fondness According to an old custom. one of the Fathers who favoured the majority suddenly endeavoured. 2. as containing excessive and useless condemnations. and lastly. the defence of the proposals made by the Opposition for obtaining greater liberty in debate. Peter. Cardinal Schwarzemberg. the sitting of the Council was suspended. if by " chance. It seems that some striking result had been expected from this Congregation. the exception taken to the form of the scheme. and finally Strossmayer. secondly. after . the continued objections to the still amended schemes. Archbishop of Prague. March 22nd. First. . was a memorable one. Certain words used in attacking the judgment of the majority. in order to visit the relics which are preserved in the gallery behind the tribune and on this occasion. and the Fathers left the Hall to accompany him. when the Congregation was interrupted. Five orators had inscribed their names for the debate. offended the greater part of the bishops present words hinting that delicate comparisons might be draAvn between the votes of the Fathers according to the importance . it . on Tuesday.March. it was usual for outward display. but three only had spoken.

justice was rendered to certain Protestants by name and here a second outbreak occurred. Certain partisans of Infallibility. 27. This question. by its decision. on hearing the disturbance. cult one. absorbed in the . however. the last time in a way anything but courteous. although a diffimore important matter of determining whether the unanimity of a Council or the votes of a majority of its members should. . who caused the second tempest. " " Vivan i Cardinali Legati " were heard in different accents in the no longer venerable assembly. of a contrary opinion. by cries of " sileat " from the majority. Fathers and menaces of every sort " e suon di man con elle " . in the church itself. Schwarzemberg. The intolerance of the majority was further provoked by some words in which. constitute a Canon and here the first storm arose. The ubiquitous gendarme. and the strongest and most effective instrument of every sort of . Peter's was very nearly the scene of a tumult. left At this a storm broke forth. Tnf. and thwarted on every point that such proceedings were incompatible with freedom of debate. . prepared to mock at these rejoicings and St. [March. Strossmayer. the . and that he of the flocks they represented. One cardinal cried. some confusion ensued that it outside. however. more violent than any which had yet taken place. who is the last argument in every discussion. was three times ordered to stop by the legate Capalti. " You protest against us. here interfered. as had been predicted. . protested against them. whose speech had been the first occasion of the storm. others. while discussing the second subject. Infallibility. met with so much interruption.* cries of " Viva Pio IX. and were ready to add their shouts of triumph on the happy event . and bring it to an abrupt conclusion. we protest against you " and other utterances equally serious and serene proceeded from every part of the hall in fact." — who were Sounds of liands Ford's D.128 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME.. * " ordered off the crowd witli fhcKO. . iii. imagined signified the spontaneous passing of that dogma by acclamation. was.into. . that their seats and crowded round the tribune — threats ! ! . He replied that he was tired of being thus called to order. that he was obliged to omit some of his discourse. the uproar was so formidable. was ordered to desist by the legate De Angelis and on attempting to begin again.

At the first private meeting in which the leaders of the Opposition of different countries met together. and the other points which we have mentioned. judgment by the majority. The day after this storm. having been admonished by his colleagues that such resistance exceeded the bility of the occurrence. and tried to enter the hall to assist them. called " L'CEuvre des this occasion he made many allusions and rendered his meaning evident by the words with which he closed his speech " be united with me. and met with no resistance save from the servants of some of the bishops. feared that their masters were threatened by some dangers in that tumultuous assembly. a few years back. and not with revolution. Strossmayer. with the warmest expressions of regard . who. that in the short space of ten years the of the Church would have included many of them in the same class with that very Count Cavour whom they so detested. almost 4.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. actually banded with told Head Mazzini wondrous word invoked by subjects against Revolution their rulers." Who could possibly have predicted that these good Fathers. and levelled as a reproach against their subjects by those who govern. and though they had not actually signed his protest." On to present difficulties. not only with regard to the question of principle. what was lawful. were so strong against revolution. 129 pressing eagerly round the door of the Council Hall. 3.March. who. took upon himself the sole responsiand presented a protest in his own name against the threats and pressure to which he had been subjected limits of at the preceding meeting. Rulers who endeavour to degrade Stross! ! . the missionary bishops the ecclesiastical vestments and ornaments sent from Belgium by a society of pious ladies. declared themselves in favour of in a The Pope soon made his opinion on the speech he delivered when distributing to matter known. and that by a series of deductions they might find themselves at length in that bad company. would now themselves be accused of revolution ? Who could have pauvres Eglises. it. on hearing the cries from within. but with regard to all that he had so energetically on freedom of debate. Strossmayer opposed — as the restrictions was received all. — them in 1860.

and became further involved by the fact that a community of Armenians. It seems that the Pope. but strange to say. hastened to Rome to take the Armenians under his protection as subjects of the Ottoman Porte. whereupon his was ordered. upon the complaint of the Armenian and Latin Patriarchs. and raise a Rochefort to the height of a Strossmayer. The Pope had . and dwelt much on his great regard for the Oriental bishops their religious rites. or did not obey it exactly. thus rendering both equally instruments of their own 5. ruin.130 mayers to the EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. resident at Florence. It was a singular arrest He attempted to . at the very time when words were thus friendly towards the Orientals. and the Latin Patriarch Valerga. level of a Rochefort [March. and though at first a matter of little consequence. resist. directed his speech particularly against and being alarmed at the threats of schism from the East. as he had done recently on opening the Exhibition of Catholic Art. He made use of many loving and considerate expressions towards them. with the support of his bishop. fact that brethren in Christ should find themselves reduced to ! vicar. as a punishment for his language but the latter. either declined to obey this command altogether. not infrequently reverse the intended result. had severely blamed the Armenian Patriarch Hassoun. of whom mention was made in a former chapter. the brothers who would not obey the injunctions of the ecclesiastical authorities ending. his . he employed language adapted to the crisis. and he was seized one day while out walking. known as the " Frati Antoniani. from whom ? from a Turk was badly managed. and a scandal ensued the affair was soon known on all sides. and the Turkish Minister." were subjected to persecution of the same sort. an event which had much influence on the separation that afterwards took place in the Armenian Church. both in words and in writing. The Vicar-General of the Armenian Archbishop of Diarbekir. intimated to the Vicar-General that he should retire to a monastic establishment for a short time. a most inexplicable event occurred. for having caused by their undue servility to Rome great displeasure to the Chaldean Patriarch. was allowed to assume grave proportions. by dissolving their community seek protection against affair His The whole . after many vicissitudes.

The sitting of Thursday was equally quiet." the theological chair of the sity . Apostolic delegate at the Pontifical Brief addressed to the Ar- menians of the Cilician Patriarchate a few weeks after these disturbances." were withdrawn. The sitting of Wednesday. 131 and quitting Rome. Speaking of those who had taken part in this affair. was tranquil. together). This statement was really the involuntary denunciation of an incipient schism. and out of thirty the one on which the lot fell was " Papal Infallibility. they continued to celebrate with solemn ritual the functions of the sacred ministry." and alluded to the secular clergy and many of the monks at Constantinople." including those at Rome. In order to understand this sudden calm." a very strange coincidence. was unwillingly obliged to acknowledge the unfortunate results they had produced. so that the Optimists began again to indulge hopes of a future third Session. 6. the leaders of the Opposition of different nations consulted step. 7. An anecdote was circulated about this time which may be taken as an illustration of the spirit prevalent in Rome. after the scene of the 22nd. although prohibited from exercising them. 8. and to all the " Frati Antoniani. as the persons especially compromised in the revolt. . and on Saturday. as is usually the case after a storm. On account of the death of Padre Modena. But we must return to the Council. but the legates and the majority offered no interruption. the 23rd. the 26th. in Monsignor Plujm. Constantinople. and the members of the Opposition who spoke that day were for the most part Armenian bishops they upheld the views of Schwarzemberg and Strossmayer. they had taken a new "^ Finding that their petition against the vote of the majority was K 2 . it must be explained that at one of the international meetings (in which all the Sacred Palaces. and the bishops came to an agreement on part of it. to the " Mechitaristi " of the congregation of Venice. the Brief affirmed that " despising the laws and authority of the Church. several of the objections to the scheme " De Fide. which up to the present time had seemed quite out of the question.March.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The competitors for this office had a theme given them on which to write an essay a subject was to be selected by lot for this theme. one of the two Dominicans who act as Censors of the Press in the office of " Masters of Roman Univerwas vacant.

a period of calm succeeded to the recent tempestuous discussions. without the unanimous consent of the Fathers. [March. of no avail. clearly been provoked by the Canons published in the Augsburg Gazette. The other point on which he dwelt in his answer was more easy of demonstration. tliej resolved on presenting another formal protest that they rejected all dogmas declared to be such by the majority only. wish to be as conciliatory as possible. But." plan that the Opposition instead of wasting it in formal discussions on the scheme " De . and refused to recognise the validity of the Council as Ecumenical. which Antonelli tried to enforce. namely. in the application of the principles advoIt cated by Dollinger's article. as it had to prove that those Canons diately which affirm that all civil society is entirely subject to the Pope were practically of no importance. This was the chief argument. it might have to the effect commanded sition . and need not cause any uneasiness to Governments. no judgment could be passed on them until that discussion was over. that as these Canons were to be debatied in tlie Council. the Cardinal . the adhesion of a considerable portion of the fact. and the first almost unanimous decisions of the Council were obtained. Meantime the slackening of the zeal and activity of the Infallibilists was in some measure explained by the publication This note had of the recent note of the French Government. The answer of Cardinal Antonelli soon appeared. after their consideration by the Council. and their sincere desire for peace twelve amendments prepared by their own party were immeFide. nor could it properly be otherwise." The answer of the Secretary of State was considered a chef-d'oeuvre of diplomatic art . 9. and the two documents threw much light on the state of affairs.132 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME." this policy they intended to By show their withdrawn in conformity with this plan. Oppo- it was. that probably. This proposal met with so many supporters in the meeting. lary to this was also determined as a corol- should reserve their strength for the vital questions of the scheme " De Ecclesia. The French note remonstrated against the disquieting attitude assumed by the Church towards the State in the twenty-one Canons of the scheme " De Ecclesia. if carried into execution. and was forced from Count Daru by the petitions of the bishops after the circulation of the new Order.

resumed their former road. explains the truce which prevailed for some The respite was. although unable to work any real change in her moral condition. whenever it attracts . and allures her without actually winning her adhesion and thus. the Curia and the majority lead to any result. will be thrown back or altogether frustrated. The representations of France were short-lived. 11. and instead of these reproduced some of the old amended schemes for consideration. and unless conducted with the utmost dexterity. or for some other reason. 10. and whether in consequence of the ingenuity of the note. he managed to attain his end without encountering any great But being uncertain whether she would have time resistance.March. It was accredited both to the Vatican and to the Council. a road that. exercised upon France a singular influence. the Secretary of State cannot interfere. reply to Count Daru was to delay the mission of the proposed Imperial orator. though at one time it was supposed that an ambassador might be sent to Rome. 133 might easily protect himself against the importunities of Governments by alleging that when the Church has decided a matter. Rome delayed the discussion of the scheme " De Ecclesia " and with it that on Infallibility. and he would have some The aim of Cardinal Antonelli's foundation for the statement. and this policy. of short duration. minority were soon aware that their half-measures would not Once reassured. and the days. has for centuries been directed towards one point. the A policy absolute power of the Church. together with the forbearance manifested by the Opposition. then said that. in herself. so as to prevent its taking any steps in the matter. to secure this result. notwithstanding all the explanations which had been made. M. and over all. de Banneville's recall would be final. and the envoy soon dropped. to talk of a special . just as it seemed certain of success. will often miss its mark. but this was likewise a mistake and it appeared probable that he would return to Rome simply as ambassador to the Holy See. The Vatican has long by which it . of this nature. when unduly pressed. whatever its windings may be. to reassure the French Government.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. the Vatican. however. resume the peaceful exercise of his duties in that capacity as heretofore.

;

134

EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME.
France wonderfully docile

[March.
to its will.

pleases, can render

By

the exercise of this influence, the Vatican has of late years,

on its own part, induced France in the plainest contradiction with herself to abjure the famous principles of " 89," and to reinstate and maintain in Rome a form of government which was their most explicit and The Vatican distinctly and loudly conspicuous negation. condemned those principles, as well as the whole constitution of modern France, in all the proposals hitherto brought before the Council and in doing all this it had no other instrument than France herself, who, by her soldiers, enabled the Council to pass those judgments, and thus actually belied and condemned herIndeed, France self in the doctrines and actions of the Pope.
without making any concession
;

has never ventured to assert her

own

free

will

in

the face

of the Vatican, a fact that is not to the credit of either party ; from the date of the letter to Edgar Ney to that of the note

of Count Daru, her efforts to assert her independent opinion have been confined to inefficacious words and demonstrations of such a nature as almost obliged the Roman Chancery to oppose them out of courtesy. Even with regard to the Armenian question, in which France was compelled to intervene in order to keep up her authority in the East, the same fatal spell

.

weakened her action, and caused her to adopt very insufficient means for remedying the evil. The political effect of the

power

among Eastern Catholics, is to give greater Russia as the representative of Greek influence for the Armenians, on breaking loose from Latin Catholicism,
disturbances arisen
to
;

were obliged to turn to her for protection, being themselves surrounded by enemies. France, not daring to go to the root
of the matter, or to exercise her authority at

Rome

to prevent

the wrong, was content with ordering her representative at Constantinople to show kindness to the dissentient Catholics and take them under his protection, thinking thus to mend matters but if the schism which seemed imminent actually took place, under what plea could France protect them ? Not as French
subjects, certainly
;

and not

as Catholics, for they
it

would no

longer be such.

In the long run,

was

easier for Russia to

help them.
is

Whatever the question
for

at issue

may

be, the position

the

same

Franco as

for all other nations.

March.]

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.

135

Rome

has an independent and separate line of action, which
;

she expects them wholly to accept or reject

but thej, France

especially, often choose the latter alternative.

Many

nations,

nominally Catholic, have very

little

regard for their religion,

and endeavour to be liberal, without founding their liberty on the necessary basis of all durable freedom universal consent and the rights of conscience. The Latin races do not seem authority with them to understand either of these principles stands instead of both, and when this authority exceeds its due limits, they have no other remedy than lawlessness and have recourse to revolutions, which by regular and inevitable stages bring them back to despotism. 12. The Congregations met every day from the 28th to the In these meetings, the greater part of the 31st of March. scheme, " De Fide," was voted without much difficulty, and almost unanimously for the reasons already stated, a result which gave rise to a joke on the scheme, to the effect that at the next Session it would be announced to the Catholic world, that the Vatican Council had almost unanimously decreed that God had

;

created the universe.
13.

An

Exhibition of objects of Art applied to Catholic worat this time,

ship,

was opened
inaugural

but proved a great failure.

It

was

intended to be a sort of adjunct to the Council, and the Pope
in his

speech declared that Catholic feeling was

rate, it

At any was evident that the originators of the Exhibition were and the Exhibition not in sympathy with the modern world itself was only another argument to be added to those we
the soul of art, but events almost proved the contrary.
;

brought forward in a former chapter when speaking on this
It was opened in the middle of February, but its popuwas of short duration it attracted little notice, and the number of its visitors rarely equalled that of the gendarmes who

subject.
larity

;

guarded it. 14. Ancient art was ill represented when compared with the collections to be seen on all sides in the churches and palaces of Rome, and examples of modern art, though more numerous, were of indifferent quality. The sculpture was decidedly the pictures inferior to that usually seen in such exhibitions were of ordinary merit. There was one fine painting by
;

136

EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME.

[March.

Ceccarini, representing the administration of the

Communion

in

both kinds, in the catacombs, to Christians preparatory to their

martyrdom. This picture was full of feeling and of life, and its style was a happy combination of the historical and the " genre," which, joined with some romantic handling, is the fashion of the day, and most popular in the present century it was bought by a German baron. Passing on to the secondary and industrial arts, there was
;

little

worthy of

praise.

Of

wood-carvings, though
still

much used
;

in

churches, there were few examples, and

fewer bronzes

there

were some sacred ornaments, but scarcely any musical instruments, such as are generally found in industrial exhibitions. Images and objects of painted terra-cotta abounded, but these are rather the vulgar expression of a material devotion than an artistic manifestation of high religious feeling, and the grand cloisters of the Certosa, which served as the Exhibition rooms, were filled with a multitude of other things of no value and of doubtful
taste.

Where are the days in which, from Giotto and Andrea Pisano to Michael Angelo and Cellini, from the art of the

builder

to the art of the weaver (Arte della Lana), all was animated and impelled by the Christian spirit ? What subjects for contrast might not be found in art as we see it embodied in the Church of Santa Maria del Fiore, the Campanile of Giotto, the doors of the Baptistery, even in the Vatican itself, and art as shown forth by the Roman Exhibition of 1870 One cannot
!

but

feel

that active

Christian

sentiment

is

manifested more

worthily by the various specimens familiar to us in international

exhibitions which are the

work of an industrious and
and

intelligent Christian society, than in the ostentation

pomp

of a so-called special religious exhibition.


;

Ai'KiL.]

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.

137

APEIL.

I.— THE
1.

SCHEME

"

DE FIDE" FOR THE SECOND TIME.

Cessation of diplomatic intervention.
3. Kesiilt
6.

of the voting.

Third Session.

2.

Definitive voting on the scheme.

4.

Easter
it

festival.

5.

The

public Session fixed,—

7.

Impression

produced.

1.

The

speech
at the

made by Visconti Venosta

in the

Chamber

of

Deputies
to

end of March, in which he declared, in answer
that the policy of the Government with regard would be that of non-intervention, was very
itself,

some inquiry,
the Council

to

remarkable, not only in

but as an indication of the general

The announcement of this by the Government the most interested in the Council, seemed to indicate the cessation of the action which the other Catholic Governments had taken at the request of the bishops in Opposition, and on the publication of the new Order. Count Daru, who was in favour of intervention, resigned just after he had addressed the despatch we have commented on, to the Italian Secretary of State, and had recalled M. de Banneville from Rome and the latter shortly after returned to his post. There was no further diplomatic interference in fact, it had been confined to the philosophical considerations of the French note, and a letter almost exactly
opinion of Europe on the matter.
policy of non-intervention
;
;

like it emanating from the Austrian Cabinet, The Vatican resumed its course, feeling secure against all further interruption from that quarter, and as France was just then engrossed in the second plebiscite, ordered by the Emperor Napoleon as a

means of strengthening
the

a

Government which, already
all

tottering,

urgently needed the support of

the proselytes

it

could gain
of

Pope was able

to

convince himself that the

fallibility

138
the " plebiscite "
Infallibility.
2.

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.
might be an excellent argument

[April.

for his

own

During the

early days of April, the Congregations

worked

with much assiduity to hasten the promulgation of the scheme " De Fide." On Friday, April 1st, and from the 4th to the 8th, the separate parts of the scheme were voted by " rising and
sitting,"

and in one Congregation

this

mode

of voting

was

used 100 times, to the great discomfort of the Fathers.
parties,

The

amendments to the scheme finally exceeded a hundred. Both and especially the Opposition, made every endeavour to The separate chapters, which were originally carry it through. nine in number, were reduced to four, and on Tuesday, April 12th, the final and definitive vote by a call of names for the scheme " De Fide " took place. It was Tuesday in Holy Week, the last day on which a Congregation could be held before Easter, as the services of the Passion began on Wednesday. 3. Notwithstanding the good-will of both sides, out of the 592 bishops present, 83 gave dissentient votes, some with the formula
"

Non

placet," others conditionally with the formula " Placet
result

juxta

modum." This

was very displeasing

to

the Pope,

and

to the Cardinal legates,

who had hoped

to give the foreigners

present in

Rome

for

Easter the grand spectacle of a public

Session, as a testimony to the success of the Council,

adjunct to the festivities of the season.
Easter.

was announced for the There was a

earliest

and as an Another Congregation possible day, the Tuesday after

difference of opinion

among

the legates

with regard to the scheme; some advising modifications for the
sake of obtaining unanimity, but Capalti and Bizzarri would
not hear of any change.
4.

The

Easter

ceremonies were marked by no
less

particular

incident,

and were

striking than usual, on account of the
present,

smaller

number
St.

of strangers

and
its

also

because the

space occupied by the Council Hall diminished the size of the

Church of
appearance.

Peter and detracted from

grand and imposing

Moreover, owing to the large number of bishops present in the ceremonies which usually take place in the Sistine Chapel, and which have a religious and artistic interest peculiar

Rome,

to themselves,

were omitted

for

want of space.

"

April.]
5.

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.

139

held on Easter Tuesday did not bring about any change of opinions, and the Pope, as a last resource, resolved to " force the situation," and to proceed with the scheme,

The Congregation

reckoning that

all

who

cause scandal by a public resistance and no one hardly would venture on repeating " Non placet at the public session. This calculation was well founded, because the differences of opinion on the scheme in question were neither important nor remarkable, nor did they touch on subjects regarding which the Opposition were already compromised so the result justified the Pope's anticipation. 6. The third public Session of the Vatican Council was held on the Sunday after Easter. The usual ceremonies being concluded, the scheme " De Fide," with its collateral Canons, was proposed, and all the Fathers present responded with " Placet." Those whose conscience remained inflexible and who would not give their consent, were to absent themselves from the Session. This course was adopted because it was found that only one prelate was in that position, Monsignor Strossmayer, Bishop of Bosnia and Sirmio. Strossmayer, being placed in the dilemma of either causing scandal by separating from his colleagues in Opposition, who had determined on pronouncing
;

modum," and many give way rather than
that

of those

dissented under the formula " Juxta who dissented absolutely would

;

the " Placet," or of betraying his
to

own

convictions, preferred

though almost subsequently acquired great value from his consistent conduct with regard to all the other and more
;

absent himself altogether
at the time,

and

his protest,

unobserved

important business of the Council.
7.

It

is

impossible for a person not an eye-witness of the
to

ceremony

understand the feeling
fact,

isolation of that grave assembly

very world, in
first

which

it

it conveyed of the utter from the rest of the world, the was intended to represent. The

Session had

commanded some amount
to witness
its

of attention, and

ceremonies from motives of curiosity, love of novelty, and perhaps even from the hope of a good result, but on this last occasion there were few people
present in St. Peter's, and fewer

had drawn many

proceedings of the Council.

paid any attention to the one listened to the reading of these formidable precepts of the Church no one knew what
still

No

;

140
;

EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME.

[April.

was going on to the public the Council Hall was merely a It did not occur to the byspectacle, and nothing more. standers that, being Catholics, they would retire to rest that nio-ht with the obligation of a new set of declarations, and articles of faith weighing on their intellect and conscience.

The
effect

only person

whom

I

heard

make an

observation to this

was a schismatical Greek, and the answer of the Catholic,
he addressed himself, did not indicate that the decrees

to

whom

would meet with much obedience. The curiosity felt at the first Session no longer prevailed, and the present ceremony was merely considered an addition to the long list of those observed at the Vatican. Indeed, at the time, very few were either aware of, or reflected on the decree thus promulgated, and those few ao-reed that the declarations of the scheme were, on the whole,
mild and moderate. Its subjects were hardly such as could fix the wavering attention of society at the present day, and even for those who, from particular circumstances, are drawn to their consideration they are unimportant, because the matters they contain are for the most part no longer of interest, besides, the way in which they are treated is such as to render any practical
results

unlikely.

The scheme
but

make

rules for the Church,

(observed many people) can " concerning those that are

without," St, Paul himself says if I mistake not "quid ad nos?" To reiterate to those that are within the fold the primary foun-

dations of their faith

may seem

at least superfluous.

As we remarked
this
it

elsewhere, the condemnatory character of
;

scheme was, at the first, the reason for its being sent back was then reformed, but still retained its original defect. The Catholic Church had already condemned Pantheists, Rationthe latter, since they alists, Materialists, and also Protestants separated from the Church, the others ever since the Church existed, because those condemnations are embodied in all the successive explanations of faith that the Church has issued, and are therefore included substantially and absolutely in the belief
;

But with regard to those who " are without," of Catholics. those who are neither Catholics nor Christians, such condemclare that a person is

nations possess neither authority nor practical anathema, is to declare
;

effect.

To

de-

him out

of the
?

Church

but

if

he never was in

it

how can he

be cast out

12. FIDE. Materialism. various other errors and in which spring from Rationalism. which indicated all the enemies to be combated." Comparison of the first first scheme. Dog11. it was compelled by the force of circumstances either to remain stationary and inactive. — — 5. 4. condemned .— 8. — 7. — and second schemes. introduced into Catholic doctrines it condemned. the original form of the scheme. Close of observations on first scheme. partially. 1. 2. as an evidence of the beneficent influence exercised by the Opposition and as afford- ing ground for hope in the future." or to press forward in the road of absolute authority.April. — 3. properly so called the third in the second. Annotations. 3.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. — — 2. After a long preface.—THE FIRST 1. him ? 141 how does this judgment affect tions generally made by those (and they were not Such were the observamany) who the Vatican Council interested themselves in the matter. 9. reflections. 10. Fui'ther The — — In order to appreciate the mild and moderate character of it is necessary to compare it with the drawn up. The first chapter began mth the title. The same. Description of 6. In the first. " Condemnatio Mate- rialismi et Pantheismi. that is to introduce the reforms which the lapse of time renders necessary and which the conditions of the Church permit. — connection of faith and science." and after describing and condemning . The same. semi-Rationalism. We will first describe. SCHEME "DE The same. faith. or the many antichrists who at the present day endeavour to subvert religion and reduce mankind under its to a state of unbelief. original text as at first useful at the time of its promulgation." — — II. as it endeavoured to do in the scheme " De Ecclesia. On matic theology. the scheme divided its subject into three parts. and it . Considerations. it condemned absolute Rationalism Pantheism. three manifestations. Rationalism. as nearly as possible. As would not obey the mission which seemed to be imposed on it by the laws of the age. a disposition which is exemplified in the scheme " De Fide. a comparison which was most the scheme as amended.

perfectione infinitus praeter :" who " profitendus est super omnique omnia quae ipsum sunt aut concipi possunt infinite exaltatus. "De divina? revelaIt tionis fontibus in Sacra Scriptura et traditione. not only because by it might be accomplished the rapid and universal diffusion (impossible through any other means) of . according to the text sanctioned by the Council of Trent and the truth of the interpretations contained in the traditions and infallible judgment of the Church. aeternus et necessario existens intellectu ac voluntate. The tate. [April. The third chapter bore the heading. of an intemperate mandate to Governments to guard the faith by all the means in their power. This chapter ends by fervently exhorting rulers to preserve instruction free from such pestilential error. and by which verhum veritatis non recte tractatur. and standard of good. in that case reason must subject itself entirely." reason to attain by itself to a knowledge of God. simplex omnino." The heading of the following chapter was " Condemnatio RationalIn this the scheme first recognises the power of human ismi. and then proceeds to assert that if God were pleased to manifest Himself only through revelation. 4." affirmed the Divine inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. above faith and revelation. " De supernaturalis revelationis necessi- was on the necessity of a supernatural revelation. it EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. so that religion. et incommutabilis essentia. concludes with a profession of faith in God. and warns them against that sort of secondary Rationalism which creeps into wholesome study. It affirms that this hypothesis has by providential arrange- ment been Christian actually confirmed. it forms the basis of the and concludes by condemning all those who exalt reason as a supreme law. just as the intention of a letter is very often revealed in its postscript. The systematic suspicion and the infinite precautions they contain against all that emanates from reason alone. " Una singularis.142 these errors. and the insertion in such a document as the decree of a Council (which by right concerns only doctrinal and speculative matters). characterise a party which leaves unmistakable traces on all it touches." fourth chapter. These two last clauses really express the intention of the compilers of the scheme.

" and sible faith. leaving it is difficult to understand the grounds for the condemnation. Every one can perceive the consequences which naturally result from such a doctrine. 6.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. condemns all who say that it is pos- by reason and philosophy to search out the mysteries of At first sight this condemnation seems equivalent to a prohibition of seeing intention is to when it is dark. otherwise than through faith." and here again our . and consequently for the Vatican. which by means and undetermined phrases tends to further unlimited authority. and not only does the Church acknowledge these writings. fifth chapter is entitled " De mysteriis fidei in divina revelatione propositis. that is to say. 5. that an effort is made to distinguish between two things which could never be confounded. to a conclusion like that of the of a second part. for those who The are its depositaries and natural interpreters. the scheme suddenly comes few vague the to the postscript. 143 which reason with all its powers often finds it hard understand. however. to just such a case. such as the " De Trinitate " and the " De Opere sex dierum " of Saint Augustine. not because our belief is a a scientia humana. could not bring him to a knowledge that to of what is superior to reason." even in those matters which are not " impervise " to human reason. logically conducted. If. but also because God. wishing to raise man above the order of nature. its real contemplate the case of a person endeavouring in this darkness to guide himself by the light of reason. and the practical interpretation of this simply that such matters are to be voluntarily subjected to the guidance of revelation. that is to say. reason being incapable of attaining of itself to the knowledge of supernatural natural dogmas which faculties. The sixth chapter is entitled " De fidei divinae distinctione first impression is. the constitution states of an of The conclusion revelationis duty recognising " supernaturalis maximum beneficium. This chapter is a sort of sequel to the fifth. the result out of consideration. which can be treated of is by reason.April. but she adopts them and regards them with great honour. From this are beyond the reach of our argument. We owe many works by the Fathers. condemning those who do not distinguish between Divine faith and human science. and who believe.

" the miracles. " De scheme has been felt. Such guidance tends to weaken and often to confuse the natural judgment of men. we can [April. but because to it ourselves attain by natural means.144 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. condemns with an anathema all who deny that the truth may be rendered evident by external signs (miracles). It is difficult to see the meaning of this condemnation taken literally. for every one is aware of the difference between faith and knowledge. doubt what seems reasonable. necessitate motivorum scheme (having in the previous chapter cautioned man against his own reason). and by elucidating so far as he can the former by the latter. and free action of this Under the seventh heading. and here again we must look for the real meaning of this condemnation elsewhere turies While the sixth chapter teaches us to than in its actual words. The frequent result of such teaching is this. as much as on those where it must yield. This conclusion reveals. and to favour their in. to begin to affii'm their possibility after nineteen cen- seems inopportune and superfluous. fluence among Catholic populations. the spirit of those who framed the scheme. and bearing in mind the subject indicated in the heading of the chapter. and a systematic and constant mistrust of its guidance. on those points where it can properly be exercised. matter of Divine revelation. it creates and favours unreasonable and superstitious habits. in order that the renunciation of reason may be absolute and entire. The reproduction of the ideas of these two chapters. and is a bar to the progress of civilisation full among those nations where the 7. As the Gospel contains many credibilitatis. Unceasing war to reason. the seventh condemns us if we hesitate to accept what actually appears unreasonable. which affirms that if any one should delude himself by trying to reconcile faith and reason. Who is not sensible that by faith we accept that which we do not know ? We must look for the real object of the scheme in its explanation. if taken literally. such a consolation is to be denied him. in its obscure and mysterious language. an act of sacrifice and not an act of homage. would have no aim but the intention of thus combining them is to inculcate their practical application. are integral parts of that order of ideas which has long and persistently prevailed in the direction of Catholic institutions. that people finding themselves abandoned .

still shown by their order and connecmore so by the traditional use and constant application of their principles that have long prevailed in the economy of the Church. rather than as a natural and necessary persuasion of reason. worships the goddess of reason. This chapter directed. especially invoking for the purpose the help of science and of public opinion. 8. The eighth chapter. always prejudicial. unlike the scheme. and the spirit of debate. which." obvious in Catholic belief." This chapter. that its repetition is useless. life. to pend was doubt the faith received sub EcclesicB Magisterio. its and like those of the sixth and seventh chapters. but the warnings on this subject are endless. and to sustheir judgment until its credibility and veracity be demonstrated according to the rules of human science. a sort of homage to the spirit of the age. " De supernaturali virtute fidei et de condemned all who do not acknowledge faith as a supernatural gift of God. while at the same time it exalts reason by the means in its power. and we are told to guard it against reason. not infrequently fierce vague mystical feeling and sullen. easily is become a prey to that which often superstitious. reciprocal tolerance. their real meaning is tion with those that precede. to repudiate the use of reason. " De necessiit when tate et supernaturali firmitate fidei. as it seems. a very obscure condemned those who say that the condition of the faithful (or Catholics) is the same as that of those who have not yet come to the one true fold. so that it should be lawful for Catholics one. are now pointed chapter . and perhaps on that account in obscurity . The moderation in words is a concession. L . without the safe guidance of reason.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. This again is so libertate voluntatis in fidei assensu.April. and wages constant war against all supernatural events (at least against all those of a religious character) which all it runs down . 145 in the darkness of the supernatural. not only attacks faith. and always a serious obstacle to the acquisition of the energetic and useful habits of civilised we have hidden and implied rather than openly expressed in the measured phrases of the above-mentioned All these ideas and their practical results which out. but faith. against the two particular tendencies sentences were involved of the present century. when The intervenes as a support and help to ninth chapter was in the same strain.

Reason again One might almost think that reason were nothing but reason the enemy. some parts of and in Mexico. " De recto ordine humanam et fidem divinam . might end by producing a condition of similar to that which has prevailed in Italy. One would imagine we were living in the . with a course of reasoning which. de redemptione et vicaria pro nobis satisfactione. began in the tenth chapter to regulate the connection and science under the heading. who. as a compensation for all the liberty in governing it. De Ecclesia. culture Spain. nor in the others. 10. which they took away. In the twelfth chapter we seem to have gone back to the the Even here against those who hold ! that I third century. et de Dei libertate in was certainly time to leave some liberty to the Almighty." The scheme faith havings been occupied up to this point with faith in itself." dogmatum sensus quem tenuit et tenet scheme violently hurled its reproaches any intervention of reason and human philosophy is lawful in the explanation of dogmas. genius. the acknowledgment of His retrospective power of creating the world was due to Him from the theologians of the operatione creando. [April." tribus unitate divina? natura? seu essentia? in tribus The thirteenth is headed " De divina personis communi. " The De incom- mutabili veritate illius Ecclesia." It Vatican." Sic. were couched in terms of moderation that the compilers did not always adopt in other parts of this scheme. apart from what it may contain that is just and true from a Catholic point of view. the most formidable of the antichrists against which this voluminous scheme contended. " distinctis De personis. or. The fourteenth chapter is " De Jesu Christo una divina persona in dual)us naturis. to the narrow and ignorant tyranny of . especially that " 9." and from the very beginning submitted all science to the judgment of the Church. endeavouring amid distrust and even of human some obscure and suspicion to reintellectual concile the progress of science with the integrity of the faith. loses between inter scientiam much of its force when one reflects that the practical application of these doctrines consisted for the most part in subjecting the laboured emanations of censor human intelligence. eleventh chapter reverted to the argument.146 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. to adopt its own words.

12. title before. in the world. not only in events. The with which to the schemes I opened — " Pius was followed by long was on the inscription Episcopus sacro approbante Concilio. according to chronological order. or who think that they may attain to Christian justification by their own natural strength. not enter into the question when The subject however." and from it one would imagine that the mysterious dogmas of original sin.April. as it was debated gave great offence to the Opposition. 11." gratia^ quae This chapter entered into the whole theory of grace as completing the Christian edifice. now that the annotations of the scheme which originally drew attention to it afford a suitable occasion for its consideration. ought. at first .] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. or Providence. and became the subject of grave remonstrance on the part of its leaders but public opinion gave little heed to the matter have spoken more fully of this where it . but in the moral order of ideas that prevail in that it. This was the all last chapter. were now for the first time to be established in Catholicism. and thus first did is." It is certainly impossible to carry the question beyond this. and of eternal punishment. and condemned all who deny that Divine grace is a supernatural gift. without the aid of supernatural grace could not attain All this is comprised under the heading " De ordine supernaturali et de supernaturali statu man originalis justitiae. The eighteenth was " De supernaturali ordine nobis per Christum redemptorem donatur. or some such period. the petition against it was it lost among the many arose." in the assembly. the scheme in the " De comfifteenth chapter goes back to the days of Adam." The seventeenth heading is " De peccato originali et de pcena aeterna destinata cuilibet mortali peccato. permanent and inherent in the soul. We may really say that the whole significance of the Vatican L 2 . muni totius humani generis origine ab uno Adam. The sixteenth chapter affirmed the intervention of the its supernatural. and declared the heights of justice and virtue. others I with which the Opposition filled the Vatican Hall. 147 days of Nestorius. and first it annotations and comments. Not content with having begun again at the work of redemption. et de natura humana una composita ex anima rationali et corpore. too important to be passed over without some observations.

did preside personally but that as he never was present at the discussions in which all the real work of the Council was carried on. That which is willed. as he was in the Vatican. "coZa dove si puote. were called presidents instead of legates. and was personally present at the public meetings. and in such pedantic language. and the title was carried like the Order." The difference between these two formulas is such.''^ * The annotations of the scheme were twice as voluminous as the text. [April. is expressed in the title of the schemes. The other side then urged that the Council must be considered under the presidency of the Pope. Every one may remember the lively assaults to which it was subjected. but that it substantially changed the standard of the authority of an Ecumenical Council. However. which designation in ordinary Councils where the Pope is not present. In fact. The reasons for this formula were given in the annotations on the scheme " De Fide. the reason given. in so dry a style. Its form was so little in harmony with the habits of modern thought and science." The decrees of the Vatican Council on the contrary are headed thus. and all else which was desired. To this Strossmayer replied that he wished the Pope . " Pius Episcopus sacro approbante Concilio. that it will easily be believed that it met with little favour in the assembly. 148 Council EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The decrees of the Council of Trent bore the inscription. did not justify the great innovation in the inscription.." which declared it to be the most suitable in the same in Councils presided over by the Pope in person . and the original title remained untouched. and the eloquent speeches by the Opposition against it * " It is so willed there where is power to do Inf. way that his representatives in the special Congregations of the is their Vatican Council. Rome was firm on the point. the only ones in which the Council passed authoritative decrees. and contained the reasons and explanations of the same. iii. the Opposition obtained no redress. " Sacrosancta oecumenica et generalis Tridentina sjnodus in Spiritu Sancto legitime con- gregata praesidentibus apostolicae sedis legatis. that we cannot be surprised at the or that Strossresistance made by the Opposition to the second mayer very ably pointed out that the new title was not an innovation in form only. . 95-96. . so unscientifically expressed." —Longfellow's Dante.

Materialism. 3.— 8. Rationalism. — — — — — — scheme appeared for the second time. the rest being either consigned to oblivion or temporarily laid aside. 7. There is no mention here. The four chapters of the second scheme are entitled 1." 2. 6. declaring that He is one in substance. " De Deo rerum Omnium Creatore. When this the events we have : — Rationalism so much made of in the 2. " De Fide. third. Fourth cliapter. Reasons describing the scheme. leaving out the nominal condemnations of Pantheism. " De Revelatione. after all narrated. tains likewise the confession of belief in God. liherrimo consilio. 9. Difficulties that beset the scheme. Continued observations. which Deum The second chapter contains a compendium said in the second.— April. 2. and as the discussion was then a purely verbal one. Third chapter. III. it conin the first chapter of the . all The first chapter contains in summary that was said former scheme. with all His attributes. only a few reports of those speeches remain which were taken down by the shorthand writers." The entire bulk of the second scheme does not exceed thirty-one pages." The scheme 4. Pantheism. and indicates its subjects more fully. . for as a whole. it was heii quantum mutatus ab illo ! It only contained in the second edition an introduction and four chapters. 10. distinct in Creator of the world. «Scc. Indifterentism. 149 but reminiscences soon fade away. Note of the North-German Confederation. nature and essence. whereas the first numbered more than one hundred and forty. First and second chapters." 4. of all that was and fourth chapters of the first scheme on Revelation and on the books that contain it. of the so-called semi1. and Atheism are all included. The introduction to the second scheme is longer. and very little afterwards. SECOND SCHEME " DE FIDE.. in which term. " De Fide et Ratione. and now rest in eternal slumber among the secret archives of the Council. in which part of the matter of the first scheme was condensed. 5. first scheme. Observations of the bishops.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME." 3. Their influence. pointing out Naturalism from the first as an enemy to be combated.— THE 1.

and are sanctioned by the Council of Trent and the tradition of the Church. acknowledged in the Church as to divinitus falsi nominis scientice oppositiones pj'oscribendi extend. whilst the old text was more moderate on the subject. And were it not that practical experience has shown how the of far the results of that jus. 4. [April." as if it operation. There is no mention whatever new scheme. The fourth chapter is on the relation between reason and and here the difference between the two schemes is most faith apparent. there a notable difference in the text of the two schemes. of which latter the present text affirms that they falsam religionem sectantur. not by an intellectual Revelation. and her perfection when contrasted with other confessions and creeds. such as miracles. name of semi-Rationalism in the first scheme. of the matter contained in the old one. The end of this chapter likewise asserts that it is impossible to doubt or to change the faith taught by the Church. The doctrinal parts societies in the then follow. with the addition of the precepts on the connection between faith and science scattered through other chapters. 150 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. saying only that.. grace. 3. the . prophesies. is here omitted . and the relation between reason and absolutely. under the . same character of moderation might be accorded its some ideas on the great questions raised among Catholic by modern civilisation. the subjection of reason to faith. and states all that was contained in the ninth chapter of the old scheme on this point. that is to say. the possibility of external signs. the Canons corresponding to each of the headings . but by the authority of revelation. between the twelfth and the last chapter. the gift of supremacy of the Church. The intolerable pedantry with which reason is denounced. faith is treated of less In fact. hahent auctorem. is With regard to Revelation. This fourth chapter includes pretty nearly all the contents of the tenth and eleventh chapters of the old scheme. " On the necessity of The new one omits that chapter entirely. &c. almost no longer considered Revelation to be essential. all the doctrines of the second scheme are relatively moderate. The first contained a chapter with the heading. adjidem unice veram non pervenerunt. The third chapter contains an abridgment of all the matters of the first scheme from Chapter 1st to 9th.

] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. bility into the predominance of Infallibilist opinions in those annotations throws much light on the history of the Council. . and never . and the omission of a word in the first. There are a few remarks by independent and more liberal bishops one proposing the suppression of Canons in the scheme. was marked by their observations. and distri- buted to the bishops.April. For instance. and the first chapter re-appeared at the final publication of the scheme in almost the same form as at its promulgation. persons. which explains briefly the reason and the method of the emendation of the first scheme. It is curious and important to observe. and entirely in an Infallibilist sense. speaking was the best means of Still the great gaining strength and of spreading their ideas." were numerous. judging the decrees as quite sufficient and another proposing to omit the anathema. 5. and prepared for the public Session. that most of the annotations made by an amended in Infallibilist sense) are in the direction of exaggeration and restriction. The observations on the first chapters. the changes made in it before its promulgation in the Session of April 24th being few and unimportant. The only change was the addition of the last paragraph. The introduction received various unimportant changes from the annotations. as a means of estimating the bishops on the second scheme (already the final result of all these events. The Infallibilists preferred writing. have now described the scheme " De Fide " in We its amended form. and to condemn errors only. feeling that they had most eloquence on their side. No notice was taken of these observations. being in the minority. so that we have more records of them. Two or three other prelates proposed similar amendments. by saying that " licet omnibus Ecclesiae necessitabus per ordinarium Summi Pontificis regimen et magisterium satis fuerit provisum. a bishop tries to introduce Infallischeme as an accessory. and the Opposition speaking. and consequently the ob- were for the most part in writing." &c. The introduction. of all 151 and last a sort of Appendix. tamen. which was done at the instigation of the one bishop who had succeeded in carrying his emendations on this chapter. and also that. in particular. " De Deo rerum omnium creatore. . 6. servations on it Its consideration for the second time took place under the new Order.

It condemned those who entertain . jam jiidicatiis est. slight consequence for the laity the doctrinal part of the scheme was somewhat modified in form. excepting one on the connection between faith and reason. and the only variation obtained in the formula was the change from " Sancta Romana Catholica only. The Canons remained intact. qui nan credit. those are to allow worthy of notice which tended perception of more scope to the natural God in the conscience of Catholics.152 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. One remark frequently made by the bishops we also have alluded to. [Apkil." instead of " Sancta Syno- dus Ecumenica. though not declared to be heretical. and the Church of Rome preserved prerogatives untouched. they are lost in the existing mass of obsequious testimony and theological subtleties. and it is this. proposed "Catholica et Romana. and of sincere concern for the dignity and liberty of the Church which we meet with in perusing the records of the time and. but. With this exception the text. opinions which. annotation proposed the substitution of " Sancta Catholica Ecclesia " for " Romana Catholica Ecclesia. between Catholica The oral debate on this subject Ecclesia. was almost identical with that sent back to the assembly after the first emendation. but it was unsuccessful. but of . The annotations on the third chapter were numerous." and. more One modestly." Another. The majority would not yield. promulgated. as one of the prelates justly observes." to " Sancta Catholica Apostolica Romana its Ecclesia. otherwise this chapter underwent scarcely any change. are yet contrary to the when 8. but scarcely at all in substance. finally mind In the debate on this scheme there were two subjects of . that most of those condemnations concern persons out of the Church. on failing to obtain the conjunctive particle." These are the few traces of independent opinion." The of a protesting bishop obtained a transposition of words instead comma. Many observations are also made on the fact that the opening formula of the scheme is " Pius Episcopus. 7. which was omitted in consequence of the remarks of the bishops. Of the many observations on the second chapter. but even this was was much hotter than appears from the written observations. and Romana. of the Church. owing to their small number. pleaded for the insertion of a comma in vain.

April. paid no regard to the land lost by the bishop. counted the fact that in his English diocese some land had been left by will to the " Catholic Church. as prehended by the was in fact a decided condemnation referring to that in the The resistance on this point was most serious. even without the Canon. In the text of the scheme was a Canon (the 3rd I believe) which condemned those who held opinions contrary of the Church. These two parts of the every one must see. the suppressed Canon." More explanation is needed on the second subject. they might easily." or " Placet juxta modum. the so-called Catholic Church being styled standing their good-will. as we have seen. after the Canons. 6cc. but maintained the title. even though not declared heretical. for whom this designaCatholic. or. which contained a sort of indefinite injunction (monemus) to Catholics to observe all those constitutions and decrees of the Holy See. third Canon. 153 difficulty which divided the Fathers for some" time. Although." at the voting of the scheme. was of great import. from what I might call their ambiguous wording. the Appendix and the disputed paragraph remained unaltered. in other words. of the to the mind At the end scheme. the personal Infallibility of the Pope. the second.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME." and that the Anglicans had appropriated it on the plea that they were really the Catholic Church. Roman tion The Roman Church. only deigning to grant the wish of the more moderate among the Opposition. but yet are akin to them. and the fact of their juxtaposition. came an Appendix. Appendix was contemplated and comCanon in such a way that the simple monemus . turned their attention to the subject. who begged for the addition of all the other titles as " Sancta Apostolica. the Canon was suppressed. directed against errors which are not exactly heresies. On the first point there were many petitions for the eliminaOne bishop very ingenuously retion of the word Romana. be so construed as to indicate and establish the sole and absolute dominion. notwithThe first was the addition of the word Romana added with an exclusive sense to Catholica Ecclesia. and the Opposition thought that. the text completed each other. because. and nearly all the eighty-three members of the Opposition who had answered " Non placet.

[April. and intimated words were likely to diminish to the the obedience due from those subjects to the King and Prussian authorities. and of the spirit that guided its deliberations. the Prussian against the Vatican before. in order to convey to our readers a clear idea of the way in which the Council was managed. and after amendment. We have considered the scheme " De Fide. either because really in the Catholic provinces of offended by these expressions. or in order to flatter the Opposition and the opinions prevailing that such Germany. and here we have an answer to the question which was asked at first on all sides as to the fate of the amended schemes. . * See Appendix. for the last paragraph. one must give it credit for some degree of moderation and were it not . and have seen that though the difference the changes that it its first is great. and it was generally believed that the relative moderation of the scheme was owing in some degree to the note. which made such an advance towards Infallibility. which would be entirely beyond the limits of the present work. EIGHT MONTHy AT ROME. but have dwelt at length upon this one.* When considered as a whole. We do not intend to follow in detail the progress of the other schemes. This made a deep impression. effect Cabinet not having shown such resentment The remonstrance had the greater owing to its novelty. underwent in the debate between its second final publication were of slight importance. The North-German Minister. proceedings would be taken against them.154 9. that should the Prussian bishops accept the document and become sharers in it. and with regard to the circumstances of its production. Document XVIII." as it appeared at the opening of the Council. addressed a violent and menacing note on appearance and its the subject to the Roman Secretary of State. The few changes actually made in the scheme on this second occasion were probably due in some measure to diplomatic intervention recently provoked by the insertion in it of certain strictures on Protestants. moreover. We will not examine the particulars of the scheme as published on April 24th at the public Session. he added. acci'edited to the Holy See. and many might have hoped that in future the decrees would bear the same temperate character. 10. even the Opposition might have been in great measure content. for every one can study it for himself.

Eeturns modified." being put aside for " De Catechismo. in reality. the real intention of the scheme being to substitute one Catechism for all the various forms hitherto used by different The fact of the order of busi" ness being thus changed. I." which should. 5. 4. although It terminated the following parvo Catechismo " began. 1. 1. The scheme " De Ecclesia " sent back. — 9. 6. been subjected to very slight modification. 3.— THE SCHEME " " DE ECCLESIA " FOE THE SECOND TIME.May. The Giornale di Roma of that . being the last of the four schemes published previous to the famous " De Ecclesia. and the two schemes. 8." but its spirit had." It had been amended by the bishops like that " De Fide. the debate De day. 2. The scheme " De parvo Catechismo " is voted. The debate on the scheme " De Ecclesia " is opened. the shortest and the rities to clearly indicated the wish of the autho- expedite matters as feel that the much as possible. The public Session of short recess. The scheme parvo Catechismo " for the second time." last. a short report having been read. a strife which this time would The " first Congregation held after the recess was on Friday. during April 24th was succeeded by a which the scheme on the short Catechism was distributed for the second time. recommence. Its amendments are voted and the scheme is laid aside. and " followed that " De Moribus Clericorum. by rights. Speech of the Pope on giving the prizes at the Exhibition of De — — — — — — — Catholic Art. People began to moment was approaching in which the truce would strife end and the be decisive. 7. have De Fide. " De Episcopis churches in the Catholic world. It is continued.] eight MONTHS AT HOME. when. so great was the desire of hastening on. it met with deep and serious resistance. the 29th of April. 155 MAY. Speech against Infallibility.

its [May.156 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. If the statesmen who directed the policy of Europe had been more familiar with ecclesiastical matters and less distracted by other important interests. the scheme had been out any discussion . who otherwise remained in complete ignorance of what passed in the Council. it was attempted to carry a petition suddenly in favour of Infallibility and now. and France in particular. Church and State. and as many more besides as may spring from the sole and irresponsible will of an individual. even when undisciplined. seem. brought under discussion. probably due to the apprehensions of Foreign Powers. 3. Thus. on the other hand. The scheme " De Ecclesia " was not presented for discus- sion the second time in a complete form. Rome. fought again with as the all the strength is we cannot say of both parties. By virtue of that im- personal and all-powerful authority which governed the Vatican Council. amended or rather mutilated with- and during this process the first part of it had remained in the laboratories of the Vatican. which virtually includes them all. while they never troubled themselves on the question of Infallibility. For the third time within six months was this question. for the moment. to sacrifice these Canons for the sake of the dogma of Infallibility. day. which regulated the connection between Foreign Powers. now reappeared. in declaration of Infallibility by acclamation March. the question was to be . Opposition. strangely enough. was wisely content. 2. perhaps unable to contain to its usual practice. word strength scarcely applicable in regard to the Still connection and talent are always powerful. for the third time. so fundamental in the constitution of the Church. and we must remember that the favour of the day made up in some degree to the minority for their lack of numbers and of organisation. they would have seen that the dogma of Infallibility was a far more serious matter . to have been very suspicious as to these Canons. the famous scheme towards which all the business of the Vatican Council gravitated. impatience. by an exception made the conclusion of the debate known to the public. as the part of the scheme now omitted contained the famous Canons published by the Augsburg Gazette. after having been sent back and amended. . to be reproThis concession was duced perhaps on some future occasion. The first time it was attempted to obtain the the second time.

remain faithful to the doctrines which those words convey. so unexmonth of March. . should we cause this disturbance to Christian populations. Why. were read. as was apparent on all occasions when they could be exercised. as it was necessary to confer on the resistance which now manifested itself. There were about 100 " Non placet. May 4th. 157 than the Canons." pectedly presented in the was inserted the petition of the bishops. Catechism at all is almost to touch the faith of a people. the nominal voting of the scheme "De parvo Catechismo" took place. a religious formula familiar whole populations from their earliest days. fewer than in the Avinter. profiting by the prevailing state of opinion. May 13th." chapter. Rome. the observations in opposition to the scheme." as if the Opposition. said many of the bishops. The result was such as we have related. and Friday. this surprising. 4. by the Commission which had made the amendments. The number of votes on that day was 591. we shall rather To touch the wonder that the opposing votes were so few. and only brought Ecclesia " entirely omitted the forward the part. had undergone a slight change. On this occasion. in re-casting the scheme " De Canons. that is. wished to show themselves fully prepared for resistance. in order to bring about a nominal agreement that cannot really increase the unity which consists in the belief which binds those people together in one faith and moral law.May. and then the partial amendments and the entire text of the scheme were voted at the same sitting. whereas those of Infallibility are infinite and boundless. as we shall see. and not in the words or phrases by which that belief is expressed ? No Congregations were held between the 4th. there were 100 dissentient votes nor to is . aware of the coming battle. and the consequent changes. entitled. although even this. " De In the fourth Apostolici Primatus in beato Petro Institutione. who. If we consider the great difficulty of meddling with the Catechism. On Wednesday. under the heading " De Romani Pontificis Infallibilitate. solely from respect for the familiar terms themselves.] eight MONTHS AT ROME. together with the original text. not being capable of comprehending the true value of words which habit has taught them to regard with veneration. because the effects and limits of these latter are known.

sarcastic smiles with which it was greeted by the Opposition. sacro approbante Concilio. " Pius Episcopus. . had preserved the former from such It is easy to see the intention of this comparison with reference to the question at issue every one will admit that." «&c. The reporter of the Commission on Dogma opened the debate with a long speech. which." The fourth bears the dangerous heading. Peter and that of St." they proceeded at once to the discussion on the famous scheme " De Ecclesia Christi. ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Paul." Then follows the inscription. great significance being attached to the mysterious dispensation of Providence." the third. as an argument in favour of Infallibility. inflamed the benevolent minds of the Infallibilists. with its glowing pictures. " De Ecclesia Christi reverendissimorum patrum examini proposita. and in consequence of the attracting force of the majority." the second." now reduced to four chapters and three Canons. which. For this reason. and will allow that the treatment. which should include the part now omitted. perhaps with same expedient with regard to this scheme which it had so successfully used for that " De Fide. 6." thus changed from the corresponding title in the first scheme." and trusting that at the public Session the Opposition would the intention of adopting the overlook all they now objected to. were more justifiable than the enthusiasm of the Infallibilists. On the 13th it announced the amendments on the scheme " De parvo Catechismo. but produced a very different effect on the Opposition. " De Apostolici Primatus in beato Petro Institutione . servus servorum Dei. though it permitted the latter saint to be beheaded. . [May." perhaps in order to leave room for a second title. The theme of this discourse was a comparison between the martyrdom of St. After a short introduction comes the first chapter. 5. which was " De Ecclesiae Infallibilitate.158 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME." and proceeded no further that day." The three Canons follow. " De Perpetuitate Pri- matus Petri in Romanis Pontificibus . " De Romani Pontificis Infallibilitate. for fear of creating a scandal. " De vi et ratione Primatus Romani Pontificis. it was even more unworthy than as a rhetorical artifice. It bore the title " Constitutio Dogmatica Prima. instead of dwelling longer on " De Catechismo. The assembly was not induced by these deliberations to swerve a hair's-breadth from the course it had adopted.

Thirteen orators had inscribed their names on the 14th but seven only spoke. Schwarzemberg.May. great Exhibitions of modern times. and Cardinal Donnay. or it would have been difficult for him to develope his subject within the narrow limits. in which he reiterated the remark he made at the opening of the Exhibition. and the battle on Infallibility may be said to have commenced on the following day." : — . that he considered it a proof of the beneficent influence of the Papacy on civilisation. in the " It is said that words attributed to him on that occasion you really believe in this dogma but if that be true. nals. 7. The Archbishop of Vienna was unable to make himself heard.] eight MONTHS AT ROME. From that time forward the discussion was always on the same subject. On Monday there was no Congregation. be sure that schisms will arise and abjurations will follow within the Church of Rome. . and a terrible threat for the future. but actually alive and well at the very time in France. was the Bishop of 159 The reporter Poitiers. and of told that he whom the story is pronounced a solemn funeral oration for a Pontifical Zouave. 9. especially noted of late years for his Ultramontane opinions. and consequently his speech was read for him. the Pope had never seen the crisis. and created a profound impression. that being the day fixed for the distribution of prizes at the Exhibition of Catholic Art. three orators only speaking. he included in the same category an Exhibition of Roman Agriculture. was short. in which he desired to restrict it. The sitting of Tuesday. Schwarzemberg was vehement on behalf of the OppoHe made a most sition. the Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna. you cannot pretend that I and my companions ought to acknowledge what seems to us absurd. May 17th. and among them was the CardinalVicar. at which he likewise attended. One might almost have imagined oneself back at the Council of Florence while listening to their obsolete arguments and antiquated forms of discussion. seizing the occasion to speak on the present Fortunately for himself. A few days after. . reported to have fallen at Castelfidardo. 8. when the number of Fathers Among these were three cardiinscribed had reached seventy. serious declaration. On this occasion the Pope delivered a speech. which had a share in the ceremonies of the Vatican Council. and if you do so.

II. 1. and in consequence of the vacancy at the Foreign Office subsequent on the resignation of Daru. immediately published in the Osservatore Romano a dispatch according to which M. it is possible that both these reports were forgotten. Speech by Monsignor Kettler. and OUivier's note was neither confirmed nor denied. 7. had himself written a new note to the Vatican. Duke of Saldanha.— 9. In Saturday's Congregation the speeches were in rapid succession but nothing worthy of par.' 3. On Thursday. who then directed the policy of France released from the cares of the plebiscite. A report was circulated that Ollivier. and could issue the dispatch in and remembering also the frequent changes of French . and from any particular consideration for the interests of the clergy. . until in the month of June According the original document appeared in the newspapers. Despatcli by OUivier. 4. the Cardinal Archbishop of Dublin spoke for the first time. Meantime their stupor. ' — — — — — — the Opposition seemed to have recovered from and regained strength and boldness. in case of its counsels being rejected. de Banneville. the Archbishop of Paris and two others. threatened. the new Minister of Foreign Affairs. Feast of St. 1. true.160 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.— 8. to this publication the note sent to the ambassador at Rome In fact. the 19th. instructed M. Infallibility publicly promoted. which he sent through M. the matter was soon . which occupation. Address of the Roman parish priests. a rupture of the Concordat and the withdrawal from Rome of the French army of This report was loudly denied by the Curia. de Banneville to continue the same line of conduct as formerly. Disquietude at 2. strongly remonstrating against the promulgaIt was said that this note tion of the dogma of Infallibility. Ce qui se passe au Concile. ticular attention occurred.— FOEEIGN POLICY. de Grammont took office. policy at that time. 5. and to preserve a strict neutrality and careful abstention from all interference with the Council. Con- sidering that the before first note was signed by Ollivier. the Vatican. 6. Unfortunate position of affairs. had turned his attention to Rome. [May. likewise Cardinal Moreau and the Chaldean Patriarch on the 20th the Primate of Hungary. de Grammont. and was sent question M. Peter.

and so much decried by the other. Ce qui se 2. it was short. had considerable effect. .May. and the old ambition of the Court of Rome noticed the means used to this end. or of this new demonstration on Opposition . 4. though that was of little weight. was the whole of the note so much exalted by one party. the Commission on Faith endeavoured to frame such a formula on Infallibility. out that the real aim of the Council was to satisfy the exorbitant pretensions. This work passed the most so that it excited great attention. whether on account of the French note. and on Monday 23rd. As two-thirds of the French bishops were Ultramontanes. and one-third of the Opposition. It directs him to hold no further communications with the Court of Rome on the matter in question. About the same time an anonymous work. The Congregations sat unweariedly. formidable judgments on the Vatican Council that could ever be Its author pointed inflicted by the severest criticisms of history. de Banneville had to conThis sider to which side he should deliver the communication. but very passe au Concile. as should calm the irritation and displeasure of the Opposition. and win over some of its least determined members. the opinion of France being already sufficiently clear. and readiness to take the initiative. 3. pointing out to his colleagues what would remain to the episcopate after the proclamation of Infallibility. and in its next meeting for amendments. as it touched very nearly all M . while at the same time he is instructed to express to the bishops the sympathy of the Government. Everybody could read it in the newspapers. 161 was harsh in tone and of uncertain import. and its trust in their energy. according to their wishes and hopes. This argument. and evidently written by some person of authority. described the irregularities and innovations which might in days to come cause its validity to be questioned. and lastly foretold the fatal results to the Church ' .] eight MONTHS AT ROME. and learn the extent of the influence exercised by the Ollivier Ministry on the Vatican Council. Monsignor Kettler spoke most strongly.' appeared in France important. M. without sacrificing in any respect the substance of the dogma. of the fulfilment of so outrageous an attempt. which he cleverly handled. The Vatican now for the first time showed signs of disthe part of the quietude.

and was said that (contrary it to the usual result of the best speeches in the world). and attracted a 24th. and different works in the name of the Pope and other Authorities by which they encouraged personally and openly all who had in any way promoted Infallibility. its drawn up by an ecclesiastic. [May. . were passed in the same way. The newspapers even gave a part. The papers published a Papal rescript approving and commending all those who fought for the good cause by means of the press (that press sometimes so much blamed). On the part of the majority. this increase of speakers was in accordance with the policy imposed on them by circumstances from the first. the Fathers in the assembly it who exercised any jurisdiction. by bringing every sort of pressure to bear upon them in the most minute particulars. and thus expecting and awaiting the moment when difficulty. 30th. 28th. Document XIX. few sheep from the Opposition. as had been done from the beginning. for the most curious beyond the limits of Italy. and the expectation of its benefits. to the clergy of their dioceses. 25th. the letters. remunerations.' gave an index of the briefs. and honours. repetition of the arguments already well known on both On the latter occasion eighty orators had inscribed their names. in a sides. the Pope himself condescending to act openly in this way. and that is to say.* The Jr^ee Appeudix. to much in the same way as appetite is said grow by 5. 31st of Infallibilist flock to swell the forces of the The sittings of the May. in favour of it. and said to be sent from with Rome through the bishops. imperious commands * that it should be accepted and signed. the desire to gain time.162 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. but some very examples were to be found in Rome itself. Whoever said or did anything in favour of Infallibility received acknowledgments. or ' Ce qui se passe shown themselves impression. eating. collected formula of assent to Infallibility. they could be entirely crushed without any great The pamphlet au Concile. a sort of plebiscite in favour. really convinced some people. and this fact produced a great The instances cited by the pamphlet were. it so that almost seemed as if the desire of speaking grew as the speeches multiplied. it sprang from a desire to limit the chances of the Opposition as much as possible. On the part of the Opposition.

By such a pi'oceeding the Nuncio put into practice the principles of the scheme " De Ecclesia " before it was passed. proposed to his colleagues to draw up an address in favour of Infallibility. though they had been under preparation for some time.May] eight MONTHS AT ROME. conduct for which the said Nuncio was severely reprimanded by the French Government. Many examples of the like nature. was urged to proclaim his own apotheosis. when the observations of the French Government were published. The crisis was provoked by the conduct of some of the who manifested themselves openly in favour of Infalliwhile their bishops in were speaking against the This conduct. tained the Pope in the difficult position in which he was placed by his own followers the position of a man who. At the beginning of March. Nothing but the prestige inherent in all deep convictions could have so long sus- Rome dogma from the benches of the Opposition. was approved of at Rome. that they were not consulted on the matter. clergy present. clergy bility. by her remonstrances. 6. for IM 2 . Another priest immediately answered to a religious belonging do anything of the kind and that it would be inopportune and presumptuous for them to express any opinion on a question of so much gravity before the Church had decided on it. This rejoinder being approved of by the that it was no business of theirs to . of which at the time very little notice was taken. protested Nuncio at Paris to the French clergy Infallibility. however. In order to have an idea of the pressure exercised to attain the declaration of Infallibility. one of whom actually threatened to resign in consequence. periodically in Rome for the transaction of business. we will mention an important incident. against the application of those doctrines. might be given. both small and great. These facts were not publicly known before the month of June. and France. 163 author of the French pamphlet was not aware of the thanks and official encouragement given in the name of the Pope bj the who had assented to and made any demonstrations in its favour. notwithstanding the complaints of the bishops interested in the matter. the priest referred to saved his colleagues from entering into the stormy current of disputation from which. in one of the parochial meetings held . a priest order which had sent a legate to the Council. living in the nineteenth century.

By some which priests at chance. by their celebrated article in the Civilta Cattolica. all The authorities immediately interthey vened with tical law. The parochial clergy accordingly drew up a form. the better exercise of their ministry. equally little is shown in her conduct when . once acquired weight from the fact that. and strongly advised that an address should be framed. they were by no means bound to accept it from the duty of submission. as favourable to Infallibility. the special diocese of the Pope. when no one in the world was thinking of it. The Jesuits had originally brought forward the question month of February. which though apparently moderate. 7. but little inclined to Infallibility. The case of the parish priests was just the same one of them proposed an address. if not actually adverse. and now they adduced the fact of its disof Infallibility in the cussion as a reason for its proclamation. and most active among the clergy of it was now apparent to the world that they were. was to be understood by the public. authority has a conscience for all. Some tions . they could exercise upon those subject to them intimated to the priests that they must repair the scandal. What will be the on this of her wishes. which is then used as an argument for the project being carried out. If very little forbearance is shown by Rome in the pursuit advantage taken of it. the force which. who do not look narrowly into such matters. the newspapers got hold of this incident. in conformity with ecclesias. but according to certain Ultramontane notions of discipline. Every one in Rome for as is acquainted with the history of that address. [May. but these characteristics are removed by the fact of the proposal. a word which implies liberty and spontaneous action.164 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. as the parish the best are Rome. of the clergy evidently did violence to their Infallibility own convic- was not yet declared. they should endeavour to keep aloof. and so alternately a necessity is is created and the desired terity judgment of posphase of ecclesiastical history ? what will be the opinion of those who view it with unprejudiced minds and full knowledge of the accompanying circumstances ? 8. This substitution of the dictates of an external authority for those of the individual conscience in all cases. . is one of the chief causes of the evils that disturb Catholicism.

and similar events which. of which he himself was the head. and violate the faith that binds soldiers to their flag. who are not all Excellencies like the Duke of Saldanha. having been placed in that situation. went back to the moment in which he had found himself in the very same condition as that in which the Duke of Saldanha had placed his Sovereign. ! the multitude. whether intentional or fortuitous on and the thoughts of those the part of the Pope. With these strictly to chronological order. must inevitably add weight to the ordinary judgments of the individual invested with such virtue. without adhering I have brought together. 1848. by which the Duke of Saldanha had imposed by force on his King a new administration. and almost seemed as she were unwilling to leave those slightest who is voted for Infallibility under the delusion as to the Although yet it this prerogative consequences that might follow. the Pope paid a visit to the national Church of the Portuguese. not supposed to extend beyond and to be exercised on certain matters only. because they disturb the highest expression of order. forced by violence to receive a minister from the rebels who directed their arms against his own palace Such persons wondered that the Pope. the rather that the party. it 165 if those wishes are attained. was felt by all who remembered the 16th of November. The news of the " Pronunciamento " in Portugal.May. reached Rome about this time. coincidence afforded ground for the belief that the Pope had hastened to give the Duke of Saldanha the only mark of approas the bation in his power. The effect of this conduct. did not perceive how dangerous might be even the mistaken presumption that his high sanction in any degree palliated acts of violence. and the same evening the Osservatore Romano announced the fact. 9. involuntarily in all his actions. or tended to render them familiar to . as illus- . Duke is of the clerical and on taking office had found some pretext for an assumed quarrel with the Italian Minister.] eight MONTHS AT ROME. " Pronunciamenti " are the worst form of revolution. As soon news was received. and said that the Pope wished to inspect the restorations made in the Portuguese Church by order The of the Duke of Saldanha when ambassador in Rome. and be reflected certain conditions.

trating popular feeling. as other things. We shall now see that the restless and imperious wishes of the majority were doomed they were in to disappointment in carrying out this design. June being fixed for the proclamation of Infallibility.166 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. many . activity the work went on with the greatest and energy. as the feast of St. Peter and the anniversary of the Pope's accession are both celebrated in that month. [May.

ReFeast of Pentecost. 5. the conclusion of the general debate on the scheme " De Ecclesia. those even who framed it making very little use of it . by which the power of proposing to vote the close of a debate was vested in any ten bishops. Speech of 4. for every one was aware that the legates. New protests. namely.CLOSE 1. so as to bring about the results intended. though unexpected at the moment.June. The great numbers of orators inscribed for the scheme " De Ecclesia. 3. — — "De Ecclesia.. . could with still greater certainty reckon on 1. who could always be sure of inducing the majority to vote the closing." the advance of the hot season. proposal of the ArclibisLop of Maliues.'' — 2. 7. as in the present case.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. of Ratisbon. and was employed with the utmost severity. were the reasons for again applying the Order with much vigour." It will be remembered that an article was inserted in the new Order. This proviso had caused great displeasure. not only of the present day. but when once its application seemed desirable. The new Order on its first appearance had caused a great disturbance. sistance to be kept up — to the last. the article was considered as one of the means employed to crush and subdue the minority. was yet the legitimate consequence of the events we have described. On the of 28th of May. In fact. OF THE GENERAL DISCUSSION. finding ten bishops to make the proposition. the Bishops of Granvaradino. 6. and which will greatly influence the judgment. 167 JUNE. Objections to — — The congregations of June opened with an act which. Close of the general discussion on the scheme Monsiguor Maret. Proposal for secret voting. I. and the excitement manifested in the assembly. but of future ages. it reappeared in full force. on the Vatican Council. but seemed to superficial observers to have now dropped into oblivion.

[June. had made a long address. towards the end of the sitting and without any suspicion on the part of most of the Fathers present. De Angelis quite lost their temper. and others. one of the most ardent Infallibilists. very similar to that which occurred in March. The minority were painfully surprised at this proceeding. On that occasion. who would never accept the dogma of Infallibility. and carried their intention into effect at the second Congregation. unaware that the debate was to be stopped. Savanah. In the Congregation of June 3rd. without postponing the decision to the next meeting. The majority . confident in their own strength. who had inaugurated the work of Opposition in France by the publication of his book on the Council. had made a speech inveighing against them in unmeasured language. and the legates then announced that the general debate on the scheme " De Ecclesia " was ended. The majority. sometimes greatly change or aggravate the impression produced by an event. had continued to speak as on former occasions. He tried to make the assembly understand. and a scene of anger and excitement ensued. praying that the debate should be closed. the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. then resolved to close the debate. pointing out that the reason of the continued opposition on his own part and that of his colleagues. and immediately.168 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. but their only reward was the unexpected closing of the debate by the presidents. had spoken strongly in favour of the Opposition lege to indeed the Bishop of Savanah said that it was sacriin the Church. Monsignor Maret. in themselves unimportant. Circumstances. on June 3rd. that to render the — personal Infallibility of the Pope co-existent with the Infalli- . There was a large majority in its favour. and to introduce the doctrine of the personal Infallibility of the Pope. and the Bishop of Sens. signed by many bishops. make innovations could not brook the application of the word sacrilege to their long-sought and cherished ideal the Presidents Capalti and . was the serious consideration of the belief of their flocks. the legates produced a petition. even though Valerga. The Opposition had remained calm. the question was in procinctu put to the vote by rising and sitting. the more so as Strossmayer had spoken at the preceding meeting of June 1st with greater calmness and moderation than usual. the Fathers. 2.

on which occasion they might once for all give openly and definitively the answer " Non placet. a dogma teaching- Infallibilities in one. irritated The Opposition were much it) by this new blow they considered on the part of the majority. &c. who then took up the dogma was repugnant to his countrymen. and then. the president announcing that at the next meeting on Whit-Monday. with dignity and energy. others. As usually happens on such occasions. particular points. A question on practical grounds. and would prove a serious obstacle to the conversion of Protestants in America. how was it possible to authority whatever ? in a Council possessed of no So great was the prevailing irritation. Being rather once hear the command but when he became aware of it. Church would be to 169 introduce into the Catholic faith a new mystery. such as the Primacy. this fresh attempt to urge them on to the hated declaration. which would have been the only legitimate ground for disregarding its proceedings. and when it was ended. signed by about ninety bishops. for such indifference implied a refusal to recognise the validity of the Council.. to dilate on deaf. that his conscience and sense of honour impelled him to complete his speech. others. after the first explosion of wrath. and told to desist. And thus the close of the general debate on the scheme was brought about. that some began to speculate on the course to be followed outside the Council. said. and this subject. he did not at he was stopped. Some advised an immediate departure from Rome . was drawn give even a negative vote . the line of action adopted was a combination of all A strong protest against the the plans that had been proposed. and many opinions were circulated. discussion. As he continued . and declared that the to the like treatment. two similar to that of the Trinity." The latter alternative involved a contradiction. Infallibility. alluding thereby to the resistance which might be manifested towards the Church of Rome. would (as come under 3. closing of the debate. he did North American bishop.June. was also subjected so.] bility of the EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. several leaders held a meeting at once. and began Their seriously to consider what course they should adopt. a line of abstention and indifference henceforward to all proceedings in the Council up to the day of voting. new protests .

ports on applying for State . Moreover. especially on account the of its aim. meeting with no difficulties. and others being opposed to the substance of the dogma. and obtained about eighty signatures. them at the office of the Secretary of but being for the most part foreigners. and presented to the Pope. of the Pope. under his very eyes. on account of the natural weakening of the individual will usually found among priests. their body having increased rather than diminished since the opening of the Council. in feeling that they were deciding the prerogative The petition was drawn up. [Juke. some of the Opposiand others took a short holiday under the pretest of visiting Naples or Some of them were refused passother neighbouring localities. Its object was evident. was yet a serious hindrance to combined action . it was hardly probable that this request for an essential change in the arrangements of the Council would be granted. The Opposition now numbered about 130. Meantime. so as to relieve the sense of responsibility which would weigh heavily on many persons. Owing to the general disregard of all the petitions and protests hitherto made by the minority.170 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. although no real difference in the final result could be expected. and the occasion for which the favour was asked very moment of reaching the long wished for conclusion of the — struggle. This discrepancy. some deeming the time unsuitable for a dieclaration of Infallibility. and travelled none the worse. tion relaxed their attendance at the Congregations. up. among themselves on the matter. they could dispense with them. and they used every means in their power of proThey did not quite agree testing against the famous dogma. though not formidable in itself. and had it been successful it would have greatly assisted the Opposition. it was impossible to tell how . as very often the belief of the first was only a milder and more practicable expression of the opinions of the second. though not averse to it in itself. and restore to them the moral liberty which they would be deprived of. 5. 4. Among the many plans hatching in the heated minds of that the vote the Opposition was a petition on the delicate and anxious question of Infallibility should be secret. as the first were logically unable to combat the ideas of the majority with energy and success.

which should declare the whole of the Opposition excommunicate and out of the Church. to invoke the Holy Spirit. proposed. 6. imploring a proceeding which gave rise to a profane joke. and dare to say " Non placet " at the public Session. followed that the whole of their . Whitsuntide was approaching. On Whit-Monday the whole Council. for fear of losing in authority before the impartial tribunal of posterity all that by energetic and summary means they had gained in power with the view of overcoming and subduing their opponents. instead of dividing their opponents. the more thoughtful endeavouring to put forth But a formula which might win over some of their opponents.] EIGHT MO^^THS AT ROME. as on constancy in manifesting them. who very seldom manifest their numbers to the world at large. Archbishop of Malines. headed by the Pope. of the minority had been clearly made known (though without any official demonstration). 7. Notwithstanding these demonstrations. and the Cardinal. not so much on the convictions already shown. and dubious of the success of the means hitherto employed. The were very nearly divided themselves. another formula. instead. This was the root of the matter. being opposed to all compromise. the majority.Vicar ordered its celebration with special pomp. who again tried to find some means of dividing and weakening them. The most singular among these processions was one comprising all the Jesuits in Rome. descended in solemn procession from the Sistine Chapel to the Church of St. and should anathematise all who held that the bishops shared the supreme authority vested in the Church it . on this depended the future of Catholicism. and as this was a favourite doctrine of the Opposition. the majority Avould be obliged to recognise them. the tenacious resistance of the Opposition caused considerable apprehension to the majority. During the octave all the religious bodies in went round the city in procession. —that He would be rather driven away than attracted by such a cloud of wandering crows. as often happens. His aid with reference to the black habits of the monks. 171 many of the 130 in opposition would resist to the end. and the — Rome representation that they carried of the Holy Spirit.JuxE. in this attempt. and maintaining them to There was certainly every hope that as the opinions the end. Peter.

" and was substituted in various cases for the prudent Council. from the debate. seems that Man. The firm conduct of Maret He declared to the proved of great value in this conjecture. but it minority. and were beyond Conciliar action. he finally withdrew the proposal himself. he should oppose it to the last by every means in his power. It was first adopted on discussing the introduction of the scheme " De Fide. and refused to give his sanction to the summary ened for a decapitation of the episcopate. away a certain and consequently a certain security.172 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. ^ The exorbitant nature of such a plan became apparent at length even to the Archbishop of Malines. as there were said to be disamong the legates. The bishops of the majority were divided on the matter. new ones which were without legal sanction. Bishop of Poitiers. traditions hitherto followed in conducting the business of the . yet. Paul. This familiar treatment of controversial matters took regularity. ning shared the opinions of the Archbishop of Malines but Monsignor Pie. and no further mention was made In of its it. and this divergence threatsensions even time to become serious. to be issued at once. and being v/arned by Maret of the results if he persisted in his intention. seems that the majority agreed on another The details were not known as was to admit of no concession to the wishes of the This again was an innovation in the proceedings of it the Council. for tute for it implied the right of the presidents to substi- documents already proposed. place formula. Archbishop of Malines that as the proposal in question was in odium of himself and his colleagues. number were consequently excommunicate. the same who had opened the debate with a speech on the decapitation of St. was of a contrary opinion. It [June.

under the form of an adjunct to the scheme " De Ecclesia. or rather induced them to let the tempest pass over before they proceeded any further. its character of a simple " pos- tulatum. When the prevailing agitation had calmed down with the reproduction of the scheme " De Fide " and " De parvo Catechismo. and It was submitted to the Council was of so direct a character that he could not spon- by his own initiative. and its quotation from St." which was supported by many of the bishops. The scheme. moment he was obliged to from the bishops. The indignation excited by that surprise somewhat cooled the enthusiasm of its authors. as well as the present state of the question while its ultimate Every one will remember what was still pending. Doctrines of the scheme " De Primatu. of the — 2. est. — — The scheme 4. for the them the deand therefore let it appear to emanate be left isolated in a form in embody . Third chapter. disappeared in the dark recesses of the Secretary's office. The time for presenting observations upon personal Infallibility limited to ten days. as circumstances required. 7. plain that the Pope's part in the proposals taneously. No special Canon for First and second chapters." the scheme " De In this process Infallibility had lost Ecclesia " reappeared modified." and had become an integral part of the scheme before the assembly had considered the matter. question. and while siih judice lis we will take a retrospective view of the whole subject." 8." which contained the famous Canons published in the Augshurg Gazette. Gregory the Great. all and consider decision the documents which had hitherto appeared. and the scheme " De Fide " occupied public attention. and caused such dismay to the Opposition in the month of March. who were accustomed to strict ecclesiastical discipline. and the sudden appearance of the declaration of Infallibility. 1. mand for the declaration of his own Infallibility. — — Infallibility. was said in the first scheme " De Ecclesia. Summary 3. Before the new formula appears." 6. Neither could it which would give it less weight in the eyes of those in the assembly. " De Ecclesia" is reduced. with its Appendix. 5. 173 II.— June. OF THE QUESTION OF INFALLIBILITY.— SUMMAEY 1. Text inserted ia the first draft of " De Ecclesia.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The object of the first appearance of the question in March was now apparent.

ordinary all and immediate. of the Pope. conscious of this logical inference. seems that. thinking very justly that Infallibility virtually contained them all." in deference to the remonstrances of diplomacy on the Canons regulating the connection between Church and State. " Constitutio Dogmatica Prima de Ecclesia Christi " appeared in four chapters and three Canons. The third chapter affirms the supreme jurisdiction. In the third chapter." is asserted the perpetual and uninterrupted continuation of that primacy in the bishops of Rome as successors of St. entitled. " Tum Vero ego honoratus sum cum singulis quisquis honor debitus non negatur. instead of exculpating them- The scheme cites the words of St. . Peter in the Church he founded." are enumerated and described the effects of this primacy. only It bishops selves. Infallibility was inserted in the scheme from whence its authors had resolved that it should only emerge to become a dogma for the whole Church. with reference to the title of Universal Apostle assumed by the Patriarch " Non dixi nee mihi vos nee cuiquam of Constantinople. [June. do so as official delegates of the Pope.174 than it EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. In the second. apotheosis of the Pope. " De Vi et Ratione Primatus Romani Pontificis." But these words are contained in the following passage. 3. " De Perpetuitate Primatus Petri in Romanis Pontificibus. Gregory the Great. over the churches singly and col. but in this endeavour. terminating in the last chapter with personal Infallibility. 2. In the first chapter. pastors as well as the flocks from which doctrine it follows that bishops." as they had part of that " De Fide. Peter over the whole Church. At the same time they sacrificed great part of the scheme " De Ecclesia. in exercising any jurisdiction. many fewer than those contained in the first draft. . 4. Bishop of Alexandria. and to defend themselves from the imputation of seeking to lessen the jurisdiction of the or authority. under the title " De Apostolici Primatus in Beato Petro Institutione. the compilers of the scheme tried to avoid it." was contained the declaration of the primacy of St. they really admit the charge. and here commences the itself. Under these conditions the scheme that we mentioned last month. in a letter to Eulagius. over lectively. would possess if formally incorporated into the scheme and therefore after its first appearance.

a statu suo corruit quando is qui appellatur universalis cadit. taken in full. " Si igitur illud nomen in ea Ecclesia sibi quisque arripuit. " Ne dum privatim this aliquid daretur uni honore debito versi. Si enim universalem me Papam vestra Sanctitas dicit negat se hoc esse quod me fatetur universum. inIn a series of dicates a wish to restrict its real meaning. St." And. suorum honorem imminuere in quantulacumque parte videatur. Nee honorem esse reputo in quo fratres honorem meum perdere cognosco." June." When the whole quotation is given the words bear a much clearer and more extended application. letters on the pretensions of the Patriarch of Constantinople.] alteri EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. he says. Ego enim non verbis quaero prosperari sed moribus. In writing to Eulagius of Alexandria on the matter. say. Meus honor est fratrum solidus vigor.' et ecce epistolae quam ad me ipsum qui prohibui direxistis superbae appellationis verbum universalem me Papam dicentes impri- mere ultra curastis. * Lib. Quod peto dulcissima mihi Sauctitas vestra alteri plus non faciat. " Sed nullus unquam decessorum meorum hoc tam profano vocabulo uti consensit. quia vobis subtrahitur quod quam meos est ratio exigit prsebetur. quia videlicet si unus Patriarca universalis dicitur Patriarcarum nomen caeteris derogatur. quod apud bonorum omnium judicium fuit. xxx. Gregory the Great speaks yet more clearly and decidedly. I might almost t Lib. f Lib. iv. St. he says that the Church of Rome declined the offer. xxxvi. omitting the rest of the passage.* he alludes to the fact that the title of Universality was offered to the See of Rome by the Council of Chalcedon. cap. absit a christiani mente id sibi velle quempiam arripere unde fratrum. after strongly reprobating the idea of universal supremacy being vested in one See. vii. . Gregory meant by " honor debitus all .t on the same subject." sacerdotes privarentur uni- In another still letter to the Emperor. Sed absit hoc. xxxii. The extraction of one phrase only." In another letter to the Emperor Maurice. is very clear what these passages. Tum vero ego honoratus sum cum singulis quisque honor debitus non negatur. cap. iv. tale 175 In praefatione aliquid scribere debere .| his words on matter are it stronger. Meus namque honor honor Universalis Ecclesia?. cap. From but in the scheme which has so isolated and. and says. universa ergo Ecclesia quod absit.

renewing the against the " Exequatur." the " Placet. Kings enjoy supreme jurisdiction. the In the fourth paragraph of this chapter. where it vehemently condemns those who oppose the legitimate jurisdiction of the Pope over the bishops. full significance given it by Rome.176 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. while the episcopate does not as a body interfere with him and the Pope can exercise full power. what signification do they bear itself The scheme does not explain the meaning. the Pope exists in the Church that there is no appeal from his judgment that he can never be judged by any one." and their supporters. it formally condemns any who should precase sume to appeal from the decision of the Pope to that of an The reason of this last condemnation Ecumenical Council. retrenched them. while . particularly when they are absolute monarchs. before mentioning scheme declares that no authority above that of . and had succeeded in keeping the matter unsettled and open to discussion. . or in any and lastly. and of defending old protests it against all lay interference. and legislaIf the primacy be held in the tion which regards principles. in fact. Infallibility. the scheme has two aims that of . and only touches on it later in the fourth paragraph. ? [Juke. which is the depositary of the highest authority." and all it other lay rights. this jurisdiction are explained The limits of and defined in the third chapter. . omnipotent. or place any obstacle between them. and especially in the Church. which 5. Up to this point some power was and there was still a considerable step to be made befoue reaching an absolute system of arbitrary power in the Church. which had hitherto been respected. in the jurisdiction which deals with facts. the Pope can order and dispose matters at will. arose the different opinion and pretensions of the " Curiali Romani. the Church. There is always a great difference. collectively denounces left to and condemns. or even it may be dictatorship. but even they must recognise the possibility of being in error. he is. In the fourth paragraph. distinctly affirming the unlimited jurisdiction of the bishops. the Episcopate. and the resistance of particular schools and churches. does not meet in the most solemn manner and take measures to This was precisely the point on which reassert and exercise it. .

as the limit of time in which they should decide on a very grave matter. " De Romani Pontificis Infallibilitate. whatever consequences may ensue to the Church. in fact.. clause It re- may be some day mains in the to carry regretted by those who framed as a testimony to the pressure they exercised in order it. is raised above human judgment. but supreme and Infallible ruler. a monitum. the declaration of Infalli- add nothing to the weight of this paragraph. This clause by which a small body of persons endeavoured to impose the brief space of ten days on the supreme assembly of the united Church. and will lessen the belief in their wisdom. The document concluded with fail not. by transferring the cause to an uncertain and prospective Council.June. not only minds of philosophers and of men of intelligence and energy. " I have prayed for thee. N .] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. From Pope a practical point of view. because. restriction. 177 does not proceed. thereby upsetting ecclesiastical discipline but it proceeds absolutely from the principle asserted by . even when united with that of the Pope. and for presenting their observations. alone. that the authority of the Church. in the fourth chapter. from prudence. as might be supposed. that thy faith Pope " errare non possit " in deciding questions of faith and morals and added. he is. and the other. The first petition for Infallibility. present dogma is built up." asserted that the — — . is not superior to the authority of the Pope 6. limiting to ten days the time allowed to the bishops This was a fresh and excepwhich went beyond those introduced by the new Order. " Thou art Peter. but also in the minds of moderate Christians capable of reasoning on the future. and from the necessity of not allowing the judgment of an ordinary authority to be eluded. drawn up in March. the scheme. Infallible. But absolute ideas are seldom satisfied with asserting and re-asserting their own principles and so." &c." the Pope is specifically declared not only supreme judge. on which the bility could if the . after quoting the text on which the Roman primacy is founded. that of giving a perpetual vote of confidence to the person of the Pope. tional — of rendering his authority absolutely unlimited — this it. that the object of this Infallibility is the same as that to which the Infallibility of the Church extends. under the heading.

Peter. gave as nearly as possible the in a same definition of the personal Infallibility of the Pope. and reiterates even more strongly than the first text. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. The three . or have an anathema literally coupled with This is a distinction which may not be evident even to it. its incomprehensible nature. the Primacy of St. namely. falls into ••error. bis decisions in questions of faith and morals is obligatory. only It asserts that the acceptance of all still more explicit form. and in neither text is there a special Canon. The new text which was inserted in the Constitution " De Ecclesia Christi. its perpetuity in his successors. acute and elevated minds. All. 8. first formation. that the same Infallibility is inherent in the Church and in the Pope. Both the schemes conclude by saying that he who {quod Deus avertat) contradicts this declaration. which the resistance of so many bishops and Catholics to the dogma of Infallibility had been able to extract from the Vatican was that it should not be compiled in the form of a Canon. which gave rise to Maret's remark on the analogy created by. and separates himself from the truth and unity of the Catholic no Canon on Infallibility in either of the Canons of " De Ecclesia " answer to the three first chapters. which were prevalent at its Church. between the new dogma and the mystery of the Trinity. [June.178 7. but it has great significance in the obscure and subtle reasoning introduced into the Church of Rome by the Greek influences. therefore. . There is schemes." recently published. and This was the declaration applies in both to the same object. and the supreme jurisdiction that flows from it but the chapter on Infallibility contains merely the doctrinal matter.

Opening of the debate on Infallibility. velocior all sorts of conjectures rife. by which both sides might come to an understanding. 13. Tlie fight begins. it not only in the private Congregations. especially with regard long desired. 15. and Sant Antonio. 6. so that would prevail in it. — 5. hardly concealed. as well as the particular shade of Infallibilist opinion were to the character of the formula. 16. to keep up the Opposition. 3.June. 14. Prognostications and state of parties.— 8." which must necessarily be given. Speech of Cardinal Guidi. placet. Predictions. — — — —1. Speech of the Aichbishop of Osimo.— DEBATE 1. of the c^uestion of Infallibility. that coming from the majority it would be very absolute in tone. The at the majority declared. and would contain the most extreme Ultramontane opinions. Bishop of Florence. and addresses. and the greatest anxiety was felt on both sides. had considered of Infallibility. while the minority thought themselves secure of from eighty to one hundred and thirty votes. ON INFALLIBILITY. on their part. All these movements were. Many. The general impression was. prayers. the date fixed by the Infallibilists for the promulgation of the new dogma was at hand. the expediency of putting forth a formula. The Opposition pray for a prorogation of the Council. All parties of now looked . whenever he speaks with the advice of the episcopate and the assent of the Universal Church. however. 12. 2. more apparent than real. — — — — — — — A eagerly for the promised formula. and so much delayed. the actual state of the case being such as we have described. with the view of gaining over some few of the minority. but before the Pope at the public Session such people could not but see that would N 2 . with more reason than was evident moment. which should emanate from the majority. History 10. 11. third party. Time wore on it was already the middle of June the feast of St. Processions. The same. Speech of the Pope on the Festival of Corpiis Domini. Continuation and ending. Speech of Valerga. 4. 9. that they could carry their measures in despite of the minority. Peter. Tlie same. the plan reconciliation . had suggested one which should affirm the Infallibility of the Pope. Meanwhile as motus in fine 1. doubted that such a number would be found willing to pronounce the " last Non . and that it would insist on an unqualified declaration The Opposition. however. Approach of summer.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 179 III.

asserting their firm resolution to carry out their intentions. individual priests were invited to subscribe for the celebration of masses favour of Infalli- and to devote the alms collected to the " Obolo di San Pietro. difficult. University. and as the influence were that in the hands of the majority. the people (though far from possessing sovereign power) were canvassed for a plebiscite and owing to the state of fervid agitation which prevailed. was utilised as a good example their address was the first of a series of addresses imploring the declaration of Infallibility. Religious enthusiasm was excited . threaten- ing them with a large number of adverse votes. and the state of popular feeling. strained every nerve to hold back the majority.180 be a very EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. about this . The minority. The episode described in the month of May. the minority. Addresses were circulated in the country. to arouse the religious feelings of the people on the matter. and very direct means of influence were brought to bear on the many who. being in some way or other dependent on the in Rome — Curia. on all sides in favour of the new dogma enticement and blandishments were tried on those who were independent. Roman number bility. not crushing. in Rome and other places. party used all possible measures for bringing and attempted by public prayers and processions. therefore. anecdotes were circulated . or would find some less dangerous way of ftppressing them. are especially interested in finding it infallible — at the beginning of every month. where they had been hitherto strictly prohibited under heavy penalties. In order to procure the greatest possible in of clerical assents. regarding the parish priests. while the majority retorted. if [June. and acquire great importance from the antecedents of the discussion. Whichever party could all first discover the weakness of the other seemed sure of victory. while still opposed bj such a number of Fathers as must (even if diminished) be considerable." '60 in in All the demonstrations employed since the year furtherance of the temporal power were now renewed favour of Infallibility. obtained from the collegiate and religious bodies in the city. not an impossible matter to force the defi- nitive promulgation of a dogma so disputed. means of authority and it was likely if they would succeed in dividing. and even from the 2. The Catholic result. .

devout public had learnt on an ordinary week-day that the Pope was Infallible. and the long. the debate on Infallibility. the subject of the fourth chapter began. 181 which would sometimes have been comical. on account of the heat of summer. that no limit could be assigned to some people deemed it necessary that the declaration such as that of St. were it not that they might soon give place to something of a sad and serious character. they had no time success. as will be seen. this reckoning did not suit the other side. In fact. But. Peter's Day was so near. for undoubtedly establishments.June. the 15th. and would under these circumstances be produced on the Council by the trying and unhealthy would it overpower the Opposeason now fast approaching part of the majority gave rise to people wondered what effect — . and therefore the triumph of the incomplete. there seemed to be no special day which could afford a pretext for bringing the debate to a close. burning Roman summer begun. fact. the majority were disappointed in their expectation of carrying the declaration of the dogma on that solemn festival. it seems that they would hardly festival. and thus they would be saved from the otherwise inevitable shipwreck that awaited them. was so its imcon- portant a matter. dogma on which sideration. Peter. and as the discussion would thus inevitably extend beyond the feast of St. as : many on the different chapters proceeded bishops pretended to consider it of slight importance towards the middle of June the three first were gone through . Peter. to had employed on benefit by their That once passed.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Eighty persons were prepared to speak. and consequently the new move on the all sorts of conjectures. and on Wednesday. recurring anniversaries exercise considerable influence in ancient Although the declaration of Infallibility. should take place on a great for if the have appreciated the supporters of the 4. St. 3. a the fate of Christianity depended. Every one felt the gravity of the situation. that even had the majority tried to bring the debate to a close by such another stroke festival (as they left previous occasions). was likely that the slackness in the work of the Council might end in a prorogation. The partial discussion rapidly. dogma would have been The programme for it of the Opposition appeared well arranged.

on which depended the constitution of the Catholic Clmrcli. on account of the anniversary of the Pope's election. when was expected that the third chapter would be finally voted. He said the first (the Opposition) were worldly. 6. These judgments appeared. after the religious for the service is completed. Peter's. its deliberations had produced no definite side of the majority. at the least. the most serious struggle in which she had it ever been engaged. The sittings were resumed on Saturday. but though all the advantages appeared to be on the was against them. a critical and decisive question. for if one part were already condemned. that notwithwhich had been done in the six months the Council had been sitting. prematui-e. [June.Vicar. The second class. and for them he implored decision from heaven. being the feast of Corpus Christi. . nor was there any on Friday. of the Pope's reign even beyond the years of displayed great dexterity in his answer he avoided open acknowledgment of the honour paid to him.182 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and prayed for their illumination. this fact standing all results. and before proceeding further we and civil society of the age. The Pope the cussion. On Thursday. for institutions at the it broiight her into opposition with the We have now arrived knot of the question which agitated the Vatican Council. what was the use of prolonging the dis. On the latter day it is customary Sacred College to offer their congratulations to the Pope through the Cardinal. but instead of that. he divided them into three classes. sition or discourag-e the majority? The issue must soon be apparent. he said. and cared more for popularity than for the truth. spfeedy defini- and of good wishes for the extension St. he simply bestowed his benediction. no con- gregation was held. but alluding to the bishops now assembled in Rome. were uncertain. the debate on Infallibility was opened. 5. for it witnessed the commencement of the final combat in which (though pretty well settled by what had preceded) was to be irrevocably decided the fate of the Catholic Church. It was a memorable day. On the third (the Infallibilists) who were walking in the paths of the Lord. with prayers for tion. June 18th. and on this occasion their address its was full of allusions to Infallibility.

June. which were fostered the ninth century. as a matter of discussion. existence. only appears at a later date with the advance of theological studies. and Boniface VIII. dogma. they could only open the claration.] eight MONTHS AT ROME. declaring versal. and in the laborious development of new forms of Christian life and though she had on many occasions acknowledged the primacy of the See of Rome. would have led long since to the final result now under discussion but for the resistance constantly maintained by the energetic and practical working of the Church herself. and as a definite opinion of the Church. It never made the subject of discussion. it began with the application of our Lord's words to St. the Bishops of Rome. uni- above other authority. which varied according to circumstances. principles of unlimited power.. and. 8. and consider 183 will turn back Infallibility briefly the history of the doctrine of up to the present time. seizing on the fact of the acknowledged primacy of the Roman See. Infallibility. being strengthened by the transfer of the seat of government brought about by Constantine. The growth of the Papacy has been gradual . but could way for Infallibility and facilitate its de- go no further. The age of St. that was not included in the science of law. she had never had the opportunity nor felt the need of determining a priori the character and conditions of their mutual relations. but belonged to the region of therefore. or accurately defined until when the study of Canon law sprang into was then that the jurists. The school that supported the theory of the unlimited power of the Pope arose with the appearance of the Decretals. as containing within itself the by the growing favour of successive ages. and were . and it is then that we meet with . The Church in general was occupied in the task of her own organisation. Innocent III. with the aid of logic and dialectics (both powerful instruments of the intellectual movements referred to). and furthered by the wonderful talent and virtue of such men as Gregory VII. Peter to his successors. Thomas Aquinas was fertile in canonical and theological controversy. or the formation of Canon law . but with regard to his Infallibility. first it naturally increased. constructed the syllogism which.. 7. tried to it however much the Papal school of canonists all amplify the prerogatives of the See of Rome. and subject to no control.

as is shown by the works on Papal prerogative so common in the thirteenth and fourteenth those of Martino di Tropau. Some. indeed. were strongly in favour of Papal authority. had never ventured The University of Paris. first mention of Infallibility as a dogma . had constantly opposed the doctrine. and Innocent III.. by its disastrous consequences. and many others." and was maintained by the numerous mendicant orders who constitute the special defenders of Roman doctrine but even in those days it was resisted by many. checked the advancement of the Roman . and greatly diminished the prestige of the school which supported it to the utmost. the on assuming such a quality. which was convened in consequence of the great strife agitating the Church. but most warmly and repeatedly and even those who. Gregory the Great.184 the EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. The jurisconsults and the canonists had indeed striven all this time. centuries By these means. had declined the attribute indirectly. of Tolomeo da Lucca. which occurred towards the end of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century. earliest school of theology. like St. and a Council really met at Pisa. In this crisis. Peter. to extend and enlarge the Papal authority. and its nature was not accurately determined by . by its long duration. gave a shock to the Papal system. Pope — increased authority acquired by the of Gregory VII. people looked for help to the intervention of the episcopate. 9. whose work was not completed until the Council of Constance. and had inaugurated the Galilean traditions. Roman See after the reigns for the prerogatives of the Popes and their Infallibility would have made rapid progress but the schism of the West. [June. it was taken up from that time by the Roman " Curia. and by the perplexity experienced by the faithful in witnessing the proceedings of the different Popes who contended for the Chair of St. The Popes themselves carefully avoided giving any opinion on the matter of Infallibility for a long time. . the case of a falling into heresy. A question had already been raised as to and the point was argued whether such a one would de facto lose the Papal quality.. unweariedly and with some degree of success. with varying success. and by the for instance. its own supporters. This schism. This latter assembly. like Innocent III. and especially devoted to its study. which were firmly maintained in France. until the end of the last century.

Juke. 185 Curia. we may say that Infallibility then. gain to the Roman Curia after the Councils of rising fortunes. The Council of Basle was held shortly after. and Master of the Sacred under Eugenius IV. which are the manual of the new school.. the progress of the question of Infallibility. hope of the Opposition at the Vatican Council..to the the Council being held in Italy. Ever since the Council of Constance. in consequence of those Councils. addressed by illustrious raising the influence and able churchmen endeavoured to do the same. but was dissolved on the deposition of Eugenius and the accession of Felix V. assisted its and added : to the prestige of the Papacy. Papal authority was questioned and the dominion of the Curia full threatened first in fact. The works Torquemada. Infallibilist doctrines were steadily on the ascendant. . durino- the same conditions as the Council of Constance. for example. for the . time. by and authority of the bishops. They were followed by the writings of Cardinal Caetano and of Cano . and also on account of the mistakes committed at Basle. Pope is Vicar of The formula was to this effect Christ. and.. theologian. Head of the Church. and up to the time of Bellarmine. Father and Master of all Christians. of Papal authority. The formula though the last seemed a great Constance and that the of the Council of Florence concerning the Pope. appeared after the Council of Basle. acquired a scholastic or scientific form. it re-assembled at Florence. indirectly. Many St. though some protests against them were heard. of Basle. Sadoleto. to the favourable opportunity now afforded for the advancement of the Pope's authority by the Pontificate of Eugenius IV.. and they became more active and energetic when. and especially since that of Basle. even in Italy as. though. and under much reunion of the Latin and Greek Churches. owino. when Eugenius was again in power. with the view of arresting the growing absolutism of Rome. the promoters of absolute authority had urged their views within and without the Curia. in the severe words of Cardinal Palaces : Catherine of Siena to Gregory XI. and that he is endued by God with power to rule the Church in the manner laid down by the Canons and the precepts of Ecumenical Councils.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. This time Papal authority recovered its lost prestige.

The progress of the doctrine of Infallibility. . had been agitating the minds of the newly-civilised populations of Europe. The Roman " Curia. the to West now its storm far more violent than the schism of and produced an insurmountable barrier progress. the Curia. and tried to find one but the fate of the Catholic Church in this respect was decided at the Council of Florence. was attended bv the same con- . in the famous necessity of placing . would not moderate its pretenand from the beginning of the sixteenth century there reigned a series of Popes who employed. where the triumph of the Papal system was inaugurated. When the great crisis burst forth which rent Western Christendom and threatened the foundations of the Christian religion. the unlimited authority. which increased until its theory. Torquemada and his school immediately resumed their efforts to further the movement towards Infallibility. [Juke. and always opposed. as a arose." as often happens. which heretical had been as rapid as possible in that corrupt and century. was also arrested. vindicate episcopal rights having failed at Basle. Pole. who were of a sterner cast than others) and opened the door to the religious innoa profound reaction vators who. fully admitted for three centuries. however. Contarini. sions . for more than a century. and to promote the authority of feeling confident of success. though never universally accepted. the rapid and unlooked-for success of the Reformation interrupted all those laborious efforts which since the Council of Florence had contributed greatly to further Papal ascendency both in theory and in practice." «.186 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Caraffa. The discussion of the prerogatives of Rome was im- possible at a edifice moment when That the very foundations of the Christian tlie were trembling beneath great event shocks of the tempest of Reformation. political and religious. without any re» straint. and thereby excited (especially among the German races. the attempt to position. and others opinions carried among the cardinals. which the Curia had assured to them . The doc- was not. 10. whose much weight from their learning and high Memorial of 1538 acknowledged the some limit to the Pope's authority. was more or less explicitly admitted in the teaching and opinion of the adherents of the trine of Infallibility Roman " Curia.

though they endeavoured. had established the primacy of the Papacy on earth in the Bull " Unam Sanctam. Torquemada and his companions had indeed striven to fix its application but their theories had ahvays been upset by one adverse argument. introduced by the Reformation into Christianity. One of the highest expressions of the tendencies of that period was the formation of the Order of the Jesuits. " In Ccena Domini. to authority. It is well to remark that the reaction against the independence and freedom of enquiry." was the most solemn manifestation of the renewed vigour of Papal authority.. the possibility of a Pope proving to be a heretic. which . . as in the Protestant movement. Boniface VIII. so also a reaction in favour of that authority was manifested on the Catholic side.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. It belongs to the character of passive reaction against mental freedom. The famous Bull of Urban VIII. and brought about a new crisis in the nineteenth century. which adopted the qualities mentioned above as the rule of their conduct and as the very principle of their existence. the question of Papal authority was set in the front rank. and in it the Pope himself spoke.. her one thought at Rome had triumphed was how best to profit by the victory. which gave birth to the Order of the Jesuits. to guard against it." and now the Bull " In Ccena Domini " confirmed those provisions. 187 sequences as had resulted from the schism of the West the crisis was past and when with the loss Trent (though of two flourishing countries). to advance the question of Infallibility. For all these reasons Papal authority and the doctrine of Infallibility found themselves on favourable ground.June. was characterised by an affected devotion and a blind and passive obedience reasserted ecclesiastical jurisdiction. strongly and affirmed the unlimited power of the Pope in the Church. Here was a difficulty which they could not entirely overcome. . Previous to the Reformation Infallibility had borne a vague and indefinite character. for the more energetic and vigorous populations had detached themselves definitively from the interests at issue. three hundred years before. This reaction encountered but slight resistance and few obstacles. by every possible means. and those who did take part in it were already affected in some measure by that frivolous and sceptical spirit which prepared the way for the philosophy of Voltaire. and.

who. if not : entirely in accordance with. who are now represented by the so-called Catholic party. having begun in such a way as to please the majority. Rauscher. It remained for the storm of modern Revolution to drive into the widest antagonism the workings of absolute authority in opposition to those of uncontrolled license. of Trent. but did not being heard produce much effect. however. in writing the history of the Papacy. Rauscher was obliged to have his speech read for him. in the period of repose and lassitude which succeeded the Council . a considerable gap between Baronius. assumed more definite shape. Five cardinals. and Guidi. spoke on the 18th. 1870. was the speech of Cardinal Guidi. the doctrine of Infallibility. and the apologists of that age and the present Infallibilists. and by the help of the latter. for there was some uncertainty consiUo or among his hearers as to whether his words were sine siiie concilio Ecclesioc. Bonnechose. the weakness of his voice preventing his it was moderate and conciliatory. and by means of the numerous writings and uncontested action of the further into the feeble belief Roman Curia. insinuated itself yet and lax practice of the Catholic There is. about nineteen centuries after the foundation of Christianity. and led by the Jesuits (always its strongest promoters) have succeeded in passing the theory of the presenting Pope's personal Infallibility in the clearest and most decided form. Though obliged to con- tend with the incipient scepticism and pronounced cynicism of the age. how it was possible for a cardinal to use the language he often adopts. [June. The event of the day. had constantly progressed as a recoil from any independent movement manifested in the Church and accordingly."" according to present ideas. it gained ground. ended by showing himself favourable to. Di Pietro. Cullen. and about ten centuries after the theory had first become matter of instituting debate. 11.188 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and in reading the 'Annals' of the famous Baronius one can hardly understand. especially in Spain and Italy. the views of the minority. His conclusion was that the Pope could not define doctrine without the Council or the advice of the Church . Orsi. with the assistance of casuistry. . it to a Council convoked for the express purpose of it as a dogma of the Church on the 18th of June. populations. the promoters of absolutism.

expressed himself as violently as he had done on a former occasion. the 20th. summer would soon bring about the close of the disthe Fathers met on Monday. as they did not wish again to incur the reproach of exercising pressure or violence on the minority. but it was impossible to ascertain the truth of these reports which circulated in Rome. When . A Roman Cardinal ! actually the If a shell first.. but to leave it unchecked. The effect of this speech was like that of a sudden thunder-clap in a cloudless sky. so led 189 He was on by his own eloquence. and turned to Cardinal Guidi with violent gestures. follow the doctrine taught by St. gates addressed to speeches . and the presidents determined not to interrupt the discussion. the only had exploded amongst the majority. the as condemned Pope himself was in some peril having several times distinctly professed his belief in Infallibility. it could hardly have excited more commotion. that in the peroration he passed the limits he had originally fixed. and there it was reported he had to encounter many reproaches. but were of no itself.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. love one another. turning tion. Pope adopted the well-known words of Louis XIV. the le- them a monitum recommending brevity in their and the Patriarch Valerga. The Infallibilist Fathers were much perturbed. to side openly with the minority displeasure. The number of inscribed orators on the 18th had risen to 108. Perhaps they were assisted in this resolution by the expectation that the heat of cussion. and neither added to nor detracted from the weight of the incident 12. The next day Cardinal Guidi was the universal subject of conversa- and was cruelly spoken of and reviled by those who do not John in the charitable exhortation. real import- ance." At the same time Guidi was summoned to the Vatican. and marks of extreme one. when he caused great offence to the French bishops.June. their application to himself with regard to ecclesiastical tra- dition . which he received with perfect It was said that on this occasion the firmness and dignity. who in discussing Eastern affairs. while the bishops of the Opposition received him with the warmest demonstrations of pleasure and affection. of being According to this. and proposed a Canon which should contain an anathema against all who hold that the Popes could define doctrine without the advice of the Church. "Brethren.

he was about to receive one of the Divine prerogatives. and now he was graAll parties vied with each dually approaching his apotheosis. Only seven speeches were made on the 22nd. began by stating that he would be so brief as to save them the trouble of stopping him. called to order. The ultra-Catholic journals were full of observations and felicitations on the aupicious event. Valerga's vehement speech met with little on account of the unfortunate position of Eastern affairs. For twenty-four years he had been applauded and made much of in every possible way. The twenty-fifth year of their reign seems Pius IX. and. that being the Guidi.190 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. although his party had looked to him to undo the effect produced on the previous day by the speech of Cardinal On Tuesday no Congregation was held. The was favour. he managed to bring forward a project of reconciliation. other in exalting him. a practice which was given up for the present. On Wednesday the sittings were resumed. but even he was obliged to desist after twenty minutes. and Pius IX. until nothing remained but to ascribe to him the powers of Divinity. [Junk. and he was obliged to descend from the ambo. entered upon the twenty-fifth year of his reign under auspices not indeed devoid of sadness. and doing honour to his high and lofty station. instead of closing the debate. and the monitum ordering brevity in the speeches was put into practice. and in order to dispose the legates in his favour. indeed. This was not of so absolute a nature as the formula adopted by the Jesuits. was no exception to to be a fatal one for the Popes this rule. which ever since the Council of Trent had been used in Roman . but was a reproduction of the ancient formula. 13. and this plan answered very well. for it was to be the occasion of his ceasing in some ways to be merely human and of his becoming something higher. imputation of want of clearness but not^^ithstanding the difficulty of treating matters so grave and complicated in a very short time. majority even were displeased. In attempting this he incurred the . The in the direction of which he was a good deal concerned. legates stop any orators adopted the expedient of ringing a bell in order to who exceeded twenty minutes. . The Archbishop of Osimo then made a conciliatory speech. anniversary of the coronation of the Pope. one of them by a bishop who warmly supported Infallibility.

that a Congregation was held on Tuesday. for the Holy See. although the Vigil of St. and much resembled first 191 theology. would rather have chosen another candidate. while rejecting the separation of the Pope from the bishops as a thesis and a hypothesis. no sitting was held. Other speeches succeeded that of the Bishop of Osimo. moment of the Meantime the feast of St. and who. both de jure etde facto. and Monsignor Genuilhac. but this sensible opinion was not the general one. Peter had passed. This proposal was quite as much as could be hoped for in an virtually sanctions the Infallibility of the Pope. being the feast of St. as petition of the Infallibilists. Peter. we have The Bishop of Osimo. and in which the Opposition ultimately showed itself unequal to making a serious resistance. knowing his opinions. in order that the Congregations might be resumed. left the nature of their reciprocal influence and connection as indefinite as possible so as to avoid countenancing the Galilean system on the one hand. or admitting personal Infallibility on the other. but could scarcely be heard. one Church. Wednesday. and the happy declaration of Infallibility might be hastened. This already stated. the great the . the 28th. unwilling to prejudge the question. and the aspect . on account of the murmurs of the majority. the 29th. On the 23rd seven orators spoke against Infallibility and in the next sitting. Strossmayer. and had only been raised a few days since to his new dignity on the urgent request of the French Government. 14. It was a last other chance of safety. and the bishop's speech was lost with many other ardent and generous voices clamantium in deserto. cle jure et de facto. spoke against Infallibility. assembly known to be adverse to reform. and next day the Pope gave up the usual ceremonies at the Ostian Basilica for the feast of St.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. . again came forward. by asserting that the Pope and the bishops together form. wished to leave matters as for those who saw no they were previous to the Council. on the 25th. Paul. champion of the Opposition. that contained in the second address issued after the formula.June. He was formerly Bishop of Grenoble. and the presence of Cardinal Guidi in the Council Hall was especially noted. postponing their decision till a happier moment should arise . Peter. So great was the desire of making progress. Primate of Gaul. or of entertaining a firm hope resolution.

they never gave up seeking for a formula Avhich should split the Opposition and win over some of its members. made it evi- dent that the Opposition were daily growing stronger. in forming any opinion on the prevailing condition of affairs. of affairs. Moreover. . far from improving. and submit which would be the more serious in proportion to At the same time it did not seem possible for the Vatican to insist on passing a dogma against the wish and convictions of an authoritative minority. to according to the disposition of the people. The Opposition was no longer vague. All who were acquainted with the course of Roman busi- ness saw that the Vatican could not stop halfway. it was impossible to escape from this dilemma. isolated. but as they were determined not to sacrifice the smallest part of the dogma of Infallibility. reached 150. in describing of affairs at this time. and found vent in many sharp and witty sayings. as when first it sprang into existence. The result of these attempts had been to found a sort of third . such was the opinion of many. was expressed in a less serious manner. there were indications of a deep and increasing resist* spirit and the same showed itself it in France. which was at all reasonable. and signs of discontent were apparent very near the Papal throne. and if the timid and backward be included. whose numbers varied from 80 to 130. who was considered an able and intelligent man. indeed. the history of the address of the parochial clergy. a certain extent. In Germany ance . For if the whole of this number could not be reckoned upon for a definitive resistance. a disciplined body. and many other incidents. representing a considerable portion of the Church. grew darker. to a defeat the advance already made.192 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOMB. said that if Infallibility were accepted the Vatican Council would certainly not be accepted and. The majority were well aware of this. their search was a vain one. still the minority was too important to be overlooked. from the Catholics of America to the Cardinals of the Holy See. and though quite determined themselves. 15. it could hardly be supposed that their position was as jet hopeless. [Juke. and divided. but certainly gained ground rather than decreased. As Cardinal Guidi. had abandoned the majority in order to side with the Opposition. but was now an organised. A person of great talent and of the state excellent judgment. at least. where. and.

like We must allow and courageous on the part many previous attempts of the same nothing could induce the majority to make any concession on the matter of personal Infallibility. were resolved not to put up with further equivocation. was evident by his had taken was rather with a view to reconciling conflicting parties than of joining the Opposition. Towards the end of June the Opposition bethought themselves of another expedient. for when it the first surprise occasioned that the step he conduct had subsided. in Several bishops of the Opposition signed a petition. from the difficult position in which he was placed from being both the judge and the party chiefly interested. and the Opposition. this technical difficulty to Moreover there was contend with. was felt to be an indication of that the endeavour its vigour and suitability. escaping in a manner convenient both to himself and to them. was fruitless. Moreover. it . and the state of antagonism in which both parties had been placed for the last six months continued unchanged. the head of which. It only remained now to say the word. of Cardinal Guidi nature. the fact of the Cardinal Archbishop of Bologna. in the same question. since and had become mistrustful and stubborn. and all the most ingenious combinations of phrases had been exhausted. 16. a personal friend of the Pope. placing himself at the head of this attempt at reconciliation. and therefore the Council found itself inevitably in the dilemma of either declaring the dogma. that the Popes. and being endued with the primacy and absolute jurisdiction in the Church. was Cardinal Guidi . at this moment. . so that reconciliation seemed impossible. 193 party in the Council (though a third party in religious matters has a difficult position). there really remained nothing further to do in the way of discussion.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. or of leaving matters as they were but they viewed this latter course in the light of a defeat. and offered to the Pope a means of rights of already acquired . which they prayed on account of the great heat now prevailing in Rome. had all the accessories of Infallibility and as in the long and disputed process all possible sophisms and verbal subtleties.JuxE. liberal was both but. for a prorogation of the Council. having gradually reached a position of unlimited authority by a constant though gradual system of expansion. having been subjected to so many vexations and delusions. which seriously affected .

would lose all hope in it. Their intention was rather to point out that the world which had looked to the Council for the solution of the great political-religious and social-religious problems Avhich had long troubled Catholic nations. Their petition met with the usual receptheir number. would cease to regard it with attention. and saw it occupied only in building up a perplexing and questionable apotheosis. had greatly extended its influence. be diminished." an opinion very generally entertained in the present serious state of Those who supported account of the it did not suppose that if the Opposition were conquered. With these or similar tentative efforts on both sides. This extension had drawn forth the expression of public opinion. and though the grand question had not made any real advance since the first day. and that in proportion as it endeavoured to render its action absolute and coercive. many of tion. the month of June. . and nothing further was known of its results save the inexorable determination of the Pope that the Congregations should all proceed without interruption until the business of the Council was completed. the Opposition had gained many adherents. the influence of that action on society would difficulties in its decisions. the Vatican Council would not be accepted.194 EIGHT MONTHS AT HOME. which found vent in the saying we have alluded to. drew to a close. they would question the validity of the Council on occasioned by the want of unanimity and other matters which they had often and earnestly lamented. that " if the dogma of Infallibility were accepted. and had spread considerably. the seventh since the Council had assembled. [June. affairs.

the bracing air. Close of the discussion. which would otherwise have no great effect. OF THE DEBATES. The foiuth chapter voted.— July. 4. The venerable assembly heat of a Roman summei'. and many of the bishops and their dependents fell ill. 8. 12. At an advanced age. 195 JULY. Weariness of the assembly. to leave 5. 1. now began to experience the full The burning. Calabrians. accustomed to the cool tem- and the sparkling streams of Germany. — — 11. The game. Effects of the climate. These latter had probably looked forward to the result produced on their northern brethren in Opposition. 9. I. 2. The bishops begin Eome. 7. The Opposition were influenced by the same consideration when they had prayed for the prorogation of the Council before properature.— 13. at least of atmosphere.— 10.rajs of the sun have state not only a weakening effect on the constitution. but falling on the uncultivated and marshy Campagna occasion a fatal. if not always injurious to the natives Only those who have actually experienced the summer heat in Rome can understand the effect it produced on the bishops from northern countries.— CLOSE 1. is The third chapter is voted. Eeasons of the Opposition for accepting it. themselves. — 14. July 13. 6. Formula of Infallibility. Discussion on the amendments.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. The Opposition consider — — — — — their future com-se. but the south occupied o 2 . After the proposal. have serious and rapid results. It is difficult to describe the lassitude and despondency which the hard and wearisome work of the Council produced in those sensitive natures. when the thermometer stood at 115° in the shade. when the temperature was such as suited the Spaniards. The vote on Wednesday. The first heads of the scheme " De Ecclesia " are voted. and Mexicans. changes of temperature ceeding to the definition of Infallibility . 3.

The Vatican willingly granted leave of absence to all who then applied for strength it. The latter attempted to bring about a reconciliation to the between the two parties by conceding Pope the attribute . The 1st. the bishops in Opposition believed this. indeed The assembly. and those present asserted that the ringing of the bell which cut short the ardent speaker. and partly from reasons of health and from mistrust of the future. July bishops of Savannah and Paderborn spoke on Friday. 4. The Bishop of Ferentino had urged it in one of the recent Congregations as an argument against the Opposition. their state of discouragement became one of deep vexation. some guarantee their later deliberations. Signs of this state of weariness had been apparent for some time. cordially hailed the intervention of the legate. with the hope. and the north was unable to carry this or any other of 2. was the most grateful sound which had ever yet reverberated through the Council Hall. " quousque tandem abutere patientia nostra?" the legate remarked that his words were most apt. 3. but he became himself the victim of his own accusation. tire^ of him. [July the seat of authority. regretted It means of retreat from the difficulties was said that the authorities afterwards having obtained from those Fathers who left or promise of submission to the decrees of the Council in the event of its proclaiming the dogma of Infallibility. partly from disgust at the want of kindness and generosity with which they had been treated. and they began one by one to leave Rome for their own dioceses. accusing its members of prolonging the sufferings of the Fathers.196 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. perhaps. a result whioh now seemed probable and near at hand. At any rate. When the bishops learned that the Pope refused to listen to the just plea for a prorogation afforded by the tropical heat. While venting his displeasure against the minority in the well- known invited classical quotation. its wishes. and him it to set the example of the right course by himself descending from the tribune. and this misgiving considerably affected not Rome. and several times feared that some such promise would be exacted from them. as was of all the orators. of diminishing the offering its of the Opposition by members a safe of their position.

This proposal was hailed with shouts rather to extend the Infallibility of the of faith and the bishop who next came forward. . but this idea was unanimously rejected. their leaders held a meeting. in finally determined to desist from a combat hencethe resolution was forward useless. carry through the plans approved Sunday." &c. in this frame of mind.. Peter had put the finishing stroke to their displeasure. and possibly dangerous spontaneously adopted by nearly all present. of the Opposition had been already sorely tried by the heat of the climate and the wearisome delays in business. On the 2nd of July the Council clearly manifested their desire to bring the proceedings to a close. Some doing Fathers inscribed to speak. as science. without imposing of the faithful as a of indignation. July 3rd. 5. its belief upon the consciences dogma. the Fathers attended the Congregation on Monday. while the refusal of the Pope to agree to a prorogation of the Council after the festival of St. does not appear that the assembly gave this second proposal as bad a reception as it had offered to the first. On which they . he was greeted with impatient cries of " abstineas.] EIGHT MO^THS AT ROME. and now the conviction that the Vatican Avas bent upon the declaration of Infallibility caused a real panic among intentions of the Vatican. The history of the close of the debate has been told in many ways. notwithThe patience standing the resistance they might encounter. It was impossible to indulge any further illusions as to the which was evidently determined to by the majority. of whom the greater number Several bishops proposed that never entered the tribune at all. supposed to them.July. from the majority whereupon another member of the minority. proposed Pope beyond the region and morals. politics. declared their intention of not so. &c. . but all admit that when one of the bishops belonging to the Opposition attempted to speak. and therefore in the course of one sitting. and the debate proceeded until brought to an end by the refusal of those who should have spoken. thirty-two names were cleared off the lists. two Congregations should be held daily as a means of shortening the discussion and gaining time. The second and third chapters of the scheme were voted on this occasion. to come forward. 197 of Infallibility. to all which is comprised in Catholic It morality. renuncia. and.

they expected the climate to fight for them. like the Russians when their country was invaded by the French in 1812. but the result of the definitive vote soon vindicated the truth of the assertion. they considered themselves masters of the field. and as soon as they felt its beneficial influences. It almost seemed that. it might the debate. and to disregard the traditions and the future fate of the Church. and victory. Hungarian. excepting two or three of the Fathers. but this could not go on. be Strossmayer. to avoid wasting time and arguments ujion adversaries who were resolved to take no account of them. and interrupted the speeches of their adversaries with signs of irony and disapprobation. and the sitting to be concluded. the debates were ended. thanked those who had originated the happy idea. who still wished to be heard. Cardinal de Luca. . all who had their agreement in this conclusion. even without the the conduct of the Oppoform a correct judgment on the point all the facts of the case should be fully considered. Owing to the state of despondency prevailing in the minority. announced their willingness to desist. and began to taste the sweets of The Opposition were obliged by their own policy. by the nature of the subject and length of the discussion. as one of their members publicly declared. 7. gladly availed himself of the occurrence. rose and declared his determination to be henceforward silent. the Infallibilists had become more daring. but to repeat the same things very frequently. prepared to speak.198 EIGH'l MONTHS AT ROME. an example which was soon followed by his colleagues. and declared In fact. sition One of the majority then observed that the Oppo- having announced their resolution not to speak further. and invited his own party to express Accordingly. tried to set aside this reasoning to suit their The majority and to explain the matter so as own wishes. to criticised Many on people have sition this occasion. declaration of the bishops in Opposition. and French bishops had already left Rome. praised the assembly for its determination. [July. one of the presidents. The intention of the Opposition in thus promoting the close of the debate was simply. 6. and the fact that many of the German. be said that the war ended for lack of combatants to carry it on.

July. after all that can be said in their defence. therefore. it ever began. being chiefly from northern latitudes. Great astonishment was felt in the city on the day when the sitting of the Council terminated in the sudden manner wc have . now wasted was a clear gain to the majority. to prevent this result. naturally delighted to end a discussion on which they who were had made up It remained for the future. and whether. Indeed. had the meetings of the Council been extended. it would have been difficult to blame the Opposition for a policy which had been fatally guided by their minds before now so dark the natural course of events and the prevailing public opinion. tion were also induced by these considerations though reluctantly. or directly promoted the closing. was likely rather to prejudice their cause. was a most serious one to them at the and conclusive decision.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. the attempt to continue the debate in a season of intense heat. it might not appear that by a chance which could not be foreseen their patience had suffered shipwreck when they were If succeeding events had not justialmost within the harbour. and stormy. fied this latter conclusion. there was no use in further delay. in furthering the desires of the majority. and no hope but in the final vote. and that the dogma of Infallibility would be certainly declared. but left the matter to be brought about by final settled. and the result soon justified their expectations. Prolonged discussion on a matter already settled could not influence the opinions of the Fathers. as its members. moreover. The Opposito join. : the state of general weariness prevailing among the Fathers. a result which the former had probably foreseen when. were especially sensitive to the The minority were most anxious effects of the Roman climate. they no longer demanded. far from bringing about a good result. to reveal whether the Opposition had been right or wrong in their policy. once certain that the assembly would not be dissolved before their work was accomplished. though not im- portant to the majority. and the Opposition would in consequence have become daily weaker. and. and pregnant with most important events. the bishops would still have gone on leaving Rome. because the loss of votes. and an equal loss to the minority. when the whole matter would be Every day. it 199 When was once ascertained that the Pope was determined not to prorogue the Council.

was. such anecdotes are of it little importance. which their was now hastening. and others crowded tobut none. who witgether in the public conveyances nessed the prelates thus returning quietly home. reached this stage. the last demonstrations of an indignation which they well knew was hereafter unavailing and Everyone will understand that matters having powerless. [July described. The majority. on the part of the Opposition. and most difficult to arrive at a knowledge of their accuracy that the third chapter was passed in but one thing is certain the assembly without serious resistance. the general resistance having ceased. began to entertain hopes not only for the vote on the third chapter. July 8. that this amendments agreed on. unwonted hour. perhaps.! 200 EIGHT MO^"THS AT ROME. but for the much questioned and important fourth chapter. the amendments on the third chapter concerning the Primacy were discussed. among the leaders of the Opposition. Business proceeded rapidly after this. though not definitively voted by the Council. and most of the Freiuli prelates in Opposi- . he added something to it of his own was said that on accord. should arrive. and their expectations were strengthened by the knowledge that differences had arisen is — . elated by this result. after it had been amended. that they might examine tents at leisure . but in Europe and the whole world On Monday. It seems that the Bishop of Orleans. and. . con- this occasioned a delay. realised the influence their decrees would exercise on the civil and religious future. many on having sent away their carriages. in order to gain time. this chapter being presented to the Pope for his approbation. and all sorts of rumours were circulated at the sight of the bishops leaving St. a very full one. Monday the 11th. not only in Italy. these latter When flected had agreed at their meeting to give up speaking and policy to allow the debates to be closed. although the Congregation was 5th. Some bishops chapter. distributed to the Fathers. they had also re- on the conduct to be pursued when the end. 9. Peter's at an foot. and when this became known to the assembly it aroused. if we may It the last concession granted by the president. no objections were made. with the proposed. should be again printed its and. and the vote on that It chapter only took place on so consider it.

finally was end of the discussion on the amendments to the fourth chapter. been already made and disregarded. wished to make a solemn protest against the treatment they had met with. for the most resolute and the clearest course to the question of leaving or remaining is usually the best. though it had never assumed a definite shape before. the want of fairness shown towards them by the presidents all through the discussion. The Germans. the protest at was never made. an amendment to the new scheme " De Ecclesia " introduced during the discussion. This scheme had not been sent back to the Commission for revision. insults. These divisions were a cause of hope or it therefore. as the logical and natural results of the policy adopted. with at their head. proposed to leave Having made this protest. and thus the formula preserved that curt and unceremonious character appertaining to the motus in fine velocior. Monsignor Haynald till were of a different opinion . The formula was thus their intention of not prolonging the debate. with which the later business of the Council proceeded. In fact. the consummation of the unanimous wish of the majority who had convoked the Vatican Council and guided the course of its deliberations. lastly. and it now appeared as the final result. against the advantage taken of the hot season to weary them. and affronts of which the majority had been guilty with regard to them. As this formula was produced by itself. they Rome immediately. and. time has perhaps shown that on this point the judgment of the Germans was the right one. were not of a nature . Rome Perhaps they were right so many protests had the end.July.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. just . and what the majority had prepared with much care. against the excesses. that to continue them seemed almost undignified and. 10. before the close of the debate. moreover. and whether in consequence of the encouragement thus gained. and in the very Congregation of the 4th of July in which the Fathers had announced produced under these auspices at the came about that the formula of Infallibility The formula was what had been expected for some time. easily susceptible of proof. 201 tion. the subjects of complaint. though they might be just in themselves. to the Vatican. and wished to remain in . it might be looked upon as a sort of amendment to the fourth chapter. As Rome. they were adverse to the protest.

[July. and uncertain as to The authorities took measures to the effect it had produced. &c. the Vatican remained for a moment astonished." and inThe sisting on the promulgation of the dogma of Infallibility. at the close of a trying and stormy discussion. It seems that. The terms of this formula. 11. combetter that . and is enjoyed by the Pope ex derivato when he makes definitions But of what practical value are these subtleties ? ex cathedra. of ecclesiastical prestige. ascertain from the bishops in Opposition through their colleagues. by the simultaneous and of as to defy all Rome. and after numerous protests.202 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. In reality. that the Pope " doctoris cum omnium Christianorum pastoris et auctoritate. moribus ab universa Ecclesia tenendam per assistentiam divinam ipsis in Beato Petro promissam ea infallibilitate pollere. who would now represent in their others thought it worse difficult to draw fine distinctions where . the Vatican offered to the bishops. . worded. might perhaps be construed to indicate that Infallibility resides primarily in the Church. new Papal vicars. munere fungens. one has stated all that there was to say. Some tried to persuade themselves than the preceding one . what course they intended to pursue in the event of the Pope disregarding their resistance and vote of " Non placet. and we do not find that they acknowledged any limit to their dominion. at least. it was in truth. whenHistory presents us with the example of ever he chooses. Secretary of State appeared very uneasy as to the opinion of Governments on this declaration. How would they receive the bishops. that part of it which recognises his authority. pro suprema sua apostolica fide vel doctrinam de definit. it would be hard to make the assertion in better or worse terms. has really the means of upsetting the whole world. on minute examination. several Popes who virtually exercised this power before it was decreed to them by an Ecumenical Council. The formula itself was so clear and precise ments. having thus made the definitive stroke. qua Redemptor Ecclesiam suam insti- tutam esse voluit." This was the ultimatum which. for having said it. or. consequences. now wearied out weight of an unbending the torrid climate of will. any Pope wishing to extend this power to its logical. it was none really existed when one has said that snow is white.

] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Hungarian. as Rome was not the place for it. not only the Infallibility of the Pope. the resignation of their sees was the logical result. and French bishops . for if they acknowledged the validity of the Council without accepting Infallibility. and consequently of a foreign prince. It was not possible for them to assume the course of action first mentioned. the uncertainty as to the conduct of the Opposition. with regard to public opinion. would insure their safety but the validity of the Council. placet " were irremediably lost by to many German. they must impugn. and the uncertainty and perplexity they experienced greatly influenced their conduct in the public Session. the difficulty about Foreign Powers. They found themsuch a predicament. own purposes. The Opposition. With regard to the second doubt. . to the tolerance and freedom of thought which has everywhere triumphed in modern days. rightly or wrongly. Thirty or forty votes of " the return of so Non voted on Monday. or resign their sees. July 11th. and 203 States no longer a national authority local interests. but the authority of Rome.. was seriously proposed to present to the bishops. thus indicating the constraint under which they had been placed in forming their decisions. that to escape from it logically. were much alarmed at this prospect. a document to be signed by all those who had voted against it by which they should promise either to accept the dogma. and thought that the Secretary of State might easily reassure Foreign Governments by some such note as he had already addressed to them. along with the definition of the dogma. a prince to whom they owed an obedience su? perior to all national duties and obligations first With regard to the it doubt. better even The third chapter was than the Liberals. with a policy of his own. but which to its it knows how to convert 12. July. not pos- sessing such unanimity of opinion or firmness of organisation as selves reduced to under the trial. although the most clear-sighted were far from being at ease. a liberty which that party never ceases to oppose. The so-called Catholic party trusted. the time was not propitious. and they themselves not the men to do it so to avoid the consequences of the second alternative was very difficult. persons not possessed of great discrimination comforted themselves with the reflection that an undue pressure of authority is readily excused by those who exercise authority themselves.

601 " Juxta modum." 451 inscribed. with the alterations we have indicated." with these results bishops " Placet. being masters of the field. Such is the hibtory of which expressed the . The greatest precipitation . who. numbering almost 100. and not choosing it to appear. 692 total number of votes. On the same day the debate on the amendments to the fourth chapter nearly 100 in number was commenced. but was now unexpectedly brought forward in a new amendment by some Infallibilist bishops. own dioceses. A last resistance was made to the word anathema. among whom was might fairly the Secretary The number of Fathers absent from the Council on . but were substituted one for another and amended in the course of a So great was the haste. among which latter " Non placet. just grounds .2J4 their EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. that the discussion on single debate. the amendments to the fourth chapter. . 91. but it is clear from what we have already stated that no effectual discussion on the amendments could be undertaken. which was promulgated at the public Session. many be considered that of them being Rome. [July." 88 : . 13. and others having the city in order to avoid being present. and The put to the vote. now characterised the proceed- ings of the assembly formulas succeeded one another with such rapidity that they were no longer revised by the Commissions. 11. which commenced on the 11th. nor in the text as read by the reporters. The condemnatory clause may accordingly be read in the draft of the dogma. succeeded in affixing it to the statement as prepared for promulgation. latter day will be ever memorable in the annals of the Church for its influence on her future destiny. as the debate on the text itself had been abandoned. and of the ultimate intention of the the vote Pope. was finished on the 13th. which was not originally inserted in the formula of Infallibility. of the Secretary of State uncertain of the final From the absence seems that up to that moment he was result. and takes the place of the circumlocutory phrases which had closed the other formulas — — presented to the assembly. the fourth chapter of the scheme " De Ecclesia. . That day witnessed the voting on the Infallibility of the Pope." 62. were three cardinals of State. was about 30 so it the absence of the others actually in left was intentional. absent. .

and all the pressure exercised by the authorities in its favour. with regard to their size and number. and we should also remember human weakness. between the votes of " Non placet. gains still more in value." of " Placet juxta modum. the relative position of the majority and the if . bishops in partihus. how many generals of religious orders. Finally. and the author of ecclesiastical rebuke when all this is borne in mind. more or less distinctly. we may dispassionately and equitably reckon the number of dissentients to be between 150 and 200. with less difference than appears from the figures in themselves. and one remembers that all these form a class particularly dependent on the court of Rome. and the relative proportions of the . It must also be borne in mind that the episcopal sees of Italy and the Pontifical provinces. either in word. even taken at its lowest figure. the same number. in the presence of one who was the dispenser of ecclesiastical promotion. taken as the expression of thought and power.July. we must admit that the moral worth of the criterion afforded by this vote re-establishes. the reflections we have already made are strengthened. we should not forget the influence exercised. minority. holding no cure of souls. We include in this number all the Fathers who in this Congregation rejected the proposed formula of the personal Infallibility of the Pope. or in deed. or in part. which must always be taken into account. that there . 205 Pope. are as five or six to one when compared with France and Germany and as the Opposition came almost exclusively from the latter countries. were how many cardinals in the same position. . on the Fathers of the Assembly. the sum of the dissentients.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. opinion of the assembly. and are trained under a peculiar and exceptifmal discipline. and that naturally produced by the august presence of the Pope in the Vatican. and recollect how many is to say. the the we revert to calculation made in the first chapters as to the number of Fathers present at the Council. If as to the whole. and absolutely. Moreover. acquires an importance greater than its amount would warrant in the proportions of the assembly. and those who abstained from voting." those being conditional assents which in absolute matters become negative. who constitute a sort of special army. on the personal Infallibility of the Notwithstanding all the efforts made to further the dogma.

as the universality of would be thus seriously impugned. Adjunct to the formula of Infallibility. 10. could not by the strongest resolution in It notwithstanding the world be carried into effect belief . 1. an event which is not and cannot be unimportant. The Opposition send a 5. though it was not. both in a civil and historical point of view. especially at Rome. Calculations well founded. because. After the 11. — — — 8. but even by those of common prudence. Infallibility. message 7. to the Pope. but disappointed. The future. Protest Last attempts of the Opposition. Indeed. the result would only be a futile endeavour to demonstrate at the same time what was and what was not. Protests of the Opposition. the light. universally professed. to the credit and the future of the religion of the great majority of the Latin races. in defining a dogma. II. not only in the past but in the present. 1. one side of the dilemma raised by the Opposition was brought into a clear and formidable According to general belief. though an indirect one. cannot be overlooked in our estimate of the votes given on July 13th. we do not say of ancient Roman wisdom only. owing to that vote. 12. 4. was consequently maintained that a declaration which. The result of this vote. — — — 2. mind There remains but one is other test which. . We have now pointed out all that is required for a just appreciation of this event.— FOUETH SESSION. all the helps and furtherances described. event. Church never creates a dogma new in itself but. — Reflections on the vote. was yet such as ought to have withheld any Assembly from proceeding to further decisions on a matter of so much gravity. [July. of the assembly. 3. was still opposed by about one-third of the legitimate representatives of Catholic opinion. simply attests some belief which has been always and . — — 9. Fourth Session.— 206 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Text of the Canons that promulgate Mnemosynon. and that the moral and intellectual weight of the bishops and populations who in one way or other took no part in it. and could not be contested according to the rules.— 6. majority and the minority are somewhat modified in the of the sagacious and impartial observer.

and left room for a reasonable belief that the definition would be certainly suspended. to the last 207 Those who up day believed that the work under- taken by the Civilta Cattolica would be unsuccessful. of Lyons. 75."* On the day of the final vote. the legates only announced to the Fathers that the votes of "Placet juxta modum " would be taken into consideration. then discovered that. justified the estimate formed of the if it state of opinion in the fail. on the whole. Dante. and . when all these The vote had. " ne mosse collo ne piego sua costa. and the Archbishops of Paris. The Pope returned an ambiguous answer. the contrary to all this soon did not altogether But became apparent. — — Schwarzemberg. and a special report drawn up in the next Congregation. . but in its agitation. The Commission was composed of Cardinal repeat. of Milan.— July. They spoke most strongly to the Pope of the dangers now threatening the Church they earnestly prayed for some modification of the scheme and they acquainted him with the intention of the Opposition to repeat the " Non placet" in the public Session if obliged to do so. or wilful self-deception. The Vatican was indeed deeply agitated at so grave a resistance. notwithstanding their votes. . in order to settle by common consent the and it line of action to be adopted in this dangerous crisis was proposed to nominate a Commission on behalf of the minority. and their determination. 2.' Itif.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME.' ' Longfellow. though with much regret. and of Halifax. The minority. who had already suspected it. The leaders of the Opposition of different nations held meetings on the 14th and 15th. the " Non placet " already given in the private Congregation before all the world in the public Session. who fully concurred in their opinions. if the demand were not complied with. * ' Neither hit> neck lie moved nor bent his side. making known to his Holiness their number. who should implore the Pope to suspend the definition of the dogma. x. the business was at once to proceed. and that the public Session for the definitive promulgation of the dogma would be held as quickly as possible. Church. They also informed him that to this end they could reckon confidently on about 120 Fathers. to . cannot be accused of presumption. considerations are borne in mind.

though in a less exclusive form. This took place on the Friday . carefully and specifically eliminating the proviso that the consent of the bishops and their approbation. if he ever really entertained it. no other effect of shown at the last vote and of the remonCommissions to the Pope was apparent. give any decided opinion himself. notwithstanding its favourable leaning towards It was requisite in order that this amendment Infallibility. the 14th. and in the Congregation held on Saturday the 16th. from by the Giornale di Roma its and every other mulgation read document. and would not. showed himself ill-informed petition of the that he but said he would confer with the legates. that is to say. July 18th.208 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. the fac. therefore. was soon was still dispelled. should gain the vote of the majority. he admitted dubious as to the attitude the Opposition might assume. In this the formula of Monday. Bj such behaviour. promised to consider. even the draft of public pro- at the contained the very phrases which expressly excluded the necessity of the consent of the bishops. the following day. in fourth public Session of the Vatican Council was then definitively fixed for Monday. when proposed." . : The addition of this new clause excluding the bishops from participating in the universal decrees of the Church was an incident similar to that which occurred on the introduction of the word " anathema " into the text in the Congregation of Monday. save the presentation of another amendment draw« up by the extreme Infallibilists. so Avorded that the Pontifical decree ex cathedra should be " irreformabiles ex sese absque consensu Ecclesiae " but this formula. that the formula. was necessary in order to render the Papal decrees infallible.t We may Session. already recorded and amended. The was. [July. and received the Commission. in the matter . but the doubt. as given official infer this also. was embodied in its most concise exall the opposition strances made by the pression. the clause was proposed and accepted by the assembly in the course of the discussion without any preparation whatever. to modify it as follows " Ex sese non autem ex consensu Eccleslae irreformabiles esse. 3. according to the result of Saturday's Congrega- . was not accepted by the assembly. The last amendment the first place.

which received Rome immediately after the voting of Wednesday. the public Session which was after the last voting.July. 19 Luglio. and summarily carried through on the IGth.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. that they were inserted by the Congregation of Saturday but the Giornale di Roma did not add at whose request or instigation had been proposed. in the Congregation of Saturday. It is clear but no mention of the exclusion of the bishops. . in order to be so much modified and therefore the Giornale Ufficiale failed to throw any light on a question which remained still open to the free judgment of commentators. in the last Congregation. there is ample proof that the clause was not the consequence of a careful consideration by the majority. It did not say by whose authoritative hand the vote of the 13th had been taken back. an addition which the Commission itself up . which we have already described. instead. and previous to the last addition made in the text in the meeting of Monday. the 13th. at which the new amendment was voted. contained the definitive text that was to be published. sese irref'ormabiles. that time had never brought forward. the formula given a its 209 tion little while before by the communications direct from Rome. whereas. a few days after. the 18th. to . was anticipated by twentyfour hours. after being once published. * " Ideo hujusmodi Eomani Pontificis definitinnes csso ex Martedi. and after the visit of the Commission." TJnita Cattolica. and insisted. re- pelled the accusation made by other newspapers. but simply a partial opinion presented after the final voting under the form of an amendment. fixed. it Whether the Pope had was settled for Monday. after the minority had retired from the debate. This was all the answer given to the remonstrances of the Commission of bishops sent to the Pope Moreover.* that the Unifa Cattolica had received its information from . Unita Cattolica. that the words excluding the consent of the bishops had been placed there by the Pope. and if they had already published the formula which resulted from that vote as definitive. for Tuesday. as we have seen. Therefore. But whose idea was it ? at whose instigation was it proposed ? The Giornale di Roma of the 26th of July. if up to the day of voting it had never entered into the heads of the Commission or of the presidents to express this idea.

that. against the proceedings and the freedom and especially condemned two pamphlets on se passe au Concile. at the same time. It was very decided in style. eyes. was read to the whole assembly on behalf of the presidents.210 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. were keenly felt at Rome . between Friday and Saturday a great change was observable in their disposition. to proceed as quickly as possible towards the attainment of the object and now become the indispensable for the majority — whatever were the reasons that determined the conduct of the principal actors at moment. in order to avoid new difficulties. It was evident from a protest so solemn. At the close of Saturday's Congregation. and another recently published. and that. every external sign of hesitation and moderation was given up. that. against anonymous newspaper articles. and marked by that violence which has of late characterised the productions of the Roman all Chancery. This protest denounces in general terms characterises as " le without distinction. [July. a protest. finally. and even of consecrated ministers of religion.' which pointed to the hope of a future Council.' which we have already noticed. signed by the presidents and Secretary of the Council. ascertained that the minority would not continue their resistance till the public Session — whether the die as being once cast. called forth probably by the consideration rapidity and which their act : accomplished. which are usually disregarded by private individuals. entitled La derniere heure du Concile. it was considered well to make much as possible out of the chance. " e le turpissime menzogne " (shameful lies). not only of the heterodox but of nominal Catholics. but instead of producing the desired effect. ' . in the arrangements of which such liberty and justice should prevail as are requisite for effectually remedying of the Council subject. that assaults. after- wards inserted in the Giornale di Roma. It was said that during the voting of the last new amendment some of the of the most dispassionate bishops displayed security with its signs of deep emotion. the Ce qui ' the ills of the Church. and carried to ultimate results would be an act which spread over the future of the Church a veil impenetrable to human 4. they seemed pamphlets and . it calunnie putridissime " (putrid calumnies). one thing is certain.

V 2 . was deprived of utility 5. Two copies of the protest. were distributed to each of the Fathers. done the whole work.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and entreaties of every sort were used. Every possible means of resistance was employed by the minority in the hours that remained between the Congregation of Saturday. be only then rightly estimated when it has undergone Council as a perpetual memorial. seeing that all was lost. written and verbal. One may protest against a particular lie or several definite lies. and the time of its appearance. and to sign the other. seeing that they were not likely to obtain any redress. which. but in vain. Before the close of the Congregation on Saturday. and the Session announced for Monday prayers and supplications.July. Indeed. Whatever may be thought of the substance of the protest. the legates announced to the Fathers that the Council would not be pro- rogued. much of its importance and by the last declaration. signed by the presidents. who usually the scrutiny of succeeding generations. and will. which will descend to posterity in connection with the history of the Council. show 211 rather to that the authorities experienced the need of sell- defence. the bishops of the Opposition. with all other events." as the Germans wished from the . can only be exercised on determinate this sort of generic eloquence is and consequently unavailing." by which the proposition would revert to its original form. and who had. and openly repeat the " Non placet. facts. and of no historical value. began to consider whether they should assist at the public Session. proposed simply the elimination of the word " anathema. consigning to the archives of the bore the signatures of those This document accordingly made up the majority. sometimes end by proving nothing. in fact. who were it invited to preserve one. to continue their work . by the way. On the Sunday. the form in which it was drawn up met with much disfavour. Some of the Fathers. but to protest Criticism against lies in general is a work of supererogation. persons who try to prove too much. including the framing of the protest itself. but that the Sovereign Pontiff granted them a vacation during the summer months : they were invited to i-eassemble at the Vatican in the beginning of autumn.

Accordingly. [July. the Archbishop of Vienna. affixed their names to the document on that same Sunday. the strongest argument in favour of the French opinion for leaving the city. and very scant so that on trie return of courtesy as to the matter generally the last messenger of reconciliation. with filial as they themselves declared. most in accordance seems that before carrying this resolution into practice. of finding themselves under the difficult alternative suggested by the " anathema. one of the leaders of the Opposition. following the opinion expressed bj the French. as quickly as possible. and the circumscribed limits of her terrestrial dominion. under the very eyes of the Pope. all diocesans and representatives of the most illustrious sees in Christendom. as being the more simple and easy course. for fear of any strong measures They were being adopted towards them by the conquerors. with the motive reason of filial duty. This time the message met with a very decided and downright denial with regard to the thing prayed for. thej should protest and leave Rome. . its rejection. of finding themselves cast This fear was. duty. beginning. 6. in their respective dioceses. The latter opinion prevailed. and left Rome in great numbers. and preferred to await the result of their conduct among their own flocks. and in the event of to inform him of their determination not to assist at the public Session. also. on that very Sunday went again to the Pope to repeat the prayer already made on behalf of himself and the one. what could they do when. sixty-three bishops. as was inevitable. But it and his colleagues. of being constrained either to submit or to abandon their sees. If the dogma . if the dogma were once promulgated. along out of the bosom of the Church as well. and by the evening most of them had left Rome. afraid. and the day began to dawn which was to witness the fulfilment of the destinies of the Vatican. or whether. the bishops of the Opposition at once signed the protest. they found themselves obliged either to submit or resign their sees? They had no wish to be caught in this dilemma in Rome. Now all was over.212 EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. were once proclaimed in the public Session notwithstanding and with the the " Non placet " which they could pronounce — — addition of the "anathema" levelled against those who dissented from the doctrines contained in the schemes." namely. and possibly.

save those Principality of Monaco. were absent from the Session. 533 gave a favourable v(jte. and of these. 213 On the clouds. who : said " Non placet" were only two. and on surh occasions as . as also who formed the Opposition. and whose opinions were unknown. This computation number reported to the Pope by the Compreceding Friday. with the exception of 38 whose absence was accounted for. when they implored him on the part of the Opposition to suspend the definition. which as the Council numbered 692 showed 157 absent. at first and the American. In the excitement of mind which prevailed during the last six months among those who took an active part in the struggle. imagining himself the only begged not to be called forward. Of those the 535 present at the Session. the Bishops of Caiazzo and of Little Rock in Arkansas. The number of bishops in the hall was 535.July. as morning of July 18th the sun rose amid threatening it had done on the 6th of December. Portugal.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. but on hearing that one of his brethren was prepared to give a contrary vote. such as Paris. was due to some conThis idea arose from the fact that trivance of the majority. Turin. Both the Council Hall and the city itself presented that cold and severe aspect. and it was insinuated that their remaining in order to bear testimony to the liberty of the Council. just as incessant rain had accompanied meeting. all had consistently opposed the agrees with the mission on the dogma to the last. a Neapolitan and an American extremes meet." which echoed through the Council Hall as . No representatives of the Christian powers assisted at the Session. which seems naturally to accompany the consummation of great events fraught with momentous considerations. the last protest against the definition of the bility. Vienna. and from Brazil. the Bishop of Caiazzo had been recently nominated to his see Comments were made even on separated by the Pope dissentient. the some small states of no political importance. dogma of Infalli- In such a momentous crisis. those The bishops of many eminent sees. these two dissentients thus from the rest of the Opposition and left behind. and accordingly pronounced the " Non placet. and a violent its first storm burst over the Eternal City during the fourth Session of the Council. everything is possible. Holland. he resolved to do the same. and Milan.

and both the heavens and the city of Rome appeared to bear external evidence of the great events then taking place. and in the These must be taken public Session 533. but this and the applause at the door of the Council Hall. and the like. and afforded a striking proof of moral courage by their conduct before the Council ? No sooner had the Pope pronounced the formula. however. from the 91 absent. the look for those number of absentees. the Pope made a short speech. people [July. and houses were illuminated. He concluded by saying that he trusted all those now absent. far from diminishing. than the little crowd of monks. described. for a hurricane broke over bolts fell in Rome during the ceremony. thunder- two or three places while the service was proceeding between half-past eleven and twelve o'clock. who pressed round the door of the hall. . events which in one sense closely concerned them both. On the first voting for Infallibility on Wednesday the 13th there were 451 in favour of the dogma." but as the numbers voting on Wednesday amounted to 601. nuns. the noise had ceased. were the only signs of rejoicing at the declaration of Infallibility. would give their adhesion to the dogma. had increased by about one-half. 214 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. In the evening the Governa few private ment offices. and declared that it would be reflected on the bishops. It seemed. as well as in the records of the Council. instead of acknowledging that they chose the regular form why for expressing their opinions. but the rest of the city remained in perfect silence if the elements and profound darkness. and at the public Session only to 535.. as had conspired to disturb the terrestrial calm. in which he acknowledged the greatness of the dignity assured to him by the present declai'ation. the religious establishments. we have but may suppose and assert anything should one imagine abstruse and unlikely reasons for the conduct of these two representatives of the Opposition. Two or three houses in the city were decorated. and become a source of advantage to them likewise. 7. and thus one must who adhered to the definition after Wednesday. an increase of 82. consistent with the sacredness of the locality gave vent to such demonstrations of joy as were hardly and as soon as . arid the 62 "juxta modum. The result of the voting gives rise to considerations very important in the history of mankind.

What had induced these Fathers to change their opinion ? the same in substance as on the day that was voted.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. What was the reason which induced them so quickly to change their opinion. and at the present time Vicar of the Capitolo di San Pietro. but now he accepted the doctrine. and then supposing that they had actually done so. He and the other dissentient cardinals drew . Berardi. once Vicar-Apostolic in China. Grassellini and Hohenlohe . formerly Apostolic preacher. the warlike minister of Castelfidardo. whose vote was considered most important from his being a Cardinal and a person of great piety. at least for the present. of Avignon. and of Salzburg also the Archbishop of Pisa. with the exception of the amendments.July. which exaggerated without essentially altering it. "buon uomo" (good man). if I mistake not. he retraced his steps at the It was said final decision by giving the orthodox " Placet. among 215 the 62 conditional as far as the calculation admits. Padre Luigi da Trento. what could be the value historically of a double and conflicting testimony at the same time. on perceiving that resistance was vain. up the triumphant position he held for a short time. chiefly votes." said. and though he had voted "juxta modum " on Wednesday the 13th. if not actually adverse. and the Pope having observed his absence at the public Session. It is quite possible that in Italian these observations might bear the same signification. but his opinions were known to be adverse to Infallibility. and on the same subject? Among those who were absent from the Congregation of the 13th were Antonelli. the French especially." were known to it The formula remained be personally unfavourable. and the greater part of the sixty-two who had voted " juxta modum. and among them. were the Bishops of Rheims." that when he came forward to vote on this occasion the Pope observed him attentively. were likewise Avanting at the meeting. M. de Merode. Up to this time he had been reckoned among those who opposed personal Infallibility. had at the last moment modified their opinion. Several prelates of the minority. . Cardinal Guidi had given remonstrated with him on the point. to the declaration of the dogma. others thought the words were " pover uomo " (poor man). Bishop of Canopo. Padre Luigi da Trento was renowned for his scientific acquirements. and on hearing him give the answer "Placet. and Count Ludovico de Besi.

were the Archbishops of Paris. Ab eo inde tempore nihil prorsus. the Archbishop of Prague. Nearly 150 pastors of Catholic flocks were absent though they occupied some of the most important and illustrious sees in Christendom. suffragium suum per verba non placet emiserunt sexaginta duo alios. Notum est Sanctitati vestrje octoginta octo patres fuisse. the Primate of Hungary. of Colocsza. silent. We will give the document in extenso. [July. non sinunt nos in causa Sanctitatis vestra) personam adeo enim filialis proxime concerncnte palam et in facie ^latris dicere non placet. quod sententiam nostram mutaret. men eminent them in themselves. on account of its importance both in itself and in regard to the occasion of its : production Eeatissime Pater. as we have already observed. qui infirmitatilms aut suffragio emittendo abstinuerunt.— 216 their scarlet . but men and who occupied eminent which means that surest 8. Coijfirmantes itaque per hanc scripturara. advexit. Louis. of Saint altogether. the present time in lay the best hopes of the Church. quin imo multa caque gravissima acciderunt. qui conscientia urgente et amore sanctc'e Ecclesise permoti. of Treves. Also the Primate of Gaul. In congregatione general! die xiii hujus mensis habita. quaj missos nostros superrime. atque hoc mode munus officiumque quod nobis incumbet persolvimus. EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. dedimus suffragia nostra super schemata prima3 constitutionis dogmatical de Ecclesia Christi. ad jiedes Sanctitatis vestra3. and the difference between that and the of favourable votes in the Congregation held on number Wednesday is explained. qua? nos in proposito confirmaverunt. . Atque idco nostra jam edita suflragia nos renovare et confirmare declaramus. suffragia nostra a sessione publica die dt'ciuioctava hujus mensis habenda ut abesse liceat constituinius. and the Bishops of Mayence. of Bosnia and Sirmio. The protest signed by sixty-three bishops of the Opposition before leaving Rome was written in a sober and respectful style. many others we may say at that the absent prelates were not only positions. denique septuaginta circiter. Turin. Vienna. qui suffragati sunt per verba juxta modum. and in fact. Pietas ac rcvercntia. Among them. : aliis gravioribus rationibus ducti. hats down over their eyes. evenit. of Marseilles. and Milan. patuitque quatn multis episcopis sententia nostra probetur. qui a congregatione abfuerunt atque a His accedunt et alii. the Bishop of Orleans. which forms a striking contrast with the address of the legates. and remained Thus was obtained the number that voted favourably at the public session. of Nice. Hac ratione Sanctitati vestra? et toti mundo suffragia nostra nota atque manifestata fuere. ad suas dioeceses reversi sunt.

to account whole history Nothing can alter the final dilemma. the of the last few months. for whatever may be said of the favourable votes. then their assent to the dogma was more detrimental to the object they had in view. than the most ardent opposition. either those who publicly and formally protested.— July. cui intemeratam fidem et obedientiam i)rofitemur Domini nostri Jcsu Christi gratiaj et praesidio toto corde commendantes sumus Sauctitatis vestraa Devotissimi et obedientissimi (Here follow the signatures. very difficult for outsiders to penetrate the mysteries of the secret retracta- tions and mental compromises made by uncertain consciences offices of within the hidden recesses of the Congregations and Rome . quibus post tarn longam absentiam ob belli timores atque pres- santissimas eorum spirituales indigentias suminopere necessarii sumus. Interea Ecclesiam Dei et Sanctitatem vestram.) The day which that it after the protest had been signed by so many bishops. Eedimus itaque sine 217 suf- Et aliunde suffragia iu solerani sessione edenda repeterent dumtaxiit iVagia in generali congregatione deprompta. etiam conscientiarum pacem et trauquillitatem turbatam inter fideles nostros reperturi sumus. in order to repeat the " Non placet " given at the preceding Congregation. was by far the best and surest course . It is. of course. but though the Giornale di Roma might choose to say that the dogma had met with universal assent. the number of Fathers who signed the protest for the voluntary absences. in the Giornale di Roma gave an said that the dogma of Infallibility had been unanimously passed. mora ad greges nostros. adhered to their protest and then it is impossible to maintain the universal acceptance of the dogma. and all the members of the majority remaining in Rome repeated the same assertion. to cancel. — is much too considerable to be overlooked or supposing those who protested to have afterwards retracted. in fact. — From this first test it became apparent that the decided opinion of the German bishops who advocated the attendance of the Opposition at the public Session. 9. such words could not avail to blot out the protests that had been made.] J]1GHT MONTHS AT ROME. with the exception of two votes of " Non placet. for the assertion of the Giornale di false statements Roma gave them a foretaste of the and judg- ." and numbers of the absent bishops had sent their adhesion to it in writing. dolentes quod ob tristitiani in quibus versamur rernm adjunctam. account of the public Session.

and. but to see white when the object contemplated is black. to say at the same time yes and no in a a question whether the universal Church has question of fact . and as there repugnance to throw out more than is gathered in.! a: 218 EIGHT MONTtIS AT EOME. upon him must rest the responsibility of the whole matter. and with regard to the Opposition and the Majority. ments they must in future expect from having' followed milder If the individual who induced the minority to adopt counsels. but an attempt to produce ex novo a difficulties arise development in the Church. he will have ample cause to regret his advice. but whatever difficulty in its theological or canonical value may be. and in the end they did give it. of Infallibility. is beyond human power. but in doing so we diminish their worth as a testimony both in the first and second case. it evident that the same pressure used to bring about its promulgation will be exercised to secure its acceptance. the doctrine One can understand a change of determination from devotion. however. is certain that cotemporaries as well as posterity will have much understanding how it is possible to retract an opinion once given. enter upon this view of the question. Another phase of the question was opened by this article — phase of " approbation. which rather concerns theologians and canonists. this course acted in good faith. like a The constitution of the Church . this policy will succeed. The secondary is no no regular and lawful means of opposing the impulse from above indeed. and passes the limits of reasonIn order to escape this contradiction we must able concession. held ah itiitio. If the whole matter were not a question of fact. how many and present themselves to the observer We will not. the dissentients were nearly sure to expelled. [July. give their approbation. if otherwise." is Now that the dogma is declared. without doubt. those who attempt it have always been themselves Consequently. in the nineteenth century renders resistance impossible it is machine worked by a single motive that it force which casts away all does not absorb within itself. and does hold at the present day. almost is wheels have no longer any controlling power. but confine ourselves to such considerations as best serve to guide public opinion . there all it . not that which is found in the newspapers or the . detract from the value of the votes first given. for the sake of his own party .

which contain the in the substance and of the scheme. are the words which serve as the key-note of the drama we have been considering. III. non esse ex ipsius Christi Canon Si quis dixerit. can be rightly estimated the effects of the Vatican Council. They are as follows : Canon Si quis dixevit. I. vel omnium principem et totius Ecclesiaa militantis visibile eumdem honoris tantum. words which complete the work pursued for many centuries with wonderful constancy. . non solum in rebus quas ad fidem et mores sed Romanum etiam in iis fusa3 pertinent qua3 ad discipliuam et regimen Ecclesiaj per totum orbem difaut eum habere tantum potiores partes. vera3 proprifeque jurisdictionis directe et immediate accepisse. and which secure for the Catholic Church the most absolute supremacy known upon earth. ut Beatus Petrus in primatu super universam Ecclesiam habeat perpetuos successores. non autem primatum ab eodem Domino nostro Jesu Christo anathema sit. II. aut Romanum Pontificem non esse Beati Petri in eodem primatu successorem. who are anxious to peruse it it. * See Appendix. and by means of it alone. on the religious and political condition of Catholicism.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. non vero totam pleni: tudinem hujus supremaj potestatis aut banc ejus potestatem non esse ordinariam et immediatam. is certain to ascribe to all events their just value and importance. passing politics of the day. In these three Canons. anathema sit. sive in omnes et singulas Ecclesias.* Meantime the Canons. 10. 219 scientious conviction. Canon Si quis dixerit. anatliema sit. but those. Pontificem habere tantummodo officium inspectionis vel directionis. is not only published. sive in omnes et singulos pastores et fideles. and the paragraph which answers to the fourth. will find it is well to call attention to last decisions Appendix. however. non autem plenam et supremam potestalem jurisdictionis in universam Ecclesiam. Domini institutione sen jure divino.— July." which any one can study now that it has become a law common to all . Beatum Petrum Apostolum non esse a Cliristo Domino cou- stitutum Apostolorum caput. Document XX. in the long run. It is unnecessary to insert here the scheme " De Ecclesia. but that which is based on conThis opinion.

definitioni contradicere. qua divinus Redemptor Ecclesiam suam in definienda doctrina de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluit. is the act for which during the last seven months a never varying combat has been waged. non autem ex consensu Ecclesia3 irreformabiles esse. formal and solemn act by which the Church assumes absolute power. exaltationem et Christianorum populorum salutem. pro suprema sua apostolica auctoritate. Si quis quod Deus avertat. . autem huic nostrse anathema sit. usually attends such struggles. how is does such a constitution promote that universality which the characteristic of Christianity and implied in the very name of Catholic? It is almost superfluous again to remind our readers. religionis Catholica. on all points and in all ages. Itaque nos traditioni a fidei Christiana} exordio perceptfe fideliter inhajrendo ad Dei Salvatoris nostri gloriam. Thus organised. them the and the practical results to society of the influence of the Vatican Council. and are deprived of all freedom of judgment.that we have no desire to pass judgment on theological questions on which we are not competent to decide. who are under the strictest obligations of obedience. well qualified for intervening in its social or political strife. This. and possesses the constancy of purpose and the It is the requisite means for carrying its wishes into effect. prajsumpserit. docemus et divinitus revelatum dogma esse definimus Romanum Pontificem cum ex cathedra loquitur. seems probable that . Ath Canon. can govern the consciences of more than a hundred millions of persons who consciences which must reflect the acknowledge his sway will and the ideas of their head. Paragraph that talcts the place of tlie [July. while it become an instrument of party. namely. doctrinam de fide vel moribus ab universa Ecclesia tenendam definit per assistentiam divinam ipsi in Beato Petro promissam ea infallibilitate pollere. it Weighing these considerations by past experience. then. in such a way that one man. in the triumph of authority. ideoque ejusmodi Romani Pontificis definitiones ex sese. with also lends itself more surely to immense influence. sacro approbante coucilio. whenever that authority is well organised. 11. but simply wish to place before social and civil aspects of the question.220 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. id est cum omnium Cliristianorum pastoris et doctoris munere fungens. by means of his subor- dinates. with the result that. under the penalty of being deprived of the religious rites which direct and comfort them. is On the other hand. the its Roman and Catholic religion is is certainly easily guided by superiors.

and to indicate the opinion of those who have given up the universality of their kingdom. while it points out the probable condition of the society. who. it is possible that some Pope of large and liberal ideas may arise. and impatient of the yoke of the second. will be lost in the burning sands formed by the detritus of wasted religious beliefs and moral principles.^^ produce real fruits of liberty ? The very name of " Catholic which the devout Catholics of all countries have spontaneously assumed. and which will probably depend in great measure on the individual dispositions of the Popes who with the old news. 12. and Monsignor Manning. to follow the novelties of the Vatican. ever a policy of reaction ? parti/. Church of Rome in its laborious struggle with modern The world which . and yet are unable .] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. illiberal by nature.July. and still and comfort in the Gospel. seems to be a forecast of the future. previous to the Vatican Council was indiscriminately termed Catholic. a position in which the irresistible impulse of modern life may be able to attain its full development and it will be a great thing if in this struggle those who wish to preserve their religion. but what could he do ? Might not his best endeavours in a position of such unlimited power be attended by the same dangers as follow on Can a principle. unable to follow the liberal ideas of the first party. and liberal in Catholicism. the good find guidance — seek to make the experiment. will down within such narrow limits it by external reaches press forward with energy until a position of greater ease and freedom. The most devout and well-disciplined portion of Catholicism will no doubt strive under the direction of the Pope to set itself against the spirit of the age but where will its course end ? That is a question which none can answer. . History is bound to award to the author and originator of every work the praise or blame which is due to him. finding itself bound authority. will content themselves news par excellence. is 221 all that intelligent. All must remember the part taken by the Fathers of the Civilta CattoUca. stretching away into the distance along the borders of modern civilisation. Archbishop of Westminster. will now inevitably split but between them there will remain a coninto two divisions siderable number of persons. reasonable. which constitutes the interminable desert. Of course.

and carried it.E. ARCHIEP. all know was their mind and their will that On the day of the promulgation as a gift. of the dogma Monsignor Manning received Jesuits. WKSTMONAST.— 222 in promoting' EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. COLLEGII CIVILITATIS CATHOLIC. from the Society of the a portrait of Bellarmine with the following inscrip- tion HENRICO EDWARDO MANNING. SE8SI0NIS IV. CONCILII VATICANI MNEMOSYNON. . SODALES SOC. JESU. the [July. dog-ma of the personal Infallibility of the that it Pope.

a period which appears as nothing with reference to the history of for human the thought. an impression of the disproportion between the object longed and the result obtained to produce in the human mind that sort of vacuity which usually accompanies the attainment for . its during this period considered in They may be under three aspects. in a shattered sition remains like the conquered . of a wish. 223 CONCLUSION. That portion irresolute state of the Church which comprised the Oppoafter a battle. the religious. because the Council being now prorogued. even among the most devoted Catholics and in those quarters where the new doctrines have been most favourably received. Two years have elapsed since the events 1. the non plus ultra of the reality of anything ardently longed for itself.Conclusion. have also contributed very materially to strengthen this feeling. or as to the line of action which may adopt.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. a people or an institution. important accurately to estimate of interruption and repose. 3. the and the political. The may be said to have universally . social. The calamities in which the policy of the Vatican have resulted. corresponding with the three interests of all societies are affected. in respect to its own temporal condition and its international relations. modes which the namely. and it and we are unable yet bishops to form any con- jectures as to its sentiments. And results more opportune. the possession by an individual. but which affords sufficient space measuring the results already effected by the Vatican Council. Under the religious aspect. the immediate effect of the Vatican Council has been to cause a feeling of weariness. 2. this inquiry is the it is especially in relations it has established with Catholic nations and with society in general. we have recorded took place. to leave .

224
submitted

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.
;

[Conclusion.

and although the individuals who held aloof preserve which may one day acquire more general importance, this does not alter the fact of the more or less spontaneous, but almost universal, acceptance on the part of the episcopate, of the work of the Vatican Council. Among the inferior ranks of the hierarchy the case was
a distinct character,
different.

A

considerable

ferent

countries,

especially

number of clergy scattered in difin Germany, and a still larger
and duration of which
it

number

of the laity, have laid the foundations of a state of

separation, the importance

would

as

yet be premature and speculative to foretell.
4. Besides,

no conscientious or impartial obserter can

fail

to

discern in the submission of the bishops, and equally in

the energetic resistance of the

Old

Catholics,

an absence of
to their

enthusiasm and a forlorn resignation.
disposition

This resignation almost

assumes the character of a passive resistance, according

and temperament, among a considerable number

of intelligent Catholics capable of exercising their individual

judgment on the doctrines and policy which, gradually gaining
ground in these latter years in the guidance of the Church, have finally brought about those conclusions which are their seal and natural consequence, or, we might rather say, the compendium and formula by means of which those doctrines have been converted from mere matters of opinioji, into integral parts of the common law of the whole Catholic world.
5.

A

great

part

of the

episcopate

accepted the doctrines

and policy that prevailed in the first phase of the Vatican Council from a feeling of duty, or a desire to choose the lesser evil, or other similar reasons, rather than from actual conviction, and the sincere and spontaneous testimony of their own conscience. This applies first to those who gave in their adhesion after having upheld the contrary, as undoubtedly in their case the primary and spontaneous decision of conscience must have essentially affected their mind and
modified their external action in regard to the tenets they finally

adopted

;

and

it

applies

still

more

to all

who,

after evident hesi-

tation, either held aloof or passively

accepted, on account of

their order

and position in the hierarchy, doctrines which no

opposition on their part could enable them to repel.

Among

the

Conclusion.]
inferior clergy

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.
the proportion of those

225
possess the con-

who

sciousness and often the painful experience of the clangers and
difficulties

attending the application of those doctrines, and the
is

tendency of that policy,

much

greater than

among

the bishops

;

but an equal sentiment of order and discipline, and perhaps a

lower degree of personal independence, keeps them in a state of
obedience and of passive resignation, which paralyses their action,

and renders them mechanical rather than intelligent members of
the Church.

extremes, that

who are contained between the two between the Rationalists, the real free-thinkers, and those who compose what is properly called the Catholic party that multitude which includes the living working mass
the laity, all
is

Among

of the Catholic populations

— feels

more or

less,

with a per-

ception varying with the intelligence and morality possessed

by each individual, the practical difficulties, the perils and the misfortunes, resulting from the constant prosecution of such aims as we have described.

The among

spirit of resistance,

moreover, manifests
the clergy.

itself differently

the laity and

among

The

former, not being

controlled

by any special conditions or
to

restraints, for the greater

part break loose from the narrow circle

which confines them

;

and temporarily cease

belong to their own Church (at least in externals), without feeling any deep or lasting convictions in the matter, or being supported by the deliberate approval of
their

own

conscience.

Such desertions are readily and zealously noticed, by the very persons who actually promote them, and who prefer to see the

number

of the faithful constantly diminished, rather than to

recognise as such
submissive.

any who are not completely and blindly part only accept the ungrateful and difficult task of resisting at the same time the oppressive and expuland have in consequence the sive forces which assail them

A small

;

greatest difficulty in

making themselves accepted "da Dio

e

da nemici
6.

suoi."

A decided

school, or rather a party, stands forth in opposi-

tion to the various forms of resistance

we have

specified,

and

to

the great multitude whose active powers are neutralised by the conflict between the pressure of ecclesiastical authority and

Q

226

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.

[Conclusion.

the reluctance of their feelings and interests, sometimes even of
their reason

and conscience,
little

to

submit to
fanatical,

its

party

is

ardent, impassioned,

and

and

is

demands. This from character

and education

programme

familiar with the interests of daily life. Its based on the freest interpretations of the old school of authority, and on the traditional absolutism of the
is

Roman

Curia and it is bound together by the troubles and disappointments, hopes and regrets, to which our days of rapid
;

and violent changes give such ample scope. This party, strong in the progressive development by which its purposes have been attained, has the advantage of possessing numerous traditions and writings which have all contributed to its success, and may and even more, it is strong in conall be quoted in its favour sequence of the preponderating influence exercised by its practices, and methods of teaching on the organisation of the Church, that wonderful organisation which has been matured by fifteen centuries of experience and of strife. Furnished with these
;

formidable elements of power,

it

exercises

an unquestioned

supremacy over the multitudes that will not obey, but cannot Above this party, which by its movement imparts an resist it. impulse to the whole Catholic hierarchy, stands the Pope, as its highest expression and representative ; indeed, I might almost say its real personification, for on him necessarily rests the whole responsibility of its progress, owing to the supreme authority with which he is endued, an authority which has
recently attained
7.
its

highest development.

may

In consequence of the informal nature of this book, we here venture to make a slight digression. Great moral

authorities ought to be impersonal, in order to resist the

many

and cpnflicting currents of interests which they must encounter on their path and these latter must never be allowed
violent
;

to

individualise

or

personify the
of power

obstacles

they oppose, for
isolated

there are combinations

against

which no

force or resistance can possibly prevail, just as there are responsibilities to

which no human individual, however

great, is

equal.

The

will of an individual is a narrow passage, difficult of

access for general interests.

An

individual will becomes the

expression of the desires of those nearest to it, or of those who arc instrumental in carrying out its own designs and
;

Conclusion.]

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.

227
to that will

who, having thus the advantage over others, impart
a character less universal and a disposition to

become tyrannical. The greater the development attained by these tendencies towards isolation and concentration, the more serious are The will of the Pope becoming of infinite their consequences.
importance in the Church, his responsibility, and the difficulties to be overcome in order to maintain its universal and uncontrolled exercise, are also infinitely increased.

How much we

might learn if only the mighty spirits of those Popes who ruled the Church in times of great conflict and violent passions, when their supreme authority, though not so explicitly affirmed as at present, was in reality far more effective and more widely respected, could appear again

among

us

!

If

only we could freely

study the precious documents of the Vatican archives, and find
out the real connection between those great individualities and
the important events of their respective ages, what part they

took in them, and
appreciate the
collision

how

they influenced them,

we should be
its

greatly enlightened on the subject, and be able accurately to

conditions

of an authority so amazing, in

with the violent passions that oppose it. Critical works on ecclesiastical history, and the biographies of the great Popes which abound at the present day, have already begun to
raise

from that period of history especially, which wonderful vicissitudes of the Reformation, the League, the English revolution, and of all, in short, that during We the four last centuries has changed the face of Europe.
the
veil

treats

of the

are

now beginning

to learn

how

to estimate the absolute will of

individuals with regard to grave misfortunes, the sole responsibility of

But

which is often attributed to them by the popular voice. meanwhile how many persons attribute the massacre of St. Bartholomew, the assassination of Henry IV., and a thousand other horrors and crimes solely to the instigation of
in the
?

the Vatican

Paul III. first accepted the dedication of the works of Copernicus has not availed to counterbalance the fact that the imprisonment of Galileo was due to the Papacy, while
fact that

The

the resistance of the Lutherans to the

new astronomical

theories

have been entirely universal opinion

lost sight of in
;

the ever-widening waves of

and in those days the work was not yet Q 2

228

EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME.

[Conclusion.

finished, the responsibility of the

government of the Church

liad

not jet been renounced bj the whole ecclesiastical hierarchy, in

might reside in the head alone. subject from this brief digression, it will easily be understood that the action of the Church on Catholic society is retarded in its free development, by the
order that
8.
it

But

to return to our

reciprocal relations of

its

internal elements.
is

The

condition of the Catholic Church

not satisfactory or

hopeful with regard to her external relations, either

from a

purely religious view, or with respect to societies whose conThe spirit of absolute fession of faith differs from her own.

and unlimited authority

in Catholicism finds its coun!erpart in a

spirit of equally absolute exclusiveness.

than in the
faithful

Catholicism has been more successful in the second tendency first, and has practically succeeded in placing the
in a condition of almost hostile isolation, in real
all
life,

from the members of
point
its

other Christian confessions.

On
;

this

success has been entire.

Catholics at the present day

very often neither have, nor profess, any religion whatever
fraternise with others, or in the slightest degree to

but

they rarely attempt, whether as individuals or as societies, to

modify their

views from contact with forms of religion the nearest, and most akin to their own.

On

the contrary, this curious

among them

in the matter, that they seem to

phenomenon may be observed draw closer to those

confessions of faith which tend most towards rationalism, than to

those that have kept the nearest to religion.

have been generated by the

as by the spirit and reached their culminating point, just in proportion as their practical application has been most at variance with the temper Such exaggeration at the present day, and habits of the age.

The same results and exclusiveness of authority, both these sentiments have increased
spirit of hostility

when

universal

tolerance prevails,

is

a

source of great

diffi-

culty for Catholics in their intercourse with persons of kindred

confessions of faith, for though always obliged in such intercourse
to

submit to an outward appearance of equality, they never
it.

frankly accept

Again, from the

overstrained
life,

application of the spirit

of

exclusiveness in practical

Catholic institutions are unwilling

Conclusion.]

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.
;

229

make any interchange with others to give and accept at the same time any active co-operation on practical points of morals, or on grounds of common interest, but they keep up and create distrust and rancour where they ought rather to seek friends, or, at least, auxiliaries. These evil results are at variance both with the spirit of the Gospel and with true civilisation, and are as hurtful to the religious development as to the material progress
to

of nations.
9.

The

situation that

pal hindrances to the progress of

we have described is one of the princimodern civilisation among

Catholic nations, and a reason
degrees, at the cost of

why

it

can only be attained by

much

suffering

and great revulsions.

We
and

see in this state of things an authority at once inflexible

incapable of carrying out its designs, bearing with all its weight on an unwilling and inert multitude, strong enough to overpower all resistance from its subjects, but incapable of assimilating them to itself, and making them partakers of its own spirit. It is an authority ever at war with the rest of the world ready and eager to create difficulties in the civil society in which it moves, but unable to conquer in the battle it has provoked.
;

This authority is ever striving after the realisation of an ideal, which it seeks more ardently in proportion as that ideal eludes its grasp, and escapes from the region of human sympathies and for this it wages a perpetual warfare with the science, the in short, with laws, the habits, and the wants of modern society
;

all that constitutes

religious

institutions which, as

great nations,
life,

why we learn from the history of should be and are, when in harmony with civil
the present age.

We see

here the reason

a most effective element of order, of unity, and of force,

prove too often just the reverse. Those institutions should offer to mankind repose from their conflicts, consolation under disappointment, and a neutral ground whereon they may meet in the pilgrimage of life ; but their real action is too often very different.

They become an inexhaustible source of divisions and of diffia perpetual battle-field, on which none are indifferent culties spectators of the combat, but all, both friends and enemies, when
;

engaged in the fight, may prove equally dangerous to social Perhaps the most marked sign of the times is to be order. found in the fact that, in the unceasing and deadly warfare in

230
which the Church

EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.
is

[Conclusion.

engaged, her enemies

if

worsted, meet with

only slight discomfiture, whereas her friends are often wholly vanquished. We have now considered the second, the social

view of the question. 10. We must not deceive ourselves, the equipoise, or we might almost say the mechanical balance of the moral powers, is a law similar to that which, through the material forces, regulates the world it is therefore superior to all human laws, and cannot be
;

disturbed without causing terrible confusion and violent reaction.

An

unnatural state of things outside of that equilibrium

may be

created and maintained

by clever

artificers,

demonstrate the power of

human

intellect
is

;

who, in so doing, but before long the

inconvenience of such a position
it is

manifested, and a reaction

occurs sooner or later, becoming more violent in proportion as delayed, and most violent

when

it

comes too

late,

and

is

powerless to restore the primitive order of things.
in this latter case, reaction only seems to drag

Very

often,

down

to destruction

the whole work, so painfully, and
built

sometimes so wonderfully,
societies,

up and kept

together.

Institutions prosper,

and constitute the happiness of

according as not only in their foundation, but in their successive development, they

conform and accommodate themselves

to

the rules of this great moral law, and keep

the limits deter-

mined by this just equilibrium. In the precepts of the Gospel, and its full and comprehensive teaching, we find the highest
expression of a law that meets
all all

the needs and provides for
it

the conditions of humanity, and

was in the strength of

law alone that Christianity in four or five centuries conquered the whole of the known world. As Christian institutions
this

have by degrees been developed, their application has become more minute and complicated (sometimes, it is true, with wonderful results), but they have lost in consequence

much

of their

original

simplicity and breadth, and

much

also of that cha-

racter of universal adaptability

which distinguished primitive

Christianity.

synthetical precept,

"Brethren, love one another," was the doctrine taught as a by one of the earliest and most illustrious
Dissensions grew as the tendency
:

preachers of Christianity.
to define

and particularise increased

and the legal definitive

openly and . and gave rise to endless controversies. and a law. 1870. a great part of Christian Europe refused to bend any longer to the laws of Rome. to govern. the greater also became the number of cases in which it applied. which arose during this long development of an authority so unlimited as that potentially and effectively contained in the Roman Church. so minute. after much transitory agitation and resistance. so uniform. . and the framing of decrees and canons went on till the 18th of July. alike in principle and in application. though founded on a law most pure and simple (that of the Gospel). this legis- whence and circumstances and expansion. as well as in practice pressing equally on all its subjects. has been to evolve and perfect a system which. which awoke and interests in men's minds. The result of an infinite number of circumstances. and by none other that human nature. finding itself thus bound down by a rule which was invariable. Inflexible in its nature. divided them into friends and enemies. and much resistance. and to which that inflexibility extended. in such a way. first instinctively and submissively. — . in theory and applying to matters of greatest breadth. to order. and then consciously. This phase was replete with active life in Christianity and in the Church and the vitality. 11. Still the work of defining and particularising proceeded. and defining continued produced a system. to be overcome but yet men continued to legislate. Amidst it all these explanations and definitions. finally. and made laws for itself. movement and collision inherent in it.] EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. began to react. until. — wildly. 231 elevation of the See of East. has by degrees embodied a new code so full. produced the greatest men and the most marvellous institutions. It followed in consequence lation preserved the character of the times derived its birth . and to centralise. moral and material.Conclusion. . Rome was marked by the schism of the The process of ordering. passions. but in its special application. there were many obuntil thej differences of opinions. arranging. stacles and difficulties to be encountered. with to minute particulars so framed as scarcely any or no distinction of race and nation to bring all people to a given end by certain means. not only in substance. the more it was enlarged and became minute. a policy. While it lasted. until casuistry was constituted into a science.

customs changed. on account of the ever-increasing difficulties on and the weakening of religious belief and of Meanwhile. obedient Catholics. provide a commensurate remedy. and intolerable on . and in the end. living under an exceptional regime. which claimed for itself power and of learning. owing to their numbers being restricted. her part. very soon there would not have remained a single that in order to render its application possible. penalties. and thus by little and little became visible the breach between Church and society. for one reason or another. which had formerly been united. The Church. though containing much that was good. The time had come when the height of submit to the Curia. [Cokclusion. neither could the patience and tolerance with which tba Roman Curia prudently moderated its ecclesiastical policy. The expedient we have noticed. the more the pressure of religious institutions in Catholic society became artificial on one side. which. to member who could be considered truly faithful according to her own rules. variance with the laws that ruled them. affinity with advance- ment and science very difficult equally so its relations with the feelings and habits gradually unfolded in the rest of mankind. She also originated. was yet so peculiar and uniform as to render it little adapted for universal application. censures. Catholics became more than ever a separate class. and rendered . and founded new militant religious orders. the other. already dangerous on account of its influence on individual character. or else to find itself in conflict with them. and both found themselves more than ever at the one side. multiplied laws. as they are called. no longer sufficed to meet the evil it was intended to obviate. and. on inquisitions . time rolled on. This separation increased daily and the more apparent it was. . which might serve as a means of relief from such severe pressure.•232 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. framed new institutions. new associationsj new signs of fellowship. Without this. it was requisite open or to enlarge a safetj-valve. and thus the system of indulgence became widespread in the economy of the Church. individual character on the other. new devotions. was constrained either to the modifications demanded by the new character and exigencies of the age. The authoritative nature of its constitution prevented its its pro- gressive modification. and tried by every possible means to advance her own special institutions.

repentance. 233 " praticanti. bigotry and immorality. wider than that which comprises her faithful children. they neglected them altogether so that. end of the The unexpected awakening of thought in Europe. of honorary members for life. and the Church thrown back upon herself in consequence of so serious a breach with society.Conclusion. they simply gave up thinking and. The age was not propitious to religious discussions. elevated countries. they fell into a state of indifFerentism. by rendering her difficult of access to mankind Thus the condition of the Church in Catholic in general. and promising a final . was actually prejudicial to her interests. as it were. still hoped ultimately to obtain forgiveness . and sometimes contemIndeed. . they did not try to bring about a reform or to create a schism but. she still clung tenaciously to the system of inexorable and invariable pressure which had hitherto proved unsuccessful. however. what indeed at the present day they are. last century. at that moment poraneously." became. made the falsity of such a moral by all at the situa- minds and generous hearts and provoked much irreverence and dislike to a regime which produced alternately. began the phase of fierce reaction which showed itself in the horrors of 1793. that its proximity is a source of irritation rather than of succour to the people it. nor to the outward exhibition of religious and accordingly those who could not submit to the . on the condition of their passions . and of habitual corruption.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and so the Church was able to retain them in a second circle. tion for Catholics keenly felt . intellect being thus established. and has not yet come to a close with the The antagonism between religion and misfortunes of 1871. is very much that of a refuge. abstaining from argument on matters of principle of observing a few external practices of religion. the entrance to which around is so rugged and difficult. . with regard to thought. who dwell . never thought of resorting to argument on the question. and which now. but consisting. regime we have described. with regard to practical duties. 12. nor of separating themselves from the Church . far from helping her. by little and little. Such people. with regard to the social question after the events we have described. simply a party in the Church.

it is because they find the ground so well prepared. when they implore . scientific opinions. without guidance and without comfort. and consequently both one and the other are deprived of the substantial benefits of religion. so many customs so much of the learning of prescribed by time to be respected our age now familiar to us to be abandoned so many things to be renounced . and the other on civil government. . which is only possessed when all the feelings and faculties of The Church withthe mind meet with their due recognition. A good . The Church is still the Church that educates their children and guides before them their wives. Hence it comes that. From this result war with the Church. are driven to rebel they are followed instinctively by the multitudes. and not so many difficulties to rarely even one's country to be given up be overcome regarding the institutions that govern hs. — . for the reac- tion has been proportioned td the action . but which denies to them that peace and equanimity. in our day. religion. [Conclusion. To this state of antagonism are also due the terrible aberrations prevailing among Catholic populations. that it is requisite to have two consciences. Catholicism has sliown itself . political principles. one to judge on matters of Intelligent minds. and hatred towards the priests who represent her and if the open enemies of religion profit largely thereby. her mercy. and remain embittered and forsaken. in obstacles that regard to the external authority that guides him. .234 This state EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. . Catholic finds such a voluminous codex of what is good and evil to be consulted. which had been provoked and their rebellion has been fierce as the pressure upon them by the Church was inexorable nor must we forget that one of the permanent causes of these evils is found exactly there where their chief remedy should be sought. because they profess some ideas or opinions which may not perhaps be faultless in themselves. which are the first to feel the burden of such a trial as this. of discord does not arise from the inevitable must be encountered in the pursuit of all that is right and just. holds from them this peace. but comes from the fact that a man who would be a good Catholic has so many difficulties to contend with. greatest crimes naturally. but are yet of a nature that raises and ennobles the human mind while she does not deny her blessings to souls stained with the relatively .

petroleum. We see not only that coxips d^e'tat. but the most inhuman revolutions recur among Catholic nations . or to the habits of the it is the part of these to submit to the This view of the question is one-sided. generally speaking. common that it cannot be overlooked." are providential dispensations beyond the limit of human power and thus. in fact. and summary executions and the Church has nothing wherewith to calm their fury but vain declamations. and unsuccessfully. to a victorious close. the advance of science.. and periodical religious demonstrations. are often obliged to oppose at the same time the aggressions of revolution.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EQME. in accomplishing the task of keeping difficult one at the present day). the French pilgrimages. Catholicism has only become another element in the social war. mystical associations. as it takes no account of others but even as regards them such an opinion is incorrect. Without making science and material progress responsible for all the mistakes. we see them have recourse to such violent measures as the axe. both Liberal and order (a Conservative. that it is not the part of the Church to accom- modate herself . and impotent against contemporaneous social evils. and follies. We are far from wishing to pronounce judg- ment on these facts individually life. all things. but their frequent recurrence in different conditions of reveals to us an organic pheno- menon worthy 13. to science. that have sought refuge under their shield. . . so Here we meet with another most discouraging phenomenon. it is clear that the change of customs. the responsibility of the but rather that Church. which are included under the term. is A second digression necessary at this point. Fighting itself. which is this. in order to take note of the argument of those who hold the doctrines of absolutism age — viz. and can apply only to Catholics. 235 unequal to the difficulties it must face. . which it is unable either to restrain or to bring . and tardy lamentations . and which are reproduced in every age and under every condition of human nature. great social and political discoveries. or. among the combatants already so numerous. errors. Nearly all the Governments of Europe. her only remedies are such as Peter's pence. descending to practical efforts. and the demands of the Church. . " The progress of the age. brigandage. of the deepest attention.Conclusion. to progress.

directly and sanction of an Ecumenical Council This it is that gives the deepest importance to the first period of the Vatican Council its sanction of the past is of equal value with the new laws and regulations it has introduced. but because her own great and exalted mission is one of good tidings and of peace she herself being founded on the most wonderful sacrifice ever made for the salvation of humanity. and grounded in the hea. save that of carrying with them. and especially mani- and it is a which prevails in the guidance The subject presents no new features and the of the Church. As the Church possesses full authority on these matters. — from its origin the state of things which now meets us its after the prorogation of the Vatican Council. she is likewise inevitably responsible for them not only because the unlimited power which she exacts renders her so. . . . but which contain the principal subjects of dispute and of danger. nor from their nature invariable. We have taken a broad view of the case.rts of the faithful. or cannot be rightly The most eminent men only these grand movements. neither It is is it simply the result of the work of the Council. the seal and in favour of the existing state of things. especially as to those matters other necessities. constantly followed. religious or social side. and for . * The same remark applies to points of discipline. long since rather the consequence of a policy begun. On the other hand.236 good or EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. is yet actually in the number to its power of a small which are not essential essence. evil attaching to [Conclusion. though with regard to principles and to great questions founded on the faith. charged on any individual. All that had taken indirectly. which are neither integral parts of the Church's system. the organised and disciplined administration of the Church. but have been introduced by other ages. and considered . figure as instruments in them does not fall. and are exactly those points which enter most closely into the social and political life of nations. with varying success. events of 1870 have had no other practical effect either on the fested in these latter years in the Catholic direction result of the spirit of absolutism . because aspect is not new. and either sink or swim according as they use their little influence with equanimity and wisdom among those irresistible currents. 14.

. time. centuries of experience.Conclusion. but. . its its The fact that the Council did nothing to show appreciation of the great advantages of this situation. as opposed to the decided movement and progress of the age. and the Catholic nations. this it is that imparted so serious a character to the first period of its discussions. and desire to profit thereby . and presents an entirely new aspect. this and we have been learning for immobility signifies strife morenearly a century the evils which result from that strife over. we all the laws and ecclesiastical customs which prevailed in those three centuries had never been brought under discussion. Consequently. the position of the Church since the prorogation of the Council is. very much altered. by a singular effect the ruin of the temporal power disposition of Providence. reared with such perseverance through the of lapse its of centuries. edifice. We now turn to the political situation. In the present state of things. This position may be summed up in one word immobility immobility. and had never received the solemn sanction of have briefly considered the Church. and at once detennined the real position of the Church Avith regard to modern society. the completion on one side of the —absolute — . after that long interval. its may be found most of the causes of the events . . from this point of view. owing to extraneous circumstances. owing to great length. and of absolutism.] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. and find that. on the contrary. a period of more than 300 years. lition was to coincide with the commencement demo- on the other. there seems little hope of its cessation. and no binding precedents during that long period. so far as human foresight can reach. last The clay feet of the Colossus were broken down and crumbled with the into dust. made haste to pursue in the first in particular. in which. 237 place in the Church from the Council of Trent to the present day. the fact that it Sessions what yet remained to be traversed of the road of dogmatism. just as its head golden crown. At the very moment when was surmounted the Papacy . 15. The doctrine of Infallibility was proclaimed at Rome on the 18th and at Berlin. on the 19th of July in the same of July. a Council assembling for the first had a grand field before it thi-ee . 1870 year was received the intimation of that war which was to and thus.

r^ach of them has been marked in history by schisms. in the hope that she might no longer be compelled to stand aloof from civilisation in the position either of an enemy or a victim. solemnly so high. but society has not made the a single step towards the solution of the problem. : as the different aspects of a question are distinct. . and who perhaps awaited a very different result of their labours. since they mutually influence each other and are ultimately blended so — this novel and singular phase of the Church's political history cannot fail to react in some way or other. indeed. and her religious and social affinities. but might remain at its side as one of its own agents. it lost its most effective and powerful instrument for exercising that power in the way. had reached its utmost development of power. which constitute the sum of modern civilisation. [Conclusion. upon her own condition. rather sub- jectively in regard to the mind of the observer. at that very moment the world with unwonted indifference saw it deprived of the modest and limited dominion it had hitherto A strange result. Every attempt has been made in past years. an element All such attempts have hitherto of strength and moral power. for which it had been raised At the time when the Papacy was ready. 16. the with all those elements. and not the . and with the intention. 17. and it places the aspect of her political relations with Catholic nations in a new light so new. but was as yet unable explicitly to assume. to proclaim to the world its possession of the ascendency it had so long arrogated. The most important point in this new phase is this that . in science. that as yet one cannot estimate. The downfall of the temporal power is a great and real innovation in the economy of the Church. though little expected by those who mainly brought it about. and can only conjecture. to reconcile her with the politics. or profound social perturbations . more perhaps than is now imagined. strife. the consequences which may be evolved. been foreseen. both within and without the Church.238 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. indeed. Church has proceeded tranquilly and unAlthough many. and the its policy of alterably on own way. than in reality with reference to the actual essence of the question. but one which might have enjoyed. failed. and the habits of the age short.

The Roman Curia is furnished with infinite moral and material forces its . or of the violent currents of public .Conclusion. stands detached from the ordinary interests of while is endowed with a wonderful hierarchical organisation. society at large has not attached great importance to the influence that might be exercised on the constitution and character of the Church by such a centre of authority as the Roman Curia. the Curia. not in regard to her spiritual and speculative authority. these . life of citizens cannot but be to a certain degree influenced bv that common to that up life. The diminution of power which the Church has recently undergone. both in prestige and in power. Owing to this element in the Church has diminished. These modifications are not the effect of a preconceived wish or design. and balances the declaration of absolute power therefore the life. life. and by the ecclesiastical con- gregations which are composed of mixed elements. What will be the result of such a clashing combination in the economy of the Church ? How can these two in her speculative different orders of things co-exist ? vail ? A Which of them will pretransformation of this nature should be accomplished in its full effects. and possesses a boundless supremacy. naturally take the place occupied exclusively time by the Prelatura. but the notable result of the situation. peculiar traditions and forms. moral uniformity takes its place as a spontaneous effect of the concordance of feeling and of principles force being suspended.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and by the education of it it its members. is a new phase in her history. the sentiments. the serene air of liberty in order to produce The adverse pressure of the State. and the requirements The bishops and clergy who living the ordinary of the age. but in regard to that practical and material power which has always been the special aim of what is properly called the Roman fact. have been more dis- cerning. The essential transformation in the practical life of the Church which we have described. is coincident with. and they are more deep and real. while the purely ecclesiastical element has naturally resumed the upper hand as the mechanical centralisation of a State ceases. the political . modified by the opinions. and the pressure of the Curia on the episcopate loses considerably thereby. . This state of things must necessarily be conscience remains.239 least among Dante Alighieri.

and the experiments of philosophers and of statesmen. the same phenomena that were apparent under the distinct and imposing form of the Curia when it was endued with temporal power. multiplied reasonings. So With regard to society. sentiments which derive from the circumstances of the age the means necessary for their active and fetters that liberty . laborious. for she embodies the moral and religious sentiments of numerous and powerful races. moral. on the it contrary. religion it is far as to the is Church integral one of it its is elements. a people it is is found be religious in proportion as honest.240 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. Abstract theories. and it is not easy of solution at any rate. effectual development. and all the endeavours made by elevated minds and determined . no doubt can be entertained on the one hand. the least observant eyes and the most prejudiced judgment. many deplorable features. At any rate. and has unloosed . the foundation that sustains the social edifice. it is one of the firmest bonds by which united. is very discouraging. opinion produced hy political passions in times of revolution. Lastly. may again rivet the and reproduce under the form of some hidden and powerful combination. for it presents herself. we must not forget the vital strength which animates a great organization like the Church. in weighing the different results that have accrued to the Church from the proceedings of the last three years. From the earliest age. and cannot throw much light on the question. even to it. for our experience in the matter hitherto is too short. may render the chang-e unavailing-. and strong : and with disorder and decay come corruption and impiety cotem- poraneous history has in no way changed or added to this rule. [Conclusion. present situation of the Church. as 18. The problem consists in this very fact. to determine it a priori is impossible. of the very great force exercised on all institutions by the principles that govern them. apparent. The we have shortly described with regard to modern society and the religious condition of Catholic populations. have never yet been able to change this condition of humanity in the least degree to . while on the other hand it is impossible to overlook the positive influence of the facts and interests which determine the conditions under which those institutions exist. if they have done anything they have rendered more .

] EIGHT MONTPIS AT HOME. only corrupt the societies which they Societies that have become corrupt fall to pieces. prepares. and often perishes with it. it 241 wills to confute have utterly failed before the logical power of facts. and inspires the arts and literature. The religious sentiment grows with civilisation feels the influence adapts of expanding reason and tends itself to become rational itself to the refinements of civilisation. resembles the other faculties of the human mind it . but its application is infinitely various. helps to form great societies and strong when hindered and turned proper course.' and in the glorious churches scattered over the face of the earth. that The small and . All constituted societies and forms of civilisation have been animated by some religion which represented their is to say. and by the growth of bigotry and indifference. with God. but other communities may R .Conclusion. just as the cultivated Greek societies and the mighty Roman societies had theirs and without doubt religion has governed and still controls. which happens on a large scale in the history of the world is reproduced in a minor degree in the life of separate nations.' in the Disputa del Sacramento. it is an integral part of civilisation. The birth and development of civilisation are alike marked by a strong and living faith. which so faithfully and indelibly represents the spirit of the times. the decay of a nation. The offences of men do in not subvert the principle. is at the same time cause and effect. though mysterious tie with the Infinite. . when kept within due out of its limits and it applied rationally. but live. the marvellous civilisation of the present age. nations . The religious sentiment. The principle is invariable. religion does the same and its downfall is marked by excessive devotion to outward forms. which contains in itself the moral tie that binds society together. These are the two stages which conduct civilisation to its culminating point. degraded populations of central Africa have a religion that guides them. Art. . many fail to recognise it. by the neglect of the inward That reality. ' ' . The religious sentiment. When society degenerates and becomes corrupt. or follows. 19. moreover. its very germ and spirit. has imprinted the character of this civilisation of which we are so justly proud in the Divina Commedia.

they resemble the great vicissitudes of the material world . . Society may. passes away. the other hand. and improving at the same time its religious and civil institutions. to educate its religious as well as its civil sense. are beyond and above the ordinary action. but can by a single second." Yet this mystery by no means releases any nation from the responsibility as to its own The more a people seeks destiny which naturally belongs to it. By reason of the vast area over which these transformations take place. adopt the principles they have worthily. neither advance nor retard their progress On men are undoubtedly responsible for the life." — Daute. Vaig. 37. we may confront them. neither can religion. which is development of its strength and greatness. and effective It is of course will of society. The examination and precise definition of the mystery of order. possible for society by a process of self-training to modify its society cannot exist without a religion. but the world must accom- The paganism fell of classical ages. was. which was relatively obscure and hidden in a corner of the Roman empire. plish its and carry them out more its Society destiny. and also where it begins this examination is the quia* at which " deve stare contenta la umana gente. Meanwhile. [Conclusion-. much of their working is above the judgment of man. with all terrible corruptions. and spread through the whole world. individuals. Christianity itself has gone through a reform by which it has and new forms of modern civilisation. 20. in its decay. exists. social and moral the determination of the point at which individual responsibility for great revolutions ceases. and of will.242 EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. transformed into Christianity. and surpass its calculable powers. al quia. iii. lost. part they take in promoting the development of national which accompanies an advanced state of civilisation. and cannot be affected in any way by the will of given life to new societies. Jewish Monotheism. it As change that The conditions under which religion religion just as it pleases. by cultivating simultaneously its feelings and reasoning powers. luuana gente. be able to acquire gradually that harmony of reason that unity of action in all its faculties. to rise no more. and at the present day not a single pagan exists on the face of the earth. requisite for the full — — * " State contenli.

tion into the present state of Catholic populations. and political aspect. feeling any need of religion themselves. first of reasoning make one for endeavour to produce faith by a process the second to create religious feeling out of scepticlass cism. it is Thirdly. and the religious and civil condition of the inhabitants of Catholic countries in our day. try to others. and not remain a dead letter. having their own proper futility of the development. Three conclusions evidently result from this brief examinaFirst. to the diffusion of civilisation and religion. spring from a profound ignorance of the origin of the matter. great and strong. increases. are universally considered to be uncomfortable. its which can neither exist with- out a religion. by habit. like all other strong is developed by education. decreases in proportion as the certain and evident sum of its wisdom and virtue to be. but. and both these errors. to adapt itself or modify form which it already possesses. but only in the relative sense. and it is a 2 . having no religion satisfy their to own begin with. . This last condition must be especially observed. very common at the present day. it fixed a priori.Conclusion-. essential for society. it appears that the relations between Church and State. and by nourished by affections. Reform in religious matters cannot satisfy reason in the abstract. the interest of the Church. dangerous to public order. social. Hence appears the work of those rationalistic reformers who. endeavour to construct one that may notions and also of those statesmen who. under the con- sideration of their religious. because faith and feeling are special faculties. 243 and actually does become. 21. Secondly. and obstructive it is life. and also in order that the whole scheme of improvement may have a practical result. The religious sentiment is not fostered deliberately by a rational and symmetrical plan convictions. nor can change to that religion at will. example. her for the sake of her own and for the fulfilment of own mission. in order that the two interests may coalesce favourably. to modify this state of things so far as she can. not . The . endeavouring to improve it in such a way as is most easily reconcilable with its nature and principles. that responsibility increases . the more as it gains in power it is more directly the arbiter of its own fate and the unknown sum of general causes and influences which affect it.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME.

we believe that such . They must be able to reconcile their religious and civil opinions under the ongis of liberty. render justice to every one. if grave and conscientious men. profound convictions justice . Moreover. Philosophers and statesmen find a justification for religion which remain a mystery and yet this its results is solved daily by the multitudes whose social condition is determined by the education and the habits they have acquired from religion. We have no wish. and to proceed quietly on their road. before endeavouring to give them practical effect time and liberty. It is sufficient to state our conviction that those who profess this hazardous opinion seriously.244 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. This being conceded. which often compensates for their lack of reasoning power. or in the guidance and direction of those interests which can never be successfully treated hypothetically. them problem to — a problem only understood by . 22. it is evident that to enable Catholic nations to come out of the ab- normal and dangerous condition which now so severely tries them. change in the constituit. and in a matter so vital to society. more or less rapidly. and indeed are unquestioned. to strong and in its effects rather than in its causes. The three conclusions we have now stated might be reached by different ways. and the conscience of manlittle persons will practically find to tion of national life as we understand kind. they must be freed from the antagonism between the capital principles which govern them. they possess intuitively a perception of and uprightness. in the presence of so dangerous a responsibility. from their nature are accessible. and not merely as a matter of pretext or fashion. [Conclusiox. and everything. but they are unimpeachable. Objections may be made to the last by those who believe in a society composed of philosophers. the habits. and are not so easily led away by paradoxes and imposition as might be supposed. to engage in a discussion on this subject. these very multitudes. cannot. but see the necessity of carefully testing their experi- ments in the region of speculation. with ancient and modern history in our hands. 23. but must follow the rules that are implanted in the history. in order to proceed . From whatever side the question be considered.

The power of man.] EIGHT MONTHS AT to ROJtIE. be in the event of a great weakening of the religious sentiment science by the State and the entire absorption of the human con but the State in itself is a fact and not a conviction. and of entering the labyrinth of questions conflict between Church and State. and contemplate. The " free Church in a free State. physically speaking. 24. have been careful in this brief sketch not to touch on any arguments directly regarding canonical or theological matters. indeed. their habits. and the breach between religion and civili- widening within them the substitution of two religious and a civil.Conclusion. and owing to our being drawn on by the intimate connection that Keeping to exists between all the various interests discussed. in opposition to each other. If sometimes we have transgressed these limits. after all. in place of the one conscience. to which all feelings and faculties should be subject. the influence of which is therefore dominant in their disposition. is socially the present condition of Catholic an impracticability. Thus ourselves. a . according to official sation daily . a wondei"ful political formula. we have noticed the phenomena manifested in Catholic societies. an excellent expedient. which are raised by the We because tions. our resolution. and their civilisation. far we have pursued the road which we Were we to go further. opinion. consciences. we might be danger of exceeding our limits. 245 destiny. and is unable to satisfy the human conscience. especially for those nations that have one single form of religion. which cannot divide its allegiance. who is. it has been unintentionally. lies in his intelligence . it is We better for the profane not to meddle with these queshave been content to consider the deep and essential affinity of the subjects under discussion. The among only case in which this ideal could be carried out would the people. as supreme guide in the difficult road of virtue and of justice and we have noticed the weakness and disorders that result to Catholic nations from this severance of moral responsibility." which is. but a weak creature. without grave misgivings. the dark traced for in possibilities of the future. with social and political questions. for ameliorating populations. because in such points the natural instinct of self- preservation asserts its rights in each of us. .

however. their conscience. the interests of which we have much at heart. of the amicable co-existence of the Church with the modern society. we . it is constituted. 246 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. and thy neighbour as thyself. We it is have considered these subjects because they come within the range of the social investigation that we undertook . Time and men. the observance of — — : Is it so very difficult a matter to live in accordance with this precept ? Or can more a rule be found in any past or future system suited to serve as the basis of civilisation than of legislation this ? which has been accomplished in the Church by the work of man and the lapse of time. but impossible to go further without entering into questions we have avoided. And " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. and conscience by the . first he is capable of acquiring the most by the second. is it likely that. again. on scepticism if the elements of which and no society has ever maintained its greatness. as far as regards society. particularly in Catholic countries. reach of the The mysteries are in every religion above the human reason the commandments contain the one . of attaining the highest Nations are only assemblages of men. The work of time is necessarily irresistible ." life eternal universal moral law. profound knowledge moral grandeur. . carry out their work under different conditions. Is it likely that of all — than within the limits of these commandments? 26. We may. and their power lies in No great civilisation has ever been founded . suggest a few general considerations tending to simplify the question which seems so difficult and intricate as to be almost insoluble. The principles of the Catholic Church are most simple her mysteries represent dogma. otherwise and elsewhere. which constitutes and prosperity of nations. beyond the limits indicated by these two commandments. those two great factors in all institutions and forms of civilisation. 25. and her commandments repreState and with sent morals.'' &c. without* infringing this rule. are in permanent and all irreconcilable conflict. [Conclusion.. nothing will be modified or undone by the same agencies man and time? or. these same agencies will never constitute another. The sum of both is expressed in the simple and comprehensive words " On these two commandments hang all the law.

and of free will. it may be liable to special or temporary The itself. determine the measure of responsi- bility attaching to them. the laws. All these have. in varying degrees. the religious type. In those regions of elevated principle. The work of man. and ascertain exactly the duty of each the hope of supplying it section of society.] EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. just as these. the Church herself. 247 it. which is sometimes partial. and sometimes very serious but we cannot look upon them as apart from ourselves. though exceptions. the sects. the Liberals. the clergy. of course. The moral state and the prevalent opinion of a people determine the morality and the power of those who rule it materially and morally. The education. the evil. after all. the blame is usually thrown upon any one. where passion and party differences can but observe and submit to is other hand. The truth of this axiom is proved by long experience. the civil type of a all its own work. and people reciprocally accuse one another the Government. as is most convenient at the time. and the moral and intellectual condition of our people . with for the evils some remedy opinions. their of responsibility. vanish. nations regain their generic character which is deter. sometimes exceptional. customs. with regard to prosperity. free-will would be an expression void of meaning. we determine their opportunities of action we constitute their power and their strength. and thus the responsibility falls on him alone. the under which is labouring. Having thus social condition settled the respective influences and the collecits tive responsibility of all classes in a nation. on the accomplished by successive acts. the application. and the development of its we can more easily investigate the causes of the dangers and difficulties that disturb our own people . mined by the concurrent action of all their component elements and therefore it has been said that the destiny of a people is that which itself has merited. When a society falls into a state of decay and disorder. and the whole world would become the prey of a revolting and iniquitous fatalism. own measure of their subjects. guide and direct the opinion . in their turn. or anything. are from time to time denounced as the cause of nation are . . for. we make up their numbers. the emanation of and if they could not be modified by education and study.Conclusion.

they seem to forget that their strength can only consist in so ruling their faculties and theocracy and superstition. it by a strictly logical process. liberty. just as a spark is pro. duced by two currents of services rendered us electricity. especially it was a means of eliciting the truth on in the earlier ages testing a subject by two propositions. we must not forget that only an artifice. granting all it the is by logic. social A people of the period of our intellectual development. is the effect of this second course. by which . and the rest in fasting.248 are such as to EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. it often happens that by a similar process of logic their onward social and political march is only arrested when they have reached a state of anarchy and impiety and a negation of all The law of responsibility. on the other hand. No doubt on many occasions this artificial process has been helpful to the weakness of the human mind. 27. bj the religious movement. giving to the first phase greater durability. the spirit of and the exercise of reason be awakened among them. it and has is led to disastrous conclusions. which form a large proportion of the Catholic nations. to a perpetual alternation If. condemn them [Conclusion. that the infinite can never be contained in . to a state of If. Wherever the Latin races have settled and manifested their principles by their institutions and forms of government. In the form in which has passed into our method of reason- ing and thinking. be affected often conducts them. Having already spoken of logic. and another of anarchy and impiety. in both cases the result must be death. the scholastic form in which it has mingled with the traditions life. those races we call the Latin races. But. man endeavours to reach the truth it is a machine to create truth. and individual. that for instance. logic has often proved a source of evil. consists in a whose life is passed between one phase of superstition and tyranny. . just as the economy of human tempered moderation. resembles an individual who spends half his existence in habitual excess. sentiments as to render them practically useful. logic an imperfect instrument. and to the second greater force and intensity. between opposite and dangerous extremes. reaction and of compensation originates and regulates these moral oscillations. we would here protest Owing to very strongly against the manner in which it is used.

progress. and ought to carry out the modifications demanded by the very existence of Catholic society any more than we can determine the progress of human society. where their respective interests meet. form for themselves. it is not given to . 249 the finite it it in and that though all can some degree. aspire to the truth. — that of arriving at an absurd 28. . we must educate and develop This is the reason why nothing is more likely to lead us to absurd conclusions than which and it misleads us irremediably. but adhering to absolute deductions. that of being the companion. guided only by logic to its utmost development. often becomes abstract. because logically. n 3 . and of so general a It remains for individuals to character as the present work. religion. the conclusions to be deduced from the facts we have indicated. and becomes a great and sometimes an insuperable obstacle to real the process of argument familiar to us from long habit. we . In all truth there is something above our compre- hension. loses its strength of anarchy. Conclusion. the creator and the soul of civilisation it isolates itself. according to their opportunities. If the human mind blindly follows logic it may lose and being unable being thus to appreciate subtle distinctions. or limit its irresistible course. and prosperity. and possess always. Our mental errors all involve a syllogism. as may help the practical solution of the social problem affecting Catholic nations. the Church can. and falls into a state In each of these cases an inflexible logic has been followed out with a like result conclusion. It is not our business to settle in what way.] EIGHT MONTHS AT. We have been led by these considerations to a point where we may consider the Church and society as standing on common ground. mystical and intolerant it loses its chief characteristic. set free which bind together. faculties that them efficaciously. or how far. call logic . ROME. The religious principle. may even from the cast ties it off entirely it and society. The Churclt and society have each a wide field open to . which must be supplied by faculties other than those of the intellect in order to use . But here we have reached the proper limit of a book so moderate in compass. and where it is possible to form such judgments on the condition of both.. and find all to possess it. and produce so much harm. and therefore they last so long.

Our people. and every religious institution may be in harmony with liberty. of which the latter must eventually feel the influence. most desirable that this secret. but with very different results. Without doubt. It is. and . . on the contrary. and to discover the essential difference between our social state. Among our people. them. without causing variance and enmity. this happy solution of difficulties should be brought to light. and that of other Christian populations. embodied in a form absolute and immutable in all its parts and that moral revolution. 29. their consideration cannot conduce to any Whatever the certain conclusion. or to any practical effect. our duty is to attend to our own. and tutions change the course of the world but as these hypotheses are purely speculative. though here we do not intend to enter upon the arduous question of the religious future of the age. the path of the former marked by terrible . and who knows if it will ever be discovered amid the distracting struggles and the absorbing passions that agitate humanity. obey the universal law. marched in unison. follow their appointed destinies. but. supporting and at the same time correcting. . for the latter attain their ends without catastrophes or great is struggles. to find out in what our difficulties and dangers consist. as well as other nations. . . each other they are able to co-exist not indeed without some divergencies. and which tends to become equally exclusive. How best to ensure the simple and faithful observance of both our religious and civil obligations. religious convictions have on all sides received a violent shock and none can foretell the results of the great social revolutions that have they may work the ruin of societies and institaken place they may derange the equilibrium of nations. . where their respective powers for good may be duly developed .250 EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. which has itself a form equally concrete and organic. Among those nations religion and civilisation have. Every civil law may be in harmony with the Gospel. at all events. whereas. [Conclusion. the Gospel and liberty. is its a secret never yet discovered on account of very simplicity . with more or less harmony. there seems to be definitively established a mortal strife between the religious principle represented by an exclusive inflexible authority. indeed. universal religious condition of the world may be. inflexible and despotic.

we would point out that although the spirit of the age is not congenial to religious belief. being in conformity with the eternal principles of may subsist in harmony and may assimilate with the various phases and developments of human nature.] EIGHT MO^^THS AT ROME. or perhaps more. 251 and ruin. nor even by those that directlv concern faith and morals. not only own vitality be preserved. condition of nothing can be created by negation. and of the exercise of their influence. is entrusted the direction of Catholic institutions. yet that real resist- ance and active enmity are never attracted by movements of an exclusively religious or speculative character. but that they do not prove it occasions of ruin to others. element that nourishes its institutions. Such considerations are of the utmost importance to Catholic nations for their course has been hitherto marked bj a brilliant light. moreover. 31. They must life. and by separating the energetic and ardent part of society from the rest. and leaves the latter a prey to reaction and hatred. this essential own moral equilibrium. owing to the violence of the current that sweeps them along. by which their religious and civil institutions. losses . to listen to our arguments with un- prejudiced minds. than they would through the utter dissolution They will not find it in scepticism. a work requiring time and thought. through the inexorable mysticism of the Catholic party. before bringing these reflections to a close. nor in new divisions. their life or their death depends upon the that their state of that element. we could prevail on those to whom morality and truth. It is requisite for the well-being of Catholic nations. and forbids our indulging any disparaging estimates as to their moral and political inferiority. Such resistance is evoked . yet habits form laws as much. Catholic nations will find their wished-for peace only in a real modification of their principles. than laws form habits and as the universal sentiment of a society is the find the causes of their .Conclusion. and their is necessary that they find learn. we would remind Catholic nations that though they may try to abnormal condition in their institutions. renders the former weaker. Therefore. because these only give rise to anger and discord . If. 30. that they will no more attain this moral equilibrium. because of all principle. on the other hand. which still shines upon their path.

and is initself. and they should be relieved from the burden of artificial evils that oppress them. They must learn to be guided in their struggle by the spirit. and maybe able to oppose it. and all the strength and energy of human nature rally round them evil diminishes and retreats to the position of impotence and subordination which it . and touching discipline rather than morals or — Nor is this its unnatural. whereas the letter " Quid leges sine is incapable of amending what is wrong. gress of the age whereas morality in itself real opposition other than that eternal right and wrong which must affect all can be assailed by antagonism between institutions. moribus. evil. firmly rooted on the earth and reaching to heaven. Consequently. can never be opposed to truth and goodness. eternal. EIGHT MONTHS AT KOME. at first sight appeared inexplicable. separable from the history of the universe Two truths There cannot be one truth for the Church and another for the State. will resolve themselves as naturally as the snow melts away beneath the genial rays of the sun. : We . That which is good and all those who for one nation cannot be evil for another maintain such antitheses are in error. [Conclusion. because the spirit teaches what is upright in practice. for that opposition could cannot contradict one another. material rather political rather than religious than spiritual. . A true and sublime religion. is intended to hold in the order of the universe. the The nearer we approach more surely shall we attain that happy state of things on which the prosperity and grandeur of and the social and political problems which nations depends . this ideal. and not by the letter of the law. only be directed against Therefore. and be affected by social movements and the pro." Much is to lie done before tliese results can be at32. for morality in itself is one and whereas legal expressions are variable and transitory. as follows might sum up the principal wants of Catholic nations their sense of right and wrong should be simplified and rendered clearer.252 by movements dogma. that goodness and truth are on one side. any more than fhere is one truth for religion and another for science. in order that they may acquire the power of discerning what is really evil. when the conditions of the strife are such. it is evident and logical that these legal expressions may no change.

and becomes. should not be the production of absolute and exclusive ideas. 33. To this end it is necessary that her hierarchy. religion has fulfilled her abnegation and virtue are necessary elements of progress. as it was originally. . as the State is obliged to provide for its necessities. of meeting the new conditions life . with an energy worthy of a better cause. 253 tained in the first place. so now of Church must herself seek the best means of reconciling the difficulties she encounters. it is requisite that the authorities by which Catholic nations are governed. are such as to prevent our undertaking a discussion respecting them. isolated from the rest of the world but should rest upon universal opinion. of laying down rules or making suggestions course. In taking the first step. we must answer for the evil resulting from a state of things we ourselves have brought about. should be. a region in which selfthis point. and the principles bj which they are led. the originator and fosterer of social order. and all their movements. and thus on practical grounds Just the we have no language in which to interchange our ideas. for only in this way can she adopt and assimilate the various forms of good which are now extraneous to her. depend upon special laws which are inaccessible to external considerations. but with which she should be in unison. In taking the second step. religion becomes active. and express the mind of the whole Church. benefactor of humanity. the connection existing between them. in despite of evidence and . beyond our power and responsibility. to the authorities that guide and direct her rest their The foundation on which these authorities power. instead of being only the exponent of supreme authority. the impersonation of the loftiest virtue and self-sacrifice. what in truth she ought to be. and the destiny of nations remains in the hands of Him who created the uniBut up to that point the responsibility is ours and verse.Conclusion. speculation to and descends from the region of abstruse enter upon that of facts. Having reached the rest is mission . Even if the facts which we have specified did not exist. reason.] EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. the peculiar form in which the internal working and the external movement of the Church manifest themselves. and jealously maintain. the friend and . religion escapes the danger of being only the appendage or instrument of a party.

called together her States General. — leaving at the mercy of the waves the broken fragments of a ruined and shipwrecked society. brought about by the lapse of time and the experience of the this being the only way in which the woi'd reconciliation can bear a real signification. At this very moment when the Church. to express is a work so hard and so of difficulties impossible a pi'iori. that faith means of and morality.254 EIGHT MONTHS AT ROME. 35. distracted by the many and serious controversies that trouble her. what would be more satisfactory. be dashed to pieces. with the good which tion. than a hindrance to society in the tempest through which it is human now passing . the best solution of her difficulties. she may find in a full and free discussion. and with the great development of reason and with the new social civil conditions of nations harmonising the good she teaches . ability in dealing with matters of difficult interpretation still or. 34. that it can never be accomplished cither by a Canon of the Church or by a law of the State. an anchor of safety rather than a dangerous rock on which State. in her extensive authority. or falling upon them. and looked trustfully to her Ecumenical Assembly for the solution of her difficulties. yet point to the fulfilment of. reconciling the substance of religion. it was specially incumbent on her to carry out the course of action indicated by Preliminary events do not as the steps she had already taken. this obligation. [Conclusion. It remains for the Church to find the best is. split the efforts of those — who placed at the helm of with the duty of guiding the ships tossed about by the angry surges of the social deep must either strive to keep clear of such obstacles. It is true that to modify in any way the religion of a full people while a strong and independent Rationalism j)revails in the world. her own constitution. from legisla- and from the ever-varying and progressive movement of It is the part of the Church to be a help rather society. Church. may be learned from science. and well-proved . to discover some means of escape from the prevailing dangers to take some step towards the solution of the great problem that touches so nearly her own life and the very existence of Catholic She may find that help in the marvellous strength of nations. because essential for the general safety. as a point of meeting and not of past . but must be the . but lex for the still it is summa . departure.

" Go and bring forth fruit . . or by the power they had attained. their fruits ye shall * St. Still. 20. not by the possession of worldly goods. "t We look to those prophets and apostles of good tidings of whom it was said that they should be known by their fruits not by their privileges or vestments."* and who were likewise reminded as a commentary on this mission. if 255 combined operation of time and human efforts.Conclusion. know them. vii. vii. 18. not by the wisdom of their laws or the harmony of their institutions. the right to look to any special agents for help in work. Matthew. but simply by the fruits they brought forth. 16. " wherefore by .] EIGHT MONTHS AT EOME. it is we have this great surely to those who received the injunction. XV. Matthew."| t St. John. J St. that " a good tree cannot bring forth corrupt fruit.

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Formula op Adhesion to the Dogma of Infallibility given BY the ItALIE. III. . Bull for limiting Censures XIII. I. Allocution op the Sistine Chapel 296 298 303 304 306 IX. Statistical Extract from Franscini XV. 326 332 337 337 XIX. Address of the Catholics of Treves 320 321 Coblenz to the Bishop of f^21 XVII. Pastoral op the Archbishop of Paris VI. . Page Bull op Convocation of the Council French Correspondence from the Ciyilta Cattolica ' ' . Letter op Padre Giacinto V. Article by Dollinger . New Order of the Council. APPENDIX OF DOCUMENTS. Bull " Multiplices inter " X. The Scheme "De Ecclesia. Proclamation of the Bishops at Fulda 263 266 268 273 294 IV. Allocution at the First Session XI. . XVIII. 259 2G2 11.. Last Letter op Montalembert XVI. The Scheme " De Fide " ' etc." from the ' Giornale di Roma ' . CONTENTS. Pastoral OP THE Bishop OP Orleans VII. . Bull for the Pope's Election XII.' at THE END OP JUNE 1870 XX. Documents. The Canons published ' in the ' ' Allgemeine Zeitung and the ' Sud-Deutsche Presse 311 XIV. Promulgation op the Jubilee VIII..

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ac caelestibus ditata thesauris tutum salutis iter. et populorum religionem. ut. servet illaesos..DOCUMENTS. eiusque sanctam. eisque potestatem dedit regendi Ecclesiam suo sanguine acquisitam. doctamque institutionem. 89. omnia suscipere consilia. ut a solis ortu usque ad oCcasum omnes populi. ac viget. ac iustitiae viis ambulantes vitam assequerentur aetemam. Serm. ac vivendi discipliiiam e caelo delatam manifestavit. ut universuinhumanum genus a peccati iugo. caritate. Cleri disciplinam. mortalibus ex Iminaculata Sanctissimaque Vii-gine Maria indutus exuviis. ipsissima suprema Petri in omnem Ecclesiam potestas. quibus primi parentis culpa iamdiu misere premebatur. qua nos dilexit. caritatem. SANCTISSIMI DOMINI NOSTUI saeculi huius ita natat. oblationein et hostiam Deo in odoreni suavitatis. et omnis christianus populus in una semper fide. suumque bic in terris KOMAE HABENDVJI ET DIE IMMACVLATAE CONCEPTIONI VIRGINIS SACRO AN.^ Ut autem eiusdem Ecclesiae regimen recte semper. ac daemonis captivitate. triuraphans in caelum consessurus ad dexteram Patris conscenderet. Max. et in veritatis. et erroiiun tenebris. fundaac centrum constituit. et a paterna gloria non recedens. DOCUMENT PlI I. 2 Sau. iccirco in Eomanis Pontiiicibus Petri suc- Aeterni Patris Unigenitus Filiua propter nimiam. ac verae doctrinae lucera omnibus populis ostendit. et infioneJ^ eiusque regimen ab eodem Christo institutum perpetuo stabile permanere debet. et esset caeli ianiitor. ac ligandorum. Omnes autem norunt quibus indefessis curis iidem Pontifices fidei depositum. doctrinam. de caelesti sede descendens. plenissimaeque auctoritatis. misit Apostolos in mundiun universum. eamdemque tot admirandis operibus testatam fecit. tum etiara ex omnibus unum selegit Petrum. tum praecipuae. pereunte mundo. atque ex ordine procederet. ut praedicarent evangelium omni creaturae. et instar navis in ultum cessoribus. Serm. quae est columna et firmamentum veritatis. devicta morte. Primatus plenissime perseverat. doctrina. ac Romani iustitiam defendere. .-!. mansura etiam in caelis iuiiciorum suorum defini- mentum PIVS EPISCOPVS SERVYS SERVORVM DEI Et quoniam Ecclesiae uuitas. ac iurisdictionis amplitudine pasceret agnos. et ipsius civilis socie1 San. Leo. ii. pietatem. tegritas. nationes evangelicam doctrinam agnoscerent. MDCCCLXIX DEIPARAE INCIPIENDVM. solvendorumque arbiter. iurisdictio. gentes. ac matrimonii sanctitatem dignitatemque tutari. et cbristianam utriusque sexus iuventutis educationem quotidie magis promovere. potestatis. morumque honestatem fovcre. omncs quos suscipit. et constitutam. qui in bac eadem Eomana Petri Cathedra sunt coUocati. in plenitudine temporum vindicaret. Vicarium. LITTERAE APOSTOLICAE QVIBVS INDICITVR OECVMENICVM CONCILIVM consummationem saeculi promisit. turn DIVINA PROVIDENTIA semetipsum perpetuo afluturum usque ad PAPAE IX. Itaque Romani Pontifices omnem Domiet nicum gregem pascendi potestate cura ab ipso Cbristo Domino in persona Beati Petri divinitus sibi commissa utentes. nunquam intermiserunt omnes perferre labores. et oves. Ad futuram rei memoriam. Antequam vero. quern Apostolorum Principem. uuiversamque regeret Ecclesiam. ut cum ordinis et bonoris gradu. et eommunione persisteret. Ecclesiaeque caput. confirmaret fratres. ac scmetipsum tradidit pro nobi.

eiusque salutarem. honestas. caritas Nostrum exigit. morumque corruptio. in f^ravissimis praeseitim temporum perturbationibus. Verum illustribus Praedecessorum Nos- tiorum vestigiis iuliaerentes. [Document I. humanac Nemo enim inficiari unquam catholicae Ecclesiae. et veneranda potestas. eorumquc verac prosperitati. propugnare. ac statuenda. opportunum propugnandam. nihil antiquius habent. Hinc cum summo Nosti'O. ad catliolicam propterea esse existimavimus. atque ita pietas. hominesque catholicis sensibus praestantes modis omnibus divexati. et lidei integritatem. et Eeligiosae Familiae extinctae. atque huius Apostolicae Sedis. eiusque doc- trinae vim non solum aeternam hominum salutem spectare. ra- tionibus consiilore stiidueiint. solidamque culturam. iustitiae. salutisque tramitem reducantur. et multiformes perniciosissimae sectae uudique diiiusae. quaeadfidei potissimum dogmata definienda. prosperitati. _ corrigendos possent conducere. divinarum. qiios Spiritus Sajictus posuit regere Hcdesiam Dei. verum ctiara prodesse temporal i populorum bono. Neque omiseiunt ipsi Pontifices. ac tranquil! itati. et iustitiae.260 iatis THiC trauquillitati. et conferre consilia. et nunquam deplorando animarum damno ubique propagata est impietas. ad universi Dominici gregis salutem curandam. ac sancnostrae religionis. ubi opporluuum existimai'unt. eiusque salutaris doctrina. quae hisce praesertim asperrimis temporibus maiorem Dei gloriam. cogere omnes Venerabiles Fratres totius catholici orbis Sacrorum Antistitesi qui in soliicitudiuis Ndfetrae partem vocati sunt. ut vitiis. mole supremum Pastorale Nobis divinitus commissum ut omnes Nostras magis magisque exeramus vires ad Ecelesiac reparandas ruinas. exploratumque est qua horribili tempestate nunc iactetur Ecclesia. ad ccclesiasticam luendara ac reparandam disciplinam. VATICAN COUNCIL. augusta nostra religio eiusque salutifer. doctrinae eruditione praestantes.s. ac suprema huius Apostolicae Sedis auctoritas oppugnata. ac pestiferae ephemeiides. veritatisque iura Concilia. et quibus quautisque malis civilis ipsa affligatur societas. divinique cultus decorem. proculcata. ordiiii. et Apostolicam hanfc Sedem pietate et observantia spectati. non paucis in locis iuiquitatis. et comet commissa. ac universi Dominici gregis saluti advigilare et consulere. errores. probitas. et ecclesiastica bona direpta. ac Sacrorum Antistites. quam sua Nobiscum communicare. et sacra omnia despecta. 1 )eo auxiliante. erroribusque elimiiiatis. In tanta igitnr calamitatum. Atque etiam iiitentis. et erroris magistris eximiaque erga Nos. etsapientia. ad exitialcs eorum impetus conatusque reprimcndos. vcriim ctiam liumana societas miserandum in mo- munem omnium picem priniis respiciunt. Qui quidem Venerabiles Fratres singulari in catholicam Ecclesiam amore incensi. veluti sacrae manarum quoque scienliarum progressui ac ac profanae hibtoriae annalea splendidissimis factis clare apcrtc- . si fieri unquam posset. vel ab ipso supremi Nostri Pontificatus exordio imnquam pro gravissimi Nostri officii debito destitimus pluribus No£- veautur mala. et quod peius est. in Generale Concilium. lam vero omnibus cumpertum. quibus cor obruitar.i doctrina ubique terrarum reviviscat. concordiam in adeo studio curandum est. collatis consilii. et societatis afflorescant. amo- dum pertm-betur. ac pravarum cuiusque generis opinioniim. ac salutaria tot calamitatibus adhibere remedia. et dominetur. ut. Etenim ab acerrimis Dei hominumque hostibus catliolica Ecclesia. falsasque doctrinas damnare. Nos quidem. et utriusque Cleri disciplinam. sempiternamque honiimim salutem. In Oecumenico enim hoc Concilio ea omnia accuiatissirae examine sunt perpendenda. et scelerum contagio. ut non solum sanctissima nostra religio. et husoliditati. ac divexetur. ct civilem societatem iunditus evertere connituntur. bapienterque constituerent. eiusque sanctae Ecclesiae causam Nobis a Christo Dumino concreditam omni studio coustanter defendere. et impietatis seclas proscribere. qui ipsam Ecclesiam. et bonorum satis omnium moerore. et impii omnis generis libri. et Apostolicis Litteris Nostram attollere vocem. quod iamdiu Nostris erat in votis. et spectalissimi viri divine ministerio addicti. iustitia. ac Dei. coniimctisque viribus ea omnia provide. ministerium omnesque cliristianao virtutos utilitate cum maxima vigeant. ut miseri errantes ad rectum veritatis. omniumque vitiorum. et una Nobiscum tristissimam rei cum sacrae tum publicae conditionem maxime dolentes. liumanarumque kgum violatio. et eS'renata licentia. poterit. et christiinam iuventutis institutioiiem. ordini. ad grassantes errores cietatis tissimae tris Consistorialibus Allocutiouibus. ac de animarum salute anxii.vimo Deo bene iuvantc. et iuimicorum liominum insidias detegeie. illustrandam et evolveiidam doctrinam. atque ecclesiasticarum legum observantiam. morumque emendatiouem. ct civili societate omnia ab Ecclesia. et iniserae iuventutis institutio ubique fere a Ciero amota. et quotidie magis propiigetur. civilisque socalamitatibus generalia convocare ut cum totius catholici orbis Episcopis. ad corruptos populorum mores profligandos.

ac Beatorum Peiri et Puuli Ajjostolorum eius se noverit incursurum. S . mandamus ac decernimus. et huic Sanctae Sedi praestiterunt.lo pertinent. et quae in eis continentur ad notitiam omnium. et mandamus. Portuen. aut privilegio Conciliis Genendibus residendi. et proponi solitis. et quoscumque. et interesse teneantur. ut Deus.' iccirco impediant. in Basilica Vaticana habendum. opemque ferant. et sigillo personae alicuius Ecfd^ siaaticae in dignitate constituiae munita fuerint. iubemus. sacrum Oi cumeiiirum it Generale ConciUum in hac alma Urbe Nostra Eoma futuro anno millesiiuo oetingentesimo sexagesimo none. omnesque quam Dilectus Filios alios. ac bea- torum eius Apostolorum Petri et PhuU auctoritate. arcteque praecipieutes. perveniaiit. Quamobrem Dei ipsius omiiipotentis i cooperentur.rda. praecepti. et stutliosissime. Ferventissimis igitur ad Deum luminuin Patrem in humilitate cordis Nostri dies noctesque fusis precibus hoc Concilium oiunino cogendum esse censuimus. quibus nominatim illae essent iiifimaudae. tutus foi sitaii pateat accessus. et S. cmnes. ut in Patriaichalibus Basilicis Lateianensi. vnhuuus. liufinae Card. Dei gloriam. publicationem.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Patrizi. cap. evidentLrque Et quoniam Christus Dodfinonstiant. nc sanctae obedienti.m Document I. ut omnes supremi omnium populorum Principes.. quod Nobis. aut consuetudine ill celebratioiiibus Co:iciliorum adversus non accedentes ferri. transumptis quidem eaivim quae manu publici notari scripta. aut a!i(]uos publicos nolarios legantur. Poutificatus Nostii Anno Vicei-imotertio >^ EGO PIVS C. annuntialionis. Nos enim Abbates. quae ad raaioreni Eccltsiac suae synctae utilitatem quovis mo. nisi forte iusto detinenntur iraptdimeuto. non solum minimo >XH 1 Matth.cum praesertim etiam non ad omnes eos. v. et consolatur: Ubi sunt duo vel tres congregati in nomine meo ibi sum in medio eorum . eiusdemque Concilii bonum cedere que. statuti. et constanter. mandati. Vaticana. quo ca omnia statuere pos^iinus. in cuius manu sunt iiomimmi c .nit. Kpiscopus. ipsamque firmissimum esse Iniperiorum. verum etiam ipsis libenter faveant. KeEcclesi-. ac Domino adiuvante. freti et innixi. et sub poeiiis iure. convocationis. decreti. et in aliis cousuetis locis affigantur. Decanus Mattel ProDatarius. cum ibi raultitiido populi ad audiendam rem divinnm congregari solita est. lectaeque in valvis dictarum Ecclesiarum. et Modenitores praesertim Ciitholici quotidie cilio liuiusmodi lectionem. tertio kalendas lulias. mandantcs. et Campi Florae solito loco. xviii.mis infriugere. omnes ex omnilius loeis tarn VenerabilesFratrcsPatriarchas. vel ei ausu temeraiio crmtraire.VrHOrJCAE ECCLESIAE EPISCOPVS Loco »J< tj< m igis noscentes Signi maxima Imna in human. }!er iifQxionemque. de Veuerabilium Fratrum Nostrorum S. ut fides certa. uti decet Catholicos Princii^es. Ac proiude volumiis. quod tam-n per lejiilimos procuratores yynodo probare debebunt. Ut vero Nostrae hae Litterae. requirentes. 20. ut ipsimet. et sententias in eis dicendi facta est potestas. quos praedictae Nostiae Litterae compreheudunt. NuUi eigo omnino iiominum liceat hanc paginam Nostrae indictionis. ac die octava mensis Decembris Imniaculatae Deiparae Virginis IMariae Couceptioni sacra incipiendum. Sacro huic Conomruijo adesse. qiiibus iure. quae in mniorem Patris. ad ipsius gloriain. prosequendum. convocamus et statuimus. Lortautes. quomiuiis Venerabiles Fratres ISacrorum Antistiies. K. quorum oportet. et Spiiitus Sancti. et perficiendum hisce Litteris indirimus. post spatium duurum mensium a die Litterarum publicationis et affixionis ita vohimus obligatos esse et adstiicfos. E. ad universi Chrifetiani populi salutem absolvendum. 261 que ostendunt. rcficit. et Libcriana. et Filii. p'dam clara voce per Curiae Nostrae cursores. a'lmouentes. aut subscnpta. Eg) Coustantinus Episc. cuniqiie inde amovebuntur.m eriiiimus fore. ubi ad lectioneni et notitiam cunctorum aliquandiu expositae pendeant. aliique omnes supra commemoiati ad hoc Concilium vtniant. earum nihilominus exempla in eiusdem locis remaneant iiffixa. itemque Cancelleriae Apostolicae portis. In eam autem sp. Ostiensis et Veli- gnorumque fuudamentum. iis dub tare non possumus.ie virtute. ac nihilominus eis vi iurisiurandi. Nostris volis pnp tins annuens ineftabili sua misericordia et gratia efficiat. itiiuus illis verbis Nos iQirifice recreat. Datum Eomae apud Sanctum Petrum Anno Inca-uationis Dominicae millesimo oetingentesimo sexagesimo octavo. ternus Card.i Ego Marius Epi^c. mdignationem Omnipotentis Dei. Archiepiscopos. et obsecrali. annuntiamus. societatem ex catholica rtdundare. et iiidubirata habeatur. qua Nos quoque in terris fungimur. ad hoc Oecumenicum Concilium a Noliis indicium venire debere. ac si ipsisinet illae c<iram lectae et intimat le essent. Cardinalium concilio et assensu. quin Ipsi^ in hoc Concilio Nobis in abuudautia divinae suae gratiat" praesto esse vebt. neve quis illoium ignorantiae excusationem practendat. Si quis autem iioc attentare praesumpserit.

Bononieiisis. Yice-Cancellarius. Guidi Archiep. Mariae in Dominica Dial'. Card. Mertel. gia dissi che i cattolici des dererebbero che il futuro Concilio Ecumeuico pro-' mulgasse le dottrine del Syllabus. R. S. Card. [Document S. ^ (T« Di Pietro. Card. Marine in d'Ho- ma ben anco in un intelligenze per altro colte. Card. Card. Fr. Card. Ego Aloisius S. Caterini. S.-. Baruabo. Ego Hapliael Tit. Checche ne sia. Snbinensis Card. Sacconi. Presb. Card. Xysti Pre. Per cio che riguarda la parte domniatica. SS. Callixti y^ Ego Fr. »J< Ego Aloisius Tit. S. Marei Piesb.) Petrus Mariae in Ara Caeli Presb. Card. non voglia da per se prendere 1' iniziativa d' una proposizione. Ego Theodulphus S. promul- gando lei. Antonius Maria Tit.5. Pudeiitianae Card. Ego Philippus Tit. Mariae in Via Lata Protn-Diac. y^ Ego Angelus Tit. De Keisach. Silvestri. S. S. De y^ Ego Carolus Tit. Nessuno pero si dissimula che il Pontefice. Card.sb.spctta alia disciplina. essendo immortale. Finnauus. (Dalla Civilta Cattolva. S. Borromco. Card. Tit. Presb. trionfera colle sole sue forze. AnlonelU Ego Prosper S. Biz- il Concilio. Presb. CORRISPONDENZA DI FrANCIA. Card. Sommo Finalmente un gran numero di cattolici emettono il voto che il futuro Concilio chiuda il cielo degli oranggi resi dalla Chiesa alia Vergiiie Imniacolata. y^ Ego liUciauus Pre. Ego Carolus Augustus Episc. Essa riuscirebbe indirettamente ad annullare la famigerata Dichiarazione del 1C82. Asquini. Capalti. Berardi. Tit. Presb. Pro-Datarius. coll' andar del tempo i pregiudizii si dilegueranno.262 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Tit. sotto forma negativa. Ma si spera che la manifestazione unaniine dello Spirito Santo per la bocca dei Padrl del futuro Concilio Ecumenico la dennira per acclamazione. II. Card. Bruti L Cugnlonius. Siisannae Presb. SS. XII Apost. I cattolici riceveranno con gioia la proclamazione del futuro Concilio suU' infallibilita dommatica del Sommo Ponteiice. Andreae et Gregorii [n Monte Coelio Presb. Paracciani Clakelij. Card. . SS. Visa de Curia D. Viti et IModcsti Diac. Quatuor Coronator. Ego losepli Andreas Tit. d' gran numero canismo. gli occhi si avvezzeranno alia lucp. che sembra riferrisi a lui direttamente.c. S. che furono per si gran tempo I'aninia del Gallisfere del potere. Card. Panebianco Poenitenliarius Maior Ego Antoninus Tit. 18 luglio 1868. Laurentii in Bilio. plici voti in cio che riguarda il bisogni dclla Chiesa di Francia. Ego Joseph Tit. Bonaparte. Card. enimciando con tormole aifermative e col necessario svolgimento le proposizioni stanziate nel Syllabus. R. y^ Ego Hannibal Mariae in Aquiro Amat Diac. Crucis in Hiernsalem Presb. Mattei. in cio che . Marcellini et Petri Presb. Mariae de Populo Presb. y^ Ego Caniillus Episo. Card.rd. De Angelis Arcliiep. Hieronymi lUyricorum Presb. Consolini. facesse compiutamente sparire 11 malinteso che su-siste non solo darsi ciie Ego nolle ma non intendenti di ^ zarri. dogma. >J< Ego Gustavus Transpontina henlolie. Milesi. Card. Episc.sb. S. Card. Ego loannes Bapt. SS. Ego Alexander Tit. Card. Loco + Plumbi Beg. Tusciilanus Card. Lauieutii in Luciua Proto-Piesb. Potrebbe i^ Ego Joseph hp Eg. E. Ego Dominiciis S. ^ Epi. Eustacl. N. (J< "Paracciani Clarelli a Secretis Brevium. stile teologico. Monaco. Pane Pcrna Presb. Card. Stc]ihaui Card. y^ y^ y^ y^ y^ J< Tit.ii Diac. e la verita. S. Ego Eduardus SS. Ego Nicjlaus M. et S. sono molte- ed esigono spiegazioni che . Tit. per un sentiment© di augusta riserbatezza. Mariae Scalaris Diac. S. Ego lacobus S.) Camerariiib y^ Ego Fabius Maria in yji Monte Coelio DOCUMENT II. Card. SS. Albanus Card. ill Secretaria Brevium. Pracnestiiins Card. S. Piira. Presb. >J< >J< »J< Quaglia. De Luea. il dogma sono I i della gloriosa Assunzione di Siffatti ^ C . Tit. E. senza che fosse necessaria una speciale discussione di quel malaugurati quattro articoli. S. piii estese. Pliilippus Maria Tit. Card.

che nel corso dti tempi le porte della divina verita e sapienza si aprono sempre di piii alia eristic nita. Egli e nostro sacro dovere di nutrire in noi ste.imeute per iscopo di renderci. le quali non hanno altro scope. al quale il nostro Santo Padre Pio IX ba convocato colloqui. questo riguardo noi abbiamo giudieato cosa buona e salutare. Naturalmente in quest' anno un oggetto principale della nostra conft-renza fu di prepararci al I'oncilio Ecumenico. voci che il Concilio possa e voglia proniulgare nuovi dogmi di fede. e di risvegliare persino il Cosi si seutono delle sospetto dei Governi. e per mutare d' uu tratto la faccia della terra. alcune brevi parole.ittolk-i. come pure colla legitima liberta e Si va colla piosperita temporale dei popoli. che d' altra parte persino Anche da membri fervoiosi e atti fedeli della Chiesa si nutrono timori. e di coltivare fra noi quell' unione e carita. di rivolgere in cnmuue ai ncslri amati diocesani. e \ier introdurre nella vita piii etfir-acemeiite la sua santti legge. colla cidlta e colla scieriza. cosi pure il vero benessoo tempoiale dcdi' nman. Cio che il santo pontefice Giegorio Magno dice si belLimente. Scope di queste adunanze non e gik quello di emanare decisioni obbligatorie in matcrie ecclesiastiche.-iale. secondo la costituzione data da Cristo nella sua divina sapienza alia Chiesa. a pill atti ad adempiere nel modo migliore il nostro sacro ministero. nell' aiiimo di molti si combina con una non so quale confidenza di un esito fortunato. questo si eifettu i nel modi) piu grandiose median te i Concilii Ecumenici. in guisa che la minorita. A Allorche erasi fatta oerta la convocazione Si aggiunge che dagli avversari della Chii sa vengonu mosse accuse. sotto 1' influsso di un [lartito. non potra durarla in una lunga opposizione. quest' anno noi Vescovi tedeschi.) DOCUMENT III. the trovahi nella piii parte dei c. i quali non i-i contengono nella rivelazione di Dio e nella tradizione della Chiesa. Quetta idea non precede soltanto dalle difticolta sentite di tenerts era lunga assemblea. Dair essere poi Ii dottiina di Cristo esattamente cono&ciuta e la sua legge piii universalmente osservata dipende senza dubbio. e che rassomiglieia sotto questo rispctto a quello di Calcedoniii. che di suscitare vastameute la dittidenza e 1' avversione coiitro il Concilio. sieno incompatihili colle giuste pretese dello Stato. ci siamo uniti a Fulda presso al sepolcro di San Bonifacio. e che esse possa e intenda stabilire dei principii che. pregiudicievoli agli interessi del Crist ianesimo e della Chiesa. prima di separarci. per istabilire una signoria spiritnale incompatibile Nun si ha rossore colla cristiana liberta.ta Percio i figli fedi li della (.>si e di diifondere negli citali seiitimenti anche riguardo all' altri iiuniinente Concilio. 6 febbraio 1SG9. di designare il Capo supremo della Cbiesa e di fazioue. la persuasione quasi direi univer. un Concilio Ecumenico. ei accusa il Sauto Padre che egli. che e la madre e nutrice di ogni bene. ma rarapolla anzi tutto dal sentimento che 1 Vescovi di tutto il moudo si troveranno d' accordo nelle questioni principali.ssori degli Apostoli intoino al successor >i di San Pietro. per cainbiare I'antica e vera costituzione della Chiesa. per una parte —E a] trove: II presentimeuto delle tiaversie politiche.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. ecclesiastic! e secolaii. Non qua-i fosse il Concilio un mezzo magico per togliere da noi ogni male e pericolo. per quanto eloqucnte esser pos^a. mediante vicendevoli . di 263 gli prendo la liberta di rimettere ad una prossima corrispondenza. che anzitutto e spirito di unila e di comunione. che forse potrebbero nascere. S 2 . animi dei fedeli furono riempiti da pia aspettazioue e lieta speranza. (Dalla Civilta Catloiica. Finalmente non potrebbero non vedersi senza un certo stupore delle lotte jirolungate di opinoini e di discorsi nel seno del future Concilio. come r eterno. Es-i credono che il future Concilio sara luolto breve.'liiesa hanno salutiito in ogni tempo i Concilii Ecumenici con gioia e con santa fiducia. ancor piu innanzi. e migliaia di essi tengoiio rivolti con fii^liale fiducia i loro sguardi a Roma. 1' unione dei succ. che noi r Episcopato con nomi scemare la fiducia.Document io III. il che secondo le leggi della Chiesa puo farsi soltanto nelle assemblee ecclesiastiche propriameute tali e tenute nella dovuta forma (nei Siuodi o Cuncilii) ma esse hanno unic. Pastorale collettita dei Vescovi tedeschi kiuniti a fulda. tutti i Vescovi della terra. Tuttavia non possiamo disimularci. Bisogna altresi avvertire. in fralcrna conferenza. nello spirito di Gesii Cristo e della sua santa Chiesa. e il mezzn principale per mettere in piii ehiara luce la verita salutare del Cristianesimo. ill un Concilio Ecumenico. ma perche. voglia puramente usare del Concilio come di un mezzo per accrescere smodat mente il potere della Sede Apostolica. come una nota caratteristica.

nou mai i santi di Dio. cni le stesse poite diir inferno nun pos. in quale modo migliore le eterne verita della religione debbansi attuare nella presente eta. quando i succcssori di I'ii tro e degli Apostoli. nou proniulga nuove doUrine. Quindi non si ha alciin riguaido di far sentire il sospetto. a non vacillare [ler cagione di essi nella vostra fcde Giammai un Cone nella vostra speranza. che il Concilia Ecumenico p)-inda inronsideratae con prccipitazione delle risoluzioni. tutti sono :intici])atamente d' accordo sui principii della fede. op-' pure che esso.— . la liberta dii popoli. die non sia contenuta nelln Sacra Scrittura o nella Tradizione Apodolicn . dal Capo supremo della Chiesa. quando pronuncia in cose di fede. 264 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. ne altri poca giustizia che si temerebbe di veder da quelli. In generale il Conciare cilio come si puo anche solo raginnevolmente temere una tal cosa da un'ailunanza dei Vescovi di tutto il mondo cattolicn. e cio e nella natura stessa delle cose. E perche possiamo noi fare qucsta d chiarazione con tale precisione (^ fiilanza ? Ptrche noi si .^liaii alle condizioni pill dei piii paesi. clie no7i sara roncessa ai Vescovi la piena liberta di discussione. Giammai un Concilio Ecumenico puo promulgare c promulghera dottrine. e la verita di Cristo rimane in lei perpetua e immutabile. e che costituiscono la base di ogni vera scienza e uioralita. per deliherare con lui. e sui quali ora e sempre ripusa la prosperita degli r autorita dei superiori. mai Cosi il Signore alia sua peii- non hanno mni sato i nostri padri nella fede. Quanto poco ccdoro che cio pensano.e sono scritti dalla fede e dalla coscienza nel cuore di tutti voi. — attentare alia liberta delle deliberazioni del Concilio. Non pertauto iioi vogliamo anche i splicitamente esortarvi a nou vi lasciar sedurre da tali discorsi. conoscono 1 sentimenti del Papa. da ftdele amore alia Chiesa. Infatti in un Concilio della Chiesa i partiti non combattnno ton tutte le ileir eloquenza per ottencre la vittoria diversi niembri dell' Asscmblea non cercauo di vincerla sui loro avversarii coll' acquisto di una maggioranza favorevole alle I'ro opiuioni. e un disconoscere la virtii delle divine promesse fatte alia santa Chiesn. e ill conseguenza di cio si pone persiuo in questione la validita stessa del Concilio e delle sue decision!. finqui eravaiuo usi di seiitiresolamentedalla bocca dei piii dichiaratineniici della Cliiesa. quand' anche passino cielo e terra. che Ciesh Crislo e colla sua Chiesa tutti i di sino alia line del mondo. colla moralita e coi veri interessi della scieiiza. seguendo ilfanatismo di umani pensumenti. e la sua parola dura sempre. ma mette I'aniica e originaria verita in chiara luce e la difende contro nuovi errori. i sentimenti dei Vescovi e il modo di proCfdere della Chiesa Noi sai)piamo nel modo piu certo che e volere formale e dichiarato del Santo Padre di non mettere al! cun est H'olo alia liberta e alia duiata delle di liberazioni. cosi anche la sua Chiesa rimane la stessa in ogni tempo. il Papac i Vescovi. come in generale la Chii s i. cssi non sono certamente di fe. die furono sacri ai popoli cristiani di tutti i secoli. sono assicurati contro ogni eriore della provvidenza e assistenza divina. f. fan no A . da un' incrollabile fiducia in quell' dcttati aiutt). cl. col diritto dello Stato e delle sue autoritk. fami. che e la salute delle aniine e il bene del Cristianesimo. cilio in cose della fede e della Icgge morale. amati dioce^aiii. A quella nianiera. malgrtido delle difl'erenze di sentire. Da qualunqiie parto piovengano qucsti e simili discorsi. Anche il solo temcre che un Cimcilio Ecumenico nelle sue decisioni dottrinali possa errare contro la verita della Tradizione. vengono adunafi principalmente alio scope. che In Spirito Santo uon la abbandona inai. che nou Chiesa sottrae. adnnati legittimameiitc in un Com-ilio Ecununico. e non tcndono che ad nno scopo. delle decisioni [Document III. che Cristo e il mcdesimo ieri e oggi e in eterno. le quali sono in contraddizione coi principii delhi giustiz'a. Stati. cio. per modo che essa e e rimane la colonna e il sost: gno della verita. o colla legitt!ma liberta e col benesscre dei popoli.ie viva. che esso possa in alcun modo alterare nella sua essenza la costituzione della Chiesa sfabilita da Dio.c dis- varii iirti i . e fhe manchera anche agli stessi Vescovi la necessaria cogniziono e 11 necessario coraggio per adempiere il loio dovere nel Concilio. e le ricorda ogni cosa e la introduce in ogni verita. Fguuhnente nessuno ha ragiane di temere. aL'gravati dalla responsabilita svariati della santa missione.mo aecertati dalla fede. le quali senza necessita si oppongano ai vigenti rapporti e ai bisogni della presente eta. voglia trapiantare nelV eta presente costumi e istituzioni di tempi trascorsi. e come il beneficio del Cristianesimo si possa meglio conser\are e trasmettere alle presenti e future generazioni ? Egli e eon si poco fondamento e con si non istabilira nuovi principii. mente Ecumenico pronunciera ne pud pronun- E una nuova dottriva. e r eilicacia dell' aiuto della divina grazia. e coutrario senza dubbio anche al vostro intiino convincimeuto cristiano. i quali forniti delle piii ricche esperienze della vita.sono espugnare finalmente i)erchb noi crediamo e sappianio che.

che Cristo ha scelto fra tutti gli Apobtjli uno solo per fare di lui il ceutro deli' unitii ed il pixstore supremo. di suoi 265 banno duuque per oggel to . nell' interesse deir Apustolico suo miuistero e del suo amore per le auime e per la Cliiesa. corporazioni e mauifestazioni pivi diverse della vita religio. In cio che riguarda soprattutto le eterne veriia della fede. Per un ciiore cattolico. della pace di Come Pietro e i suoiApostoli non avevano che una sola e stessa opinione al prirno Coucilio di ti eiusalemme. noi sappiamo che lo stesso Apostolo dei Gentili nun ha disdegnato. rapporto religioio penetrato dallo induce a subordinare con umilta. Nulla e tanto contrario ed estraneo all' csseuza della Chiesa Cattolica quanto lo 11 divin Salvatorc cd i sinrito di partito. ed e precisamente per impedire ogni fatto di questo genere e conservare 1' uidta degli anirai mediante il legame della pace.-nte dell' uniia che deriva nella (Jhiesa tutto cio che v' ha di grande. non d^mcuticheranno mai il piu santo dd Joro doveri." Al prossimo Concilio Ecumenico. o piuttosto sara Cristo ed il suo Spirito Santo. e non parlavaiio che una sola lingua. il dovere di rendere testhnonianza alia verita : si rammenteranno di quelle parole dell' Apostolo Chi vuol piacere agli uomini. Essa abbraccia le as. dimenticaiido completameute il rispetto e r afietto die dobbiamo alia Chiesa ed al suo capo.-a. sottoporre tutti all' autorita paterua di quel pnstore ed u lire a lui tutti i vescovi. ed essa stessa non e mai un partito. e tutti gli uomini di buoua volonta. j^reti a fe leli sulj' Ap jstoli E d"l luondo intero col legame indissolubile deir obbedienza. udiranno la voce di Cristo : Sede suprema ed Ma quando si giunge persino ad incrimiuare ed oltraggiare le intenzioni dtl Santo Padre e la Santa Sede Apo^tolica stessa. mondoche. quando gli si attribuiscoiio progetti di domiunzione ed ambiziosi. d. ma non toUeia ed approvamiii partiti. il Coucilio non decidera nulla prima di aver esnurid tutti i mezzi della seienza e delle piu mature deliberazioni. assolutameiite come coloro che davauti Ponzio Pilato accusarono altre volte Cristo. questa infallibile della Cliiesa parlera a tutti. E da questa f.sociazioni. il foudatore della Chiesn. viiicere uu awersario o di far trionfare uu interesse particiilare nou ai disciite se uon per fare risplendere la verita sotto ogni suo aspetto e per uon decider nulla prima di aver risolto tiitte le difficolta e chiarito tutto cio che e osuuro.si)onderemo con ingiurie a coloro che c' iusultano. quando lo si rappreseuta lui." deUa giustizia. come un partito e come lo ^truuiento d'un partito. e iinpossibile e>l spirito di parte. mi ascolta.Document III] cussioui non HE VATICAN COUNCIL. e per dichiaiarci contro lo spirito. cosi pure uon vi saia oggidi che una sola opinione ed una sola lingua. vi si riferiscono tutti i vautaggi del Cristianesimo e sol tanto mesara rivelato a tutto il prima comuuit'a cristiana. Nou abbiam creduto che fosse indegno di noi il difendere 1' Epi^copato Cnttolico e il Concilio Ecumenict. Cristo. iioiche i benefizi di questa unita comprcndouo tutti gli altii beui di salute. diante questa unita noi partecipiamo alia luce ed alia vita di Cristo. essa t dleia e pr"tegge persino la varieta delle dottrine teoriclie e pratiebe. di cui Cristo c' impose di ascoltare gl' insegnamenti ed alia quale si applica eternameute la sua paiola. ili es. poiche la sua fede lo coscienza. potrebbero per cousiderazioni umane riuunciare nel Coucilio alia libcita della parola. da cui sono inspirati. non e servo di Crista. che parlerauno mediants r orgauo di quella Sede. " Chi vi il che sotto sia ecclesiastico mai ascolta. e ci couteutererao di dire seuiplicemente e lealniente Quiindo i Vescovi della Chiesa Cattolica saianuo riuniti inConcilio Ecumenico. fondata sulla fede e amore. tutti coloro che amano " La voce Iddio. amore e fiducia illimitata. re^pingerne in tal mndo le accuse piii instissisteuti. della verita.sere un ribelle e di ammutinare il pupolo. che direm noi a proposito degl' indegni sospetti che suppongono che i Vescovi nou banno condaunato nulla piu energicameute della scissione e della divisioue iu partiti. le parole ci mancano per esprimere il nostro dolore nell' udire simili discorsi. il suo proprio giudizio e piu ancora i suoi interessi e le sue passioni alia Sede suprema. di buono e di salutare. come nella auebe oggidi tutti gli adereuti della Chiesa Cattolica nou hanno che un cuore ed un' anima sola. tinci e la sua fede ed il suo amore non sonoo^curati dalle passioni. la . coutro questi tiisti sospetti. clie Cristo ha costituito pastore di tutti e di cui fece la pit tra suUa quale riposa tutta la Chiesa. Percio Cristo nella sua preghiera dopo la Ceua imploro dal suo Padre Celeste i benetizi di questa unita. ricordaudosi del couto che duvranuo rendere ouanto prima dinanzi al tribuuale di Dio. che e uno dei lore oblilighi? Noi ricord mdoci del comando del uostro Maestro nou ri. peuseranno ch' tssi nr)n hanno altra regola da seguire clie quella della luro : : E vero che la Chiesa si compone di una ianneii^a quautita di caratteri nazionali ed iiidividuili.

Vescovo d" Hildes-. i. AU'opposto. La grazia e la pace di Gesu Cristo. se si ecctttuano alcune tristi ed insignificanti perturbazioui. dell' Arcidiocesi di FriImrgo. NicoLO. sia e rimauga con il voi tutti. yji ^J< . Nelio spirito viati J< »J( di questa unita. Vescovo d'Alicarnasso p. incominciando dall' 8 dicembre di quest' anno in tutte le parrocchie delle nostre diocesi. Vicario Apostolico di Lusscmburgo. I'intercessione della Santissima Vergine e di tutti i Siinti. Vescovo di Augsborgo. ineutre die al contraiio la salvezza dipende dalla conciliazione e dal ristabiliinento dell' iniitk. X. . e di »J< Paolo.juza abbiamo deciso ed ordinato che siano indirizzate preghiere durante tre giorni al Sacro Cuore di Gesii. la pace e tuttc Ic benedizioni. Fra brevo noi lasccrcmo per lungo tempo le nostre dioccsi. il ha stretto Santo Padre. facendo sparire completamente tutti i confiitti che potrebbero essere avvenuti prccedeiitemeiite da una parte o dair altra. J< Gregorio. r amore. ^54 E uo A RDO G lAGOMO. Vescovo di Culm. in nemo di Cristo e per il Suo Cuore. Carlo Giuseppe. Pancrazio. cd i nostri cuori sono grandemente conimossi. P. i^ Enrico. segu. Vesrovo di Leuca in p. m Padre Giacinto. e cosi che I'unione piii cordiale esiste generalmentc fra i varii servi della Chi<sa e che i cattolioi di tutte le nazioni si sentono pure d'aecurdo ed uniti nella fede 6 neir amore per la Chiesa le calamita e le burrasche dei tempi non fecero che consolidare questa unita e specialmente 1' affettuosa cooperazione di tutte le nazioni a pro. Vescovo eletfo di Bottenbourg. Vescovo di LeontopoU in ji. Au B. gli scritti e I'cscmpio. Vescovo di Paderbona. Vescovo di Treveri. c che il clero ed il popolo sono pure d' accordo coi loro Vescovi. Depuis cinq aniiees que dure mon ministero a Notrc-Dame do Paris.o il risidtato di quell' airaonia intima e di quella unit:i di sentimento che. allorchc pcnsiamo ai gravi pcricoli dell' eta presente. noi non dubitiamo che cio non sia soprattutt. Gio. LciGi. ed astenendosi da tutto cio cho potreljbe !:ervire di aliiuento alia discordia e risvcgliarc le pa-sioni umane. vol. di Monaco Frisinga. heim. ma rcndere omuggio verita evidente dire che tutti i Vescovi cattolico sono uniti fra loro e colla e (^ »J4 Sede Apostolica nella piii pert'etta uuita. PeRE.266 lede. Nepomuceno. General des Carmes deeliausses. a suo vantaggio. preghiamo e tutti c partioolarmente i iiostii fratelii nel sacerdozio e nel santo ministero (Dalla Bivista Universale. e Vic. Cristoforo Fiorenzo. ct malgrc' les attaques ouvertes et les delations cache'es dunt j'ai e'te' I'objet. fasc. I'nniverso il regno di Dio ciesci' c:)n novello vigore e porta friitti se anche tutti gli attacchi contro la Ciiiesa e tutt' i suoi patiuienti non si rivolgono chi. come dobbiamo riconoscerlo.) scougiuriamo deH'iiisegnamcnto. Vescovo cVOsnabruck e Provicario delle Missioni settentrionali tedesche e danesi. Fatto a Fulda. come inda Cristo. i. Antonio. CoRRADO. i. Principe Vescovo di Breslavia. grazie al Cielo. Vicario Apasfolico di Sassonia. FiLiPPO. Vescovo di Ermeland. dalla si-issione e dalla seccssione sono sorti i niali pegj^iori. Enrico. cap. la forza. air epoca nostra. THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Se. Vescoco di Fulda. Arciv. In con- DOCUME^T Lettera IV. ottobre 1869. [Document IV. coUe parole. J'cu consLrvu do uombreux te'iuoi- . >J« G. regna in tutto il mondo cattolico. e se e stato fatto molto bene per la salute delle aninie e la consolazione dei poveri e di coloro che soft'rouo se il coraggio della fede e r amore per la Cliiesa sono divenuti piii furti in tutti gli ecclesiastici ed i laici . 84. Vescovo di Spira. Arc'vescovo di Colonia. 6 settembre 186U. Francesco Leopoldo. se in tutlo . Noi ci riserbiamo di piendere ulteriori disposizioni intorno a queste preghiere.. gravemente minacsempre piu i legami di >^ ^J< questa unita. NicoLo. Vescovo di Eirhstaedt. jMattia. . da cui siano iiiai stati atflitti il Cristianesimo ed il nioudo. noi consigliamo. secondo la loro posizioiie. Vescovo di Magonza. Gio. molti iiuili di passe la vita sati tempi nefasti furouo guariti ecclesiastica e religiosa ha guadagnato forza. GiGLTELMO Em. tj^ ^ >J< Non ad una del mondo vana iattanza. malgiado tiitte le ciicostanze sfavorevoli. IjOTARIo. y^ >J< Y^ teggere ciato. voire estime et votre confiance ne m'ont pas fait un seul instant dc'faut. Vescovo di Wurzliorgo. di mantenere e sviluppare questa perielta coucordia. MON TKks-REV.

Je ne mais toutefois je me sens de leur race. je pousse des cris de doulenr. mon sang dans les traces oil ils ont laisse les leurs. tt Ma conviction la la plus profonde est que si France en particulier et les races latinos en gene'ral. ou que je garde un silence qui ne scraient plus I'entiere et loyale expression de ma conscience. et jusqii'a I'esprit de sa ie'te'. gardiens intideles. et vous exigez que je paile un langage. voiis blamez ce que vous approuviez. non a mes predications autaiit qu'a ma personne. je crierais vers Dieu et vers les hommes pour en re'iOamer un autre ve'ritablement re'uni dans le SaintEsprit. ni de Dicu. tendent a rhangrr la constitution de I'Eglise. les plus obscures et les plus decisives de son existence ici-bas. C'est la pratique la plus parfaite de cetto liberte sainte que je suis venu demander au cloitre. si je pouvais cousentir a jouer devant eux un pareil role. im Concile CEcume'uique est non-seulement convoque'. j'cn garderai ua souvenir cependant. Mais si des craintes que je ne veux point partager venaient k se si I'auguste assemblee u'avait pas plus de liberte' dans ses de'libe'rations. j'liabite. et s'il le fallait. L'iieure presente est soltnnelle. N'est-il plus de baumu a Galaad? je n'ai pas seulement'le droit. Je ))roteste contre cette opposition plus radicale et )dus effrayante encore avec la nature humaine atteinte et revolte'e par ces faux docteurs dans ses aspirations les plus indestructibles et les plus saintts. de les rejeter. — dernier de tons. que nouvelles qui me : Eglise. plir entre 1 I'e'ternite. Lps saints ne se sont jamais tus. a qui le proi)liete reprorhe ma . mais i'ai dans les limitcs de I'honnetote' de ma conscience. mais daus les mene'es d'uu parti tout-puissant a Rome. morale et religieuse. dans I'e'lan d'un enthousiasme pur de tout calcul humain. j'allais presque dire de son amitie'. Aujourd'liui changement dont valenfes latrare. se change pour moi en une prison de I'ame.-rbeure. et qui. et qui dans leurs envahisseraents tnu jours plus audacienx tt plus funestes.eux aroheveque qui me I'a ouverte. I'opprej^sion des autres. et qui s'adrcssent 267 : gnnges ecrits de votre main.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Je proteste par-dessus font contre la perversion sacrilege de I'Evaugile du Fils de Dieu Inimeme. J'en exprinie mes regr* ts a I'imposant auditoire qui m'y eiivirounait de son attention. la loi propre du chretien. ni de ma conscience. repre'sentant reellement I'Eglise universeile. J'en appelle au Concile qui va se re'unir pour chercher des remedes a I'exces de nos maux. En agissant ainsi je ne suis point infidele a mes vceux promis I'oheissance monastique. vons acciisez ce que vous encouragiez. Je ne serais digne de I'auditoire.Document IV. de ses sympathies. et envc rs qui nous avons aussi des devoirs et des tendresses. suis pas I'un d'eux. "Je soufli-e cruellement a cause de la souftrance de la fille de mon peuple. je n'ose pas ajouter de'gage de toute illusion de jeunesse. filii sanctorum sumiis. mais declare neVessaire ce sont les expressions du Saint-Pere. et pour les appliquer avec autant de force que de douceur. Je proteste contre le divorce impie autant qu'in sense' qu'on s'eftbrce d'accom1 mes regrets a I'intelligent et couraj. Quoi qu'il arrive. Si en echauge de mes sacriiices on m'otfre aujourd'aui des chaiues. J'e'leve done duvant le Saint-Pere et devant le Concile ma protestation de chre'tieu et de pretre contre ces doctrines et ces pratiques. dont nous somme. de la dignite de ma persfmne et de mon ministere. Je I'ai promise sous le be'nefice de cette loi supe'rieure de justice et de royale libevte qui est. Avec ime parole fausse'e par un mot d'ordre ou mutile'e par des reticences je ne saurais remonter sur la chaire de Notre-Dame. qui se nomment romaiues. moment qu'un fut-il le pre'iiicateur de I'Evaugile. Ce n'est pas dans un pareil : . L'Eglise traverse une des crises les plus violentes. de ne pouvoir point aboyer Canes muti. et m'y a maiutenu centre le mauvais voulotr des borames dont je parlais tout-h. et I'e'pouvante saisi. voici plus de dix annees.-s 1. selon I'apotre saint Jacques. i-omme ces chieus muets d'Israel. J'en exj^rime reconnnissant. non le silence des uns. liies larmes. ni de I'eveque. Je n'he'site pas un instant. pent cousentir a se taire. sont livre'es a I'anarchie sociale. dont I'espiit et la lettre sont e'galement foule's aux pieds par le pharisaisme de la loi nouvelle. mais ne sont pas chretiennes. et j'ai toujours ambitionne de mettre mes pas. Pour la premiere fois depuis trois cents ans. qui ( st notre mere sulon la societe' du dix-ueuvieme siecle. j'ai le devoir re'aliser. non dans Te^prit des partis. la cause principale en est non pas sans doute dans le catholicisnie lui-meme. Je m'eloigne en meme temps du convent dans les circonstances sont faites.s tils selon le temps. qu'elle en a deja dans sa pre'paration si en im mot elle e'tait privee des caracteres essentiels a un Concile fficume'uique. par un brusque je ne cherche pas la cause dans votre ccsur. mais dans la maniere dont le catholicisme est depuis longtemps couipris et pratique. le fond coinme la forme de son enseignement.

un Concilc gene'ral pour aibitie ile la cre'ature a ses def. viii.». Personne eu effet ne refusera de reconnriitre que bien des cboses se passent qui genent Faction de I'figlise et comproinettent le salut des ames. ne'oessaire aujourd'hui la c'e&t I'e'tat [Document V. est ment ( . Et enfin j'en appelle k votre tribunal. qui preunent la ne'gation pour do la loroe et le rire pour . Cela me sulHt ijour vivre et pour niourir.) torise.iillances et ses emportements inevitables. c'est la constitution le du monde. inte'ret et conscience. la divinitc du prieres it vos actes d(. les siecles ante'rieurs. d'appeler par leurs supplications les lumiercs et les giac. eVst a vs pi. Tout ce que nous voulous dire. LkT'IRE PASrORALE DE MoNSEIGNEUK L'Ar- SUU LE PROCHAIN I'autorite pi reiir. ce qui va s'accomplir. et qui du reste sont une cause de sonfirance et une menace pour la re'gions. et cbaque ge'neration semble avoir ses vertus et ses vices pre'feres. et un peu plus tard 11 a demanile' a tous les fideles. il a publie' la bulle d'indiction qui fixe I'ouverture du Concile an 8 de'cembie procliain. Fr. (Jeorges Darboy. C'est en votre pre'seiice que j'c'cri-' res lignes. divinement e'tablie pour veiller au salut des ame. nianifeste' y a deux ans. V. droit et devoir.268 rilE VATICAN COUNCIL. Dans les milieux complexes et si variables oil elle se raeut avec des loives et des faiblesses qui restent les memes. par la grace de Dieu et du Saint-Siege apostolique. arche- veque de Paris. 20 mptemhre 18C. Est-ee a dire que notre ^ie.-}.) semble de ses acles. et les motifs (jue vous avez d'y prendre un religicux inte'ret.9. au moins brievement. ct oil vous-menies. sans parvenir a le realiser parfaitemeiit ui pour longtemps. bi auconp re'He'uhi. Au salut Nos II tres-chers Frercs. Ce qui rend plausible et moralemcut sont-elles pas ineessamment attaque'es par une criliquo intenipe'rante. et be'nediotion en Notre . tenued'un Concile.Seigneur Je'sus-Cbrist. pie'te'. ou par uu scepticisme froid et railleur. nos tres .iiis&es (i.e vers son but et accomplit sa destiiiee.liction d'en haut et I'assLstance promise du Saint-Esprit. cotiie dnll' sett. et faire la part de responsabilite qui revient aux divers ages et aux diverses rechercber avec saires eux les n medes necesaux maux pre'sents de I'Eglise.ce qui perraet d'y rattacher de solides et consolautes espeiances. ca qui I'aumeme. s de Dieu sur les travaux de cctte grande assemblee.P. Italic. Hyacinthe. Elle cherehe. Etat et Eglise. Ad iimm Domine Jesu trihunal appello. conside're dans I'enL'e'tat pre'occupe les Faris-Pafsy.ii'is. c'est avec les disipositions de re'piseoj)at la bene'. . soitplus mauvais que de choses que le passe' n'aurait pas conuues et qu'il se piesente avec une plus ^rande somme d ignorances et de perversite's ? Nous nc pouvons pas I'admettre les erreurs et les crimes sout de toutes les ^poques le libre : . une ceuvre qui d'ailleurs ici ne sera it pas a sa place. I'existence meme de Dieu ne done de vous exposcr. anssitot pourrait. et riiupaifaite liumanite marcl. le droit et . qu'il souffre (Dai Giornali contemporanei. 1S6.de. devoir de I'Eglise. en leur ac- cordaut une indulgence pleniere en forme de jubile". Superirur des Carmes (IeLh. en traversant des vicissitudes pleiues de grandeurs et de mi^eres qui recommenceut toujours et ne se ressemblent jamais. et que nous I'aimons. 6 Peigiieur Jesus. II iraporto cliristianisme. beaucoup souffert beaucoup atteadu c'est a vos pieds qui' je les sigue. Quelqnes mois apres. Ce qu'elle regie se pratique mal ou ne dure pas. et n'y a-t-il plus la de niedecin ? Pourquoi done n'est-elle pas t'ennee la blessure de la fille ge'ne'ral de inon peuple ?" (Je're'mie. devrez vous meler a leur oouvre par vos .chers freres. malgre' ses de'fauts car il a des de'fauts. n" 2. DOCUMENT CMEVEQUE DE PaRIS CONCILE. general du monde est tel qu'il moralisles et les p litiques autant que les hommes de religion. Ainsi le moment approche oii les e'veques du monile catholique vont re'])ondre a I'appel du Saiut-Pere. le bien et le mal preunent des aspects qui se modifient sans cesse. apres avoir beancoup prie. et nous n'avons point envie de les dissimuler. c'est que notre temps ne nous fait p'S penr. grand aumouier de PEiiiclerge et aux fideles de notre diocese. I'audes saintes Ecritures. (It-iixicuic deliniu ur de I'Ordre dans la province d' Avignon. J'en ai la coufiance: si les homnies les coiidamuent sur la terre. vou-i les approuverez dans le le ciel. ' une oeuvre oil Ton pent difficileetre t paraitre impartial. le Souverain Pontife a aux e'veques le'unis a Rome aufpur le le de lui qu'il vif de'sir de convoquer. torite Les verite's de la i'oi. Dresser le tableau comparatif de ces e'volutions morales. socie'te civile. re(|uilibre des elements dont se compose le monde: autorite' et liberte'. ds.

charge' de paitre les agneaux et les brebis. s par les e'veques du monde entier qui ne prcnoncent qu'en tenant compte tout a la fois de la reve'lation dont ils sont les gardiens. la famille et la V La liberie de parler et d'e'erire va-t-elle pas jusqu'a Textreine liceuce.. On n'a rien trouve de meilleur non plus pour engager les Chretiens a recevoir avec promptitude et respect les de'cisions doctiinales et disciplinaires de I'Eglise. etdes sentiments." Cette pcinture est triste. la force s» iile y regne. : avec a le maute d'honneur t'lute I'Eglise. de tous les vices et de tous les crimes. sont attaque'es et foule'es aux i>ieds par des eunemis acharnes de Dieu et des hommes. DOCUMKNT v. On n'a rien trouve de meilleur que cette union des conscils et ment .iilise de Dieu.-e jeunesse est presque partout retire au clerge. instruisent et gouvernent avec autorite et succes. si I'autorite n'est pas dans le ciel? Mais s'il n'existe de droits nuUe part.it dans ces conditions les eveques soient disperses ou reuuis. et de tels maux out besoin d'etre combattus avec zele et vigueur. I'objet de leur travail est de se maintenir et de maintenir h s fideles dans I'unite. sous la commune lioulette du Souverain Pontife. et tout est en proie a tous. formule'es et de'cre'te. les livres et les discours puMics ne sont-ils pas a toute heure dirio. des lors le respect n'a rieu a lii're duns le moiide. Non pas qu'il faille se flatter d'en avoir entierement ruison. religion. le ^aint-Pere. des livres impies de toute espece et des journaux i)estilentiels sont repandus de toutes parts les soctes les plus pernicieuses se multiplient partout et sous toutes Ls formes I'euseignement de la mallieureu. . sion de salut. et las nations moissonnent la tempete. pour mettro en lumiere et de'velopper la doctrine religieuse. dir'ger et soutenir les ames par la pre'dicatioii lie la ve'rife'. . par ses regies de discipline et Cette misl^ar I'efficacite des sacrements. pour corriger et perfectionner ks moeurs. qu'on ne pourra jamais assez pleurer. quelque effort qu'on fasse. toutes les choses sacre'es sont voue'es au mepris. Les de'liberations ge'iie'rales. mais il est poshible d'en arreter le de'veloppeinent et d'en limiter les funestes consequences. pour maintenir et relever la discipline eccle'siastique. sa puissance ve'ne'rable et la supreme autorite' de ce tSie'ge apostolique. successem' de Pierre. mais encore la socie'te' humaine sont mise'rablement dans le trouble et la confusion. des sollicituiles pour faciliter la de'tinition des dogmes de foi. et de quels maux immenses soufi're elle-meme la socie'te' civile. la violation des lois divines et humaines. Je'sus-Clirist la coiifie'e aux apotres et aux e'veques leurs successeurs ils la reinplissent depuis dix-lmit siecles. qui a pour signe public et permanent la communion . la corruption des moeurs. et ce qui est encore pire. veillant sur tout le troupeau oil le Saint-Esprit les a places pour gouverner I'E. les personnages emineuts par leurs sentiments catlioliques sont tourmente's de toutes manieres on aneantit les communautes religieuses . Or. Si en eft'et les droits de Dieu soiit con teste's et mecnuniis. Du reste. L'Egli-^e catholique et t-a doctrine salutaire. pour refuter et dissiper les erreurs les plus re'pandues. ou tous les e'veques du monde catholique teront appele's a s'eutendre sur le caractere et la portec des maux . pour la perte des ames. tel est pre'cise'ment le droit et le devoir de I'Eglise. les hommes les plus veue'rables cousacre's au divin miuistere. la contagion des opinions perverses de tout genre. autaiit qii'oii le croit. d'ailleurs le role des justi-s da'is cette vie de luttes et d'e'preuves. I'impiete. Fa de'crite dans les termes suivant^ " Depuis loiigteinps. k ce point que. : tout propage'es. la licence sans fiein. les re- solutions concertees ne sont done pas absolune'cessaires duns I'Eglise mais elles y out toujours paiu d'une force conside'ruble et d'une grande elficacite'. et les biens ecclesiastiques dilapide's les pontifes. Ce n'est done pas seuleiheiit la religion qui est en cause. En conse'quence. dit-il. il n'existe point de devoirs non plus. Pape. divinemeut invt sti d'une priet de juiidictiou s'etendant que ils L'oeuvre s'accomp'. Par suite de tous ces faits. ouvrant le cheniiu a la liberie de tout iaire et de tout de'fnire ? Car la logique n'est la soeie'te lie pus. dont ils sont les pasteurs et les guides. des habitudes et des besoins de leurs dioceses. pour notre desolation et la desolation de tous les gens de bien. comment ceux de I'homme ne seraient-ils pas precaires et plus que discutaliles ? Et comment y aurait-il des autorite's sur la terre. Elle est iuslitue'e de Dieu pour e'clairer. Aussi le Saint-Pere de'clare-t-il opportune la re'union d'un Concile. absente des choses humuincs. la morale.es contre ce qu'il y a de plus iie'cessaire et de plus sacre'. en y cherchant un remede. Telle est la situation morale de notre epoque. tout le monde salt et constate quelle horrible temj^ete subit aujourd'liui I'Eglise. c'est anssi I'ordre public et la Irauquillite des Etats: les tophistes sement le vtnt. confie en beaucnup de lieux a des maitres d'erreur et d'iniquite.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL 269 de la hardiesse et de la raison ? Les journaux. so sont par. c'est de venir en aide a la vertu. uon-seulemeut notre tres-sainte religion.

devradonc examiner avec le i^lus grand soin et de'terrainer co qu'il couvient (ie faire. pour la plus grando gloire de Dieu. qu'elles reconqiiierent leur legitime empire. dit la BuUe d'indietion.u dt s siecles anteriem-s. a ramener dans la voie de la verite'. en concile. tel est I'objet ge'ne'ral dont s'occupera I'assemble'e des eveques. foi par exemple. actuels.270 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. qu'on enleverait certain croitre jieut-etre les obstacles qui s'opposeut au retour de nos freres dissidents. qu'on imposerait' catholique des articles quo jusqu'ici vous n'e'tiez pas teiius de croire. la justice. et de la maniere la plus e vidente ? Tel est done. Non-seulement. le I'ordre. . et qu'ainsi la pie'te'. et ils tiaiteront leurs droits comme ceux des autres avec une conscience re'departir flechie et avec un profond sentiment de * afin re'primer tout vice et repoubser toute erreur. a la face de Fuuivers. cinq ou six cents eveques n'attesteront pas. le bonheur teni[>oiel des peuples. Si done elle ordonne. niais aussi. des verites a croire. Enfin nous devons lois ecclesiastiques. II y a plus les eveques auraient re(. vote par acclamation. que des questions inte'ressant la socie'te civile ct les relations do I'Eglise et de I'Etat seraient traite'es et de'cide'es dans un esprit d'opposition aux lois et aux niojurs iH)liti(iues du temps prc'buat. leur ve'rituble prosperile'. comme le tcmoigne 1 iiistoire des Conciles. de toutes les forces de notre esprit. procc'dera la procliaine assemble'e des e'vcqui s. et sur certains de'tails de votre conduitc privee ou sociale pour y apporter quelque heureuse Cette perspective ne vous a modification. nos tres-cliers freres. par voie de tradition. la probite. futelle eloquente. qu'ils ne s'cnipresseraient pas pour cela de les declarer : de foi. et sur les remedes qu'il est expedient de leur appliquer. qu'ainsi les eveques ne seraient pas libres. sous peine d'anatlicmc. Si done ils proijosent. la charite et toutes les vertus refleurissent pour le salut du monde. a delivrer de tout mal I'Eglise et la societe' civile. et non pas des auteurs qui inventent. I'lionuetete'. si le Concile cccumeuique ordonne de croire explicitement des choses qu'on pouvait nior jusqu'ici sans etre be'retique. Or. que notre auguste religion et sa doctrine justice. serait traite'e comme uii parti d'opposition qu'etoufierait bientot la niajorite'. ou n'en s-axn-ait douter. il faut qu'elle ait e'te re'vele'e de Dieu et qu'elle soit contenue dans le depot que les siecles chre'tiens gardent fidelement et se transmettent I'un a 1' autre sans alte'ration. C'est de la sovte que nos aine's f)nt proce'de'. Naturellement il se de'compose en divers points qui dtviendront a leur tour I'objet de de'cisions spe'cialcs. car en ces matieres les e'veques sent des te'moins qui constatent. la puissante influence de I'Eglise et de sa doctrine a pour objet direct le salut eterncl des liommes. jeunesse. Pour qu'une verite devienuc article de foi. au moins prematurees. certaines verite's considerables. pour la paix ge'ne'rale et la Concorde II nous faudra travailler aussi universelle. pour la splendeur du culte. c'est que ces cboses seraient deja certaines et generalement adinises. et ces menaces offensantes viennent assure'ment d'liommesplus hardis qu'autorises. mais pour I'e'dification. pour I'integrite' de la foi. ils voudraient examiner se'rieusement les dispositions ge'ne'rales du moiidci et recliercher si CIS nouvelles de'finilions de foi sont opportunes tt vraiment re'clnme'es par I'ctat des esprits. du clerge pour robservation des pour la reforme des pour I'education ciiietienne de la niceurs. " Le Cuncile cecumeiiique. ainsi qu'ou le voit par' les paroles du Saint-Pere. de la justice et du salut les raalheureux qui s'egarent. et donneront lieu sans Mais doute a des inesures particuli^res. et personne ne le niera. et que la minorite'. les D'abord. le progres maintien de la paix et de meine et la solidite des sciences liumaines: les I'aits les plus e'clatants de I'histdii'e ne le prouvent-ils pas constam" ment. Mais rassurez-vous. du plus religieux respect pour la ve'rite et des {>lus grands e'gards pour les personnes. avoir trouve dans les croyances do leur Eglise respective ce qui n'y est pas. L'Eglise n'est pas une ecole de desordre et de violence les e'veques. en efiet. qu'elles se propageut de jour en jour. et c'est do la sorte aussi que. et_ avec I'aide de Dieu. A vant done d'ajouter aux obligations du peuple cbre'tien et d'acarticles vous out a votre dit. salutaire reprennent partout une vigueur nouvelle. c'cst qu'elles existent deja dans les monu- ments de la tradition et dans le coramun enseignement de la tbeologie. ne voudront pas se . tt plusieurs semblent avoir lis pris a tache de vous inquie'ter a ce sujet. ne peuvent prendre leur source que dans une oonnaissance iraparfaite des clioses. ses representants et ses iiiterpretes au concile. pas toujours ete pre'sentee d'une n)aniere satisfaisantc. en ce qui touebe les de'finitioiis nouvelles. en ces teoips si calamiteux. pour la discipline et la Sdlide instruction re'gulier et se'culier. et qu'ainsi elles ne sont pas une nouveaute'. cela ne pent se faire sans qu'on agisse par Ik meme sur vos opinions et vos doctrines pour fixer et pent etre les corrigcr. Ces plaintes. Le pouvoir de I'enseignement ne leur a piis ete donne' pour la (icfctructiou. pour le salut e'ternel des hommes. [DOCUMKNT V.

en provoquant centre eux des mesures se'veres et des de'crets d'txpulsiou ? En ve'rite. et qu'ainsi tons encore. comme elles ne le sont pas assez. et qu'elle serait d'uilleurs jugee utile au progres du sentiment religieux et au triomphe de I'Eglise. Est-d besoin d'ajouter qu'en rappelant la regie et I'ideal. Dans ces conditions. sinon servir la cause de I'Eglise et do la socie'te' V Quelle est leur doctrine sur les matieres dont il s'agit ? En ce qui vous conc«rne. qu'il n'y en a pas deux. : Or. si nous vous pressons avec instance d'y adherer et de vous y maintenir fidelement. Ce sent la certainement des verite's que vous n'ignorez pas. il^ SL-raient au coutiaiie Texercice re'giilier d'un droit et ne pourrnieut qu'avoir en de'fiuitive de salutaiies efluts. on nous placera sous I'inspiration et la tutelle rester catholique. ils diraient sans doute que vous etes une nation baptise'e et qu'ainsi vous appartenez a Jesus-Christ. quelquesuiis d'entre vous craigiient qu'on ne les decide dans un sens oppose aux lois et aux nicBurs politiques de I'Earope. et que deja nous vous avons dites et re'pete'es. et qu'en traitant des sujets qui toucheraient a la politique. des de'crets com me ceux que redoutent plusieurs personncs. II fuut le reoonnaitre. nos tres-chers freres vous ne mourrez n'en etes pas pas de cette maladie. mais une seule. (^ue par consequent vos lois et vos raceurs doivent etre chre'tiennes. ils n'oublieront pas ce qu'ils doivent a leur e'tant prise pour le droit le'gal d'outrager tons les cultes et de n'en jirofesser aucun. et la the'ocratie est au Ensuite. Soyez sans peur. du clerge'. . vous ne le croycz pas nous sommes assez de ce siecle pour ne pas reclamer de telles choses. sans vous blesser ni vous nuire. et. des explications plus completes comme le concile peut en fournir re'ussiroiit a les faire cesser. telle que vous I'avez faite. a cote' des catholiques il y aura dt-s dissidents. et par Ik meme plus en rap^jort avt'C vos veritables inte'iets du temps et de I'e'ternite'. se sent acconle's pour e'veiller ces alarmes et out tout fait pour les nourrir et les re'pandre. Ainsi tout ce que vous nommez vos conquetes vous restera. telle e'tant notre conviction et notre foi au sujet du catholicisme. Au fond. et qu'on no cre'e ainsi eutre les devoirs <lu fidele et du citoyen un antagonisme violent et douloureux. acceptent la censure eccle'siastique. et qu'ainsi la liberte de la presse vous soit ravie pur vos archeveques peut-etre penserez-vous qu'il ne faut pas se donner le tort de craindre un pe'ril aussi lointain. 271 croire jusqu'a present n'etait c 'est que cette verite' se trouverait deja flans la tradition legue'e par vos ancetres. Est-ce done a dire que nous aliens combattre mate'riellement les autres cultes. n'auraient rien d'abusif ni de i3e'rilleux. Mais cette fois. et vous avez tout ce qu'il faiit pour Li pre'venir. laquelle nous oblige tons. Mais peut-etre n'y a-t-il la que des maleiiteudus. Partant de ces principes et de ces faits. princes et peuples. delibe're's en concile par le Pape et les e'veques. Loin done d'appre'hender que le concile ne tranche violemment toutes ces questions delicates et ne regie tous ces details epineux. Apres comme avant le Concile. Qu'avez-vous done a y perdre. individus et nations qu'enfin le nombre et la force ne sufBsent pas a tout justifier. I'une prive'e et I'autre publique. puisque vous saurez mieux deschiises dont la connaissance est pour vous un devoir et un interet de premier ordre ? Mais. mot. : . on peut le pre'voir. bon nombre d'e'crivains. elles vous seront explique'es par le concile avec plus d'autorite' et de vigueur. II n'est pas loisible de penser autrement a qui veut pour valider leurs actes. puisque nous tenons I'un d'eux pour le meilleur et le sful vrai.] de'sormais THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Bieu des anne'es s'e'couleront avant que les soixante journaux que Paris voit e'clore chaque matin. dites-vous. quant aux questions qui inte'ressent plus directement la societe civile et ks mpports de I'Eglise et de I'Etat. les eveques ne fermeront pas les yeux sur le cote' positif et les exigences de la vie re'elle. en ce cas. quoique places a des points de vue contraiies. ont besoin d'avoir raison . ils ajouteraient probablement que la liberte' de la presse. est un ele'meut de dissolution universelle et qu'il importe de la contenir dans de plus justes bornes que la liberte' des cultes. en appliquant ces prinelites aux de'tails de notre vie privee et sociale. bout d'une telle entreprise. par exemple. et sans doute aussi avec plus de precision.: Document lie V. vous ne pouvez que nous trouver logiques. qu'il y a done lieu de les corriger. vous atteints. quelque ve'rite qui pas de foi catholique. . et vous en etes trop pour les faire. plusieurs craignent au contraire qu'il ne trouve pas le moyen de vous aider efficacement a rendre sage la liberte de la presse et a re'tablir en Europe I'unite si desirable des croyances religieuses. qua peuvent vouloir les eveques rassemble's a Rome de toutes les parties du monde. doit etre autrement entendue et pratiquee que la morale n'est pas un vain souvent . et les douze mille volumes qu'il pulilie par an. en les rendant plus conformes a I'Evangile. II en est de meme pour la liberte' des cultes vous n'attendez pus de nous sans doute que nous les mettions tons sur un rang d'e'galite'.

nos tres-chers fieres. tout e^t inatiere ou pietixte a des reclamations contradictoires et a des pre'tentions ri vales. toutes les vicissitudes. des scrupules respectables et pre'sentes avec niodestie. . et tout nous engage a servir. malgre les imperfections qu'on y pent voir. c'e'tuit celui-la s'il y avait une erreur e'clatante et absurde. ce pent etie I'objet de demandes et d'explieatiuns que vous no refu^erez pas d'entendre. meme apres I'avis du plus autoiise'. nierite a peine qu'on s'y airete pour le re'futer. dans le reglcment des questions qu elles fussent . religieux nous y attache aussi. soit parce que Dieu meme insi)ire aux hommes I'amour du sol natal ct met le patriotisme au nombre de nos obligations. sous peine de damnation eternelle. pour ne parler que de celui-lii. iiour les plus graves motifs. et commencera-t-elle demain ? Dans le concile de Je'rusalem. leurs destine'es terrestres. Ce qui est done possible et plausible. chaque jnur. Est-ce que I'Eglise a jamais manie' les ames avec ce sans l'a9on. oil il s'agissait de de'linir et de formuler la foi de I'Eglise touch. malgre les legions romaines et les lois de i'empire.millant des conditions qui peuvent le reconnnauder & vos yeux.n a dit de I'entrainement avec lequel certain dogme serait vote d'acclamation par la majorile des e'veques. et le procluiiu concile ne fle'trira pas son ceuvre en : snppiimant la discussifm. . les rapports de I'Egliseet de I'Etat tels que le concordat les a de'termiue's. I'Eglisejuge qu'il faut vous imposer. ? . ne s'emporteront pas a les de'eider de haute lulte. Certes. au pdnt de vue n'e'dictera aussi . lis sunt dispose's.. e'toutfant ainsi la liberie' de leurs collegues dont la conscience ne j-e trouverait pas tout de suite pe'ne'tre'e des memes luraieres irresistibles. la voix . cest le sol que nos aieux ont habite ct qui garde leurs osseraeufs avec leur souvenir et lenr histoire c'est le coin de terre que vous honorez de vos travaux et de vos vertus. tout nous commande la syinpathio et le devouement pour nos concitoyens. [Document V. L'iude'pendance et la grandeur de la nation nous sont au=si cheres qu'a vous: la France. dans le milieu complexe et tourmente oil nous vivons. soit parce que nous troiivous dans notre pays une grande facilite pour pratiquer la religion et remplir les devoirs S'il est que la conscience nous impose. mixtcs. un dogme qui avait renverse' les religions anciennes et fait la conquete du monde. elle ne le fera point de maniere a de'conside'rer son acte. en le de'p. Le bon sens et I'histoire protestent contre ces insinuations mal venu. vine commune loi qui nous prote'i^e nous vivons de la meme vie et voulons etre iivec vous dans ligion. ces tenqje'raments qui sont la condition di. et Ton pent dire ainsi que la moderation meme a ses de'savantages mais il n'est pas expe'dient non plus de tout surmener avec I'impuissant dessein de tout refaiie. si iufirmes garantisscnt sufEsamment tons les interets et tons les droits essentiels. certains jioints oil nous voudrions expriniur des regrets et des voeux. s'il y en a. doit vous rassurer on ne sera pas moins libre a Rome aujourd'hui qu'on nc le'tait a Nicc'e il y a qninze sieeles. et oil coulent. Elle mais les laisse vivre. la que tend le patriotisme des e'vcciues. en nous prescrivant d'aimer nos semblables et surtout ceux qui nous sont plus proches. et pourtant on de'libe'ra dans le Concile de Nicee on entendit les raisons des contradicteurs. un dogme pour lequel e'taient morts plusieurs millions de martyrs. il faut maint( nir. quoique tuns les membres de cette auguste assemble'e fusseut personnelleinent infaillibles. pas d'enthousiasme une peine teriible que celle de I'anatheme. mais a mesurer leur action sur les circonstances et a faire pre' va loir. c'etait celle d'Arius. c'est de b'en tenir a de sages transactions qui elle les assoupit. et nulle solution u'est entierement satisfaisante ou durable. nous ne I'ignorons pas jjIus que vous. duns la mesure de nos Cost un forces. a ne point obe'ir a des ardeurs intemperantes. Enfin. nos trca-chers freres. Si. qui fut le premier des Conciles et leur servit de modtile. ce qu'i. Un Concile cecume'nique s'est tenu trois siecles plus tard. ou de'daignant d'ecouter et de calmer. et c'est. pays droit Nous ii avons donue a peisonne le de suspeder nofre patiiotisme la redu siin_'. Sans doute une mutuelle condescendance ne tranche pas les difReultes . s et vaines. et cinq ou six cents eveques. et tons ont pu dire leur avis. dans les aflaires religienses. autant que les hommes politiques peuvent I'etre d'autre part. Aussi croyons-nous que. le dogme fondamental du christianisme. on a delibe're. Notre cojur y Le sentiment tient par toutes ses fibres. la maiche correcte et prospere des choses humfiines. a la peine encore plus qu'a la fortune. rinte'ret nieiiie. car I'aprete' du zele aigrit les esprits et la violence ne Unit rien. commun drapeau qui uous couvre. si jamais dogme devait e'chapper a toute de'libe'ration. on ne vota point par acclamatiim. vos sueurs et vos larmes. I'obligation de croire a I'avenir ce qu'elle ne vous avait pas demande de croiie ju^qu'a present. du christianisme. re'unis pour de'libe'rer sur des iute'rets si graves. en d'autres termes d'affirnier la divinite de Je'sus-Chiist. Ce pie'ce'dent. Du reste.int la consubstantialite' du Verbe. . '2 THE VATICAN COUNCIL.

tous deux respectables. de vos inteiets et de vus droits. et qu'on pourrait comprumettre il y a s-urtout les inte'iets de I'Eglise. Petit.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. dont il faut bleu aussi tenir comptc il y a. qui sont avant tout les sicns il y a en fin I'interet sacie des ames. nous ne manquerons pas de poiter Vdtre souvenir devant lui. nous sollicifions le secours de vos pricres fraternelles. au Conciie. Archeveque de Paris.ence. Messieurs.ms dans nos travaux et iiieritoires giace que la . dans les sanetuaires privile'gies de Rome. malgre les meilleures intentions. Sans vouloir juger ici aucune conduite. et d'assurer de nouveau le S. afin que Dieu srtit avcc n. qui out pu. notre cote. le sceau de nos armes et le contre-sting du secre'taire ge'ne'ral de notre Archevecle. Messieurs. il En n'en a pas ete ainsi.) Donne a Paris. autre cbose a conside'rer et a e'couter que les e'ians du sentiment. sans contredire. gli articoli (Seguono rignardanti il Giuhileo che omettianio. Voila. partager de grands esprits: il y a de plus Ls iute'iets memo du Pere ve'ncre' et cheri qu'on vondrait exalter. le 28 octobre 1869. que je veuille contrister ini seul de mes vene'rables Fieies duns I'Episcopat S'il n'y avait que des Evequcs qui eussent exprime' ici leurs pensees d'apies les inspirations de leur conKc. >J< GEORGES. . dans une question aussi delicate que la proclamation d'un dogme. si on ne vent point s'expostr. Lettre de Monseignecr l'Eveqve d'OuLEAKS AH ClERGE DE SON DlOCESE. telle eut e'te' la mienne. et comest pe'iiible a des flls d'euteudre dis- de toutes cuter. avant mon de'part pour Rome. Par Maiidfment de Monseigneur rArchevequc: E.. ramenez dans I'Eglise et faites-y regner la purete des mceurs antiques. sans le vouljir. les inconve'aients. j'aurais garde' le silence. I'etat des esprits contemporains. Messieurs. . et sur ksquellcs. be'nisse le retour comme le de'part. Messieprs. Seer. la pratique genereuse de la charite. ce qui ne doit pas s'ouhlit-r. aidez-les par Li priere et les Lonnes ceuvres . voiis le sentez. de voir acclamer ce qu'ils considerent comme I'bonneur et la gloire de leur pere. c'est-a-dire de ce qui parle le plus au coeur catbolique.question. ui leurs doctrines pour ou contre la. dans une question ujn definie. hon. ii y a. dans la simplicite' de conscience. Permettt'Z qu'en nous e'loignant de vous pour quclque temps. ni lexirs vues pour ou centre I'opportunite. sous notre seing. dans la ve'rite' et la charite' ma de mon anie. et. Selon I'invilation qu'il adresse au monde eutier. Grand Aumonier de I'Empereur. si douces et si cl eres que soient les suggestions de I'amour filial.iint-Pere de votre religieux qu'il De et filial devouement.ifitez de la le Souveiain Pontife accrorde sous forme d'une indulgence ple'nieie. au sujet du conciie. plus tard. la querelle ^ I'amour. Dieu ne plaise. ainsi que je vons I'ai promis. j avals e'te' appele a me prononcer cntre eux. les violentes pole'miques soulevees dans les Des polemiques sur I'infaillibilite du Souverain-Pontife devaient done ine'vitablenient susc'. Ces inquie'tudes. a cote des avantages qu'on croirait voir. journaux'relativement au futur Conciie. et plus efficaces. Pour vous. la ou il leur serait doux. la sincerite et I'energie de la fui. il n'y a rien de de fonde dans les alarmes que vuus auraient fait concevoir. qu'il convieiit de peser miiiement et gravement.ter dans les ames ces dt-ux sentiments. II s'agit ici du Saint-Pere et de ses privileges. preparez-vous par de p'eux exereices au jubile' qui va s'ouvrir et. a meler. Ics paroles de qiielques per^ioniies pre'venuesou siiupleinent iire'lie'chies et inala- Le but de cette asseinblee est eleve et d'une supreme import cnce ses travaux seront conduits avec une tagesse dnnt la pre'sidence du Saiut-Pere est la garantie les e'veques y porteront un e'gal souci de leur dignite. je les ai comprises. il s'eu faut et la question. je Mais . m'adressant vos aJieux et vos vceux. et ecoute avec respect dis discussions respectueuses. pr. Document Vous serieux le iii VI. II y a les raisons pjur et centre. 273 voyez done. parmi les fideles. DOCUMENT VI. vous m'avez dit les inquietudes et le tiouble que repandent autour de vous. afin qu'elles soient plus droites. pie'te' tiliale II est naturel a la de vouloir orner un pere de tons les dons. en ce qui vous concerne. Et si. je I'aurais : : : A ! fait. et faire dune question de tbe'ologie line quettion d'enthousiasine ou de colere. Miis. au cuntraire. en un mot. et en particulier toucbant la definition de I'iufaillibilite' du Pape. a produit dans les ames les inquietudes que vous m'avez expose'es. bien il les pre'rogatives . Ch. pour ma part. jete'e d'une tout autre maniere dans le public. gen.

le pieux et eloquent Mgr Manning. outre cette Lettre si pleine de mesure. iNPferENDAM- . re'cennnent nonnne' Arclieveque de Malim s. un prelat beige.que ritnnon(. ont soulevc. lis out annonce'. qu'elle serait de'finie par aiclamation. sur les Eveques assembles.out pris ici la plus etonnante Tandis que le Saint. elle les de'clare. de ne pas se dire si la question se traite deja de la sorte devant le jjublic. II s'agirait done d'obliger desormais tons a croire. vous le comprcnez. le Memorial <iiploinati. RKUNi on Disi'KUsE ' et qu'il pout de'finir les dogmes seul. meme. Mgr Dechamps. selon eux. soil le voeu de croire d rinlaillibilito. Cette delicate question ayant e'te' ainsi souleve'e. jo I'ai on n'a ])as cesse' de liers v^l. soil dos petitions sur ce siijpt pour le Concile. : En fin. dans le prolitre chain Concile. que Li question de rinfaillibilite persontu lie du Pape y serait de'finie: bien plus. Les choses en e'taient la. VinftiiUihUite du Fape^ et il a repondu afiSrmativc ment. d'autres ecrivains.274 me ma fai. qiiand la controverse s'est re'veille'e en France entro plusieurs de nos veneres CoUegnes. dans une seconde lettre a ses dioce'sains. ii'etitiint guere the'ologiens. " tN DKHORS DU COHI'S KPISCOl'AL. le nouvt. la'iques ou ecclesiastiques. II e'tait difficile.ait il y a quelques jours.l archeveque de Westminster.int les portes du qu'il Concile. suivant I'excmple qui leur avait ete doane'. pensee. le toit grave des journalistes : 'i les premiers. et jete'e dans la rui. Car un dogme nouveau. "sicparement. les fideles ne furent tonus. une fois de plus. a public' un e'crit special sous ce Est-il oppoiiun dr dfffinir. contenant le voeu de croire a I'iufaillibilite personnelle On les fiusait signer a et separe'e du Pupe. dogme de rinfaillibilite' personnelle et sejiare'e du Pape. des journalistes intem- pe'rants n'ont pas reserve' ce soin a la future Assemblee de I'Eglise. Malheurcusement.' Deux journaux surtout. sous peine de cesser d'etre catholiques. dans un premier ecrit. en France. en particulier. assure'ment. si elle vient a etre introduite au Concile Et il e'tait impossible de ne pas sentir. que toute I'Europe a admiree. sers des propres expiessions de Mgr que le I'Arclieveque de Westminster. nature. s'en est dans les rues. et aurait traite'e du n'eire que par lui. je avait traite la meme question. quand il pro- nonce Seul. et n'entendaient certes pas le premier mot de la quebtion. et oil la question en est k ce moment. que scra-ce. et en a traite depuis. oti des laics ont prIs rinltiiitive vis-a-vls de leurs cures. im Memoiri% pour liii dtmanderde ne pirmettre pas que la question de son infailliliilite' personnelle flit pose'e au procl ain Concile. et sont alles leur dcniandir de signer. et d( s publicistes connus se sont moque's de ce qu'ils appelaient la gutrre sainte. au memo me Pape est infaillible. catholiques et protestants. Dois-je aller jusqu'a mentionner ici les pieuses industries qui ont ele imaginees dans On a e'te' jusqu'a distributer le meme but? C'etait un un courant point de vue. Les journaux anglais. ont rompu le silence et expiime a leur tour leiu's opinions et leuis craintes. dont beaucoup. ils se sont hate's d'ouvrir le debat sur un des sujets tlie'ologiques les plus delicats. et d'annoncer a I'avance en quel sens le Concile de'ciderait et devait de'cider. . non pas en s'agirait de proclamer le ce sens. sous peine d'ana- les cathuliques ti. sous les : . a croiic : ainsi.s THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Malheureuscment les journaux s't^i sont imme'diatement empare's avec une ardeur extreme la prompte et vive simultane'ite' des attaqucs a e'mu le public une certaine jiresse. mais sans le livrer a I'avide puldicite' des joinnaux. de bons fldeles. je dois rappeler ce qui ce qui s'est fait jusqu'ici. avant mcme et longtemps avant put etre re'uni. ont pris une part active k la controverse. Mais. ' ^ yeux de laquelle s'agitait ce de'bat.Fere des initiatives. et il ne faut pas ici d'eqnivnque. ils n'ont pas eraint de livrer au public les questions qui.. qu'uu dogme serait cre'e par le Concile I'Eglise ne crce pas les dogmes. doivent etre agitees et re'solues par la future Assemblee. Messieurs. depuis dixbuit siecles. est ties-grave. D'un autre cote' les Eveques allemands reunis a Fulda. avec une supreme indiscretion. des milde iietites feuilles imprirae'es. Messieurs. Nous disons dogme nouveau.eme. la Ciiilta CaltoUca et VUnivers. ' II y a ceitaines villes. et tiistement e'gayee. et dans la presso. plus expresse'ment encore. Deja. le fiire depuis. de tout le poids de cette opinion prejudicielle. ont adresse au Souverain-Pontife. en AngleUrre et en Allemagne. I. La question. s'est dit. un devoir de vous dire niaintenant [Document VI. Ce que je commencerai par vous faire remarquer. d'ele'vation et de gravite'. une question de cette qui. c'est qu'une telle ques- tion regardait le Concile. impostiit un prudent et rigoureux silence Consulteurs des Congre'gations irmaint-s aux charges des travaux preparatoires au Concile. mon saint ami. devant ce spLCtacle. For<. effort pour creer dans I'opinion favorable a leurs desirs. en il effet. auparavant. et pour peser. il y a deux ans. Je dis dogme nouveau en ce sens que jamais.

difficulte'. accourant. et si certaine. la question u'e'tait pas enfin. si le Concile vieut a juger convenable de ne pas suivre la ligne qu'on lui trace si imperativement. entendre oes journalistes. des a present. — grand nombre de mes ve'ne're's CoUegues. Je m'in- consequences. longuement. ou le voit. des re'flexions de sens commun. qui m'dut e'te' expose'es. des difflculte's de plus d'une sorte. qui ne s'accorde pas de tout point ioi avec d'autres tlie'olo-ieus rouiaiiis. cecumenique et I'ivfaillibilile du I'ontife roinain. Ces de'bats. sur cette iuopIroverse si j'e'cris. non pas de savoir si certains bomnies suspecteront plus ou moins et calomnicrout I'Eglise. et a lui persuader enfin de re'server aux Eveques de si de'licutcs discu-sions. et ce n'est pas pour I'irriter. d'un bien tiede devuuement pour I'Eglise et pour le Pape. the'ologiquement. et les quert-Ues qui viennent d'avoir lieu n'ont fait qu'ajouter a ma conviction. ne m'ont pas raoins etonne qu'attriste. et le de'bat s'envenime e'trangement. car. la proclamation du dogme de I'iufaillibilite' du Pape est si ne'cessaii'e. et des meilleurs. de telles discussions. Bossuet. mais sur un simple de'sir du Pape. plutot pour la calmer. Mais vraiment quelle liberie leur laissent. je I'ai toujours pen»e'. des Eveques. Vous m'y avez de'cide'. je la crois tres-inopportuiie.— THE VATICAN COUNCIL. grace a Dieu. ment. Car une pk-ine et entiere liberie. C'est ce qu'ils disent. dit I'un deux. puse'e. Je ge'mis de la conqui s'agite devant le public. et qui doivent. deja ancienne. et ces raisoiis nous out paru si graves. je voudrais exposer simplement dans cet e'crit. ceux qui se permettront d'etre d'un sentiment con- dont ils tra ire ? Ce sont Ik. Messieurs. de vive voix et par e'crit. preoccupent et agitent. Je m'en suis entrctenu souvent avec un portunite. fle'chir la II. des cxtremites du moiide. de I'iufaillibilite pontificale. II suffit pour cela. mon zele pour le Pape et pour sorte." expres ou tacite. de France et d'ailleurs. mais meme. frapper ceux memes qui sont le plus convaincus. Et du reste. les vues que je pre'senterai ici ne me sont pas personnelles. — P^nquoi done lu Concile pouvait-il etie une . un dogme speculatif c'est une prerogative qui aurait.] Siins 275 MENT DE l'episcopat. et avec raison. si facile. qu'en verite' il n'y a plus de limites.nzHe Le silence s'e'tait fait. sur lo Ci. et : sans toucher au fond Uicme de la question the'ologique. Messieurs. la supprimer. autour de moi ou loin de moi. Jnmais I'autorite' du Saint-Pere n'avait e'te' plus respectee dans I'Eglise. . ni sa parole niieux ecoutee. suns toutes ses faces. ne paraitra-t-il pas a plusieurs avoir manque a sou devoir? On affirme. sur des querelles qu'il vaut mieux. J'y ai vu. pour ma part. Car. ne semblentils pas denoncer a I'avance comme des schismatiques ou des Leretiques. que le Concile n'aura meme pas a examiner et douter un instant de sa de'cision. aucun concours antecedent ou subsequent. que les Eveques auront au Concile le savait . Jamais Ls Eveques n avaient e'te plus empresses a se serrer autour de la chaire pontificale. que ces pole'miques. oublii-rque raviver. Or ce n'est pas la. qui entendait I'infaillibilite' autremeut que Bellarmin. s'il se pouvait. Telle est la question que nous voyons cliaque matin traite'e et trauihee. par un jourualisme teme'raire. la question discute'e duns les journaux. avec la plus e'trange Uberte'. Je ne discute pas I'infaillibilite. tres-regret table pour le Baint-Siege lui-meme. ce me semble. au centre de la catholicite'. Plusieurs du reste la traitent de telle qu'a leurs yeux il n'y a la aucune mais ce que j'avais a taire pour servir comme je le dois ces causes si clieres. les plus serieusts : foule d'esprits. ' Document VI. et les jettent dans la situation evidemment dangereuse que vous m'avez dite. ce serait lui faire injure ce serait aussi se montrer suspect. ccs exces de la controverse troublent les fideK s. a eux comme a moi. de savoir son Cate'chisme. qu'a tout le moins sont-elles de nature a faire represse religieuse. J'ai examine. poursuiveut ce debaf. J'ai attendu beaucoup avant de me resoudre a prendre la parole sur un tel sujet. qui n'existe pas encore. quietais en eflet. Mais en attendant. Ce sont ces difflculte's que. apparem- pas ni Fenelon. Cepeiidant tout le monde ignore absolument ce que jugera boii de faire ou de ne pas faire sur ce point le Concile. et des plus chre'tiens. i^our moi. Messieurs. non pas meme sur un ordre. mais I'opportunite'. et avec de tels outrages pour clux qui ne pensent pas comme eux. meoets de cette fa^on par le jourualisme ? A la maniere avant cette inge'ience et ces eclats d'une certaine presse. a tout le moins. non-seuUmeut par vous-memes. ninis bien des fois deja par une 1 Lettre pastorale de Monseigneur. dans la re'alite' pratique. Messieurs. ne A Je n'ai certes aucun gout a me jeter dans une mele'e si violente. et smtout au point de vue pratique. je vous I'ai dit.

mt de siecles d'une fa^on dcl'ectueuse ou incomplete! A])re. est-il ! Quand moins du monde.ander dans mi Concile. est-ce pour se faire declarer infaillible. prevoir deja. oii le Saint-Pere a trace si largoment. D'un principe mon ? I'"h quoi re'pondrai-je a tour. Craignez-vous qu'a I'avenir elle devienne insuttisaute. que le Saint-Pere a voulu assembler les Eveques du monde entier? La de'tiuition de rinfaillibilite personnelle est-elle eutre'e pour quelque chose dans les motifs et les causes de la convocation du Concile? Pas le ne'cessite y force ? Est-ce que les temps I'imposent ? Non. Messiein-s. et la solution de cette question n'est pas plus indispensable qu'elle n'e'tait re'clamee. aux Eveques rassemble's a Eome en 1867. qu'il devienne dogme de fui? Comment alors expliquez-vous que I'Eglise ait ve'cu di.se et la socie'te. il faiit qu'on en vienne a se den. dnns aucun des actes du Saint-Peie. ne dirent pas non plus un seul mot de cette question. en est simple. il ne dit pas un mot de la necessite ou de I'utilite de faire eriger en dogme de foi par la future Assemble'e son Infiiillibilite' personnelle. impre'vue. ce principe. si e'en est un. inattendue. a on doiiner . condamne' toutes les ke're'sies.s dix-linit cent soixante-dix aime't s d'eiiseignement.ssions au sein du ('oncile Mais pourquoi I'y porter ? Est-ce que ! la lien n'appdle. sans que ce principe cssentiel a sa vie ait e'te' de'Hai Comment expliquez-vous qu'elle ait fornuile' toute sa doctrine. dans deux done ne'cessaiie a la vie de I'Eglise. d'une solution diflicile assure'mcnt. Vous le Siivez.s-lfi ces questions nmis regarde ! I 1 discu. son prqjet de convoquer un Concile oecume'nique. qui a le droit d'enseigner infailliblenient Et cela a la f.:ce du monde inciedule et piotestant qui Non. en reponse a cette communication. Enfin. Non. d'ailleurs. ce que cette question. et avec un si grand langage.«. Et les cinq cents Eveques reunis alors a Eome. %t rinfaillibilite' de I'Eglise suflfit a tout jusqu'a cette heure. les fideles n'ont-ils pas tous une sure garantie centre I'errenr ? ce qu'ifi tous ne sont pas d'accord? — — ! mi tont contraire on jieui. nuUe part. de toucher a ce principe constitutif. croiront plus facilement a I'lnfaillibilitt' peisonnelle et 'i allocutions celebres. a rAprefc de llelas ces de'bats preliniiiiaire.\-huit siecles.i faveur de ce respect dont le monde entoure ses vertus et ses malheurs. Kt que Ton s'expos-erint. etonner et desorienter le bon sens ilcs fideles par des controverscs violenfes. a cc Nous ressort principal <le la vie do I'Eglise aurions e'te constitues durant t. Mais j'entends dire qu'il s'agit ici d'un principe. La raison. pourrait soulever de ! Craignez-vous que I'Eglise ne puisse plus vivre a I'avenir sur les memes bases qui Font soutenue dans un passe de dix-neuf sieeles ? (Jue 1 arlez-vous done de la ne'cessite de faire dans \m Concile une dc'finition nouvelle sur la regie de la foi. avant rheure. et vous flatteriez-vons que ceux qui ne voudront pas croire k rinfaillildlite' de I'Egiise unie au Pape. et de constituer dogmatiquement une 7iouvelle regie de foi ? Quoi! c'cst en notre siecle qu'il dLvieiit ne'cessaire de venir metire cela en quesiion. il ne fut de nieme nullemeut parle' de son infailliliilite' personnelle. qui semblent voiiloir imposer d'avance ces questions aux que . [DOCUMKNT pe'rils YL du occasion de provoquer des coiitroveises sur les prerogatives pontificales? Est-ce dans ce but. qui est en commimion avec soia Eveque. Et c'est au milieu de tant d'urgentes tt necessaires questions qu'on voudrait tout a coup en Jeter une nouvelle." voila pourquoi le Pape a convoque le Concile et de la certes. ce sont d'autres et bien gransis buts que le Vicaire de JesusChrist assigne a I'Assemble'e des repre'sentants de I'E-lise catholique. au lieu de ce magnifique spectacle d'Mni(jn que le monde attend de nous. dans leur ailresse au Saint-Pere. qui est en communion avec le Pape? Est-ce que cela ne suffit pas pleinement a la se'curite' de notre foi ? et dans cet accord merv( illcux de te'muignages. laisson. dans la Bulle d'indiction. cette preoccupation de grandir se'par(?e du Pape ? Est-ce qu'il y a d ms un doute sur rinfaillibilite I'Eglise catholique de I'Eglise ? Est- son autorite' au moyen du Concile et a l. et pleine d'orages en siiivant la voie tracee par ks jcjurnalistcs. a une cpoqiie aussi incertaine oii d"vin moment h I'autre peuveut surgir des e've'nements capnbles de ditsoudre lo Concile nvant qu'il les Eveques auront ait acbeve' son couvre meme le temp. "Porter reniede aux maux du siecle pre'seut dans rEgli. ! Est-ce que le moindre fidele ne se salt jias en communion avec son pasteur.s de les traiter. et par la crise actuelle On se demande de toutes parts avec anxicte si.! 276 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. que de questions posf'es par ks temps nouveaux. Que des publicistes teme'raires n'aillent pa. produit tous ses docteurs. le Pape Pie IX annonga.s. le programme du futur Concile. n'apparait un seul instant. L'Eglise est infaillible. si on I'y portait. sans cette dt'iinition? De ne'cessite il n'y en a e'videmmcnt aucune ici.

et. Mais le Pape se souvint de la couduite si sage du Concile de Trente et de Pie IV. mais controverse'es parmi les d(jcteurs. creuser. et declara qu'il ne fallait rien trailer qui put provoquer des discussions orageuses et jeter de la division parmi les Evequt s. dans lesquels il lefelicitait d'avoir ecrit ce livre avec une methode et une sagesse bien propres a ramener les U^r€tiques dans la vote du salut. il n'est pas ne'cessaire d'en parler ici. Et c'est quand le Saint-Pere. n'avait fait qu'imiter le Catechisme du Concile de Trente J'ai In et relu ce grand Cate'chisme. que en dogmes des opinions. Quand Bossuet ecrivit son Ex-po' sition de la doctrine cathoUque. et j'ai un seul mot. d'ailleurs. et lui demander les bases possibles de I'union. a force d'afiirmatii ins tranchantes. XIX. des pre'ce'dents decisifs pour cette question d'opportunite qui nous occupe ? Je rappellerai d'abord la sage conduits du Concile de Trente et du Pape Pie IV. Messieurs. a I'article de I'autorite du Saint-Siege. ecrivit a ses le'gats pnur leur ordonner de retirer le sujet du litige. carles questions ne reviennent jamais absolument sous les memes formes. que des journalistes. ch. ma pense'e. dans Pallavicini. nisiea. car ce saint Pape adressa a Bossuet deux brefs. en s'abritant derriere le nom venere qu'ils profunent dans de semblables luttes. dans I'insde son noble et pacifique coeur. ct plus d'un Eveque pre'sent a Rome en 1 867 pent se le Rippeler. voyant combien les esprits etaient emus. a la fin. " Quant aux chost s dont on salt qu'on dispute dans les ecoles. en la soumettant a mes veneres Collegues. dans la pense'e si sagement exprime'e par Innocent XI . mais il ne parla pas de son infaillibilite. la question de I'jnfaillibilite' pontificale. Mais n'y-a-t-il unanimi consensione constaret* qii'il avait autre chose devant les erreurs du temps. Et n'en est pas question non plus dans la solennelle profession de foi. et a procurer a I'Eglise les plus grands biens pour la propagation de la foi orthodoxe. sur I'espoir qu'on ne I'oublierait pas au futur Concile. de quibus inter Patres III. Que tit le Tres-Saint Pere? Dans une re'ponse pleine de charite' et de sagesse. tandis que. Enfin. I'Eglise ! 1 Voir ce recit et ailleurs encuie. II posa cette regie si sage qu'il ne f^Jlait rien decider que de leur consentement unaniiue: Ne definireiitur. XV. Et la discussion fut mise de cote'. il passa outre Kst-ce qu'on penserait que. '. pourquoi ne citerions-nous pas ici I'exemple du ve'ne're' Pie IX lui-meme V On salt qu'il y a deux ans environ. et fut meme sur le point d'amener la dissolution du Concile. et de plus generate soiimission a Le Concile comprit faire.] TFIE VATICAN COUNCIL. Document vi. 277 Eveques. out entrepris. expressement et a dessein. nous sommes aujourd'hui en des temps plus favorables que ceux du Concile de Trente et que nous vivions a une e'poque de foi plus vive. Poiir moi. Bossuet. et de lie'trir des theologiens catholiques. du meme piration T . il parla de I'autorite de I'Eglise. avec la pense'e expresse de chercher s'il parlait. le point controverae'. celle-la meme dont nous traitons ici. Quand le cheue est vingt fois se'culaire. dresse'e par on non. c'est la conduite du Pape Innocent IX a I'e'gard de Bossuet. avant de se decider a convoquer le Concile du Vatican. pour soulever et tiancher une question aussi delicate que celle de la de'finition dogmatique annonce'e. Messieurs. il parla de la supre'matie du Pape . en 18(37. pour clierclier ]e glaud origiuaiie sous ses racines. sous une autre forme. de I'infaillibilite — I'ordre de Pie IV et inse're'e au pontifical remain. est formelle sur ce point. cent quatre-vingt-huit ministres anglicans lui e'crivirent pour lui tc'moigner de Itur bonne volunte. en ecartant avec soin. An fond. sans doinmage aucun pour I'Eglise. a d'e'riger the'ologiens remains je I'ai lu. qu'une des plus seri' uses pre'oc-cupations de Pie IX. c'est vouloir e'branler I'arbre eiitiez- Un autre prece'dent de sagesse et de mode'ration qu'il faut rappeler ici. etabli fortement la primaute' de droit divin. Comment oublier avec quelle sagesse le Saint-Siege sut ecarter le peril de ces controverses en e'cartant le debat? Pie IV. par les plus celebres pas deja. Je me souviens tres-bien. si respectables qu'elles fussent." Ce silence re'flechi et calcule a I'endroit de I'infaillibilite du Pape empecha-t-il Innocent XI d'npprouver I'ouvrage ? Bien loin de la. donne de tels esemples de moderation et de sagesse. du temps du Concile de Trente.! . puisqu'elles ne sont pas de la foi cathoUque. apres avoir. de peser sur I'opiniou publiquf. compose sur I'ordre du saint Concile et des Souverains Pontifes. il passa sous silence. c'etait qu'il u'y surgit quelque question de nature a provoquer des discussions orageusis et des divisions dans I'Episcopat. la primautc' d'honneur et de juridiction de saint Pieire. la question qui passionna si vivement les esprits. quoique les Ministres ne cessent pas de les alle'guer ^oitr rendre cette puissance odieuse. et des Papes ses successeurs. oui : constate' qu'il n'en dit pas il du Pape. c'e'tait.

nous exprimons 1 MoDScignour Manning.EPISCOIAL. qu'est-ce qui separe de nous les Orientaux? La supre'matie du Pape. les Conciles c'taient la grande forme de la vie de I'Eglise. [Document vi. quelque conviction jiersonnelle qu'on puisse avoir sur I'infaillibilite du Pontife Romain. barriere entre vous et nous. ni apres Florence. Nous parlions de nos freres des comuiunions separees. oix en sont nos freres separe's ? lis en sont restes preoise'ment aux temps du schisme. que le dogme meme non encore accepte' par vous. THE VATICAN COUNCIL. dans I'Ecriture et dans la Tradition. il faut bien savoir oii ils en sont. rinfaillibilite personnelle du Pape. C'est en effet quaud on se place a leur point de vue. slir ce point. on voudrait ajouter une difficulte nouvelle et beaucoup plus grande. lis ne connaisseut pas les controverses qui se sont agitees sur ces maticres dans I'Eglise Occidentale. Aussi quelles invitations pressantes du 8aint-Pere aux Eglises orienlales Quel appel aux coniuuinions protestantes Eh bieii. que la question d'une de'fiiiition de I'infaillibilite' personiielle du Pape parait surtout grave et pi-rilleuse.— se des ames. une nouvelle et plus haute : : est sans fondemont k I'envoyedu SouverainPontife par le vicaiie ge'neral du Patriarche schismatique de Constanfint)ple. d'uii nouvel anatlieme! Car."' c'est la re'pouse faite 1 CMUa Ca'tolica. Voila la grande cause pour laquelle il faudrait etre prets.! :: 278 coup. seul. . Une telle conside'ration ne ine'vitables. serait de faire reculer bien loin la re'uuion des Eglises Oiientales. en un mot leur imposer un dogme dont on ne leur paila jamais. pour vous. au IX siecle. INDEPENDAMMENT EvEQi'ES. si Ton re'fle'cliit a I'e'tat d' esprit des clire'tiens scbismatiques de I'Orient.ses Orientales separe'es. voulaient intimider ks Eveques et leur fermer la bduche.ctrine bien plus obscure. un vceu ardent de tuns les ciieurs vraiment catholiques. s'ils ne I'accepteiit pas."' d'une telle definition. c'est Men le retour a de tant de freres sortis du giron de ineme mere. comme s'ils . pour vous expliquer et vous entendre avec nous. s'il est un interet supieme pour I'Eglise. efficacement. et a admettre ce que jusqu'ici des docteurs catholiques eux-memes n'ont pas admis nous allons eriger en dogme une d(.. ni Melchior Cano. e'lever entre eux et nous une barriere qui n'a jamais existe. a savoir. Mais voici auparavant ce que nous nllons fairc e'lever un nouveau mur de se'paration. Lors-^ qu'on traite avec les hommes. En fait. : IV. cbronique du Concilc. il s'en assemblait sans cesse. vis-a-vis des Egli. Or. ni apres Lyon.—Cite par Moiisiigneur TEveque de Grenoble. tons." Parler ainsi. insurmontable jusqu'a ce jour. Parmi les raisons alle'guees par lui pour decliner I'invitation venue de Rome. ne serait-ce pas vraiment une de'rision ? Et ne serait-ce pas aussi un malheur ? appeler et eloigner en meme temps ? Ces conside'rations devront frapper encore plus. it faut bien reconnaitre que le IX siecle etait loin d'etre dispone a la de'Hnition d'un tel dogme. et aujourd'hui e'loignes de nous. je le demande. lis n'ont pas man-he depuis. . a donuer son sang. tin fait re'cent montre ici si la crainte que pourrait-il. te n'cst plus seulement la primaute de juridiction qu'ils devront reconnaitre. ye re'pete pourrait-il. Et. etdemoiiis persuasifqu'un tel langage " Nous vous invitons a [iroliter de la grande occasion du Concile oicumeuique. rien de plus contradictoiro qu'une telle conduite. et sa snpe'riorite' sur Ic'S Conoilis aicume'niques. ni rEpiscopat. ni Bellarmin. qui les tient depuis I'unite' la ! ! ET SEPAREMENT DES Voila dans quelles condiiions nous venous vous proposer I'entente. Les Grecs ne sont done en rien prepare's k la de'linition qu'on voudrait leur faire imposer par le Concile du Vatican. ils tieiineut suspenthies au-dessus de leiirs tetes dt s insultes pleines de violence et de fiel Je puis leur dire Vous ne counaissez ni Pie IX. Qu'on y songe il y a 75 millions de chre'tiens orientaux se'pare's il y a pros de 90 millions de protestunts de tuutes nuances. Et voila qu'a cette difficulte.— et paraitra le'gcre k aucun de ceux qui savent ici je le prix simplement ce que le bou sens a deja inspire' a ceux qui out voulu y re'fle'chir. et trembler a la seule pense'e de ce qui pourralt la mettre en peril. Certes. les de'cider se'rieusement. les menagant. et amener un retour durable. C'est le iiohit sur lequel on n'a jamais pii. neuf siecles se'pare's de I'Eglise et de nous. Vous vous etes refuses jusqu'a present a reconnaitre la simple Primaute de juridiction du Pontife Romain nous allons vous obligor prealablement a croire bien autre cliose. c'est rinfaillibilite' personnelle du Pape. " en DEHOKS ET SEPAREMENT DU CORPS. jusquela. lis ne veulent pas la recunnaitre comme de droit divin. lis n'ont lu ni Bossuet. : . Ma convic-titm profonde est qu'un des eliets certains. toutes les plus graiid<s de'finitions dogmatiques avaient e'te rendues t n Concile. Un fosse nous se'pare nous allons en faire un abime.se trouvait celle-ci: que " I'Eglise grecque ne pent reconnaitre I'infaillibilite' du Pape.

;

Document

vi.]

THE VATICAN COUNCIL.

279

Les schismatiques armeniens parlent le meme langage, et j'ai eu sous les yeux un journal arme'uieii qui pre'teud que si Rome les invite au Concile, c'est " pour leur imposer rinfaillibilite du Paiie.' Ou dira peut-etre Mais de quoi vous preoccupez-vous ? Les Schismatiques ne veiilent pas de I'union. Qu'importe entre eux et nous une barriere de plus Je suis loin, pour ma part, de perdre ainsi I'espe'rance,
:
!

et sans connaitre les desseins de Dieu sur les peuples, je ne me ciois pas permis de
sceller aiosi la tombe de ces antiques nations clire'tiennes,— surtout quand je viens a penscr que dans cette tombe, dans ce sol de I'Orient,

regarde commetels— et I'autorite' de I'Eglise, dnnt il se persuade fttire toujours partie. Tandis que le Protestantisme n'admet pas cette antorite'. La, snr ce point pre'cis ct de'cisif, I'autorite' de I'Eglise est la grande controverse entre Ini et nous. Le Protestantisme est avant tout la ne'gation de I'autorite' de I'Eglise. Dans ce principe de division est son essence, sa plaie fatale. Et c'est ce que beaucoup de nos freres separes commencent a entievoir. lis sentent qu'un principe qiu permet la division a I'infini, qui permet meme de n'etre plus chre'tien
tout en demeurant toujours protestant, ne pent pas etre le vrai principe chieiien. De la ce travail qui se fiiit au sein du Protestantisme, ces glands et consolants retours, dont surtout I'Angleterre et I'Ame'rique nous donnent le spectacle, et ces aspirations vers I'union, qui sont, je le sals, au coeur de tant de Protestants. Qui, parmi nous, ne compatit a ce travail et a ces souflfrances de tant d'ames? Qui ne les appelle avec amour-? Qui ne prie av c elles ? car elles prieut, je le sais encore, pour ce grand et supreme inte'iet, I'union des Eglises clire'tiennes. "Nous sommes," me disait a Orle'ans meme le docteur Pusey, il y a deux ans, '• hnit mille en Angleterre,

des cendres comme celles des Athanase, des Cyrille, des Basile, des Giegoire, des Chrysosiome, mele'us a celles d^ss Paul, des Antoine, des Hilarion, des Pacome, et de tant d'autres saints a jamais illustres.

reposent

Mais quand cida serait, quand aucua de Dieu ni aucun effort des li'^mmes ne devrait rappeler de I'erreur qui les a perdus ces vieux peujtles de I'Orient, non, alois meme je ne croirais pas qu'il lut de la charite' de Je'sus-Chrisfc, et de la mission d'un grand Concile, de les eloigner da vantage,
souffle et (le luur rendre le retour plus difficile. J'ai eu souvent I'heureuse occasion
-

de

m'entretenir longuement des iate'rets de ces antiques Eglises, avec les Evoques oricntaux qu'il m'a e'te donne de rencoutrer a Eome dans nos grandes reunions et en outre, une
;

qui prions, chaque jour, pour I'union." All si les rapprochements tant desires purveuaient enfin a se faire! Si I'Angle!

correspondance

particuliere,

active,

avec

plusieurs d'entre eux, m'a permis de connaitre un pen I'e'tat des cnoses. Ce que j'ai appris d'eux, c'est ceci un grand desir du rapprochement. Oui, dans cet immobile Orient, beaucoup d'ames sont travaille'es jiar ces aspirations. Et, en meme temps, de vives susceptibilite's, pour les moindres de'tails de leuis vieilles coutunies k combien plus forte raison, pour ce qui est des grandes questions dogmatiques. Certes, le Concile de Trente eut une tout autre condnite, et des me'nagements bien antrement dignes de I'Eglise de Jesus-Christ vis-a-vis des Eglises oiientales, et cela, dans une question d'une capitale importance.

grande AngU terre, se retournait un jour vers nous De toutes les reconciliations que le monde a vues, ce serait assure'meut la plus heureuse et la plus
terre surtout, la
!

:

:

Je le disai.^, dans ce livre de la touverainete pontijicale, ecrit en quelque sous le feu des luttts pour le SaiutSie'gc, je le disais avec confiance aux Anglais maitres d'eux-memes et de kurs " Vous avez e'te', il y a trois pre'juges siecles, les plus redoutables ennemis de I'uuite' quel honueur il y aurait pour vous a ramener en Europe I'uiiite' Cet e'tendard de la Catholicite chretienne, comme il sierait a vos mains de le relever, et k vos vaisseaux de le porter par-deLi les mtrs sur toutes les
fe'coude.
.'iorte
:
: !

Tout

the'ologien salt

comment,

a la

demande

des ambassadeursve'nitieus, le fameux canon : Si quis dixerit Ecclesiaia erkare, chefd'oeuvre de prudence the'ologique et de charite, fut tempere de maniere, tout-a-laIbis, a maintenir la verite et a menager les Orientaux.

teries que vous visitez Heureux ceux a qui il sera donne de voir ces temps meilleurs, qui peut-etre ne sont pas e'loigne's !"
!

Eh

bien

!

le,

grand nombre du nos

Concile a ranime chez un freres separes, 1 1 chez
!

nous, ces esiierances. Ah sans doute, on doit le c.aindre, elles ne seront pas toutes realise'es. Mais au moins, df-s retours partiels

peuveut se

ce qui

V. La question est plus delicate encore en touche le Protestantisme. C.'r le sehisme oriental, du moins, admet I'autorite' des Conciles 03cumeniqucs de ceux qn'il

surtout

voir, et en grand nombre une puissante impidsion pent etre

donnee.

Le

temps, aveu la grace dc Dieu,
le

ferait le reste.

Que du moins

Concile, pour ceux a qui

t2

!

280

THE VATICAN COUNCIL.
un souverain
foi,

[Document
e'tranger,
le

vi.

le Saint-Pere adressait nagiiere ce pressant appel, lie devieiine pas la plus dure des pierres d'arhoppemeut Ne parlez d nc plus de leur imposer prealablemeiit, pour condition de retour, 1 infaillibilite' personiielle et se'pare'e du Pape Car ce serait I'oubli de toute prudence coninie
!

croit-on,

de bonne

que declarer

Pape

iufaillible, ce sera

reiulre nieilleure la position des eatholiques

de toute charite'. Les nouveaux catlioliques, ai-je oui dire, sout pleins de ferveui- pour ce dogme. Oui, certains nouveaux catlioliques peut-etre.

dans tous ces pays ? Croit-on que la Russie, que la Suede, que le Danemark en deviendi-ont plus doux pour leurs sujets eatholiques ? Leurs baines contre Eome en seront-elles apaisees, et le rapprochement rendu plus
facile
?

Mais je connais, moi, d'autres convertis, que I'annonce d'une definition a troubles. Je connais certains proti stants, de'sireux de venir a nous, que cela soul fait reculer. J'en connais que cette de'finition repoussera'.t
absoluraent. 11 faut etre, ce

me

semble,
les

Men peu ou
dispositions

bien

mal renseigne sur

actuelles de nos freres separe's, pour ne pas voir qii'on eleverait la, infailliblement, une uouvelle bairiere, peut-etre a jamais infranchissable. entre eux et nous.

Si quf'lqu'un etait tente de trailer a la comme chime'riques, ces craintes sur Gouvernements noii les dispositions des eatholiques, je rappellerais ici simplement Pourquoi done, en les faits contemporains. 182G, Its Archeveques et Eveques catiioliqtus d'Irlande, et ceux d'Angleterre ct d'Ecosse, out-ils ete oblige's de signer les deux de'clarations que jai sons les yeux ? Dans I'une, les Arclievftques et Eveques eatholiques d'Angleterre et d'Ecosse, places en face de ce grief " On accuse les eatholiques de paitau;er leur fide'lite entre leur souverain temporel et le Pape," y ve'pondent
Ic'gere,
:

'

Mais attendez done
tients
:

l(>s

dirai-je aux impascliismes et les here'sies ne sont
!

pas

e'ternels.

L'Eglise a bien attendu, sans
ve'rite',

cette de'finition, dix-liuit siecles, et la garde'e par elle, a e'te bien gardee.

VI. II est d'autres pe'iils, d'un aulre ordre, II faut calculer les et tres-graves encore. conse'queuces que pourrait avoir un tel

Gouvtrnenients c'est la une politique, ou pour modernes mieux dire, une sagesse dont I'Eglise ne Je sais que beaucoup pent se de'partir. d'Evcques, et des plus courageux, en sont
acte au point de vue dts
:

pre'occupe's.

longuement et dans I'autre, les Archeveques et Eveques eatholiques d'Irlande sont forces d'en venir a protester qu'ils ne croient pas "qu'il soit licite de tuer une personne quelconque, sous pre'texte qu'elle serait heretique :" —souvenir exagere, mais evident et permanent des bulles lance'es centre Henri VIII et de plus ceci est a remarquer " qu'il n'est pas exige d'eux de eroire que le Pape est iufaillible."' Qu'on se re'crie tant qu'on voudra sur I'injustice de ces ombrages et de ces pre'ventions, de telh s de'clarations solennelles impose'es a I'Episcopat d'un grand pays, demontrent assez quelle est la puissance de
;

Et ceites, non sans cause car il y a. de serieuses raisons de craiiidre, a ce poiut de vue encore, que les inconve'nients possibles de la definition ne soient tres-cuuside'rables.
;

ces pie'vcntions. J'ai lu cette de'claiation des Eveques d'Irlande, je dois le diie, la

Voyons
I'Europe.

les

faits

;

examinons

I'etat

de

Sur

les

cinq

grandes puissances euro:

la pe'ennes, trois ne tout pas eatholiques Je ne Eus.sie, la Prusso et I'Angleterre. ])iirle pas ici de I'Ameriquc et des Etats-

rougeur au front. Combien ils ont du soutMr d'avoir a repousser, et de trouver vivantes dans leur pays, de pareilles defiances, qui s'attaquaient a tout ce qu'il y a de plus sacre' dans la conscience, de plus de'licat dans I'lionneur
!

Unis. Et piiinii les Etats stcondaires de I'Europe, un grand nombre au^si apparticnau schipine et a I'lie'rcsio, la Saxe, la ncnt Suede, le Danemark, la Suisse, la Ilollande, Qui ne salt quels ombragcs tous' la Grece. ces Gouvernements nourristent encore conOr, je pose simplcnient la tre I'Eglise? Cioit-on question quo voici trcs- grave qu'une definition dc 1 infaillibilite personmile du Pape soit de nature a di&siper ces
:

vent-on d'autres preuves encore ? On lois atroces qui resterent si longtemps suspendues sur la tete des eatholiques d Angleterre et d'Irlande, et qu'ils out eu tant de peine a fair abolir. Eh bien, quand le ce'lebre Pitt, a la fin du siiicle dernier,

En

salt

les

oiiibrages

?

Quand,

pai-

uu
(ni

prejuge'
Ic

inve'te're',

qu'on ne dc'truira pas

I'aggravant, ces

gouvernements rogardeiit

Pape cjnnne

dans une pense'e politique que je veux eroire genereuse, songea, pour la premiere fois, a de'livrer de ce joug les eatholiques, qu'est-ce qui obse'dait et arretait tout court I'liomme d'Etat anglais ? La Puissance; pnntificale, les vieux souvenirs dis de'mele's des Papcs avec les couronnes. C'est pourquoi, avant tout, il voulut savoir qtielles etaient sur ce poiut les dnctriot s catlioliques, et il s'adrcssa

:

;

!

Document
cIrus ce

vi.]

THE A^ATICAN COUNCIL.

281

but a toutes les pins savantes llniversites de France, de Belgique, d' llspagne et d'Alkma.2;ne. J'ai sous les venx les rejionses dcs Univei site's de Paris, de Douai, de li.uvain,

d'Alcala, de Salamanqne, de Vidladolid: tontes, se pla^aut !in pnint de vue dn droit divin, et laissant de cote', par conse'qnent, ce qui a pu etie le dnr"t pnblic d'un autre age, re'pondint expresse'ment que, ni le P:ipe, ni les Caidinaux, ni aucun corps on individu de I'Eglise romaiiie, n'ont, de par JesusChrist, aucune anturite' civile siu- I'Angleterie, aucun pouvoir de delier les sujets de S. M. Britannique de leur scrmeat de
lide'lite'.

de lEglise, pla9ons-nous dans la re'aliie' des choses, dans les faits voyons e qui est, et ce qui sera. Le grand fait, maliieureux, mais inconti stable, et plus que jamais subsistant, le voici c'est que les pouvoirs publics, meme c'lez les nations catholiques, sont pleius d'ombrages centre I'Eglise. C'est ce que toute rhistnire proclame; car Thisfoire est j)leine des confiits eutre les deux puis;
(

:

sances. IMais

que

parle-je

du

passe'?

A

I'heure
trois

meme ou

j'e'cris

ct s lignes, est-ce

que

Cctte doctrine, prnfessee alors par les plus grandes Universite's de I'Eglise catholique, pouvait rassnrer Pitt snr la doctrine contiaire, prolesse'e,daus des bulles celebres, il le faut dire, par plus d'un Pape. Mais supposez la Papaute' de'claree infaillible
:

des quatre grandes puissances catholiques de I'Europe, I'Autriche, ITtalie et I'Espa^ne ne sont pas engage'es plus ou moins dans de tristes luttes avec I'Eglise? Et c!,ez nous-memes, dim moment a I'autre, ne peut-il pas surgir uu litige ? Et ce mot ne serait-il pas encore trop doux, dans la terrible e'ventualite' de telle revolution possible ?

cette de'finition
(In

dogmatique de
serait-elle

I'infaillibilite'

pas de nature a raviver les vieilles defiances? Certes, on pent le craindre, et voici pourquoi Les Gonvernements non-catlioliques, en effet, ne croiront pas a cette infaillibilite' et ce ponvoir immense, reconnu dogmatiquement an Pape, le Pape, selon eux, en pourra abuser, en outrepasser b s limites. Mais, ce qui sira grave a leurs j'eux, leurs sujets catholiques y croiront, et seront obliges de se soiimettre a toutes ses decisions, meme les plus abusives au point de vue de ces

Pape ne

Voila la situation les Gouvernements catholiques out ete', sont, ou pcuvent se tiouver de plus tn plus en conflit avec
:

I'E-lise.

Certes, nul plus que moi ne de'plore ces redoutables conflits, quand ils se produisent; et si pen de gout que j'aie pour ces luttes, peut-etre ai-je mi.ntre', on me pardounera de le rappeler, que je ne suis pas de ceux qui reculent alors et faiblissent ? Mais

la n'est pas la question,

Gouvernements non -catholiques

:

comment

et, f{ue les Gouvernements soient, ou non, coupables, ce n'est pas non plus de cela qu'il s'agit. II s'agit de savoir de quel ceil, aujourd'hui, les

ne pas voir que des lors le pouvoir pontifical leur semblera Men plus redoutable ct plus odieux ? lis out deja, ils couserveut contre I'Eglise les de'fiances ombrageuses que chacun salt combien plus suspecteront-ils
:

Gouvernements verraient declarer
infaillible.

le

Pape Et

Est-ce la une timide preoccupation?
I'Eglise doit-ello,

le

Pape

infaillible,

c'est-a-dii'e

un

seul

bomrae, qui, a leur point de vue, leur oifiira bien muius de garanties que I'Eglise. c'esta-diie que les

Eveques de leur pays tt de

dans ses Conciles, ne consultant que les principes de sa pleine inde'pendance a I'egard des Gouvernements humains, agir, de'cre'ter, de'finir, meme sur les questions pratiques les plus de'licates, comme si les Gouvernements n'existaient
pas, et sans s'inquie'ter, en aucune sorte, de savoir si ses actes les blesseront, ou non, au vif? Telle n'est pas, telle ne fut jamais, dans les choses qui ne sont point de ne'cessite, la

tous les pays?

VII. Et ks Gouveriiements des nations catholiques elles-memes, de quel ceil verront-ils proclamerle dogme nouveau? C'est
ce qu'il faut se
les (:!ouvernements

comme

demander aussi. Car enfin, ne se regaideront jamais dans la question. Qiu leur persuadera qu elle ne les regarde pas ?
de'sinteresses

coutume de
!

la i-ainte Eglise.

Ici encore, pour appre'cier sans illusion et selon la ve'rite' les conse'quences de la de'finition dogmatique annonce'e, et sollicite'e avec taut de bruit par des journalistes qui, certes, devraient cesser, I'heure en est venue,

de se meler dans

les aifaires

les

plus in-

times, les plus gravis, et les plus re'servees

Ah si d'un coup, et par une simple proclamation dogmatique, on pouvait couper court aux confiits, supprimcr les vieux ombrages, et rendre, par de'cret, les Gouvernements des nations catholiques deciles a I'Eglise et au Pape, comme des brebis Cela en vaudrait la peine Mais s'en flatter, aujouid'hui surtout, serait la plus chime'rique des illusions. Qnelqu'un pcut-il douter qu'une de'finition
I

282

THE VATICAN COUNCIL.
riii'aillibilite

[Document
matieres

v:

do^'matique de personnelle du Pape, loin de supprimur les defiances aucieunes, ne ferait qu'eu raviver les causes,
ou, si Ton veut, les eternels pre'textes, en leur donnant une appareuce de plus ? Quels sont, en etiet, ces pre'textes ? Certes, je ne pre'tends en rien justifier ici les Gouvernements presque toujours, presque parmnis tout, ils ont voulu opprimer 1 Eglise il faut voir les hommes tt Its choses comme ils sont. II y a d'abord ici les souvenirs du passe.
:

Pape, sur des
parfois

non

peu definies et definissables, une puissance

souveraine, sur tons leurs sujets catholiques, et, pour eux Gouvernements, d'autant plus sujette aux ombrages, que I'abus leur paraitra toujours possible V Alors on se souviendra des doctrines formule'es, sinon definies, dans des Bulles
illimite'e,

;

ce'lebres.

En
sj

demander

declarant le Pape infaillible, pourront les Souverains, le de'clarera-t-on

impeccable ? Non. La declaration qu'on provoque ne devant rien ajouter ni retrancher a ce qui est, a ce qui fut, cc qui b'est deja vu se pourra voir encore. Or on a vu, il faut le dire avec respect et avec tristesse, mais il faut le dire, car I'liistoire y condainiie, et Baronius lui-memi', lo grand bistoriographe de I'Eglise romaine, nous enseigne qu'il ne faut pas, en bistoire, dissimuler la verite' or, on a vu dans cette longue et incomparable serie des P(jntifes remains, quelques Papes, en petit nombre, mais entin, il y en a eu, des Papes qui se sont montre's faibles, des Papes ambitieux, des Papes entreprenants, confondant le spirituel et le temporel, affectaut des pre'-

Certes, ce n'est pas moi qui ai la moindre envie de defendre ici Philippe-le-Bel et s. s imitateurs. Mais enfin, dans la Bulle Uiiain sandain, par exemple, Boniface VIII ne de'clare-t-il pas qu'il y a deux glaives, le spirituel et le temporel, que ce dernier aussi appartient a Pierre, et que le successeur de Pierre a le droit d'in.stituer et de juger les souverains? Fotesfas spiritualis terrenam potestatem instituere Jmbet d, judicore.

Et dans la J5ulle AuscuUa fili, il demandait au Roi d'envoyer a Rome les Archeveques et les Eveques de France, avec les
abbes, etc., j^our y trailer de tout ce qui paraitrait utile au bon gouvernemext du royaume de France. Et apres meme que le protestantisme fut venu changer si profonde'ment I'e'tat de I'Europe, Paul III, dans la fameuse Bulle qui excommuniait Henri VIII, ne deliait-il pas de leur serment de ndelite' les sujets du roi d'Angleterre, et n'otfrait-il pas I'Angleterre a qui la voudrait conque'rir, donnant, a ceux qui en feraient la comjuete, tons les biens, meubles et immeubhs, des Anglais devenus dissidents ? Croit-on que oette Bulle soit oublie'e en Angleterre? P^t les declarations, dont je citais tout a I'heure quelques mots, penset-on qu'elles n'ont pas ete demande'es aux Eveques catlioliques d'Irlande par le souvenir, tout vivant encore, de cette Bulle? Me sera-t-il peimis de dire ici toute ma
pense'e, et n'est-il

;

'

tentions

domiiiatrices sur les couronnes. n'est pas assure d'avoir, dans t lute la suite des siecks, un Pie IX sur le trone pontifical.

On

N'est-il pas natural de penser que, si le Pripe est proclame' infaillible, ces reflexions se pre'seuterunt d'elles-inem'S aiix Gouvernemi nts d'aujourd'liui ? Et deja, n'est-il pas inutile, et, je Tajouterai, tres-dangereux de re'veilltr de tels souvenirs ? Certes, ce n't-st pas moi qui les reveille mais pourquoi d'imprudents avocats de la Papante se donneut-ils tons les jours la tiiste mission
!

pas

pcmis de

le

demander

de

les re'veiller, et

de

les

enveuimer

.-'

Mais, en outre, on se demandera sur quels objets s'cxercera cette infaillibilite personnelle. Quand il n'y aurait que les matieres
mixtes, oil les cimflifs furent toujours si frequents, quelles sont ici les limites ? Qui It^s de'terminera ? Le spirituel no toucliet-il pas au temporel de tons cotes ? Qui

I'histoire : cette Bulle eftVayaiite, a I'e'poque oil elle fut public.', n'e'tuit-elle pas

apres

de nature a pre'cipiter, plutot qu'a ramener, la nation anglaise? Est-il bieu certain qu'elle n'a pas ete pour la Chre'tiente' un

porsuadera aux Gouvernemeiits que le Pape ne passera plus, jamais, dans aucun entrainement, du spirituel au temporel ? Des lors, la proclamation du nouvean dogme ne
paraitra-t-clle
liabiles,

-

pns,
aiix

mais

sont pas

the' rlogiens,
lire

non aux tlic'ologiens Gouverncments, qui ne consacrer, dans le
I'liistoire

• Et il stifflt do dixirme siecle pour

v«.ir

dans ses AnnaJcs que lui-menie ne

du

la

dissimulc

grand lualheur? Du moins, en pensant on ne contredirait aucun dogme meme celui de I'inf'aillibilite du Pape, si elle venait jamais a etre e'rige'e en dogme. Je suis triste, et qui ne le serait ? en rappelaut CCS grands et douloureux faits de I'histoire; mais ils nous y forcent, ceux dont la legerity vt la te'me'rite' remuont ces questions brulantes. Ils nous y forcent, et ma conviction profonde est que tout cela jette dans les meilleurs esprits un trouble deplorable, et que si on avait enirepris de rondre
ainsi,

catholique, pas

!

'

!

Document

vi.

THE VATICAN COUNCIL.
C'etuit la aussi ce

283
que
pre'tcndait I'abbe'

la puissance pontificale odieuse,

rait rlen faire
Ciir,

on ne pourde mieux que de perpe'tuer de

telles controverses.
.

enfin,

pmuTont encore

se

demander

niemn catholiqnes, la proclamation dogmatique de I'infaillibilite du Pape reudra-t-elle, oui ou non, a I'avenir dr. telks Bui les impossibles? Qui done alors empecliera un nouvt-au Pape de de'finir ce que plusieurs de ses pre'deVesseurs out eni-eigne': que le Vicaire de Je.sus-Christ a un pouvoir (Urect sur le tempoiel des princes; quil est dans ses attributions d'instituer et de deposer les souverains que les droits civils des lois
les Souverains,
;

et des peuples lui sont subordonne's

?

Mais

alors,

et apres la proclamation
clerge',

du

dogme nuuveau, nul

nul eveque, nul
;

catliolique ue pourra recuser cette doctrine si odieuse aux Gouvemements c'est-a-dire qu'a leurs yeux tous les droits civils, poli-

tiques, comme toutes les gieuses, seraient entre les

croyances relimains d'un seul

liomme Et vous penseriez que

les

Gouvemements

verraient avec indiffe'rence I'Eglise s'assembler de tous les points du moiide, pour proclamer un dogme qui, suivant eux, peut avoir de telles consequences Et iLs pourront etre d'autant plus induits
!

a couside'rer la definition de

I'infaiilibilite'

du Pape comnie une conse'cration implicite de ces doctrines si ndoute'es, que ces docSans trines sont loin d'etre abandonne'es. cesse les joumaux, qui se donnent parmi nous comme les purs repre'sentants des principes remains, e'talent ces theories dans leurs colonnes, les e'tablissent a grand renfort d'Hrguments, et vont menie. jus<ju'a signaler, comme entachee d"atheisme, la doctrine, a laquelle tiennent si fort les souverains, catholiqnes comme non catlioliques, de I'iude'pendanee des deux puissances cliacune dans sa sphere. II y a tres-peu de temps que nous lisions, citees avec eloge par un journal frauQais, les paroles suivanti s, ou Ton compare aux

les emportements de sa contie le premier des quatre articles, il posait ce dilemme ultramontain ou uthe'e. Ces exces lui ont pen reussi. Et, au f./nd, sous re rapport, les e'crivains dont il h'agit ici sont de I'e'eole de Lamennais. Mais plus ils reprocheront aux Gouvemements de ne pas admettre la doctrine de la Bulle Unam sanctam, it de tenir a cette inde'pendance des deux puissances, plus ils de'montreront eux-memes la force des re'pugiiances et I'universalite des repulsions que je redoute. Et quand je parle de I'independance des deux puissances, loin de moi la pense'e de mettre en doute un seul instant la divine et ceitaine autorite de I'Eglise, pour definir, proclamer, et rappeler, aux Gouvemements comme aux sujets, les saintes et eternelles regies du juste et de I'injuste Mais la n'est pas la question, on le salt bien, et c'est trop evident Non, les vicilles susceptibilite's ne sont pas pres de disparaitre un journalisme passioiine' a tout fait jiour les ranimer; et nulle 23art, on le peut affirmer avec certitude, ni en France, ni dans la catholique Autriche, ni dans la Baviere et sur les bonis du Khin, ni dans I'apostolique Espagne, ni dans ce Portugal, qui naguere chassait les Sceurs de charite', les dispositions des Gouvemements europeens ne sont favorables a la proclamation du dogme annonce.

de Lamennais, dans
logique
;

et,

:

!

:

L'heure vous parait-elle done venue de reveiller d'un bout de I'Europe a I'autre les haines centre le Saint-Sie'ge ? Ou plutot, l'heure pre'sente n'est-elle pas
deja pleine d'assez nombreux et d'assez grands pe'rils ? Veut-on mettre a I'ordre du jour, dans I'Europe entiere, la se'paration de I'Eglise et de 1 Etat ? Veut-on meme faire courir au Concile d'autres chances ? Que faudrait-il, dans I'e'tat actuel de I'ltalie et de I'Europe, pour amener les plus grands malheurs ? II est impossible de se le dissimuler: il y a des esprits qui tiennent a pousser I'Eglise aux demieres extre'mites Dans quel inte'ret ?
!

manicheens ceux qui &outiennent que les deux glaives ne sont pas dans la meme main " Y aurait-il done deux sources d'autorite' et de pnuvoir, deux fins supremes pour les ctembresd'une meme socie'te', deux butscUvers dans I'idee de I'etre ordonnateur, et deux destine'es distinct es chez un meme homme
:

qui est a
surdite'

la fois

membre de

I'Eglise et sujet

Mais qui ne voit de suite I'abC'est le d'un semblable systemeV dualisme des manicheens, sinon I'athe'isme.'
de I'Etat?
Ignorc-t-on que Bcllavmin lui-inemc fut mis a Wndfx iiouv ii'avoir pas souteuu Ic jiouvoir direct clu Tape sur les couruuu' s ?
1

VIII. J'arrive maintenant aux difficulte's theologiques, non precisement de I'infaillibilite pontificale, ce^te question, encore une fois, je ne la traite, ni d;ius un sens, ni dans un autre, mais aux ditBculte's theologiques de la definition car ces dittieulte's-la, si elles sont vraiment se'rieuses, sont aussi une forte

:

raison coutre I'opportunite. Les jourualistes qui sembleul vnuloir en-

"

;

;

;

284

THE VATICAN COUNCIL.
3° Difficulte's

[Document

vi

joindre au Cnncile de defiuir linFaillibilite du Pape, et de la de'finir par acclamation, se douteut-ils des conditions dans lesquelles le Coucile aurait a faire cette definition?

tions

<le fait

tiie'es des multiples quesqui se peuvent poser a propos
;

de

t lut

acte ex cathedra

4" Difficultes tire'es

du passe

et des fails

k la mauiere dont ils en parlent — corame ils ne se doutent gueres de ce qu'il y a d'etrange, de prodigicusement anormal, et de tout a fiiit impossible, dans le role qu'ils se donnent depuis six mois surtout, en s'ingerant au point oil ils le font, dans les atFaircs les plus intimes du gouvernement de I'Eglise. J 3 ne suis pas surpris d'ailleurs de leur extraordinaire imprudence. lis ne sont pas Vous, Messieurs, vous contheologiens. uaissez toutes les questions que je vais rappeler elles vous sont enseignees duns Mais en meme temps qu'on vos ecoles. vous les enseigne, on vous apprend k ne pas
Certes, on

ne

le

dirait pas,
;

historiques
5" Difficulte's tire'es

du fond meme de
tire'es

la

question

;

6° Difficulte's,

en fin,

de

I'e'tat

des

esprits conteniporains.

:

«

n

trei,

cntretenir inutilement les fideles. nous avons iin double devoir,

Preu'est

d

e'tudier les choses obscures et

cher que les chnses daires. laiques, encore une fois, je ne leur reproche pas d'igaorer, mais je leur reproche d'agiter et de trancher les questions qu'ils ignorent. II ne savent pas a quelles diffiuulte's ils louchent e'tourdiment, et je suis malheu-

de ne preQuant aux

reusement oblige de

les en avertir, en vous rappelant, a vous. Messieurs, ce que vous savez deja. " En matiere si grave, si delicate et si complexe, dit avec une raison superieure

chose a faire par le Coucile, avant de porter ici une definition dogmatique, ce serait done de determiner les conditions de I'iufaillibilite'; car definir I'infaillibilite du Pape, sans pre'ciser et de'finir les conditions de cette infaillibilite', ce serait ne rien de'finir, parce que ce serait definir trop, on pas assez. Mais comment de'terminer ces conditions ? Les theologiens en disputant, soit en theorie, in abstracto, soit in concrefo, et en fait. Ln un mot, quand et comment le Pape est-il infaillible ? Voila ce qu'il faudra deter-' miuer. Mais c'est ici que les difficultes ne sont pas medioeres. Le Pape, toutes les fois qu'il parte, est-il intaillible ? Des theologiens I'ont peuse'. Ou bien ne I'est-il que quand il parte, comme on dit, ex cathedra ? Mais, c'est pre'cisement pour definir les conditions de la parole ex cathedra, que le Concile, s'il jugeait k propos d'entrer dans cette question, aurait fort k etudier et fort a
faire

La premiere

I'Eveque de Poitiers, on ne doit se iii par I'enthousiasme, ni par tons les mots doiJe sentiment personnel vent etre pe -e's et explique's, toutes les faces de la question examine'es, tons les cas prevus,
laisser guider
;

Mgr

les inconve'nients

toutes les fausses af)plications e'carte'es, tons balance's avec les avan-

Qu'est-ce, en etfet, que la parole ex cathequelles en sont les comlitions V On discute la-dessus dans toutes les ecoles les uns exigent plus et les autres moins. Le Cardinal Orsi ne parle pas pre'cise'ment comme le Cardinal Beltarmin, ni Bellarmin comme le Cardinal Capetlari, qui fut depuis

dra

'/

:

tages."

le reste,

Mgr I'Eveque de Poitiers n'est a parler ainsi. Parmi les theologieus, les plus grands partisans de I'ineux-meines les prodifaillibilite' avouent gieuses difficultes pratiques qui peuveut se rencontrer ici. Ce sont, disent-ils, des diffi-

Au

pas

le seul

Pape Gre'goire XVI. Mansi parle, soit de " Conciles assemble's pre'atabteraent," soit de " docteurs appeles," soit de "Congregations institue'es" et de
il,

cultes

inextricables,

intricatissimse' difficul-

tatcs ; et les plus liabiles, ajoutent-ils. out toute la peine du monde k s'en tirer in quihus
;

dissolvendis
rant.

multum

theologi peritiores laho-

1" Difficultes
de'finir les

tirees

de

la

ne'cessite'

de

conditions de Facte ex cathedra, tons les actes pontificaux n'ayant pas ce caractere 2" Difficulte's tire'es du double caractere du I'ape, considcre soit comme doctcur prive',
soit
1

comme Pape
chapcUe dc son Giaiid-

"supplications publ'ques." ^^ Sans cela, dit(jue Bossuet le sache hieii, nous ne reconnaiss<ms plus le Fape comme iiifadlible." ' Bellarmin essaie de concilier ceux qui disent Pontifex consilium audiat pastorum, avec ceux qui disent qu'il pent definir tout seul, etiam solus. ^ Eh bien devant toutes ces divergences d'opinions, et je n'eii cite ici que quelquesunes, car on en compfe un bien plus grand nombre, meme parmi les theologiens uttramontains. comment agira le Concile? II faudra done quit entreprenne, approuvant les luies, reprouvant les autres, la rude tache dc faire, d'uiie fa^on dogmatique et absolue,
: !

Ilonielie prononccv^' dans la

1

Scminaire.

-

J)o Jlaistic, du Pape, liv. 1, ch. x. v. Diapixtalioiics Bcdarmini.

;

:

Document
nil

yi.]

THE VATICAN COUNCIL.
tlieo-

285
Dieu
ecrite et tra-

choix parmi toutes ces opinions

Ingiques

: niais sur quelles bases, certaiues, claires et indiscutables, s'appuiera-t-il pour

la hnni'ire de la parole de ditiditnelle :

Ni

qu'il e'leve sa priere vers

Dieu avant de

cela?

prononcer.
serait

Encore une fois, quest-ce done exactemeut qu'un acte ex cathedra 1 Est-ce un simple brefV Oui, disent les nns non, disent les autres. Est-ce un rescrit? Meme partage d'opinions. Est-ce une bulle, une allocution eonsistoiiale, une ency;

Sans toutes ces conditions, sa decision n'en pas moins anssi valide, oussi valable, aussi obligatoire pour toute VEglise, que s'il avail observe toutes les precautions que dicte
la foi, la p^e'te', le bon sens. Que faut-il done, selon ce doctenr.

pour

clique

?

qu'une

de'finition

soit

ex cathedra

?

Le

Faut-il, dans I'acte ex cathedra, que le Pape s'adresse a toute I'Eglise ? Oui, disent la plupart. Non, dit un Anglais, professeur la'ique de the'ologie ' et journaliste contemporain quand il ne parlerait qu'a un seul

" II reste a dire d'apres cola, pour de't'eudre la valeur d'une decision ex cathedra, qu'elle existe, lorsque le Pape, dans im Concile ou hors d'un Concile, verbalement
voici
:

:

ou par
tiens,

Eveque, ou meme a un simple lai'que, il pent avoir voulu enseigner ex cathedra. Et c'est
assez.

nom

Eh

plusieurs

aucun doute sur son intention, que
de'finisse la

bien, alors, faut-il au moins, corame le re'clament, pour qu'il n'y ait le Pape

ecrit, douno a tous les fideles chre'comme Vicaire de Jesus-Clirist, au des apotres Pierre et Paul, ou en vertu de I'autorite' du Saint-Sie'ge, ou en d'autres termes semblables, avec ou sans la menace de I'anatheme, une de'cision relative au dogme ou a la morale." (Phillips, diet. Gosehlez,

doctrine sous la sanctioa d'un
I'erreur ?

article

Pape.)

anatheme contre

comrae d'autres le pre'tendent, qu'il exprime, d'une maniere quelcouque, son intention de faire un dogma ? Ou bien eniin, comme le soutient encore le tlie'ologien la'ique que je citais tout a i'heure, peut-il parler ex cathedra, meme
suffit-il,

— On —

quand

il n'exprimerait pas clairement son intention d'imposer la foi ? Etiamsi ohligatio assensum priestaudi non diserte exprimatur.^

— Ou bien,
veident,
faut,

faut-il,

comme

certains autres

le

s'il le

que le Pape ait coasulte? Et qui doit-il consulter ? Quelques e'veques? ou, a de'faut d'e'veques, les cardinaux? ou, a defaut des cardinaux, les congregations romaines ? ou, a de'faut des ccmgregations romaines, des tbeologiens, des docteurs, et combien? Suf&rait-il d'un de'cret qu'il aurait dresse' seul dans son cabinet ? Pourquoi distinguer, disent quelques-uns, la oil les paroles des promesses ne distinguent pas ? Voici du reste un autre theologien contemporain, I'allemand Phillips, que cette

D'apres ce the'ologien, I'Eglise n'a pas le droit de mettre une restriction ni une condition quelconque, quant a la validite, a I'exercice de I'infaillibilite'. e'crivain franyais, auteur d'un re'cent traite De Papa, ne dit guere autre chose, et ne demande, pour que le Pape, parlant a I'Eglise universelle, soit infaillible, qu'une condition, non pas qu'il ait prie', non pas qu'il ait de'libe're, e'tudie, consulte, niais simplement qu'il ait eu I'intention de faire un dogme, et qu'il n'ait pas ete violente. M. "Ward, nous I'avons vu, ne demande meme pas que le Pape s'adresse a I'Eglise : qu'il s'adresse a un seul Eveque ou a un seul la'ique, cela suffit. Voila done de quelle sorte quelques-uns ne craignent pas, aujourd'hui, de traiter ces

Un

immenses questions Je dis quelques-uns, et je prie qu'on veuille remarquer ce mot; car, je ne vondrais pas que toutes les plus extremes theories parussent etre, contre mon intention, mises au compte de toute la the'ologie catholique.
!

Pour lui, la de'fidifficulte' n'arrete pas. nition ex cathedra ne demande que le Pape consulte qiii que ce soit ni le Concile, ni I'Eglise romaine, ni le CoUe'ge des cardinaux. Le docteur allemand va plus loin encore iJ n'est pas necessaire, selon lui, que le
:

Eh bien en pre'sence de toutes ces opinions, le Concile declarera-t-il qu'il y a une forme ne'cessaire, sous laquelle le Pape SERA TENTJ d oxercer sim iiifaillibilite'? ou bien la forme n'y ferait-elle rien? et lePape
!

sera-t-il infaillible,

quand

et

de la maniere

Pape

Ni

reflechisse murement qu'il etudie soigneusement la question

qu'il

jugera bon de
ni
e'tudie',

a

prie',

I'etre, sans avoir ni ni consulte', et s'adressant au

1 M. Ward, De ivfallib litatis ixti'vsione, tliesis 'luodec-nui. p. 35. M.Ward est un ancien ministre anglican converti, zele catholiquo atijounl'hui.etqui a ete, qnoique la'ique, profe^:seur de theologieau Grand-Seniinaire

de I'archevech^ de Westminster.

Ibid.

Thesis duodecima.

premier fidele venu ? Et, puisque de'terminer en quelles circonstances le Pape est infaillible, c'est determiner aussi dans quelles conditions il ne Test pas, il y aura done a de'finir ici deux

N'y en a-t-il pas une quatrieme? car. a une decision de I'Sglise. partisans de I'infaillibilite'. suite des siecles. savent qu'un Pape pent de'finir I'erreur par pas autrement. ne contiennent pas des definitions ex cathedra. et il aflirmait. dans h'S temps passe's. ? lieie'sies ? question du monothe'lisme par Sergius. Patriarche de Constantinople. t en eflet. expliquent que non Dieu. qu'un Pape. ul satis digno. dictoire ici. a-t-il parle ex cathedra i Les uns la est faillible. Ce qu'il confesse maintenant avec franchise avoir etc' une grosse erreur. menie dans un acte ex cathedra. : '? Qui de'cidera done V L'Eglise. ct (luiiiiiam ex cathedra docere. et d'adniettre. Et comment. il y aura encore la question de Qui de'eidera. dans une afi'aire serieuse : ils du reste. la ? se peut-il jamais rencontrer. dit expresi-e'ment " Puisque toutes les allocutions pontiflcalcs. ajoutent quelques-uns. par exemple. . outre les deux questions de fait dont parle M. le pourra-t-il jamais par entiainement. et d'autres £veques orientaux. il Quand Cypri( Pape Etienne condamna saint n dans la question du bapteme des le he're'tiques. an bilite. que M. L'histoire cccle'siastique. par passion. II avait cru. pour empeclier un Pape passionne' ou te'me'raire d'errer par imprudence et cela. bilite' Le theologien anglais Ward." Et ce discernement est si difficile parfois aux theologiens eux-memes. errer sous le coup de Tintimifiation et de la cndnte. Ward reconnait. en effet. nieme declare infaillible. ne fera pas de miracle dans le premier cas. toutes les lettres apostoliques. Mais je pose ici cette question Stra-t il toujours facile d'appre'eier la contrainte qu'aura pu subir un Pape? Non." : .-catur in quibusnam earum Ponlifex ex cailiedia loqui. si un Piipe. nieme quand le Pape u'aurait pris aucune des pre'cautions qu'on ajjporte ne Avoir commis. — d'ordinaire faiblesse. Mais CH n'est pas tout outre la question de droit. et il faut y regar<ler de pres dans les actes memes ex cathedra. si vaiie' et si contra- nions va-t-ou si des theologiens? Quelles opieriger en dogmes V ou en le fait pas. ex cathe- et le dogme de foi. pas si simple dans la pi-atique qu'on pourrait le croire d'abord. que chacun des actes qui a fourni des propositions au recueil appele Syllahm. encore une prendrasont-elles sont-elles Quaid le Pape Honorius. THE VATICAN COUNCIL. s'ils ou non. fois. II fauilra done souvent en revenir. de fait. il faut regarder de preg pour discerner d'une fa^on suffisante quels ^ont ceux de cesactesoii le Souverain-Pontife doit etre cense' parler ex cathedra . est pleine de faits semblables.iis il en fera toujours un dans le second. t-il toujours facile? C'est ce que reconnaissent de bonne foi les partisans les plus avances de I'infuillipontificale. du Papo remplit toutes les conditions d'un Ce discernement serude'cret ex cathedra Non. tel Pape de la liberte' duquel zele's on puisse legitimement douter sont bien forces de le reconnaitre. a constater la pleine et entiere liberte du Pape. nieme toutes les encycliques. sur Icsquels les theologiens out tant dispute. avec une modestie qui 1 honore. a-t-ii parle ex cathedra i Les theologiens out encore la-dessus vivenient discute. c'est-a-dire dans les actes infailliblcs. Ward. et " tous les cas doivent etre prevus. jure ceiiseatur. decliirei'a. niais qu'en dehors de ces concoinine de ditions. oil avaient e'te fletries les propositions signale'es plus tard dans une piece recente emanee de Rome. pour bien discerner ce qu'il enseigne ex cathedra. > Circa has igitur allocuiiones ct littcras apostolicas adlMborandum est. en fait. les autres nient. et qui se doivent poser a propos de tout ^icte ex cathedra : — i'acte est-il ex cathedra ? Et s'il 1 est. et que I' — — voici Ne dans . Voilk 1 explication de ces theologiens. et opinialrement soutenu une grave meprise. pourrait encore. Les plus Voila done. toucluuit la nature des actes pontificaux de diverses sortes. ecrivit ces fameuses lettres qui donnerent lieu a tant de de'bats. dans certaines circonstances. sur quoi porte pre'cise'ment la de'finition? il y en a un autre. en pre'sence de l'histoire. lieu d'un : [Document sont. — : . Et on ne dans quel inconnu va-t-on Jeter I'Eglise IX. la faillibilite? On non-seulement que le Pape est infaillible dans telles et telles conditions. que telle decision fait. le dogme de I'mfailli- pour savoir dra. disent-ils.' : : 286 dogmes. et disputent encore. devait etre regarde' par cela eeul comme ayant le caractere d'un acte ex cathedra. par imprudence? Les theologiens. Qu'on se rappelle certains actes conside'rables des Papes. pent de'finir I'erreur. pour empecher un Pape faible de ce'der a la crainte m. sous I'influence de la crainte. s'y affirment. une troisieme question de fait. oui vi. consulte sur t-on pour fixer ces limites? clnirement dans I'Ecriture? Ou Ou duns lenseignement. II pent se rencontrer des cas oil une telle constatation soit chose fort delicate. c'est-a-dire infailliblement.

s'eii prouver qu'Hoqu'une lettre privee. Je n'ai ni la pense'e ni le temps de faire ici. Ele us. obligatoirement. La proclamation de ce il I'a toujours e'te'. s'ils Tavaient fait dans les conditions et les formes que I'ou aurait de'terniiuees pour Je dis que le I'exercice de linfaillibilite. une concession tellement exorbitante sur Tinvestiture des Eveques. des lettres dogmatiques. Concile ne pourrait rien avoir a examiner de plus grave et de plus epineux. DOCUMKNT^VI.<. dans la formule de serment qu'ils pronon(. dogme doiinerait. une revue complete de I'histoire. depuis dix-huit siecles. peut meriter . saint Cy- ce temps-la. si le Concile ici veut proce'ler avec la maturite et la gravite' dout ces saintes assemble'es de I'Eglise ne se sont jamais depaities. I'Eglise n'avait pas encore prononce. Ic jugement de I'Egliso devait entrcr pour quelque chose dans la definition de la foi? Voila un iiouvel exemple des difficulte's que I'examen des faits historiques pent soulever. un Pape. au sujet des Donatistes: qu'apres le jugement de E. Pascal II. lorsqu'il s'est agi de proclamer les dogmes. difficulte's " toutcs les facts de la ques- tion examinees. Eh bien. t. ce ne serait pas I'aveuir seulement qu'on engagerait. Quoi qu'il en soit de ces discussions. qui devait plus tard monter lui-meme sur la chaire de Saint. deux souvenirs liibtoriques. et C'est sur ce terI'histoire sans eiubarras? jain surtout que la de'tinition de Tiufaillibilite pontificale. comme compe'tents pour le condamner et lui dire anatheme? Et le pape Leon II a confirme la sentence du Concile. si le Pape est infaillible.aient a leur sacre Qui pravis eorum assertionihusfomentum impendit c'est ainsi que s'exprime le Liber diurnus pontiftcalis. Je laisse les difficulte's que peuvent soulever les Papes Vigile et mais je demande permission de Libere rappeler encore un seul fait. Au moyenage. Dans prien et les Eveques qui out resiste ne croyaient done pas a I'infuillibilite du les excuse. de bien longs labeurs peuvent etre re'serve's a ses tion. ' Epist. prescrire aux Eveques de s'en charger ? — croyait done qu'apres le jugement de Uome. qui I'a condamne. les fort se'rieuse assure'ment.'' comme sujet a I'erreur et les Eveques reunis. n'a pas re'ellement enseigne eiu-ore.ome. et la reponse du Pape Honorius k iSeigius au sujet du monotlielisme. 1331. X. recueil des actes authentiques de la chancel lerie romaine. De meme pour Honorius. comme ils le font.] TtlE VATICAN COUNCIL. des volumes. les the'olo^iens se'ritux. qu'Honorius ait e'te lie'retique et condamne' justenient comme tel par un Concile oecume'uique. adressant sur une question de foi a de grandes eglises. h. ou qu'il ait ete simplement un fauteur de I'he'resie.' il 287 Comme aussi.. est-elle done ici unanime. Honorio hxrttico anathema. out jamais decide. . fait a un empercur d'Alletuagne. ce qu'il serait ne'cessaire que le Concile fit pour proce'der avec la circonspection accoutume'e des Conciles. tn dehors de ces points ties volumes norius n'a — : — — d'hi. savent bien qu'au fond il n'en est rien et que. tout a I'heure. qui en parlent si tuit a leur aise. parce que les ils ne difficulte's ne les inquietent guere. il restait encore celui de I'Eglise universelle. . liiini. dit-il. la dispute du Pape saint Etienne avec saint Cyprien. le Concile cecumenique. Car. [lOur e'crit I'he're'sie . Je rappelais. L s voient seulement pas— sont-ils autorise's. les Eglises d'Orient et d'Occident I'ont accepte'e. pour prouver que ce Pape C'est LieiitOt fait de dire que la quesmais les vrais the'ologien. avaieut ete alte'ie's. et qu'un Archeveque. I'entrainerait force'aient dans plus longues et les plus delicates recherchts. Le pape Leon II et les Eglises croyaient done e'galement qu'un pape." Croit-ou que la solution de toutes ces serait une mince liesogne pour le Coiicilc? Et ces e'crivaius quotidiens. xlviii ' L'e Bapl.~toire incontestes. de I'infaillibilite personnelle du Pape. p. et reprouve' comme tel par les Papes ses successeurs. Henri V. 2 Cone. infailliblenient. de'iiberatioiis. qui I'anatbeme ? Voila un point sur lequel le Concile aurait encore a se prononcer. s'il e'tait jirouve que saint Etienne avait prononce' ez cathedra. pour prouver que les actes du 6' Concile.ismo. ad Geor. parce que. se presente ici. en effet. cunside'rait done le Souverain-Pontife lui-meme. Ill. restabat adhuc plenarium universse Ecclesiae conciSaint Augustin.' n'y croyait done pas non plus ? Et quand il ecrivait. La tradition. est juge'e. le caractere de de'cisioiis infuillibles k tout ceque les Papes. une autre question. Pape? Et saint Augustin. qui a prononce'. Par la de'finition. I'Eglise par consequent. si le Concile cicijait devoir oceuper. quels que puissent etre ses temoignages. Litteras dvgmaiicas. aujourd'liui. qu'un Concile 8'ass( mble a Vienne. On a ecrit des volumes. duu coup. ce serait aussi tout le passe'. sexpliquant sur des questions de foi portees a son tribunal. si facheuses a soulever.

infaillible. [Document pour cause vi. Eh bien supposona un Pape errant. voilh. XI. Intricatissimx difficulfatcs . en ce qui n'est pas I'objet precis de la de'finition. la declaration d'infaillibilite' ne I'emperhera pa? mais se repre'sente-t-on quel seiait en pareil cas le trouble des Eglises et des con- — sciences ici ! Quoi qu'il en soit de la faute de Pascnl II. et cundamne sa lettre a 1 Enipereur. celui dont I'infaillibilite' sera r( un dogme? Qu'un nouvel Honorius dans I'avenir deja le Pape lui-meme. la moins ne'cessaire. parle du pas. faillibilite'. in quibus dissolvendis mulluni ji^eritiores thcologi hiburant. par des Icttres dngmatiques. telle que Bellarmin. nous ne pouvons cependant nous de'fendre ici. ne prouve rien centre I'infaillibilite. en citant certains the'ologiens. ou n'est pas errone': quelle difticulte' nouvelle Comment se fait-il. qui se croiront toujours obligees de faire des actes de foi et. nonseulement sur les esprits incre'dults.nnais e'te' professe'e dans I'Eglise comme un dognie ? ! Au reste. mais. t-elle qu'il puisse etre infaillible. et plus e'tonnante que I'infaillibilite' de I'Eglise tout entiere. puisqne celle-ci est et a toujours e'te aiticle de fid. declare done faire le proces d"lie're'sie a so que la concession faite par le Pape implique line veritable he're'sie. pent. .-e' et pour contraint de reveiller le passe' endormi. ne semblera-t-on pas contester un droit ? Et si le Pape s'obstine. ou accuse d'erreur il faudra i)rouver que son enseignement. les plus grands partisans de : rinfaillibilite detaiilent eux-mcmes les pro- En ne si le Pape a ete' de'clare infaillible contestant qu'un fait. qui. non pas I'absurde inI'infaillibilite'. et nous avons a travailler Mais je On nous pour les siecles futurs. et montreront qu'il n'y a pas piecise'ment de'finition iiiais la foule des esprits qui ne sent . fomente "he're'sic. pent comme e'crivain. e'tiit humilie' de son propre mouvement. nition serait-elle sans inconve'nients ? Je me vols encore ici contraint de poser des questions qui me repugnant profonde'- ment. par de grands actes i)ontificaux. en plein Concile de Latran. disent ils.e ce qui ne le serait pas. au point de vne des gens du monde. linf. Sans doute. — et sa certitude. je ne dis pas dt'finisse. qui. inconditioniielle et unlverselle. quand il ne parle pas ex cathedra. mais I'infaillibilite'. enseigner I'erreur. par exemple. dans lel ou tel Pape. Sans vouloir. d'une re'fle. Pour ma part. les tlieologiens distingueiont les nuances et les de'licatesses. ce sera toujours De la. Et ucoiitre. hxresim esse judicavimus. ou n'est pas ex cathedra. le trouble pour les consciences. et le Concile avait casse' et anniile' sa concession. errer. II ne faut pas so faire d'illusion. ge'nerale. puisque TEglise a pu s'en jiasser pendant dix-huit siecles moins e'tablie que ne est . ses contemporains et luimenie croyaient done qu'un Pape pent tomJDer dans I'he're'sivi ? Dira-t-ou qu'une liere'sie implicite. I'occasion de de'crier la doctrine catliolique. et C'est I'opinion s'opiniatrer dans I'he'i'e'sie. dans un grand cerner que le acte.\ion. condanine'. Bien plus. neanmoinf. c'est la ce qui e'tonnera les fideles. I'avenir.illibilite' 1 de — I'Eglife elle-meme. a la question meme de rinfaillibilite'. le Pape qui. sui vant la difference des cas.288 Pierre. nom de Calixte 11. la defi! Aux yeux du public. Vheresiei temps. quand ctt acte n'est pas uue de'finition ex cathedral Mais comment faire cumprendre a la foule ces distinctions ? Car voici un autre cote de la question. encore une fois. et meme dans un acte ou il parle ex cathedra. I^as the'ologiens. niais encore sur la masse e'norme des esprits chez qui la fdi est faible. peuvent entrainer. sous le THE VATICAN COUNCIL. adresse'es a de grandes Eglises. faire un livre he're'iique. en lui imputant comme dog i. en presence de i^lus de cent Eveques. tandis que I'autre n'a j. quel dc'sarroi dans les Ames! II faudra ! digieuses difiieultes jiratiques que ces deux manieres d'etre du Pape. . L'infaillibilite' personnelle du Pajie. comme docteur prive'. Voiladonc le Pape de'clare' dont nous parlions tout a I'heure. mais assure'nient bien prodigieuse. ne I'est acte pontifical. tel comment pourra-t-elle disPape faillible. je ne puis penser sans eftroi an nombre de ceux que la de'finition dtmande'e eloignerait peutetre de nous a jamais Mais pour les fideles ens-memes. I'entend. de I'avis universel. et cependant digne d'anatlieuie. pour les ennemis de I'Eglise. a tout le moins. a ce qu'il parait par I'histoire. que ce piivilege immense se trouve etre a la fois celui dont la de'finition est. dont le Concile aurait encore a se pre'occuper se'rieusement ks consequences de la de'finition au point de vne des liommes de ce : meme comme tel plus dans ou autre? Comment comprendraetfomenter. toucher a la question de fond. non pas sans doute au-dessus du pouvoir du Tout-Puissant. et puis etre juge'. fnillible ou infaillible. constitiie une Institution. depose. meme comme Pape.

comme une opinion parfaitement libre opinione quie tenet : De libere romanum controversa Pontificem. II n'y a. toujours selou eus. et qiielquesautres. 'it Fontifex. disetit-ils. vi. ajouteut-ils. dans I'espiit des fideles. disent-ils. quwst. ne se le'alisera jamais. : Jiiiiret. bien des gens passionne's. nous en sommes surs. d'action. droit. qui pourrait si facilement rendre le Pape infaillible dans tous les 1 Albert Pighius. ou bien. p. Et ils le prouvent. quelpe'nibles— qui questiuiis . y a plus d'lm point encore ou que la proclamation du noune trouble et n'embarrasse. logiques et re'solus. Ne pourra-t-il. iuconditionnelle et universelle : du absolue. in errorem privatim aut pulilice cadere 1 Un theologien fran^ais' expose au long : : Le systerae. un de ils. et qui de'tinit de I'autie Aut certe grande miraculum esset. 257. si cela plait. de I'infaillibilite du Pape dans certains cas. aut ut privata persona. qui de'muntrent les pe'rils de rinfaillibilite ex cathedra. velle et coiiari eum Eccles if ohtrudere et proponere et qui. I. aura cru la ve'rite'. sinon du moins en fait et dans la pratique. on expose I'Eglise a un Kcdesla eviuenti periculo peril EVIDENT exponeretur. disent-ils.. pugnat Pontificem posse personaliter errare / Et enfin. et bon sens. par exemple. infailibilem. quod amplius est. ut non deficiat fides tua. bilite tous ces raisonnements. meme quand il le voxdrait. qu'une Sans cela. pastorali. vous etes forces d'avoir ret ours a un miracle un Pape qui erre avec opiniatrete. . la question de savoir si les hommes des antipodes marchent sur la tete ou sur b s pieds. si elle avait lieu. re'pliquent-ils. a ce point de vue. Petre. et profunde'ment injuiieuse a la divine Prdvidence.e'ologiens ultramuntains^ ne voieiit-ils qu'un moyen de se tirer de la c'est. On repond que cette hypothese. en etJet arriver que le Pape enseigne coinme Pape. quod ipse definiendo contra mentem suam deil : . et qui l^oussent a d'e'trangts exces! Mais le Concilc. que deviendront les Concilts? Les Conciles ont e'te jusqu'ici une des grandes formes de la vie de I'Eglise. qu"ils ont cru jusquici. etc. cites par Bannes. errorem suum pertinaciter tueri. I'erreur que. est a craindre vcau (lognie. par I'heresie. se coniente de pre'senter ceromanisme.-i : 289 : eu effet. un Pape qui pense d'une fa^on. di^ent-ils. qux omnia suaviter dispmiit. en ce moment. Aussi certains tl. et de sa faillidans les autres. n'y a-t-il pas. qui accable d'injures les plus grands hommes do son pays.. An papa — — le fait de A quo et per haresim a dignitate excidat? quomodo veniat deponendusl Quawlonani — — cas aussi bien que dans quelques-uns Contra divinam Providentiam. on n'est justiciable ici que du Evidemment. cesse-t-il d'etre Pape ? Par qui et comment peut-il ctre de'puse'? Quand le Pape est-il cense agir comme Pape ou coinme personne prive'e? etc. il y a dans I'Eglise. suit publique. ne pourrait pas. que je sache. Mais alors. une unomalie e'trange. inconditionaelle et universelle du Pape. s'entend de la foi de Pierre dans tous les sens de fide Petri . Document Et voici. soit privee Ut non possit. poursuivent-ils. cependant. (lubit. comme docteur prive'. on est libre aussi de coutroverser. I'infaillibilite ex cathedra. ques-unes dts alors se poseut — — Un Pape. s'abstiendra toujuurs de la definir et ne peut pas arriver a faire une Bulle que nuUe puissance humaine ne peut I'empecher d'e'crire. d'e'noiines enibiirras. et. precise'ment parce qu'elle implique contradiction. et lui. implique une vraie contradiction.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. 2. esse etiam qiatencs doctokem privatum. et qui. dans la pratique. timber dans aucune erreur. intelligitur ? tuiti puhUca et ii-^nseatur ? La cables de'claralion d'infaillibiiite rendra- t-elle toutes ces diffiuulte's moiiis inextri- ? Tout au contiaire. de proclamer I'infaillibilite' : Voiia done des the'ologicns qui constatent. et si on ne proclame conditionnelle. vont jusqu'au bout. ce Il il XII. agere TCM personali ET PKivATA. ex cathedra. tt qui natuiellement fait tons ses eflbrts pour proposer son erreur a la foi de I'Eglise: Potest Pontifex personallter in fide d-ficere. ses plus puissants moyens . ne se laisseia pas entrainer sur une telle pente. des les tL-mps apostoliques tous les siecles Chretiens. dans cette faillibilite et cette int'aillibiiite' tout ensemble cLez le meme hoiume. pourquoi distinguer la oil Je'sus-Christ n'a pas distingue du tout: Oravi pro te. cela. leur persuader cette de'finition n'entrainera pas. infaillibilite' — — Pape de telle sorte qu'un Pape. elle y ajouterait. Etiamsi velit. un amoincb-issement de I'Episcnpat? Et d'abord. penseront- Comment. lis ont commence des I'origine de I'Eglise.t. ve'ritablement inseuse'. jiisqu'a linfaillibilite' absolue. c'est-a-diie de'finisse dans un acte infaillible I'erreur et veuille I'imposer a I'EgliseV Posset iiamque ipse suum errorem dejiuire et EccUs'ie vhtrudere. 1 De rajd. 1. aucune definition qui dise le ! Eh mon Dieu ! coutraire. que en Et de plus.

qu'un seul juge. dans la de'finition de la foi. . jusqu'ici. noit XIV. la voix du pre'sident est ordinairement pre'p. Non-seulement ii pre'side le tribunal. Le jugement du Papt. a quoi quoi bon les bon reunir les Eveques? longueurs. les fideles ne pour: juges Quelle sentence peuvent-ils done alors porter? Une sentence de simple a Ihesiou. . dans la pratique du nioiiis. dans les jugements sur la foi. II y a meme de saints personnages. on u'en verrait qu un.! . sur lesquelles aucun ca'hol. le Pape. memo les questions de foi. les recherches. ego definiens subucHpsi. dans ces conditions. tel et de juges." pour rien. anttve'dente ou subbc'quente. autrement que lui et I'adhe'sion de ses coUegues ne serait meme pas requise pour lui . ne vont-elles pas. en abiegeant les distances. aux yeux des fideles.nde'rante mais dans I'Eglise. sera plus en rien necessaire. si le Pape le veut ainsi. et le jugement des Eveques. ! : 290 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. les Eveques et le Pape oiit respectivement leur Cela serait-il encore vrai part ne'ces-aire. car la sentence du Papu est obligatoire par elle-meme. Ainsi done. ne supiaime pas en droit ces grandes assemblees.que ne dispute. en effot. sera complet et parfait tn luinieme. Dans les tribunaux ordinaires. brageuse d'un re'giine qui n'est plus. ce grand l)our les Eveques. Ne peut-on pas voir eti tout cela des coincidences vraiment provi. de grands esprit. les fideles conside'ie ont toujours les Eveques II est e'vident en efFt-t que si le dogme nnuveau. en tribunal paraitraifc re'alite'. " en dehoks et inhependamment de Ils p!)Urront ne plus entrer l'ei'ISCOpat. seul. se trouvent plus en liarmonie aujourd'hui avec les vceux des peuples Chretiens. Et toujours.atement par elle-meme. la forcu de chose juge'e. tout seul. dit-on. Mais cttte sentence du moins serat-elle libre ? Non elle nest pas libre. independamnient de toute adhe'sion e'piscopak-. n'est de'finitif que quand celui du Pape s y ajoute. comme le dit iie- Et d'abord : les FOI juges avec : : . Comment en faire loraque le Pape aura proclame'. et que les Eveques cepeudant restent vrais la sentence dentielles ? Mais. comme dit Monsignor Manning. les avait lendues dans les siecles derniera plus mais les libertes moderufcs ont dilliciles lesconquet^s abaisse' ees jalouses barriert. en meme temps qu'elles sont deveuues plus faciles. co-judices. Eveques sont juges de la le Pape." pourra tout de'cider iufailliblement. iis ont eu une part effective dans les jugemeuts toujours ils ont et les de'tinitions du dogme decide' dans les Conciles eomme des juges Ego judicans. la de'cisiDU.s de la science contemporaine. de telle sorte que tous les autn s juges seraient obliges de juger comme lui? Le la sentence vote seul du pre'sident suffirait des autres seiait faite par la sieune. en fait. a quoi pas penser et se dire bon desormais les Conciles ceeumeniques ? Puisque UN SEUL. ils — A Je me demande I si. a leurs yeux. elle n'e^t requise d'aucune fa(. comment . car — — . Ses pius essentielles prerogatives. des Conciles. qui ont reclame ou deere'te' le retour pe'riudique de ces saintcs II est vrai. en dehors de I'e'piscopat et sans les Eveques. juges. . En un mot. mais il confirme le jugement des autres. oil en sera-t-il ? Sans doute le 1 'ape est le juge principal. les ont connus. nient que I'Episcopat setnblerait subir aux yeux des fideles. a tout le nioins. que compreudre aux fideles ces deux clioses du Pape a immed. ont fraye' partout des voies rapides aux Eveques du munde eutier vurs et cts assemblees de'la Ville eternelle liberautes. il en dirainuera singulierement Timportance. on voudrait que le futur Concile fit un de'cret qui desormais supprimat ou amoindrit les Conciles Et que les Eveques decretassent euxinemes pour ainsi dire leur abdication Mais ce n'est piis la le seul amoindiisse1 comme de vrais juges ? Que serait en effet. " en dehors des EVEQiES. Alors i! n'y aura plus. eflet. dicte'e par la sienne nul ne pourrait juger apres : . un dogme de f<ii. en fait.ds Toujours ils ont e'te'. les discussions des Conciles ? raient-ils sont obliges d'adhe'ri-r. Est-elle meme requise? Non. bien entendu mais vrais jug<s. Mais avec qu'un juge 8omblerait-il pas re'el. disfinguer public qui Les the'ologiens peuvent argumenter et ici. ne n'entend pas les distinctions the'ologiques. re'. la nouvelle regie de foi. unu fois proclarae'. perdre singulieremt-nt aussi de leur le'alite ? Evidemment un de'risoire. infaillible fUoCUMKNT VI sauf les deux derniera.*. la voix du Pape est de plus neces-saire. inde'pendamment de toute adhe'sion de I'Episcopat. et son jugement est toujours indispensable. meme dans un Concile cecume'nique. la politique omassemblees. juges de la foi avec le Pape. un tribunal dont le pre'sident aurait le privile'ge de de'cider et de juger tout. le Pape. si le proehain Concile de'finissait I'infaillibilite' du Pape.on. Mais les fideles. ne aux fideles qu'il n'y a plus et que les Eveques ne le sont plus se'rieusement ? Leur cooi)e'ration.

Mais on abuse quelquefois de ce mot e'tranjrement. pronon9ant seul. s'il y a encore miracle. entendre certains ecrivains. dans ce grind et univi rst-l te'moignage de I'Eglise. et le Concile de Trente. C'est un temoignage.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. quand De'sormais. la : : d'anormal. qui prononce le jugement. un seul qui enseigne. uvec le Pape. Continuons. jugerait 291 atteste' Pape. Les fideles savent tres-bien que. communique avec toutes les autres. pour savoir ce qui est la tradition et la foi de leurs Eglises. et bien autre que celui de I'infaillibilite de I'Eglise. Et un jugement doctrinal nest an fond que lattestation d'un fait revele.: : Document quand seul? le vi. ibi Ecclesia. quod ab omnibus. un fait. assemblee ou dispersee. quand le corps parle'. la foi de I'Eglise universelle. s'il letrouvebon.seulement des ecbos.-eiguante. Mais ils couQi-ivent moins la necessite de ce mira^ le pour le Pape seul. C estis est pourquoi saint Paul dit super Fundati fundamentum Apostolorum. par le fait meme qu'elles te'aioignent.<. Messieurs. on dirait que le Pape XIV. on subslituerait. Ainsi done. telle que Jesus-Cbrist I'a consti- dit bien. : aux Apotres. que Je'sus-Christ a dit encore Accipite Spiritum Sanctum. : du jugement enseigne ? le Pape est te'moin. k recheroher et a examiner quels peuvent etre les inconve'nients probacies de la de'fiiiition dogmatique en question. comment les fideles conqjrt-ndront-ils que ce corps enseignant : prend encore parlaifement I'infaillibilite' de rEp. c'est la quelque cbose que les fideles con^oivent sans peine. fideles con 9oi vent ment Mais iivec 1 iufaillibilile' personnelle du Pape. et par c. I'Egliso se com- en parlant des Eveques. dans UTie question de te'moignage. et par consequent aux Eveques successeurs des Ap6tre. attestant. principal te'moin. des autres te'moins. qinlque cbose d'cxtraordiraire. ni I'Eglise ne font le dogme ils : de la principale et suuvi raine Eglise. ils enseignent ils constituent. resumant ti)ute la tradition. declare tuee. un seul qui de'finit. quand il le voudra. : Ici du moins. Mais jusqu'ici lis fideles n'ont pas cru que le Pape fiit dans I'Eglise le seul te'moin. . dans I'ordre spirituel. I'EglLse t n. de celle qui. cesseruid. la foi de I'Eglise est ce qui n'e'tait qu'insplicite est : devenu I'. comme il est seul juge. ce sont les Eglises particulieres. sans que I'adbesiou de I'Episcopat n'y flit a aucuu point de vue requise. C'est-k-dire qu'a qui Ique cbose de tressimple et de tres-compre'bensible. se pie'sentcra a eux sous un autre aspect. La revelation est les verites revele'es sont des faits. Ce sera. On Ubi Petrus. un seul qui est docteur. te'moin De plus.lise pourra toujours suffire a tout. pas d'Eglise. sans le concours des Eveques.t explicite.msequent aux Eveques. infaillible. Ce sont la autant de paroles que tous les fideles savent par . parce que sans I'infaillibdite' personnelle et se'pare'e du Pape. constate'e des pasteurs unis a kur chef. Et enfin Qui vos audit. ET INDICPENDAMMENT DU CORPS EPI~corAL. Tandis qu'un jugement doctrinal du Pape seul. Pv: — suit Episcopos regere ecclesiam. mais tout a fait conforme a la nature des cboses. Quand toutes les Eglises. sans doute. qui pourra." c'est. au lieu de tous un te'moin qui n'a aucun besoin. aux yeux des fideles. Messieurs. il voudrait. et le dogme est de'fini. dit expresseraent In locum Apostolorum suc: grande maxime catbolique se realise Quod ubique. successeurs des Ajwtres. quelque cbose oil Tassistaiice divine est requise. par tous ceux qui sont XIII. un te'nioin. qu'est-ce que I'en- seignement de I'Eglise V Un temoignage. et implique dans la notion meme de I'Eglise sans I'infaillibilite' dans I'Eglise. Ni le Pape. a I'barmonie meme de I'Eglise. dont les exage'ratious assure'ment ne plaisent id au Pape. Les fideles compreiinent facilement ctla. ni de leur temoignajje. Or. les que ce miracle est absolunecessaire. un miracle perpetuel. en nous pla9iint k>ujours an point de vue des fideles. il le serait 1 Eglise. a par la-meme. omnibus diehus. comme toutes Its autres doivent communiquer avec elle. En nieme temps que jvge^*. " en DEHORS. Toute la tradition aconstamment assimile ici les Eveques aux Apotres. qu il a ete' ilit Euntes docete Ecce ego vohiscum sum omnes gentes. etc. Les paroles -le Not re-Seigneur Je'susChrist sont formelles. Tous les cate'cbisines disent cela. cccur. L'adbesion du corps enscignant pouvant n'entrer pour rien dans ce qui est I'essence dcctrinal. les Eveques ne sont pas . mot de A . quand c'est le constatent. remplacer tous les autros un seul temoin. ni guere a personne. C'est aux Apotres. comme elle y a toujours suffi. les Eveques soiit DOCTEVRS. Et les Eveques ne semblent plus des voix dans I'Eglise. . aux yeux des fideles. place'e au centre. mais de simples e'cbos. C'est : les te'moins . me audit. et il feut le dire: C'est la un grand saint Ambroisc. quod semper.

Pontife de la chaiie principale. bien des de'tails . Messieurs. EviCertains disent: Pierre est tout. quand elle est a sa place. Et voici les Eveques Succe. et saciifiant a I'Eglise iios pre'occupations person nelles. paree qu'elles n'ont pas le Pape avec elles. ce qui ne doit pas etre se'pare' le Pape et I'Episcopat. nous sonant tous plus que jamais avec ve'ne'ration. en sens coiitraire: les uiis \oulant se'i^arer le Pape de I'Einscopat. le Pape est k lui senl toute I'Eglise. pour leconnaitre oil est I'Eglise. dont parle I'Ecriture invincible. : toutes les nations : Telle est Tecononiie toute puissante de Cette mysteiieuse et vivante unite' de I'Eglise. ni autrement. bouche de I'Eglise. germaniste. c'est que. Certaines e'coles the'ologiques ont eu longtemjis ici le meme toit. Voila. II Ecclesiam meam. Mais le Pape n'est pas et n'a jamais Le vrai et pretendu etre toute I'Eglise. et oil I'assemblage et la correspondance sont tels que chaque partie. autour du Souverain-Poutife. le Chef visible de le fondements sacre's: que personne ne se'pare ce quo Je'sus-Christ a fait pour demeurcr e't> Mais si Ton met la tete d'un cote et riiellt ! ment uni. et cette derniere ressource de vie qu'elle appellc a grands ! ! ment ? L'Eglise est batie sur la il pierre : oui. il n'tst pas tout I'edifice. mais au-dessus de la pierre y a I'e'dilico. et I'e'difice du fonde- Ah que plutot. parce que tout est un. le fond( sans le fondement croulerait fondement sans re'difice ne serait le ment de rien. I'Eglise anglicane ne sont pas I'Eglise de Je'sus-Christ. et la pierre n'est le fondement que par sa liaison avec I'e'difice : Super hunc petram ledificaht) dcmmeiit non corps. paiticipe a la force dii tout. Je'sus-Christ a voulu et values que- relles! L'Eglise le de Je'sus-Christ a pour chef Papi'.-seurs des ai otres. le Chef n'est pas tout le : . et le chef avec I'Eglise. Le mot Rglise est un mot collcctif. se'parer. par une de'fiuition qui les troublerait. qui lie pent s'euteiidie d'aiicuue individualite' se'pare'e. ibi ci sseur de PieiTC pour Clief Ecclesia. : : 292 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. obe'issance et amour. aux yeux des fideles. que nous pre'seuterons au monde le spectacle de cette gi-ande arm^e range'e en hataille.'j a la societe' en pe'ril le secours de Dieu qu'elle attend. ni duns les definitions dog- XV. et Thariiionie de I'organisme tout entier.la tete de I'Eglise enseignante. parce qu'elle rLCoiinait le sucUhi Petrus.sera la vie? L'Eglise est un edifice: a:dificuljo Ecclesiammeam. Vicaire de JesusChrist. Et c'est alors aussi que. Point done de se'paration. par I'lXempL' non moins que par la doctrine. en qui re'side la ple'nitude de la puissance apostolique. en laquelle toutes les autres gardent I'unite'. ni ultranioiitaine. Corpus. nous e'loignions de nous jusqu'a I'ombre meme de la division Que tous. dans les divisions }iroduites. ni romaniste. il faut rcgarder oil est le Pape. autre chose Unum shit !' Laissons-la les vieilles : [Document v: Non. mais aussi des Pasteurs. avec lesquela Je'sus-Christ est chaque jour et jusqu'a la coiisommation des siecles Pasteurs des peupli s. quelle qu'elle soit. voila«. paraissons pas. n'y a pas d'Eglise de Je'susPape ce serait im corps saiis tete. SuccLSseur de Pierre. et les autrts I'Episcopat du Pape. corps de I'autre. est la tete. est lo fondement. C'est ainsi que nous sommes certains que I'Eglise russe. est le Chef de I'Eglise. par les schismes et les here'sies. L'Eglise est un corps vivant C'est la le mot sans cesse re'pe'te' par saint Paul. oil tout est divin. Juges et Docteurs. n'e'toniioiis pas les fideles en poitant la critique sur cette divine constitution ne creusons pas autour et au-dessus de ces : Le Pape I'Eglise. 11 n'est pas toiite rEglisc. Chef de tous les Eveques. clef de voute de la catholicite' Voila le Pajie. Pasteur universel non-seulement des brebis. le'gitime usage pratiqiie de ce mot celebre. et euseigner reste : . nous ouliliant gene'reusement nous-memes. qui s'applique a montrer dans ce corjis mystique les rapports de la lete et des membres. et au conCiiiist sans le : I'initiative souveraine traire I'PIglise eatholique romaine est la : vraie Eglise. parce qu'elle est rang€e.. et il iie'''essaire Les fideles ne comprcnnent que I'EglisG avec son Chef supreme. mais alors seulement. niatiques. ni gallicaiie. oii . : Ne done Cette conception de I'Eglise ne nuit du en rien a la divine autorite et a du Pontife roniiiin. nous ott'riion. nous travaillions unauimement k la conservation de cette paix et de c tte unite oii Dieu liabite C'est alors. Messieurs. Non. Messieurs. pourquoi vouloir isohr le foudement de I'e'difice. ni L'e'difice cris. sous I'autorite supe'rieure et principale du Pontife souverain pose's par VEspritSaint pour regir VE(jUse de Dieii.

]iour ne pas r. entre te'moignages des Eveques. arriver aux de'eisions necessaires sur lesquelles I'accord doit se faire. ! sont de'concertes. et elle le serait toujours. pas de brancbe plus catliolique. et ne vous troublez pas. r.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. lis se sont rencontre's sur toutes les routes de I'exil avec Pie VI et Pie VII. pas de brancbe plus romaine. Ce sont les Eveques fran^ais qui ont de'fendn. apostolicam. afin que I'liomme puisse toujt)urs se conduire. il n'est pai e'te' mieux unie au tronc < ment I'etat de moa ame. ranime. la Pologne of)primee.^ Et de fait. j'ose le dire. apies avoir lu I'Evangile.Document VI. en s'e'tendaut plus loin. Duns I'e'clat d'un midi tranquille. des Papes. quelques-uns t-e sont mis k demander en qui reside originairement dans cette Eglise Tinfaillibilite' Et les yeux fixe's sur im lait merveilleux. la dispute a I'amour. in necessariis U7iitas. les gouverneraents inqaiels. Nous iivons bien des combats. eot repris. et un proces juge'. ni des investigations du juge qui tient votre sort entre les mains. Nos piedecesseurs sont mnrts sur I'echafaud. (le I'unanimite' de la tradition sur tout cela. Ne vous moquez pas.ii Ton rencontre cette alliance unique de I'assistance de Dieu et de I'u' aidmite' des temoignages. les destiue du fond du cceur Credo Ecdcsiam. il y a un accord infaillible. et les Dieu meme est dans cet accord. un seul foyer semble re'pandre la lumiere mais si la nuit s'obseureit. ! : . je au cl&rge. •bpuis dix-neuf_ siecls. uul ne doute de la perpetuite'. Du reste.. laigement merite fiifc Demain. pas de brancbe plus apostolique. en se plait a remuer des hypotbeses. les e'le'ments du pioblenie sont Or nous devons nous consumer en reflexions. remis au feu Aussitot. eutrez duns ci t admiral >le temple de la ve'rite' cliretienne. on voit au fiimament des astres innombrables. niids ils tuinberont aussi siir le grand cheEain. sanctam. dans la communion du maityre. Eglises des Etats-Unis out commence par des Eveques fran9ai<. plus de paix Eh bien. qui institue les Eveques. Les tbe'ologiens me'ritent aussi vos respects flans des rerherches qui regardent vos ames et la ve'rite'. et obtenu la liberie' des peres <le faniille l: . termine' par im accord admirable. des Apotres. mis en doute. des ennemis ft dc. Devant un iait. eouflrme les de-isions.mpre I'unite'. les protestants refoules. en distinctions. Pourquoi? dans quel quelle inte'ret? avec quel profit V conduite adopte'e. ni a la tyrannic du maitre absolu. lis ont accepte' I'exil et la confiscation sans ceder. I'Orlent ariete'. ee qu'on oubliait serait repioduit. catholiram. avant de donner quelque cliose a jjorter a vos esprits ou a vos consciences. I'lrLmde atiame'e. la i. in dubiis libertas. de brancbe de I'arbre divin qui t a laracine. sans faildir. au liiilieu des oiseaux moqucurs. Devant une . ces discussions entre tiieologiens. et la voie du salut rendue plus et les fideles difficile. ni a de rUuite. nous avons la paix. propose les decrets. mille rayons se fondant sur sa tete duns une seule claite'. la paix des ames compromise. nous sommes di s docteurs qui enseigneut. C'est dans le Clerge' fran^ais que Pie VII a Les tjouve ses ]dus vives consolations. en scrupules. Je voudiais resumer longue serie toute cette de questions. et cxprimer daircet c'est la Depuis cent anue'es surtout. Tout a coup. Par la giace de Dieu.'' solution. I'homme eiinemi se le'veille. I'Eglise de France a. liommes le'gers qui vous moquez d'un labeur entrepris pour vous Vous ne vous plaignez pas des calculs minutieux des astronomes et des marins. qui se compose d'un principal foyer. be'ro'ine et martyre d'etre ait XVI. les Eveques attriste's. conaultc I'hi^toire. et du Cbrist. on se met a agiter des questions. que nul ne s'e'tonne drs opinions agitees dans nos ecoles.s ignorants. d'astn s tans nombre et d'une seule et meme luniiere en tous lieux repandue. prouvent la libeite. vie ! mais sur cette graude question de Nul cathoI'Eglise. lique ne doute de rintaillibilLte' de I'Eglise comme nul ne doute de la Piimaute du Pape. a ete. qu'arriverait-il ? Ce qu'on ne discutait pas serait discute'. et dts te'moins qui deposent. Au lieu <l'ecoutir aux portes de nos eeoles. unam. Tous les fideles. recitent : 293 de tbeologie que j'aurais voixlu eviter. et aussi la charite'. non nous ne nous reunirons pas pour substiluer la division a I'unanimite. afirancbie de tous les ombiages suCette Eglise. Mais quand il fant in omnibus curilas. I'Orient Nous avons tons ensemble reclame e'era-e. avtc plus de iiele. et a I'enonce du probleme. dont dix-neiif siecles n'ont pas arracbe' une pierre. avant d? vous embarquer. que la ! ! ranne's. Coneiles. et ime fois I'habitude des discussions reprise. Topprcssion du peujde. sur la pierre et pariui les ronces. Cttte diversite. depuis deux siecles. pardela foutes les frontieres. les plus tristes pages de I'bistoire du passe remises en lunuere. nous ne sommes pas alois des philosophes qui disputeut. depuis le commencement. convoque Ics . qui s'appc He I'EglisG semblable eii quelque sorte au systeme lumin< ux du monde. e'coute leurs pasteurs.

et inclinet aures suas ad preces Nostras. au sein d'une assemble'e presidee par un Peie et compose'e de Freres. comme notre armee guerDepuis vingt rieie. cap. quae ad commimem totius pupuli christiani salutem. dans I'eiJucation de leurs enfants. La. a peine aurai-je baise' le tornApotres. le droit d'etre entt-ndue. gratiores Deo esse hominum preces si mundo corde. aime'. et en public dans ces details. Omnibus Ohristifidelibus. Oninipotentis dexterae auxilium. IX salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Itaque hoc potissimurn tempore nunquam desistimus in humilitato cordis Nostri ferventissijnis preeibus orare et obseerare clemcntissimum luminum et misericoi-diarum Patrem. tons ensemble defendu la liberie' des associations religieuses. ce FELIX. les Conferences de SaintVincent de Paul. 10.^ Et quo facilius Deus Nostris auuuat votis. die S futuri mensis Decembris. Ics Freres des ecoles chre'tiennes. frappe. et Nobiscum laboret.. dans les mauvais jouis que nous traversons. toutes k'S imprudences disparaitront. que les exagereea pas. m'aimi zchacun de nous . nous penscroni aux Apotres. cap. et foute cette incomparable armee pacifique qui est. Eveque d' Orleans. hors de la bataille. Messieurs et chers Cooperateurs. J'en a peine aurai-je louche' Buis convaincu la tcrre sacre'o. : toutes hs inge'rences tc'meraires cesseront. quo in hoc Concilio ea omnia statucre valeamus. ma main s'est epuisee a votre service. ne vous troublcz pas Si je me suis de'cide a entrer avec vous. je ne me suis laisse vaincre par persontie. assiste'. i. Nemo certe ignorat. Jac. ans. vouement a Rome et an monde catholique. : ! : deux mondes. tons les bruits e'xpireront. que je me sentirai dans beau des la puix. Messieurs. le tempe'r iment. la nouvelle assurance de mon profond et religieux de'vouement. et caeleste lumen imploremus. aux amcs dont nous re'pondons devant Dicu. qui ont donne la premiere impulsion a cette ceuvre jourd'liui univer-elle DOCUMENT VII. scrvi. O Saint-Pere. Dieu salt que la derniere parole de mes levrcs et le dernier soupir de mon coeur appartiendront a I'Eglise et a vous. trahi. mes cheveux ont blanchi." Veuillez agre'er. a quo omne datum optimum. console' et Depuis vingt ans. la tagesse c'est Rome qui arrete la furia francese. v. ne sera pas le dernier a re'pondre vous savez si je vous aime comme disait le doux Eveque de Geneve Dans la contention d' amour pour le Vicaire de Je'sus. ac pacem maxime pertinent. c'cst par un secret instinct que j 'avals plutot a calmer des e'niotions dans mon pays qu'a devancer des cbjectiona a Rome. U novembre. dis-je ! Que France vers doctrines cilium a Nobis fuissu indictum in Basilica No-tra Vaticana. hoc est animis ab omui scelere integris ad ipsum accedant. Et quoniam compertum est. omnium Christifideliuni religionem.' ut mittat de caelis sedium suarum assistriceni sapientiam. dans un magnifique mouvement que le temps n'a pas affailili. ? " ! [Document YIT.! ! 294 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Sapient. livre a des adver&aires imLes Eveques francjais I'ont deplacables. exalte. quand elle parle de son attachement a^^ Saint-Sie'ge.iceirco liac occasioue caelcstes Indulgentiarum thesauros dispensationi Nostrae comraissos Apostolica liberalitate Christifidelibus reserare constituimus. I/Eglise entiere doit a la France les Scours de chnrite. les flots Nous penseroris et les vents ueront apaisc's. et au Vicaire de Notre-Seigneur Je'susChrist. au piefatem excitare decrevimus. 1. : 2 Sanct. le Sie'ge pontifical a e'te' attaque.. le de'veloppement des missions civilisatrices. nous penscrons au Dieu qui nous voit ct nous jugera. inchoandum. en la fete de saint Martin. Oecumenicum Con- Tel est I'entrainement de la le centre de I'unite. Pierre? Ah! tonchante et audu Denier de saint j'ose dire que tant de desi PrOMITLGAZIONE del GroBBILEO. utilitutemque. I'ffiuvre de la propagation de la foi dans vous ah croyez que votre vieil Eveque " Pere. quae Nobiscum sit. et se refuse k mettre les exces dans les dogmes.. ut coniunctis Nobiscum preeibus.Christ. et omne donum perfectum descendit. ^ Orleans. et sciamus quid accrptunr sit apud eum. les Petites-Sceurs des pauvres. ' . PIUS PP. 1. 17. nous croirops hs voir enore en face du monde a conquei ir et du Maitre a ecouter et lorsqu'a la place de ce Maitre souveraiu des csprits. Et ne sont-ce pas eux encore. ix. les colleges des Jesuites les des Dominicains. liberie de la charite. ne soycz pas inquiets Honimes de foi.sciit les nionts en venant de France. v. son Vicaire sur la terre redira ii " M(^n Frcic. et c'cst de Rome que part la mode'ration. fendu. praesentes litteras iuspecturis. . Immaeulatae Sanclissimaeque Deiparae Vir-inis Mariae Conceptioni sacro. la premiere du moude. donne a I'Eglise de France le droit d'etre crue. opprime'. ac maiorem catholicae Ecclesiae gloriam et felicitatem. Aussi mes frc^res.

vel earum aliquam bis visitaverint. et Sedi Apostolicae reservata (castitatis. et pro catliolicae Ecclesiae pace. licet indignis. aliaque receubita opera devote peregerint. vel Maiori. per eos. vel earxim aliquam praeliniti temporis spatio bis visitaverint. necnon aliis quibn^cumque u 2 . ad Throniiin Dei fidentius aceedant. et quorum ab-olutio alias quantumvis vel inflictis plenissimnm omnium peccatorum suorum remissionem et Indulgentiam. iniuncta tamen eis. dictam ubicumque degentibus. etiam locorum Ordinariis. seu alio quocumque impedimento detentis.-ionis. suspen. et salutaria opera dispensando commutare. Censurarum contracta. quae praeservativa a peccatis nuncupantur. itemque in carcere. sive Nobis. et Sanctae Mariae Maioris Basilicas. dummodo Confessarius approbatus sit pro Monialibus). qui memorata opera. et eorum cuilibet in supradictis omnilms poenitentia salutari. vel publica. necnon poenalibus. per modum suftVagii ajiplicari poterit. ab homine qua vis de causa latis vel praeter infra e^ceptas. vel ali- degentibus. Hoc nos consilio Indulgentiam ad instar lubilaei Catl. et intra commcmoratum temporis spatium peccata sua coufessi SanctissiEucliaristiae Sacmmentum reverenter susceperint. Novitiae. eaque iniungere.-lorum. ut sibi ad hunc effectum eligere fidelibus jjossint quemcumque Presb3'terum Confessarium. aliaque incapacitate. etiam . liceutiam concedimus. nisi commutatio futura indi. S. qui nondum ad primam Commuuionem admist-i fueriut. quae ipsi poeuitentes efBcere possint cum facultate etiam dispensandi super Communione cum pueris.sit.olico Orbi denuneiamus. ibique per aliquo temporis spatium pro omnium misere errantium conversione. ac Beatoruiu Petri et Pauli Apostolorum eiiis aiictoritate confisi. quae a tertio acceptata fuerit. etiani non continuis. ut ilia Confe<sarius ex actu ajiprobatis a locorum Ordinariis in alia pietatis opera commutare. religionis. vel de facili Non intendimus autem per praesentes super alia quavis irregularitate sive ex defectu. qui eos ab excommunicationis. 295 ut inile ad veram poenitentiam inceusi. aut de illorum mandato. in alia pia. universis ac singulis utriusque sexus Christifidelibus in alma Urbe Nostra degentibiis.-entium misericorditer Domino concedimus atque indulgemus quae Indulgentia auimabus etiam quae Deo in in caritate coniunct. vel in aliud proximum tempus prorogare po. et Sablmto ieiunaveriiit. trauquillitate. qui a die primo futuri mensis lunii usque ad diem. ac triumpho devote oraverint.-iguaudas. ex ilia ligandi ac siilvendi pofestate. seu in quibus agatur de praeiudicio tertii semper exceptis. aliaeque mulieres intra claustra degentes. Inannis in Laterano. et facultatem. aut not 1.^ularibus vero personis utriusque sexus etiam in claustris perpetuo cilia receperiut. seu OfEcialil)US. contulit. tam Saecularem. et bis visitata Ecclesia CatLedrali. et grat'am in auxilio opportune. quateuus ea vota sint perfecta et absoluta. ab Ordinariis locorum. quatenus ad forum externum non sit deducta. et obligationis. et Sedi Apostolicae speciali licet forma reservatis. in foro couicientiae. criminibus et delictis quantumvis gravibus et enormibus. Concedimus insuper facultatem dispeni-andi super irregularitate ex violatione operibus suprascriptis. et. tenore prae. et per Poenitent'ae Sacramentum a jieccatorum maculis expiati. vel eorum aliqua praestare nequiverint. necnon ab omnibus peccatis.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. nodus a Nobis indicta Insuper omnibus et singulis ChristiSaecularibus et Eegularibus cuiusvis Ordinis et Instituti.-pecialiter nominandi. vel occulta. et extra Urbim praedictam concedi consuevit. Ee. et pauperibus aliquam eleemnsynam. ipsis deficientibus. Concedimus etiam. et censuris a iure mum . vel propria Parocbiali loci ipsorum domicilii. quam saecularibus. qui Ecclesias. quam Nob's Dominus. qui ibi curam animarum exercent. aliisque ecclesiasticis sententiis.ie ex hnc vita migraverint.: Document VII. de. prout unicuique devotio suggerit. pro sanctissimae fidei propngatione. eamdem Indulgentiam couiequi possint. ut navigantes atque quam primum ad sua se domi- cetur eiusmodi ut non minus a peccato committendo refraenet. nempe quarta et sexta feria. sicut in anno lubilaei visitmtibus certas EccIcsIms intra. pariter concedimus atque indulgemus. quam Kegularem ex actu approbatis a locorum Ordinariis (qua facultate uti possint etiam Moniales. excessibus. ampla non intelligeretur concessa. aliisque eiusdem Confessarii arbitrio iniungendis. eiusque miserieordiam consequantvir. vel ad earn advenitntibu:^. vel aliqua corporis iufirmitate. et valeaut. iter agentes. vel eorum Yicariis. quo Oecumenica Syabsoluta. erogaverint ceteris vero extra Urbem praefuerit 1 tarn laicis. et praeter consueta quatuor anni tempora tribus diebus. et bac vice tantum absolvere valeant et insuper vota quaecumque etiam iurata. deducenda. Quamob-era de Omnipotentis Doi miseiicoidia. quam prior voti materia). postquam ad illorum notitiam hae Nostrae Litterae p^rveneri'it. Priucipis Aposti. aut captivitate existentibus. aut inhabilitate (^uoqnomodo contracta dispensare.

qui Conventualem Missam celebrare teneutur. Terras. et fauuila- quotidie addi in Missam Conventualem. vel aliquo Praelato. expressa et individua. Card. quoad Ecclesiam. quoad et iuliabilitatem absolvendi complicem. quae ad singula loca dcferri non possunt. et Congregationum. eorumque Vicariis et Officiali'. il di 2 dicembro dell' anno 1869 ai vescovi del mondo cattolico per lo stesso Concilio in Roma convenuti. ad instar. et Institutis. et sigillo personae in dignitate ecclesiastica constitutae munitis. Qunpropter in virtute sanctne obedientiae tenore praesentium distiicte praeeipimus. seu alias in nicati. illorum tenores praesentibus pro sufficienter expressis. illis. (Dalla Civilta Cattolicn. rec. Ut autem praesentes Nostrae. Nobisquc iucundius existimavimus. feria quaque quinta. approbatis. a commemorato die primo lunii usque ad diem. aut specialis dcrogalio fiat. iibicmnque locorum et gentium. populisque etiam Verbi Deipraedicatione. per suas Ecclesias ac Dioeceses.itnri. Veneraisiles Fratkes. confirmatioue Apostolica. Civitates. FF. et Ordinationibus Aiiostolicis praesertim quibus facultas absolvendi in certis tunc expressis casibus ita romano Poutiticis pro tt-mpore existeiiti reservatur. Praedecessore Nostro Sacrameiitum Poenifentiae. N. et inuoquibus omnibus et siiigidis ctiamsi vatis : Allocuziono tcnuta nella Cougregazione generale innaiizi la prima sessione del Concilio Vaticano dal Santissimo nostro Signore per la divina Provvidenza PAPA PIO IX. seu ludice Ecclesia. vel publice denuiiciati fuerint. hac vice specialitor. si forent exhibitae vel ostensae. aut cum partibus couconlaverint. atque etiam ih. Sacriflcium fieri in omnibus liuius Urbis PatriarcUalibus. Sacri oecumcnici Vatican! Concilii Convcntus post paucos liinc dies anspic. vel i()sis deticientibus. illoruinque pcrsonis quomodolibet concessis. Congregatiouibus. nominatim et expresse ad ett'ectum praemissorum. singulis cuiusque Eeligiosae Familiae Ecclesiis Kegularium. et ab Apostolica Sedc.-sis. et Littcris Apostolicis eisdem Ordinibus. Provincias. aliisque Basilicis. qui a Nobis. derogamus. statum facultatem tribuere super praemissis dispensandi. et in pristinum restituendi. vel publicari faiiant. . Beuedicto XIV. absolvi posse concedimus ill foro conscientiae ad et!'ectum dumtaxat assequendi Indulgentias lubilaei. Praeeipimus autem. ut nee etiam similes. die 11 Aprilis anno 18G9.) DOCUMENT VIII. quoad obligationem denunciationis neque easdem praesentes iis. ica. non autcm per clausulas generales idem importantes. manu alicuius Notarii publici subscriptis. et exercent. spccialin. qui curam animarum mandamus omnibus.us. [Document VIII. iuiuiicta obligatione tatisfaciendi statim ac pote. etiam in furo conscientiae neque etiam derogare Constitutioni cum appositis declarationibus editae a fel.296 quam THE VATICAN COUNCIL. cum praesentium Litterarum transumpta. cuiquam suffragari possint nccnun legula de non concedendis Indulgentiif. nuUomodo suifragaii posse aut debere. ac formam in iis traditam pro servata babentes. Non obstanfibus Constitiitionibu'^. interdicti. Pontificatus Nostri Anno Vicesimotevtio.stico nominatim excommususpensi. tum buiusmodi concessionc:^. volumus ut praesentium transuraptis. nisi intra tempus praefinitum satisfecerint. sive Institutorum ctinra iuramento. quae babt-retur ip^is jn-aesentibus. seu habilitandi. qua ftstum duplex' priraae et secundae classis non agatur. Quod bi intra praefinitum terminura iiidicio Confessari satisfacere non potuerint. ceterisque contrariid quibuscumque. vel dissimilcs Indulgentiarum. aut exempla etiam impressa ilia. ac quorumcumquc Ordinum. VV. P maggio 18G9. indnltis. quam ut Vos universes . vel ex( mplis etiam impre. ubi primum pro temporum ac locorum ratione satius in Domino censuerint. nihil opportunius : de illis.. nisi de illis expressa montio. eadem prorsus fides habeatur. aut alia aliqua exquisita forma ad hoc: servanda foret. rite praeparutis. seu alia quaevis expressio habenda. et censuras incidisse declarati. statvitis et consuetudinibus. mentio. ad omnium notitiam facilius deveniant. vel quavis firmitate alia roboratis. cornmque totis tojioribus. quiu tamen liaec de Spiritu Sancto Missa idlam babeat applicationis obligationem. sententias. privilegiis quoquc. quo Oecumenica Synodusfinem habuerit. atque quibuscumque Ordinariis locorum ubicumque existentibus. po:isit. ut acceperint. fieri seu Ecclesias visitandas pro praesenti lubiIteo designent. et CoUegialibus et Collegiatis Ecclesiis ab earum Canonicis.ab omnibus uuiversis catbolici Orbis utriiisque Cleri Sacerdotibus runt. Oppida. Datum Komae apud Sanctum Pt-trum sub Aunulo Piscatoris. Paracciani Clarelli. et loca publicent.

iugeli- pari regnum Dei. nil magis cupieus quam superscniuare zizatda. cum revelante Chiisti Domino gluiiam suam iu moute praecelso oram electis testibus "Hie est. In ea euim.i. ut antequam Conciliarium rerum actio initiumhabyat.oreui el Consumator. malis.. graviter id fereus Petrus in eas voces erupit " Domiue ad quern ibimus?" ac raliouem iidiecit quare sequi velle statueret: '• Verba vitae aeternae habes. pra^dieans et ev. Liic. uude divina manat virtus Nos lam vim roburque iiivcniemus. ut incoucussa file ac firmitate Christum sequamur. inimicorum artes superemus. Hoc auFF.ins Nostis euim ex cum Christus Domiuus Palesrtgioues pei-agrans iti-r faceret per civitates et castella. Si enim Apostoli oculis et togitati )ne iu Christo lesu defixi satis ex hoc auimi viriumque sumpserunt. cum lit^r uti Sauctus Lucas loquitur. VV. indicti a Nobis Concilii causa conveuisse. dem devfuiu. totamque certamiiiis vim. nt raulti di. Fidei nostrae. de divinae Eucharistiae luysterio coram Hebraeis fusiori cum sibi sermone pertractavit tunc enim gens ilia carnaiis et obtusioris sensus de tantae caiitatis opeie i)e:suad< re non posset. ac praecipiiam caiitatcm. uec inimicus homo seguis erit. una licet in Christi nomine couiuMctis." officii pariter Nostii memores esse dtbebimus. quae Domini praeconio laudari meruit " Vos esiis qiu i^ermausistis mecum in tentationibus meis. . tidequacuuiiuo iter haberet. oculos aniiuosque couiicere voluerimus. atque ita Magistri pertaesam se : : ostcialisset. iidurias. I anne abireut retro et ^ non cum lllo ambular. si iu Auc. et taiitae rei magiiitudiiii conSiiutanfum. ram ardor.nmus? Non deeruut certe Nobis. 6T. et ipsi vellent abire. et in pluribus etiara tribulationum pro Christo : m ])erpesbio iure c fficit cordi No^tro carissimos. tolorum coniunctio spleudi- dius etiam e. FF.itionis conet stantiae clypeo sustincamus. ut iu acie ad versus multiplices eosdemque acerdmos hostes. ore coucordibus aniuiis ndhaereamus. qui suie uuauimae et coustantis cum (liviuo Magistro coniunctioiiis lucuL>uta Nobis (XempLi ndiquermit tacris litteiis. VV. 1 Luc.oc aspectu.eiit.sum bene complacui. iudicavimus. 22.ie reputare." igitur prono mentis obsequ'O audiamus utique iu omni re. . 6." Haec nos aiiimo reolentes. miriticus ad navandam Christo Regno op. es=e versatos. aec Vestra Nobis- oum coniunctio eo gralior Nobis . turn diviua iunixi auctoritate. at Nos memores Apostolicae firudtudinis et constantiae.m. Vobis aperire posacnms Cum eniin de re maxima agatur. quid dulcius aut iucundius hac noatr. diuturna iiui contentioue versemur. ex l. quod in ea hiiercntes Apo^tilorum vestigiis iiisiolimns. quod Deo et imma- : culata Deipara votis No.nt. ». Aijostolorum tamen amor in IMagislii \eneratioue et obsequio iinmotus pi rstiiit. est eniui quod ipse Pater cat lestis Maiestatis suae auetoritate i^ruecepit.... ncc s^atis verbis exidicare possumus ingentem earn Cim. ac necessarium ceusuimus. Nos pariter Ipsuui adspicientes iu s. totque etiam miseris a via veritatis errantibus ex Christi Cruce haurire laetabimur. et tumma animurum conten^ioue Nobiscum c^uiunctos asjiiciauiiis quos eximia erga Nos et Apostolicam S. Neque vero Redeuqjtorem Nostrum respicere contenti. cum caelestis MagistLT docans iu Capnaruaum.it'iolici Orbis partibus in banc almara Ur^em. 1 Haec autim.dutari pignore Eed mptiouis nostrae. et debita Apostolic e vocis obsequio frequentia Nobis in.-cipuloruu]. quae Cliristiauam et civilem boeietattui hoc tempore perturbant. patientiae. prec. et duodefim lilo.-tiis annuente liodierno dieiu amplissimo hoc Vestro couventu peragiuius. VV. ac salutrim Nobis. ut adversa quaeque streuue peilerrcnt.opnrtet spiritualibus militiae Nostrae armis. FF. ' Atque haec Apo. quid porro etiim firmius ac stabilias tueri deb. num : "297 die iuxta Nostra liin di'sideria congregates alloqui. qiiuni intiino corde alimus. 2S. de ilia ipsa Patrem suum obsccraro fide : Domiuum constanli ' constituend is es^e tem illud est. quo calumnias. omnique studio curare.i coniuucdo. quam Vestra haec exoptatu. Kius lateii Apoatolus omnes studio adliaesisse. Nihil autem metus est ne vires nohis in hac dimicatioue deiiciant. luann. ut praenoscens diilicultates quibus ipsa obuoxia iutura esset iu muudo.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. quas ad omnia iu Conciliaribusactiouibiisrite et online agenda. Utamm. conditione constituti sumus. Apostolicis Nostris lilteris consigiiatus atque cditas. iuquit.-olatione.ccidit. tum caritati.Document liodierno VIII. qnulis est ilia in qua de remeiliis c imparandis agitur tor. et lesu Aposlolos percuuctante lestante. tinae z-. putavimus Apootulica Nostra Eollieitudiue dignum esse. eam quoque mentis docilitatem iaduamus uecesse est. ILique omui tem. Vobis eas tradeie normas." meuioies Redemptoris Nostii diserte deuunciantis "Qui mecum non est conira me est.it iu ea praecipne qunm Ipse ita cordi habuit. Filius uieus dilcctus iu quo mild Ii. ut Eidem libeuter Hoc toto cordis affeclu audientes simus.dtuit eo tempore. Ipsum audite. non dtcrunt cimtradictiones ac dimicationes subeundae.. in omnis gratiae au^picium Vobis caelestis beuedictioiiis opem a Deo clementissimo piecaremur. cum Vos tandem ex omnibus C.

" Una itaque anima cum uno : latiir qua ' Nos in omni tribulatione Nostra. pleni : nicum Concilium Vaticanum iam a Nobis ea auspicemur. pleni sanrtifatis et iustitiae. emendandis moribus sacrorum et sanctorum verae nobis operum divitiae fructibus. feliciter ut expleto mortalis peregrinationis cursu. traetandi ac perficiendi pertinent. . vivendi in Concilio. i.. * I. i. poteuti sua ope confirmet. ut emundantes conscienfiam ah operibus mortuis ad servienduin Deo viventi^ orationibus. effloiatque propitius. quibus. I.^ quodque nihil Caelestis est.um Concilium a Nobis convocatum fuisse. IX.* iain Patris benignltati pronius ut det spiritum honum petentibus Nos.. ieiuniis aliisquc pictatls actibus insistere velint sed etiam Divini Spirltus lumen et opem in sacrosancto Missae sacriticio cek'brando. patere plane confidamus in Montem sanctum Sion. 11 v. atque omnibus vitae Vestrae diebus clementer adspiret.sum in his quae dicta sunt railii.) Reputantes animo quod omne datum optiet omne donum perfectum desursum descendens a Pcttre luminum. quae ronsoloann. ut ta omnia. caelestem Hierusalem. illud celeriter Nobis continget. quo pacto et Nos esse cum Chiisto agnoscemus. 17. quos praesertim Imius saeculi conflavit impietas. quibus divexamur angustias. quae ad rt'ctam rationem tarn salutaris negntii gereiidi. obsecratinnihns.. tum corpora turn animos Vestros benedictionis suae gratia prosequatur corpora nempe. et perspicuum acternae salutis pigiius inesse reperiemus in Nobis " Qui enim ex Deo est."^ memores hoc occunienit. dnm Aiwstoliois Nostris Lit- DOCUMENT PIO IX. ao. ut extirpandis sibi : erroribus.uc. i. Ecclesiae Antistitum adhibeatur opera. ' jMultiplices inter. ac probe noscentes. die undecimo Aprilis lioc anno datis. Deipara Immaculata deprecante. ex sancta maiorum disciplina institutisque statuantur. H. quotidle in univeriO Orbe : AD FVTVItAJI KEI MEJIOKIA.'i.298 in novissima TPII^: VATICAN COUiVCIL. Coriuth. Sei-m. quod salutares Concilii eiusdeni conventus solemn! die Immaculatae Dei IMatris Mariae semper Virginia Conceptioni sacro. 4. ut uberibus fructibus augeantur. Nost. ad Divinae Clementiae. Cauilium autem in Domino iure praecipimus. feliiiter corde in Cliristo lesu sit cunctis." ^ Has Pontificiae Nostrae cohortationis voces ex intimo cordo depromptas. cum commenclntarum piciis Vaticana W. (Dalla Civilta CattoUca. Leo C. [Document IX. : De modo mum. Eci. non solum eosdein Christifidelcs vi'hementer hortati suinus. propitiante. Assumptionis lacob. 13. 18 decembre 1809. Omnipotens et Misericors Deus. et in quo omuiuni Piistnrum sollicitudo. atque adeo sub potentibus maternisque auseius aggressuri siunus. removendis mails. est. qui a Vestro sacro ministerio abesse non possunt. suae. ' Kp. et gloria in quibus eontinetur..^ gratias persolvendas maxime excitamur. xi. idcirco Apoatolira Nostra auetoritate ea quae sequuntur decerniraus. qui in accepia fortituiline Petrae perseverans suscepta Eccleskie guheraacula non reliquit. lamvcro ovium custodia perseverat. quo studio inten tuque soliicitudine curare debeamus. ut caelestibus auxiliisi abunde repleti. strenue alacvittrque ferre valeatis animos vero. Huius autem benedictionis gratia Vobis continenter adsit.'M. in novissimo illo vitae die dicere cum Propheta Kcge non vereamur "Laetatus. " atque aditum Nobis ita Atque Nobis continget instaurandae.. FF. 3 5 in A)iniccr. ijtt. in donium Domini ibimus. atque ab omnibus in hoc Vaticano Concilio Cleri utriusque coniuncta disciplinae Nobiscum servanda esse praecipiraus. Ecclesiae tlicsauros sacrosanct! liuius Concilii occasione Cliristifidelibus reseraviteris. ut sacrosanctuin generale et oecumendspirante indictum. 14. 17. . 11 aprilis 1869. sacerdotalis vitae exemplis et virtutum omnium splendore in Cinistiani Gregis salutem praeluceatis. lit labores omnes. Serva eos in nomine tuo quos dedisti niihi. tit sint unura siait at nos. eosqne in Nostra Basilica inituri ante Beatissimi Petri cineres.San. * Lettere Apostolielie della Santila di nostro Signore per divina Provvidenza PAPA colle quali si stabilisco I'ordine generale da osservarsi nella celebiazione del sacrosanlo ccumenico Concilio Vati- Pivs Papa IX nuis. Non aliud sane Nobis maiori consolationi futm-iiin est quam si obsequentem Chiisti monitis aurem cordis ingiter praebuerimus.-lesia affligitur. Caena eifusis iteratisque votis non omisei'it " Pater Sancte. C'onvertat duinde faciem suara ad Vos. verba Dei audit. quam se. ad Hebrae. cano. ut dies pleni inveniantuiin Vobis. .

qui operam siiam Patribus vel Olficialibus praedictis quovis mijdo in rebus huius Concilii praebent. 4. ' Quare veterum Coneiliomm ac Tiidentini noniinatim vestigiis inhacrentes hortamur illos omnes in Domino. sacrosancta Syiiodo perdurante singulis diebus Dominicis hora. uec alicui extra gremium Concilii pandant. et de secreti fide servanda circa ea omnia quae super iis siipia praescripta sunt. neat. ad Tit. banc ipsam rem.-emel. Nos adraonet. bonum et quum iucundum habitare fratres in unum.s. ^ Evigileut demum Patres in domctticorum suorura cura. aliique omnes. cxxxii. Nostro iudicio sub:i. ceterisque. Tlieologis. clcsi. E. id praeterea iubemus. - Ps.spiciat. in nnivtr. ut si qui inter L'oncilii Patres aliquitl proj onrn- obeundo. ob quas utilis et opportuua censetur 4. animum menCatliolico imploraii : ni&i congruo tempore et perficiatur. de hoc sacio Episcoporum Ec- temperantiam. ii . quae inti-r c^teras virtiites eminet churitas. tum YV. ut in huius alniae Urbis Nostrae Ecclesiis. temque ab humanarum rerum uem servent. Quapropter praecipimus omnibus et singulis I'atribus. Si enim unqiiam ali^. bt oratioui. idcirco statuimus eiusmodi propositiones ita fieri debere. cuelestiuni lerum meditatiouibus pro sua cuiusque pietate studiose iiitendant ut pure casteque sancto Missae sacrificio.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. qui ratione cuius vis demandati a Nobis ministerii Conciliaribus disceptationil)us inservire debent. uti ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum Dei oportet in omnibus seipsus praebere exempluni honorum optrum in d'lctjina. modo op'amus. ut earum quaelibet L scripto mandttur. eiusque inviolabilibus traditionibus modo : : alienum sit. quod a constanti Ecclesiae sensu. hoc maxime ti mpoie haec cautio ueces>aria visa est. quod ad pub.. non singulareni dumtaxat unius vel alterius Dioecesis utilitatem: 3. Peculiaris praedicta Congregatio propositioned sibi exbibitas diligenter expendet. R. suumque circa earum admi&sionem vel exclusionem consiliun.^ Document IX. rationes contineat. Prudeutiae hie ratio secreti tideui. •I'iiiioUj. publicum rei cl.ieqiie orationes ad liunc fineiu constitutae rtcitentur. ail prosperum a Domino hiiic Concilio exitum.ie conventu dici possit : JEcce quam Olficialibus Concilii. animoium tucndam non iiarum monienti . quae spccialiter ipsis uecuon com- mittentur. IIL Be secreto servanda in Conclio. Cardinalium. nihil praeseferat. S. curis immuluoribus. frequenter opereiitur.irum neccssario Conciliarium aclionum ordini oificere posse. in integritate. ^ed etiam hortamur. II. et christianae ab eis sanctaeque vitae disci'ijlina exigeuda. e De ordine sedendi. tum Synodi Patrum a Nobis deputandae privatim exhibeatur 2. absit prava acnndatio et coutentio. At longe his maius aliquid et excellentius ab Episcopis. Kp. in graviLite. et indicenda fuit. quam fieri possit. ut non . qui episcopali dignitate praediti non sunt. ut Nos deinde inatura c )ntideratioue de iis statuamus. NN.ie ali. pratcipimus pariter ut Officiales Concilii. irreprehensibile. iurami-nfum emiittre teneantur de munere fideliter praecipiat EpisLopis. Cum vero probe perspiciamiis dum IV. necnon discussioncs et singulorum SL-ntentias n^n evulgent. memores quam gravibus verbis Paulus Apofctolus Sacroium Cauonum Peritis.ristianae bonum vere re. quae iis txaminanda projoneutur. 299 mandaviiiius. non p. id libere exeqni velint. ut ilia dominante et in" olumi. ac peculiuii Congregationi nonnullorum. quos. De ture et modo proponend!. ve bum sanum.. el ad banc Apoidhilominus non stolicam Sedem pert. FF. quo in omnem occasiomm excubat invidiae contlandae contra Catholicam P]cclejiain eiusque dcctrinam. utrum ad Synodalem deliberatiouem deferri debc ant.icam ntiiitajjosse existiment. et sulutares ex co Eeclesiao sanctae fructus impetrandos. quae ])ro fideli populo magis congrua videatur. sed omnibus imperet. 7. dissidia. quae in saucta oecumenica Synodo tractari sententias debebnnt. Cum ad tranquillitatem ooncordiamque i 1. Litani. tem ' confer. ut his qui ex adverso est vereatur nihil liabens nialum dicere de nobis. ut siut suae domui bene piaepositi. de iisque Patrum rogandi nonnisi ad Nos.ittet. sacrae lectioni.sa huius Concilii a'tioue sirvandam iubeamns. rebus. praestandum est. ill. aliisque qui in Sacerdotali Ordine censentur hoc Concilium concelebrantibus. et de non inferendo alicui praeiudicio. Quas quidem adhortationes tt praescriptiones moilo rtnovantes et confirmanks. Licet ius et munus proponendi negotia. 8. ut deoreta et alia quaecumque. habuirint. in in ciuini aetione Ab^iiit animorum religionem retineaut. piuribus nocetidi opibus pollens impietas. modesliam in victu quae in superiortbus Conciliis adiimctorum gravitate exigente.

TriJ. iuxta concilinrem consuetudinem et discipliuam. ut bina paria iinum Conciliaris Aulae latus toti. Quartum locum tenebunt Archiepirfcopi. Scrulatorcs Sufi'i agiorum. Quo graviorum rerum minus quam fieri postit.: . tantum iudulgemus. dum in nuuieie fungendo versantur. dilectos iilios loannem. . ita ad excipienda sulfnigia i)ioCfdent. quae in hac sacrosaacta Synoilo agi gerive debeut. eas Congiegationis gouei'alis . etiamsi Vicarii Generalis titulo app^llentur. ut ntiUi i^raeiudicium inferatur et quatenus compont^re iudicio : nequeaut. . imiverse suo Ordini legitime praesuut. septimnm Abbates Generales. et sententiae etiam sub verbo placet proferre. terca statuimus. eisque adiuugimus dilectos filios Salvatorem Pullottini et Franciscum Santi Advocates qui Notariis eisdem adiutricem operam naveut. et alios quo. Coneilio nondum dimisso. aut retardetur ob cognitimem causarum. Synodus pariter per 1 scliedulas Cone. 2. R. . omnibus in hac Syiiodo fictibus rite et legitime perficiendi. aliique Generales Moderatores Ordinum Eeligiosorum.hus excusationum et qiurelaruin. inter diversas dignitates servari praeseribi: quinque ex Patiibus et qwrelarum controversiarum.lemque alterum obeant ac ]>raeterea singula paria singulos ex Notariis secuni habere debebuut. pertractatio. I'romotores Concilii. dilectos filios nuUi propterea praeiudicium generetur. et Dominicum liartolini Nostros et huius Aposlolicae Sedis Protonotarios. Fratrem losepbum Episcopum S. dilectum filium Ludovicum lacobiui e Nostris et huius Aposlolicae Sedis Protonofariis. Canonum expendere quod cum fcceriut. ^ Jit- Aloisium Pellegrini et Leouardum Dialti Nostrae Camera e Apoatolicae Clcriros Carolum Cristofori et Alexaudium Rhmtani Frideiicum Signaturae lustitiae votantes de Falloux du Coudray Nostrae Cancellaiiae Aposlolicae Ilegentem. De Offic'alihus Concilii. si S. si quae forte inter congregates oriantur. impediatur. NN. Aloisimn Pericoli. . FF. Venerabilem 2. ita componere studebunt. 4. et Lauientium Nina Abbreviatoiem ex maiori Parco. quae singulos respiriuut: statuimus ut ipsa Synodus p^^r schedulas secretas quinque ex Coiicilii Patribus cligat in Indices excumtionum. scilicet forte contigerit. novum ius acquiratur. ut ex hac Nostra concessionc uullum ius vel ipsid Primatibas datum. Concilii Nolarios. 5. iuxta ordiuem suae proniotiouis nd PriiuaId autem pro liac vice tialem gradiim. loannem V. si in quibuslibet Conciliaiibus actibus.s designentur. Ceterum ex superinrum Conoiliorum disciplina institutoque decernimus. ut necessarii ac idonei ministri et officiales. Hi porro controversias omnes circa ordiuem sedendi. Presbyteri. Diaconi secundum Patriarchae tertium. qui. aliasque. custodes. atque ad normam conciliaris discipliuae et SS. 1. quod. dum tameu re ipsa cum omnibus supremi moderatoris iuribus et privilegiis. aliquos debito in loco non sedere. auctoiitati subiicieat. E. Primates. unusquisque suae dignitatis ordiuem fideliter ac niodeste custodiat hinc ad otf. De ludic'. necnon eorum postulata. Hi autem octo scrula'orcs in quatuor distincta paria distributi. quoad eius fieri pospraecidemlas. sed de omnibus ad Oongrega'ionem gonera'em ordine re: meoni. infrascriptos viros Quo ad ea deligemus Concilii et no-' minamus. 300 THl?: VATICAN COUNCIL. atque ita. Decret. vel ius praecedeuli. nou quid(piam de liisce rebus deceruent. VI. ferent. iustam disi'edeudi causam se habere putaverint. Scs^i. . alios [Document IX. mus. Concilii Secretarium.iscriptum ordiuem sit. Congregationibus interesre. eique adiic'mus cum officio et titulo Svdjsecretarii. De modu viv. Coucilio durante. Columna et Dominic-um Orsini romanos Principes Pontificio Nostro £olio Adsistentes. ut aiunt. uullique gelum 3. necnon adiutores. quorum erit procurationes et excusationes Praelalorum absuntium. sextum Abbates NuUius Dioecesis. dilectos filios Aloisium l-erafini et Franciscum Nardi causanun Palatii Nostri Ajjostolici Amlitores. ' Lucam iSi- Pacifici. dilectos filios loan- . iufr. in quibus solemnia vota nuncupantur.scumque actus facere. vero et illul magni refert. ex speciali Nostra indulgentia. dilectos 'Generales filios Canonicos Camillum Santori et Anlacobini. Canlinales Episcopi.nsioniim occasioues. vel aliis immiuutum eenseri debeat. Primuin locum obtinebunt VV. Aloisium Colombo. Nos huiusmodi ministeriorum rationem habentes. summario atque oeconomice. Pra. in Indices habeat. exf-iperc. pariter iuxta ordiuem promotionis suae. Hippolyti. ut eadem secretas. eligat. iuxta su le ad Archiepiscopatum promotionis ordiuem quiutuin Episcopi.

Ad ea modo curam Congiegationum generalium ordiuem re- sermonibus. FrHncisc-iim Riggi. ut ab ipso Concilii exordio quatuor speciaks ac distinctae Patrum Congiegationes sen Veputal tones instituautur. prout opportunum iudicaverint. spidunt. Concilio perdurante. Yolumus itaque. Integra integrd Patrum cognitioni reservavimus. R. et dileetos filios Scipionem Perilli. quo Ajjostolioas Litteras ad boc Concilium ecclesiastici iuris Con-. et Pium ]Martinu''ci. Consislorii Advocato-!. E. Io.i. Gustavum GHllot. de quo auitur.J THE VATICAN COUNCIL de . et huius A]iOatolicae Sedis Caeremouarios. quae curet. decieti vel canonis Conciliaris. aa Aloisium Edmundum Aloisium Stouor. ut ima cum aliis buius Urbls. Quaevis ex praedictis Congregationibus sen Deputationibus numero Patrum quatuor tt viginti constabit. Hi autem Praesi les. nulla Nostra appr. dilectos tilios Aloisium Ferrari Antistitem nem Baptistam Nostrum domesticmn Praefectiim. qui ex Conciliaribus Tbeologis vel Iuris Canonici peritis. atque ita expeditior via in nrum tractatione Patribus .lem Fratrem Nostrum Carolum S. typis impressa singulis Patribus ilistriliuentur. Viros 'J"ljeolog(. ut iisdem Patrum Cougregatiouibus.eplmm Romagno'. Antonium Gattoui. obtenta prius a Praesidibus dicendi venia. quominus. quae ad aptam borum Conventuum modeialiouem spectnnt. iam inde a tempore. Cum vero Nns.mibus praemittuntur quiiique ex VV. rebus apparandis darent operam. Cardinalibus a Nobis desiguandus. de quibus in Congregatione indieta agendum erit. Auditis autem istorum Patriuu De Congregationibus generalihus Patrum. 6. Autoniuin Cataldi. aliquot ante dies quam Congregatio generalis babeatur. qui a Concilii Patribus per scbeUnicuique ex dulas seeretas eligentur. Petrum losephum Rinaldi-Bucci. iisdem Congregationibus seuDeputat onibus praeerit unus ex VV. ut. E. imum ant pluies in commodum suae Congregationis sen Ueputationis adsciscet. pertinentibus. quarum pi ima de rebus ad fid. ronymi lUyriconim Bizzarri uuncupatum. Venerub. Nicolaum Vorsak. S. Balthasareiu Bacciuetti. quo interim ilia diligeuti consideratione in omnem partem expendant. E. E. Alexandriim Tortoli. et Puilippum Silvestri Cubieularios Nostros honorarios. R. Paulum BasPallotti intimos Nostros Cubieularios. et dilec-tum fibum Nostrum Haniiibalem S. dum eonverteutes. iisdem Patribus in Congregationem gene- ralem collectis ad examen et indicium Caesarem Togni. rogatis Patrum suffragiis. 7. qua in ipso conventu compoui possint. Folclii Praefectiim. R.bat. et earumdem disci- plinarum peritis viris. E. quaita demmn de rebus ritusOrien talis. ut schemata dccretorum et canonum ab iisdem viris expressa et redacta. Marias in Aquiro Capalti nuuLupatiuu. statuimus ac decernimus.one munita. Aloiaium Sinistri. quam beic infra statuimus. quae publicis se^si. lamvero si in ea quae babetur Coagregatione exhibitum scbema vel nuUas. altera de lebus disciplinae ecclesiastieae. tide.Document IX.. Augustiiium Accoramboni. statuatur. Cardmalibus Nostro Nomine et Auctoritate praesint. via non suppetat. dilectos filios Heniicnm Naselli. decretorum et canonum scbemata. R. dileclos filios Nostros S. si alii etiam post eos in conventu ipso disserere voluerint. disceptationibus compositis. practer alia. quim dicentium dignitas postulaverit. Magistros Caeremoniarum Concilii. FF. Francisuum Reguani. curantibus memoratis Praesidibus. iudicendum dedimus. quae Nos. Cardiiiidem Episc-opum Sabiueu>em De Reisach uuncupatum. 301 Dominit'is-T<)sti. Si quis Patrum de schemate proposito sermonem in Congregatione ipsa babere voluerit. cognoscere et tractare debebit. boc iisdem fas erit. quae ad liuius generalis Synodi S'Opum jjertinent. Presbvteros Cardinales Antoniuiun titulo SS. NN. ad debitum inter oratores ordiuem pro cuiusque dignitatis gradu servandum. Praesidibus suum disserendi propositum siguifican- subiiciautur. Assiguatores locoium. No^tros.s et ex variii Cat'ioliei orbis regionibus in banc abnam Urbem Nostram evortindos curaverimus. et eo ordine. vel nonnisi leves diificultates in ipso congnssu facile expediendas oblulerin. ut saltern pridie diei Congregatiunis ipsius. Hie. opus erit. Remigium Ricci. et ad boc munus eligimus et nominamus. Quatuor CoroDatorum De Luca uuncupatum losepbum Audream titulo S. FF. quae ad fidem pertinent deinde integrum ipsis erit . S. et quid sibi sententiae esse debeat accurate pL-rvidcant. Itaque. Sin autem cii-ca scbema IJiaedictum buiusmodi oriantur d:fticidtates. curabunt ut in rebus pcrtractandis iuitium fiat a disc-eptatione eorum. foimula. tum ea ratio ineimda erit. NN. patere posset bine vol umus et mandamus. tertia de rebus m Ordinum Regularium. et Philippiim Kalli S. Roclium Massi. Camillum Balestra. tunc nibil morae erit. ut stabili et opportuno modo bull" rei provideatur. YII. at<£Ue ex iis uniuu constituet. (£ui Secretarii considtat ones in fidei vel disciplinae capii e couferre.idtos. Cardiiialem Diacouum S. R. sententi's in cnntiaria conversis.

nemine dissentiente .odnm a Nobis superius praescriptam. sacro approhante : a Nobis dimissum sit. Universis porro Concilii Patribus. decernf: mus quo agitur. ac statim procedint scrutatores suffragiorum. iuxta assignata cuique rerum tractandarura geneia pertiuere iiitelligitur. absolutum Publicarum nunc Pessionum celebratio exigit. Non obstantiWns. vit nimirum in generali Coimregatione quaestio de piopnsito schemate cxona diiimi non potuerit. iuxta metl. quod supra inuuimus. de et promulgari mandabimns. Nos deinde ac de ipsis ad Nos referent supremani Nostram Kntentiani odicemiis. sacra approbante Concilio. Nosque. Cum etiam ii onmes qui Conciliaribus actionibus interesse tcnentur. vel (si qui forie dissenserint) tot immero exceptis . eamque enunciaii [Document IX. ut rtbus et actionibus in ea rite dirigendis. suorum ' beneiiciorum iVuctus. (td tantum distiibntionibus exceptis. cousidentibus sue loco et ordine Patribus.. De non discedendo a Concilia. voce sublata et clara iussu Nostro recitabuntur. in contiarium facicntibus quihuscumciue." Hisce antem omnibus expletis. I'atum Eoniae apud S. nnmere eidem Cougrepfatioui sen Peinitationi operam navet. ut ne qui^ eorum. et ea adhibita solemni tituli firaefalione. ad suffragia singillatim et ordine excipienda. Hac autem in re declaramus suflragia pronunciari debore in haec verba. unum vel plura. in proximo sacrosancto generali et Occuinenico Cuucilio Vaticano. antequam Sacrosanctum hoc generale et Oecumenicum Concilium Vaticanum et. Haec volumus atque mandamus. reditu-'. ut de omnibus et singulis in Sessione pei'actis. SufiVagia autem a Patribus oretenus edentur. aliisque qui eidem interesse debent praccipiraus sub poenis per SS. Canones indictis. tum ceteri omnes eidem Concilio operant quovis titulo inipcndentiS. statuimiis atque sancimux. perpetuam ret memoriam. Petrum suit Annulo Piscatoiis. ac impetrata a Nobis abeundi facultas. ut tum Praesules aliique sufFiagii ius in hoc Concilio habeutes. de suggestu derretoruni et oanonum formulae in superioribus Congregationibus gcueialibus conditae. die XXVII Novembris dirimendis ac nnmeraiidis operam dabnnt. deinde decreta de disciplina pronimcientur. ut deinde in proxiina Congregatioue generali. una cum obicctis dilficultatibus examiui subiiciatur illius ex specialibus Deputationibus. lamvcro suffragiis collectis. causa iuxta normam superius delinitam cogtiita et probata fuerit. et donee qnisque eidem adsit aut inserviat. Concilii Secretarius una cum supradictis scrutatoiibus penes Pontilicaiem Nostram Catliedrnm.is et in eis concedimus tenta quaccumquc. qnanivis speciali atque iudividua mcntione ac derogatione dignis. eorum relatio typis edita Patribus dirigenda erit. suffragium suum scripto consignatum ad Concilium mittere. quae inter praesentes fieri dicuntur. i'la ita. Quae in hac peculiari Deputatioue deliberata fuerint. Sessionis conventus dimittetur. instrumcntum vel instrumenta conficiantur. si nihil amplius obstiterit. hac adhibita solenini formula " Decreta modo lecfa placuerunt omnibus Patribus. Concilii rogare Protonotarios praesentes.sit ctiam de scripto ilia pronuntiare. quae in rituali instructione iisdetn Patribus de mandato Nostro tradenda continentur. ea in re universali Ecclesiae dcserviant. : .-orum Nostrorum exemplum seqimti Apostolica benignitate indulgcmus. idqne coniis perlecta. ut lecta sunt. placet ant non placet : ac simul edicimus. eaque accurate describeut. proventus ac distributiones quotid anas percipere possint. discedat. InduUuni Apastolicum de nan residentia pro iis qui Concilio intersunt. IX. iis accurate et decreta Synodo perdurante. nisi discessionis X. an plaeeant canones Coiicilio. Denique die proximae Sessionis de mandato Nftstro indicia. Itaque in unaquaque publica S'essione. servatisque adamussim caeremoniis. minime fas esse a Sessione abscntibus quavis de causa. decreti vel canouis Conciliaris formula condatur. ut primum canones de doguiatibus Fidei. eo ordine. congrua ratione considamus. Praedeces. ita tamen. ut ipsis integrum. decernentes lias Nostras Litter. nempe Fins Episcopus i-'er-vuft Servonim Dei.302 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. ad quam. respective et inviolabiliter observari debere. turn Cardiuales eiusdcm generalis Congregationis Praesides curabunt ut scliema.qua Praedecessores Nostri in eiusmodi Conciliari actione uti cnnsueverunt. Igilur si illud coutigerit. iuxta metbodum superius constitutam. Tunc vero rogabuntur Patres. ab omnibus et singulis ad quos S]iectat. rogatis Patrum suffragiis. VIII. rite Be Sessionihus puhlicis. erit Piv moforum.

quanto impetu antiquus humani generis hostis suifragia. Venerabibs Fratics. Isai. post expetita etiam plurium Sacro: rum Antistitum ab habitatoribus suis. 16. Ac illud Isuiae saepe " Ini consilium. quibus non ignoratis." et reputantes huiusmodi remedium in gravissimis rei christianae temporibus a Praedecessoribus Nostris salutariter esse u. id iusigni ac siiigulari Dei ipsius beueficio. zelo domus Dei prae caeteris incendamur necesse est. datum Nobis esse suramopere laetamur. carissimos Nobis Filios cogitamus tot amoris praetentes intueri pign 'i-a.. 22. N. Ci'. Cuitodes Dominici Gregis et Pastores. malitiue munita institutis.'' divinae ghjriae zelus. Paracciani-Claeelli.elum et terra transibunt verba autem mea non transibunt. et velamen habens libertatcm. hodie. ut circumdemus Sion et complectamur enm. aspectuque Vcstro perfruimur iucuudisdimo. I. multiplices mentiendi et corrumpendi artes. qui estis sal terrae.' Act. post diuturnas preces. apud banc Petri Domum Dei.\il. Quod votis omnibus ac precibus ab Deo petebamus. Civitas Dei Nostri inexpugnabili fundamento nitatur. Quae verba? Tu es Petrus. Tim. 20. 19. Ncbiscum Spiritu Sancto duce iudicetis. 6. narremus in turribus eius. animarumque ruinam. quibus hoc tempore afficimur. ut eos iu sinuconVidemus enim in tinere non valeamus. ii. 2. Nos qui vel vitam p nere parati t veritate omnes homines Ncbiscum doceatis.^ Si enim uuquam alias hoc maxime temquo vere luxit et defluxit terra iiifecta aeterui Pastoris Vicuria in Terris procuratione fungentes. ante e. luctuosa iuris perversio. quam decet hanctitudo. 1. 2.. 21. solemni maiorum ritu celebramus. 5.^ et de oppositionibus falsi nomiuis scientiae. Apost. ad quam avertendam ssemus. Ilomil. 18 decembre 1839. atque Cntliedrain censuimus evocandos. 3 JIatth. eam viam et rationem ineundam Nobis esse duximus. tenne nella Basilica vaticana ai vescovi del mnndo cattolico conveuuti alio btesso menico il Coticilio. divina benignitate favente. Pontifi-atus anno Vigesimo quarto. tamque uberes caritatis sensus. 18. humanae cuiusque audacter res in suis quaequeordinibus inni- tuntur. et portae inferi non prevalebunt adversus eam. Card. Venerabiles Fratres. Venerabiles Fratres. aggressus sit et usque aggrediatur.20. iustitiae. ut Nobiscum testimonium perhibeatis Verbo Dei et testimonium lesu Christi. Ecclesia potentius. progressus. sanctae Congregationis initia. Ko auctore funesta ilia impiorum coniiu'atio late grassatur.' Videtis enim. in hac catliolicae Eeligionis arce Ijraesentes intuemur. arma.Document X.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. I. omni Matt. quae ad tot Ecclesiae detiimenta sarcienda utilior et opportunior videretur. Venerabiles Fratres. quae tantae rei impedimenta sustulit. tamen agnosceiites ac intimo corde dolentes tantam malorum cougeriem : . (Dalla Civilta Cattolica. per diviua Provvidenza per dare piincipio al sacio Concilio ecu- PAPA di S decembre dell' anno 1869. tot ferventis aniud opera.i desinit.' Quamquamvero Civitas Domini virtutum.surpatum..' acerrimum adversus Hanctam Christi Ecclesiam bellum. iuquibat sanctus Joannes Chrysostomus Ectdesia est ipso caelo fortior. Itaque cxultat cor Nostrum in Domino et incredibili consolatione perfunditur." viamque Dei in ' vincula solvuntur.. Catholicae Vestro Conspectu universam gentis familiam. iterum maiori quam alius frequentia. perturbatio et confusio. quae coniunctione fortis. Psiilm xlvii. si ullis hoiiiinum machinationibus At nihil et conatibus exscindi posset. opibus potens.* pore. . hou'^tatis et auctoritatis salutaria il Santissimo ndstrn Siguore PIO IX. quibus DOCUMENT Allociizione clic X. ut Oecumenicum Concilium a Nobis indictum concelebrare possemus.. ita ut certum hoc tempore Ecclesiae Dei metuendum esset exitium. 14. quibus : - Apoc. Vos autem nunc. Huius genus. 4.) imbutum urgere no. ductu et exemplo suam pietatemet observantiam Nobis et liuic Apo> Pet. Tot autem sunt. et Dominici gregis salus a Nobis postulat. et ponamus corda Nostra in virtute eius. quod auspicatissimo hoc die Immaculatae Dei Genitricis Virginis Mariae Couceptioni sacro. coge aniiuo revolventes concilium. 13. Nostri scelere belli 303 aimo MDCCCLXIX. Vestro impulsu. post collata cum Venerabilibus Fratribus Nostris Sanctae Eomanae Ecclesiae Cardinalibus consilia. pessimae quaeque cupiditates intianimantur. 16. 15. Venerabiles Fkatres. consilia Versutur Vobis contincnter ante oculos sanarum dnctrinarum. Vos. iu nomine Cliristi cougregati adestis. 5 1. Christiana Fides ab animis funditus convellitur. vim. et super banc Petrain aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. Vos qui in partem sollicitudiuis Nostrae vocati ettis.

Vc Vun. - luiiiiii. ita potissimum boc tempore nibil Nobis iucundius. ad Te levamus cum fiducia oculos. date Nobiscum operam. in revelatione lesu Chiisli. 7. et praecipue. Tu vero ]\Iater Pulclirae dileclionis. salubriter perficiantur. eorunique saliiti opera afiferre desideriodesideipmiis. Nosti am -erga eos oinnes gtatissimam voluntatem. ut probatio torum iustitiae. labnres Nostros in Tuam ma'eruam fidem tutelamque recipias. ut ea quae recta. qui venit . nil. agnoscimus iiagrans studium. fide.il Ecclesiae utilius esse potest. veritatem et vitam. spectaculum sit. et predicator veritatis in univerao mundo.tenti Vos deprecatione efficite. zelo et concordia. Angeli momentum ad Dei glnriiim operandam positum nunc esse intelligimus. Corda rege. ut DOCUMENT XL SANCTISSIMI DOMINI NOSTRI I'll DIVIXA rKOVlDENTIA I'APAE CUNSTITUTIO SI IX. suscij^iamus misericord iam Dei in medio Templi Eius. ut in uno semper spiritu et corde. -1. vires consecremus. doctor gentium. Vosque omnes. in B. ideoque vei-ae felicitatis decejiti abeiTi. coiisultationes. ineiiiores Divini Eedein|itoris et Magistri Nostri lesu.qua. Burn. con- VACAKE DURANTE CONCILIO OECUMENICO..' Stat Deus in loci) sancto sno. Iiitendimus praeterea opuIos in boc Principis Apostoloruni Trophaeum apud quod oonsistimus. stcilifae gedi niirifice probarimt. Nostris interest oousiliis et actibiis. ad qiiam tot agitata aerumnis gens humana iam nou adspirare ' SEKVUS SERVOKUM DEI Ad ptrpetuam rei memoriam. 1. ex Synodali hac Vestra coitioue coiicipiendam iuqDellamur. o Divine Spiritus. ac porro proLant. dirige. et bac Apostolica Sede coniunctionem. !. ut illi unice hoc tmipore meiites. quaerere et salvum faeeie quod perieiMt.j misericord iae suae opere Nos adlegit. Cui honor et gloria in saecula satculorum. divinae Tuae gratiae lumen praefer uiontibus Nostris. qui a via veritatis et mur. clt ricis disciplina. Archangeli. ut huius Concilii actiones rite incLoentur. i-anctifioati in veritate. quae salutaria. 304 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. doeete Nbbiscum viam. ac Tuis age apud Deum Vos et mnneamus precibus. Tetro Apostoloruni Principe pasccndi. in quorum sollititudiue. ut omnes. I'uque Apostdorum PrinBtatissime Petre.) comparatos. At praecipue Vos cogitatioue compleetimur.. solemni et publica si- g'lifieatione profltmtes. in Komanum liunc Populuni Nobis dilecti^simum. quorum cineres hie veneramur. Deum enixeadprece- fidei multo preticsior auro. postularetur quae quidcm unio. rms EPiscopcjs foitamini in Domino. atque ad Dei benignitatem extoUendain voraraur. ministerium Nostrum fideliter implentes. Ecclesiis ordo. et futuram magis cunfidamus in niundo et angelis (t liomiiiibus.num potest. p . qui divini sui praesidii spem in Nobis hoc tempore. Ecclesii'e Regina et propugnatrix. precesque convcrtimus.nt. . ac prae. I. qniu in vestro amiilisi-imo coetu.' Miseram deincle etiam tot Loiuinura conditionem cogitaiiius. singulari divinae providentiae munere et spectata virtute Vestra. a qua in Eccleaiam mira vis nianat. Venerabiks Fratres. Tuqne Coapostole Eius.ms veiae lucis et sapieutiae. )'. Deo populus acceptabilis restitui possit. ac in nomine ipsius Tiiniiatis Augustae. Tu f. 18 decembre 1SG9. ut pax regnis.. 1(. lex baibaris. c. magis mngisque fulcire et confirmare voluerit. suos Ipse ministros et adiutores in tam eximi. piospere promoveantur. gaudemus in Domino Vos ita esse animo (Dalla CiviUa Caftoh'ca. quae Dei niuuere tiadita non fuit in direpti-mem gentium. Nostris diffisi viiibus. sic nullum fuit teiupus in quo niiigis Saeerdotiuu Domini cum Supremo Giegis Eius I'astoie unio. 1>E ELECTIONE ItOMANI roNTiricis CONTINGAT SEUEM ArOSTOLICAM lacta die^.sti. Ut nullum fortasse aliud infestius et callidius bellum in Christi Kegnum exarsit. corda.'' induti arma lucis. cuius coiistanti ami ire. qiioque Nostris adeste votis. atque huic miuisteiio ita Nos inservire oportet. Sancti caelites.>. quae optima sunt vidi amus . quod ad Vestrum muuus implendum attul.. IVt. Tu Nos. ma^. Sed nostrae infirmitatis conscii. obsequio circiimdamur. ut ad certam solidamque spem uberrimorum fructuum et muxime optabilium. alqiie hue cogitatifDe Nubid temperaie non ]iossumii-<. fove.s. ut semper alias in maximis Nostris acerbitatibus. inve:iiiitur in Liudeiu et gloiiiim ct lionorem. monasteriis quies. non [DOCUMEKT XI. ita iugiter reipfca coustitit. 1. Venerabiles Fratres. regiudi et 1 Ciun Romauis Pontificibus bail. agnitionis et sauctae spei.. acvehementer ceps. in banc almam Urbem. Paule..-eitim piaecLaam et aictissimam illnni Vestrum omnium cum NobiM. Agi(e igitur.

prout reapsc. exclusa prorsus quacumque memoratae Synodi participaLitteris datis III kal. factum fuisse constat. Cardinalium Collegium unice et exclusive spectare. Apostolici Nostri muneris esse submoto.a Clemente V. donee novus Pontifex a Sacro Cardinalium CoUegio Cfvnonice electus suprema sua auctoritate Concilii ipsius reassumptionem et prosequutionem duxerit intimaudam.« Document X[. electio novi Pontificis 6. omni prorsus impedimento menicum et Gtnerale Couciliim Valicanum Apostolicas Litteras quae incipiunt pt-r Aeternis I'alris III kal. Eccles. nonas octobris 1'32. L'l i de Electione in Clement. memorati lulii sequuta morte. in quibuscumque statu et terminis Concilium ipsum subsistat. 7 Rayn-ald. quod earn incertani. R. atque etiain omnino esclusis ab eadem electione peragenda quibus- cumque aliis personis cuiusvis. Lictt de Klectione. comperhistoria est' temp ire generalis Con- atque in tempus infra notandum diffeire intendimus. n. de eadem scientia et Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine. decernimiis atque statuiraus quod. ut negotiumtanti momenti rite recteque expedi. ut futnris quibuscumque temporibus. Decessoris Nostri. et a quibusvis decretis seu canonibus conficiendis. Pauli III et Pii IV. et quavis perturbationum et dissidiorum occasione sublata. ad annum 1513. tum ex cilii Quapropter exemplo permoti fel. pari scientia et potestate decernimus atque statuimus. pariter iuxta sancitam. Cardinales fieri debeat. rec. in eo iam sit ut solemniter initietur. eiusmodi casu occurrente. E. ac dubiara reddere posset. liomani Homanun Pontiflc-m. Cardinalibus matura deliberatione et diligenti examine. mino Nostro lesu Christo plena potestas tr. Opportunum autem censentes. Quin imo ut in eiusmodi electione memorati Cardinales. praedicto Vaticano Concilio perdurante. ex certa scientia Nostra. eodem Concilio perdurante. finem impouere. decreverunt. alter X ' 2 3 Cap.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. R. si Divinae voluntati placuerit Nos. E. quorum primus Apostolicis Decembris an. sive in alio quovis orbis loco. suppeditect. adeo ut nulla prorsus interiecta mora. 2 de Electione. statim ab acccpto certo nuntio de . nonnisi per S. iliis adstantibus edixisse banc non a praodicto Concilio. kal.* ab Urbano VIII ^ ct a Clemente XII snnt Constitntiones. VII. congregationibus et sessionibus. praeter Cardinales praediclos. cum Oecu- atque insuper de his habita cum nonnullis Venerabilibus Fratribus Nostris eiusdem S. licet ipsius Concilii auctoritate forte deputandis. nee ob qualtmcumque causam. ac praesertim a fel. Haec Nos animo recolentes.. electionem novi Pontificis nonnisi a S. Motu proprio ac de Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine declaramus. Annal. perdurante celebratione alicuius Concilii Oecumenici sive Romae illiid liateatur. 6 Constit. R. E. Apnstolafus. " ab uuo S. quibus dum multa alia praescribuntur. quandocunique contii^erit Romanura Pontificem decedere. tum quoad eiusdem Concilii suspensionem.* a B. E. de quo. electio novi Summi Pontificis. ulterius progredi. K. ut quae occasione praedicti Concilii Vatican! hactenus ordinavimus tum c^uoad Summi Pontificis electionem. tarn funestura peric-ulum avertendum Ad plures a Komanis Pontificibus Decessoribus Nostris. certain stabilemque normam in simili rerura eventu perpetuo servamlam Lateranensis V lethali morbo correptum Cardinales coram se convocasse. Alexandro III in generali Concilio Liiteranensi in generali Concilio III. minime vero per ipsum Concilium. praedicto generali Concilio Vaticano perdurante.ipax et unitas ipsius Ecclesiaein grave discrimen facile adducerentur si. etiamsi gravissima et special! meiitione digna videatur. cessare statim debeat a quibuscumque conveutibus. 1514. vero similibus Litteris datis Octobris 1561. * Constit. lulii If. ex liac mortali vita buscumque et statu et terminis existat. Eoclesiam a Dotione : 305 gubeniaudi universalein ditafuerit. Gregorio X Lugdunensi II. illico intelli- immediate suspensum ac dilatum Summi gatur. diarura quamcumque occasionem discoret dissensionum circa electiouem Pontificis praevenire ac praecidere. atque ipsum Conregulam superius cilium. litteras quemaJmodum illud nunc per Nostras has pro tunc suspenders migrare. februarii 1625. generatim editae et absciue ulla exceptione declaiatur ac decernitur electionem Snmnii Pontificis ad S. E. R. IV. ac de legitima Successoris Sui electione sollicitum. idem Concilium in qui- ducimus.itur. atque exemplo iiisuper excitati aliorura Decessorum Nostrorum item fel. liber ius et expeditius procedere queant. record. Cap. Apostolica ficis Sede vacante. Cardinalibus esse faciendam. record. illud piaeterea decernimus atque statuiinus ut ti. si placuerit Deo mortali Nostrae peregrinationi. lulias annn 1868. casum mortis suae praevidentes cum Tridentina Synodus celebraretur. J>eci-t 5 Cousiit. a Nobis in dictum. sed ab eorum tantum CoUegio esse perficiendam. Cardinalium CoUegio semper et exclusive iuxta modum superius defiuitum fieri debeat. in electione ni)vi Pontifieri quidquam contingeret. Nos decedere conligerit. V kal. Ad Foniijlcis.^ a Gregorio XV.

tt insolitis clausulis. magnum ad numerum sensim excrevisse. sic rctinere. redargui. statuti. indignationem Omnipotentis Dei ac Beatoriim Petri et Pauli Apostolorum eius se noverit incursurum. 306 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. impugnari. felicis recordation is Alexandri Papae III Decessoris Nostri in Concilio T. ad illis alias in suo robore praemissorum omnium et singulonmi validissimum effectum liac vice dumlaxat latis- modum Litae ad incolumitatem ac disciplinam ipsius Ecclesae tutandam. Apostolicae Sedis moderationi convenit. pro tempore factis et concessis ac faciendis et coucedendis comprelieudi sed semper et omnino ab iilis excipi debere atque ex nunc quidquid contra praemissa. sub quibuscumque verborum tiuoribus et formis. mortui Pontificis suspensum ipso iure intelligatur. modificationibus. SS.dibus vel generalibus Constitutionibus Apostolicds. irritant ibusque et aliis decretis in genere vel in specie. vel illis ausu temerario contraire. Apostolica Sede vacante. Pontificatus Nostri annovigesimoquarto. decreti. in ea tantum parte. vel obr( ptioiiis seu iiullitatis vitio. Cardinalium scienter vel ignorauter ac et inane fuerit attentatum.) DOCUMENT XII. quae ad effectum validitatis praemissorum necessaiio exprimenda foret. Nulli erffo omnino hominum liceat banc paginain Nostrae declarationis. invalidari. quaiituinvis substautiali inexcogitato et inexcogitabili ac specificam et individunm mentionem aut expressionem requireiite. quae incipit " Licet de vitanda" et quibuscumque aliis etiam iu univcrsalilnis Conciliis latis speci. vel quocumque praetextu. (Dalla Civilta Caitolica. nuUius roboris dect-rnimus. licet de unanimi consensu hodiernorum. PII DIVINA PROVIDENTIA PAPAE IX CONSTITCTIO rius cilii cuiuscumque futuris temporibus Con- Oecumenici. eadem Apostolica Seiles congruiim supremae suae potestatis renu dium ac pro- Quamobrem cum vidcntiam impendat. firmas ct efficaces existere et fore. retiactari. Praesentes autem litteras semper validas. aut ex quocumque alio capite a iure statute. animo Nostro iampridem revolveremns. ratione. derogationis et voluntatis infringere. derogationibus. seu pro tempore exsiitentium S. ut si temporum rerumque mutatio quidpiam esse temperandum pnideuti dispensatione su ideat. [Document XII. ^ plumbi. Petrum Anno Incarnatinnis Dominicae millesimo octingenPridie Nonas tesimo sexagesimo nono. vel alte. et sub quibuscumque tcnortbus et formis ac quibusvis etiam derogatoriarum derogatoriis. li. aut causa quautumvis tuli. N. D. etiam Motu pari ac consislorialiter statutis. Visa de Curia Domtnicus Brvti I. Loco Card. ceterisque contrariis quibus- cumque. quae praesentibus adversatur permansuris..quamvis in corpnre iuris clausis. ipsoque facto incuirendae nibus et singulis qualenus pariter opus sit eorumque omnium tenoribus peiinde ac si piaesentibus de verbo ad verbum expriraanlur. irritum QUA CENSl'RAE LATAE SENTENTIAE LIMITANTUU. Si quls autem hoc ntten'are praesumpserit. quae per sententiae. Paracciani Clarelli. Mattei Pro-Datarius. E. defcctu. etiamsi in eis earumque tolo tenore ac data specialis meutio fieret. quavis auetoritate etiam memorati Concilii Vaticani. effrenenique improborum liccntiam coercendam etemendandain sancte per singulis aetates indictae ac promulgatae sunt. ac cum quibusvis clausulis et decrede hisce praeseutibus. 1° gennaio 1870. Decembris. CUGNONI. quibus orn- Ad perpetuam ret memoriam. suosque plenarios et integros eifeetus sortiri et obtinere. vel intentiiinis Nostra-^. limitationibus. Datum Romae apud S. ordinationis. douec dovus Pontifex canonice clectus illud reassumi et contiuuari iusserit. tis. ao nullo unquam tempore ex quocumque capite.ateranensi edita. Car'l. quae salubriter veternm canonum auetoritate constitutii. timpoiibns mori- . aliisque efficacioribus. notari. vel alio qviopiam. sunt. M. aut qualihet causa de subrei^tionis. in ius vel controversiam revocari posse neque easdem praesentes sub quibusvis similium vel dissimilium dispositionum revocationibus. PIUS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI Non obstantibus quateiius opus sit. et tamdiu dilatum. pro insertis et expvessis habentes. ecclesiasticas censuras. N. sime et plenissime ac sufficienter necnon specialiter et expresse harum quoque serie derogaraus. quasdam etiam.

R. ac generaliter quoslibet illorum defeusores. quocumque nomine censeantur. vel hostiliter insequentes S. plenain earumdem recensionem fieri. aut auxilium. imprimentes tionum gratiam vel iustitiara concernentium. quas in hac ipsa Constitutione inserimus. ob qitas . eamque ob rem opportunitate excidisse non iiifrequentes oriri sive in iis. Schismaticos et eos qui a Komani Pontificis pro tem[)ore existentis obedimtia pertinaciter se subtrahunt. 8. seu praestantes in eis auxilium. et omnes ac singulos hatreticos. matura deliberatinne nostra. consilium vel favorem praestantes. . A rchiepiscop s. eosdemque libros retinentes. eorumque piomulgationem vel executioneni direete vel indirecte prohibentes. nec- non ea mandantes. Recurrentes ad laicam pofeotatem ad impediendas litteras vel acta quaelibet a Sede Apostolica. st:itueremus. Omnes et singulos. nonnisi illae. qnibiis animarum cura comraissa est. piaedicta consilium. angoresqiie conscientiae Nos eiusniodi incommodis occurrere volentes. seu Vice-Cancellarii aut Gerentis vices praedictorum. per Romanum Pontificem. vel ab eiusdem Legatis aut Delegatis quibuscunique profecta. Terris. ipjoque facto ineurrendae hactenus impositae sunt. Terras. detinentes. fautorus. quasnam ex illis servare ac retinere oporteret. et cuiuscumque sectae existant. reque diu ac mature perpensa. quo inserimus. vel rata habentes. sine gravi aliqua exoritura infamia et scandalo. et quomodolibet defeudeutes. Ea igitur recensione peracta. reditus ad pei-sonas ecclesiasticas ratione suarum Ecclesiarum aut : beiieficiorum pertinentes. non cos. vel Nuncios. a impooitae fueiaut.] fine THE VATICAN COUNCIL. 7. gradus sen conditionis fuerint. vel a pristina utilitate. possit excipere moiientis conftssionem. anxietates. seu Dominiis ejicientes. 10. quae per modum latae sententiae. certa scientia. sive suspensionis. robur exinde habeant simul declarantes easdem non modo ex . deque Apostolicae Nostrae polestatis plenitudine hac perpetuo valitura Consiitutione decernimus. K. atque causis. motu l^roprio. vel recedunt. ac Venerabilibus Fratribus Nostris S. etiam in forma Brevis. bona. Omnes et singulos scienter legentes sine aucturitate fSedis Apostolicae libros eorumdem apostatarum et haereticorum haeresim propugnantes. Fatriarchas. 5. vel S. eorumque receptoies.ationes huiusmodi sub nomine Eomani Fontificis. vel usurpantes. necnon libros cuiusvis auctoris per Apostolicas litteras nominafim prohibitos. Nobisque propoui iussimus. vim i^rorsui accipere debere. eoque modo. E. b". ipsas partes. Cardinalibus in negotiis Fidei Generalibus Inquisiforibus per uuiversam Chiistianam Eempublicam deputatis in consilium adscitis. sive 9. Episcopos. Impedientes Hirecte vel indu-ecte exercitium iurisdictionis ecclesiasticae sive int'jrni sive externi fori. 4. nec- favorem praebentes. Itaqiie excommuiiicationi latae sentenliao modo Romano Fontifici reservatae subiacere declaramus 1. et ad hoc recurrentes ad forum saeculare eiusque mandata proeurantes. Omnes interficienles. Cogentes sive directs. quorum auxilio. et etiam falso signantes suppli. sive interdicti. Invadentes. Usurpantes aut sequestrantes iurisdictionem. 11. etiam in forma Brevis ac supplicafalsarios Omnes Excommunicationes latae sententiae speciali modo Romano speciali Fontifici reservatae. quatenus cum hac Nostra Constitutione conveniunt. aut ens a snis Dioecesibns. non secus ac si primum editae ab ea fuerint. loca aut iura ad Ecclesiam Romanam pertinentia. ut diligenti adhibita consideratione. 2.: . retinentes supremam iurisdiclionem in eis necnon ad singula auxilium. vel l)eiterrefacientes. suam litterarum Apostolicarum. 3. edentes. Vice-Cancellarios seu Gerentes vices eorum aut de mandato eiusdem Romani Fontificis signatarum necnon falso publicantes Litteras Apostolicas. Omnes a Christiana fide apostatas. perturbantes. sive in ipsis fidelibus dubietates. Territoriis. E. Absolventes complicem in peccato turpi etiam in mortis artioulo. ab ordinatiouibus seu mandatis Romanorura Pcmtificum pro tempore existentium ad universale fiiturnm Concilium appellantes. 12. E. appellatum fmrit. ut ex quibuscunique censuris sive excommunicationis. si alius Sacerdos licet non adprobatus ad confessiones. sive alios laedentes. quas vero moderari aut abrogare congrueret. Document XII. vernni ex hac ipsa Constitutione Nostra. capientes. detinentes per se vel per alios Civitatcs. carcerantes. . R. cuiuscumque status. 307 consilio vel favors busque mutatis. Cardinales. per- cutientes. consilium vel favorem. sive indirecte indices laicos ad trahendum ad suum tribunal personas ecclesiasticas praeter canonicas dispositiones item edentes leges vel decreta contra libertatem aut iura Eccle: siae. Sedisque Aposiolicae Legates. destruentes. aut eorum causa etiani veterum canonum auctoritate. eisque credentes. mutilantes.

cuiuseumque dignitatis vel imperialis. cuiuseumque generis aut conditionis. suadeute diabulo. prouii damnata est a Benedicto XIV in Const. sexiis vel gulares aut Mimiales post castitatis votum solenne praesu- matrimonium contraliere mentes. Pii V. quibus omnilras oxcommunicationibus [Document XII. debita facultate. Su- Vhi primum 2 prtma 7 lulii 1745 1746 Ad eradicandum 28 Septenibris . 8. declaramus asyli eeclesiastici violare 1. Carbonariae. Reos simoniae confidentialis in beneficiis quibuslibet. Religiosos praesumentes cleiicis aut laicis extra casum necessitatis Sacranientum extremae unetioiiis aut Eucharistiae per viaticum ministrare absque Parochi licentia. eas celebrari in locis ubi missarum stipendia minoris pretii esse solent. V scriptam. 7. 12. eisqee auxiliuin vel favorem piaebentts. etiaiu quovis praetcxtu. pro Excommunicationi latae sententiae Ro- faciei ido mano ramus 1. sive excommuuicationibus Eoniaiio Pontifici reservatis nullo pacto sufficere de- hue usque . sive privatim propositioncs ab Apostolica Sede damnatiis sub txcomiiiunicationis poena latae sententiae item docentes vel ilefendentes tamquam licitam pruxim inquirendi : a poenitente nomen complifis. tatis. excommunicationis vinculo Romano Pontifici reservatae iiinodatos se sciaiit. Excommunicationes lafae sententiae Romano Pontifici reservatae. Inter ceteras nono Kalendas Novembris 1660. vel utriusque sexus Monachos. donee tates . siut. necnon de industria spectantes. exceptis quoad reservationem casibus et personis. et Alexandri VII. Omnes qui quaestum fadentcs ex indulgenitis aliisque gratiis spiritualibus excommunicationis censura plectuntur Constitutione S. in quo tamen firma sit quoad absolutos obligatio standi mandatis Ecclesiae. et Superiores aliosve cas admit^ ' claramus. E. Pontifici : reservatae subiacere decla- eleemosynas maioris pretii et ex lis lucrum captantes. respicientibus. 17. Decori piae. Violentas manus. 5. ut Episcopus aut alius 2. 3. cuiuseumque sint digni- Kegularibus cuiuseumque Ordinis. revocatis insurer tarumdem respectu quibuscumque indultis concessis sub quavis fornia et quibusvis peisonis etiiira gationis. : 308 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. 9. illudque permittentes. Reos simoniae realis ob ingressum in Religionem. dummodo non agatur de mortis articulo. Duellum tantur in Conslitutionibus S. Omues qui excommunicatione mulc- Docentcs vel defendentes sive publico. ' Communicantes cum excommunicato nominatim a Papa in crimine criminoso. Pio iu Constit.-(. Mulieres violantes Regulariura virnrum clausuram. tentes. Ad Eomani Pontificis curam 26 lunii 1592. 14. seu ijalam. perpetrantes. iujicientes in Clericos. Extrahentts absque legitima venia reliquias ex Sacris Coeiiieteriis sive Catacuiiibis Urbis Romae eiusque territorii. A recensitis absolutionem Koniauo Pontifici pro tempore special! modo reserViitam esse et rcservari et pro ea generalem concessiouem absolvenrli a casibus et ccnsuris. Excommunicationi latae scopis sive sententiae EpiOrdinariis reservatae subiacere noil denunciaveriiit. Societatis et Instituti. aut simplicitcr ad illud provocantes. lunii 1740. Innorentii IX. Violantes clausuram Mouialum. aetatis fuerint. Immunitatem Clericos in Sacris constitutes vel Rc- iubentes. aut ausu temerario violautes. necnon oniius cum aliqua ex prac- . vorem. . Quam plenum 2 lanuarii 1569.' . eoiumque complices. non proliibenti s. Coiigreetiam speeiali mentionc digiiis et in quavis dignitate coiiAbsolvere autem praesumentes sine stitutis. Reos simoniae realis in beneficiis quibuscumque. Quae ah hac Sede pridie nonas Novembiis 1591. alienationem et iiifeudationem Civitatum et locorum S. l. Clericos scienter et sponte communicantes in divinis cum personis a Romano Pontifiee nominatim excomnuniicatis et ipsos vel quantum in illis est. 6. Admoiiet vos quarto Kalendas Aprilis 1567. 15. . dementis VIII. vel ipsuni acceptantes et quoslibet complices. ant in officiis recipientes. sou clandestine machiiiantur. 11.necaon iisilem sectis I'avoreni qualemearumve eceultos cumque praestantes coiiphacos ac duces non deuunciantes. 10. aut aliis eiusdem generis sectis quae contra Ecclesiam vel legitimas po tes- Excommunicationes latae sententiae Episcopis sive Ordinariis reservatae. Colligentes missis. vel qualemcumque operam aut favorem praebentes. 4. si couvaluerint. etiam regalis Nomen dantes sectae Massonirae. de quibus iure vt 1 privilegio perniittitur. Pii V. in earum monasteria alsquG legitima licentia ingrediendo jxiriterque eos initroducentes vel admittentes itemque Moniales ab ilia exeuntes extra casus ac formam a S. E. ei scilicet impeudendo auxilium vel fa16. absolvat.

S. ut canonicum impedimentum contrahere ibi potuerit. absque eius Episcopi litteris dimissorialibus. 1. vel praedictis Ordinantes alienum subditum etiam sub praetextu beuefieii statim confereudi. 2. donee dispensetur. non alienandis.: Document dictis XII. qui ad ill arum seu illorum regimen et administrationem recipiunt Episcopos aliosve Praelatos de praedictis Ecclesiis seu Monasteriis apud eamdem S. Excommunicationi latae sententiae nemini reservatae subiacere declaramus 1. 6. Laedentes ant perterrefacientes Inquidenuntiantes. Suspensionem perpetuam ab exercitio bona ecclesiastica absque Beneplacito Apo- De ad formam Extravagantis Amhitiosae Eeb. sed mininie sufficientis. Urliis Vicarium. poenitentiae 1 lunii Clerici sacculares cxteri ultra quatuor Praeter hos hacteuus recensitos. matiimouium contrahere 309 personis l)raesumentes. qui alibi tanto tempore moratus sit. qui excepto casu legitimi privilegii. Nostris Gregorio Constit. absque Ordinarii eius loci litteris testimonialibus. vel absque praevio examine coram eodem peracto. Collegia et Capitula mandatis eiusdem JRomani Pontificis pro tempore existentis ad universale futurum Concilium appellantia. et Benedicto XIV stolico. 1741. Episcoijatibus suburbicariis. OjSieii. Litteris apostolicis falsis scienter utentes. extra Religionem degentes. Sedis ijDso iure incurrunt. aut comburentes. consilium. Urbis Vicarii. Mandantes seu cogeutes tradi Ecclenotorios Sepulturae haereticos ant nominatim excommuuicatos vel iutersiasticae dictos. dimissorialibus sui Ordinarii ad alium directis quam ad Card. Ordinem Sacrum suscipiendum exercitiis spiritualibus per decern dies in domo urbana Sacerdotum a Missione nuncupatorum. 5. vel crimini ea in re cooperantes. 7. sive absque ulla reservatione excommuniuavit.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. Universi 20 August! 1G22. Suspensionem per annum a collations Ordinum ipso iure incurrit. 1. antequam ipsi exhibuerint Litteras Apostolicas de sua promotione. Interdicta latae sententiae reservata. excommunicatos esse declaramus excepta anathematis poena in Decreto Sess. suspensiimem ab ordinibus sic suseeptis ad beneplacitimi S. effectu sequuto. aut imprimi . Suspensionem ab Ordine suscepto ipso im-e incurrunt. ordinem sacrum contulerit absque titulo beneficii vel patrimonii clerico in aliqua Congregatione viventi. eiusve Sacri diiipieutes. Summo Pontifici Suspensionem ipso facto incurrunt a suorum Beneficiorum pcrceptione ad beneplacitum S. menses in Urbe commorantes ordinati ab alio quam ab ipso suo Ordinario absque licentia Card. pacio ut ordiuatus non petat ab ipsis alimenta. aut collati. vel iam qnibuslibet auxilium. Piocurantcs abortum. Sedis Capitula et Conventus Ecelesiarum et Monasteriorum aliique omnes. 2. vel non praemissis ante faciunt. 3. 2. ab ordinatiouibus stu versitates. 3. . ordinum ipso iure incurrunt Eeligiosi eiecti. eos quo- que quos Sacrosanctum Concilium Tridentisive reservata Summo Pontifici aut Ordinariis absolutione. vel etiam subditum proprium. 4. Sedem quovis raodo provisos. Negligentes sive culpabiliter omittentes denunciaie infra mensem Confessarios sive Sacerdotes a quibus soUicitati fuerint ad tm-pia in quibuslibet casibus expressis a Praedecess. vel patri- Interdictum Romano modo reservatum Pontifici special! ipso iure incurrunt Uni- quocumque nomine nuncupentur. in qua solemnis professio non emittitur. cientes Scienter celebrantos vel celebrari fadivina in locis ab Ordinario. aliosve niinistros Tribnualis scriptnras sitores. IV JJe editione et usu Sacrarum Librorum constituta. cui illos tantum siibiacere volumus qui libros de rebus sacris tractantes sine Ordiuarii approbatione imprimunt. vel etiam a proprio Ordinario posteaquam in praedicto examine reiecti fuerint necnon clerici pertinentes ad aliquem e sex . vel interdieto nominatim denunciatis. vel X . qui eumdem ordinem recipere praesumpserunt ab excommunicato vel suspense. de: XV Constit. Sugpensiones latae sententiae reservatae. aut ab haeretico vel schismatico notorio eum vero qiii bona fide a quopiam eorum est ordiuatus. testes. Episcopi vero ordinantes ab usu Pontificalium per annum. favorem praestantes. Suspensionem per tiiennium a collatioiie Ordiuum ipso iure incurrunt aliquem Ordiiiantes absque titulo beneficii. Suspensionem per annum ab Ordiuum administratione ipso iure incurrunt monii cum Excommunicationes latae sententiae nemini reservatae. 3. 4. 2. Sacramentum claramus. Nos pariter ita num. Alienantes et recipere praesumentcs etiam religioso nondum professo. si ordinentur extra suam dioecesim. Ecc. exercitium non habere ordinis sic suscepti.

Si qui autem hoc attentare praesumpserit. buslibet ordinationibus. ct derogamus. competenter satisfecerint. Paracciani Clareli. et in suo robore permanere volumus et doclaramus. ac S. etiam speciali et individua mentione diguis. necnon quorumcum(]iie Collegiorum. etiam regulari cuiusvis speciei. ac quosvis alios quacumque praeminentia. tuum nuUo modo ac ratione intelligi unquam aut pnsse comprebendi facuUatem absolvendi a casibus. Card. quas eidem Apostolicae Sedi speciali modo reservatas declaravimus. cuius seutentiam contempserunt. XXIV. aut alia quacumque firmitate roboratis. E. ac reapse obtinere sicque et non aliter in praemissis per quoscumque Indices Ordinaries. donee ad arbitrium eius. etsi titulo peculiari praedito. . Tridentini. avit iiomiiiatim exeominunicatos ad divinaofficia.310 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. latae sunt. gationis. Petrum. et quavis couiirmatioue Apostolica. sive interdict! aut Predecessorum Nostrorum Constitutionibus aut sacris canonibus praeter eas. ratas Quae vero censurae tris. vel ecclesiasticara sepulturam admittentes. tum [Document XTI. Mattei Pro-Datarius. omnesque et singulas. etiam Conciliorum Gteneralium. iudicari. etiam Causarum Palatii Apostolici Auditores. sive suspensionis. Visa do Curia Dominicus Bruti tj^ Loco i)lumbi. et functuros. aut ex aliis sacris Canonibus quibuscumque. anno lucarnationis Dominicae Millesimo Octin- gentesimo Sexagesimo Nono. ac Apostolicae Sedis Nuntios. Gugnoni. coe- locorumque piorum cuiuscumquc nomiuis aut generis sint. (Dalla Civilta CaUolicu. ea omnia. 15 gennaio 1870. aut consuetudinis vel inducendae. vel ei ausu temerario contraire. clelegato ludice. I. aliisque eflicacioribus t insolitis clausulis.i. aliisque quiconstitutionibus. Quarto Idus octobris. VI de Reform. atque bactenus in suo vigore perstiteruut sive pro pro interne Pontificis electione. voluntatis infringere. NuUi ergo omnino hominum liceat banc paginam Nostrae Constitutionis. Ceteruin decernimus. quae in eis constituta ac decreta sunt. easque omnes Nostra hac Constitulione revocatas. Ordiuationis. Decernentes has Litteras atque omnia et singula. cap. ( Datum Romae apud S. atque etiam speciali mentione diguo a quovis unquam tempore liuc usque concessae fueriut. suosque plenarios et integros efFectus obtinere debere. explicita. derogasuppressiones atque abrogatioues firmas ac respective rata atque firma esse et fore. Societati et lustituto. sive etiam a Nobis cuilibet Coetui. iudignationem Omnipotentis Dei et Beatorum Petri et Pauli Apostolorum eius. mutationes. etiam de Latere Legatos. N. regimine quoruiucumque Ordinum et Institutorum Eegularium. exceptis. vel a iuro iiiterdictis. et censuris quibuslibet debere. prout realise revocamus. IM. limitationis. aut Apostolicis Constitutionilius.) Firmam tameu esse volumus absolvendi facultatem a Tridcntina Syuodo Episcopis concessam Sens. quibuslibet etiam formis ac tonoribus. et eorum cuilibet quavi^ aliter iudicandi et interpretandi facultate. scienter vel iguoranter contigerit attentari. quae aV) Apostolica Sede concedi cuivis contigerit. sive excommunicaNos- tionis. et Delegates. quateuus opus sit. quam abusum esse declaramus. et auctoritate. eas omnes firmas f sse. Ordini. vel non in cnrpore iuris. suppressas et abolitas esse volumus. in novis quibuscuraque concessionibus ac privileges. Card. volumus et deelaramiis. quae in eisdem factae sunt ex anterioribus Constitutionibus Praedecessorum Nostrorum atque etiam Nostris. sen ecclesiastica Sacramenta. se noverit incursurum. vel iinmemorabili etiam consuetudine. Non obstantibus praemissis. reservatis. et abolemus. quibus omnibus. ill quibuscumque censuris Apostolicae Sedi hac Nostra Constitutione reservatis. Congregationi. interdictum ab ingressu Ecclesiae ipso iure incurrunt. etiam praetextu cuiuslibet privilegii. minime refragantibus aut obstantibus privilegiis quibuscumque. liomano Pontifici nialis. privilegiis. et Nos pari modo suspension! vel interdicto cosdem obnoxios esse tiones. contrariis quibuscumque. Pontificatus Nostri anno vigesimo quarto. nisi de iis for- ac individua mentio facta fuerit: quae vero privilegia aut facultates sive a Praedecessoribus Nostris. Congregationum. iis tan- . quas recensuimus. siiblata eis. etiam specialibus compreliensis. ct cum quibusvis dcro^'atoriarum derogatoriis. ceterisque ipsius et . sive li. ac potestate fungentes. Denique quoscumque alios Sacrosanctura C:)nciliuin Tridentinum suspenses aut interdictos ipso iure esse decrevit. derosuppressionis. derogare inteudimus. necnon consuetudinibus quibusvis etiam immemorabilibus. Cardinales. supprimimus. ao definiri debere et irritum atque inane esse ac fore quidquid super bis a quoquam quavis auctoritate. R.

Mai. ad Ephes. iide. societas haec indetiidta vel informis a Ciiristo relicta est . de Ecclesiae natura. torn. ut fide- Pius epiScopus servus servorum Dei sacro approhante concilio adperpetuam ret memoriam. ad Ephes. Unigenitus Dei Filius. et grassantes oppositos errores subiectis Canonum articulis condemnai-e. satis nunquam commeudari potest. inesse Ecclesiae secundum Deum omnes verae societatis qualitates. Neque eadem membrum est sive pars alterius cuiuslibet societatis. 3 Ep. sollicite ac continue Nos urget. quam acquisivit sanguine suo. vii. ac potestate exponere. iv. 16.' suoque divino capiti societatem veram. Christus ex quo totum corpus compactum. iii. ut omnes sumant ex ea potum vitae:' in primis ipsa vera Ecclesia et errantibus indicanda et fidelibus instantius commendanda est. Hauc Ecclesiam. Iren. 4. carnales novum hominem Docemus autem ac declaramus. Ab inexhausto enim misericordiae Dei Patris fonte profecta.^ Neque enim evangelicae legis ea ratio est. En. c.* sauclitate mysticum. 24. p. Hieron. institutae voluit. ii. quae ad vitam et salutem ducit aeternam. adv. XIII. iv. docendam.Document XIII. 5 Cf. Christus Dominus sacrum regenerationis et renovationis iustituit lavacrum. mentibus obiiciatur alteque defixa haereat. et caritate coniuncti. vv. hi autem in ea confirmentur et crescant. tate . 311 DOCUMENT Schema POSITUM. per ipso : 1 2 3 12-14. ^ in factus ^ vibibilis apparuit in assumpta nostri corporis forma. i. in aedificationem Caput II. Quare Nostri muneris esse ducimus. cuius ipse existeret caput. S. Ep. suam exsistentiam habet ita eiusdem voluntate ac lege exsistendi formam suamque constitutionem accepit. similitudinem hominum praestituta. ad Fhilipp. ut una esset gens sancta. * Ep. et salutis thesauros. qui creatus est in iustitia et corpus efformarent veritatis. in quo Dei ineffabili providentia et misericordia positi sumus. sectator sirccessores bonorum operura. ap. Ambros. quo filii hominum tot nominibus inter se vero peccatis dilapsi. ad Tit. ut inhaerentem Eedemptor noster nem liominom venientem Caput Ecclesiam esse III. gratiarum et charismatum dona cumulate Atque haec est. ad Cor. in Ecclesiam suam quasi in depositorium dives contulerit. Ad banc vero mystici corporis unionem efSciendam. ep.^ facit. . ep. praecellens Ecclesiae species. et tanquam sponsam unice electam aeternam dilexit. et qui in tenebris et in umbra mortis sedent. b. xii. par. ii. secundum operationem in mensuram uniuscuiusque niembri.sent ad invicem. unus populus acceptabilis. et connexum per omnem iuncturam subminitetrationis. Ep. iv. quique nulla unquain aetute miseris Adae filiis ope sua defuit. 1. quae sempiterno consilio fuerat cum ea penitus conserta ac veluti concreta maneret. moderandamque praecepit. ad Ephes. augest ' mentum corporis sui in caritate. 159.S. proprietatibus. ad lucem et agnilionem veritatis perveniant. nee cum alia quavis confusa aut commiscenda . ab flivisi. sed quemadmodum ab Neque 1 Cf. Christianam religionem nonnisi in Ecclesia et per Ecclesiam a Christo fundatam excoli posse. 14. X 2 . quo via. maxima omni culparum sorde mundati membra es. spe. ad Coloss.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. i. et extra illam vera Clirii-ti religio nulla est. cuius caput lium Supremi pastoris aposfolicum mini&terium. ut excluso quovis societatis vinculo veri ailoratores singuli seorsum Patrem adorent in spiritu et veri- Caput Ecclesiam esse I. qui illuminat omin liunc niundum. Scriptt. 18. perfectam. i. omnibus liominibus pateat. in ea plenitudine temporis. ac coelestium dogmaticae de constitutionis EccLESiA Christi patrum examini pro- reciperent. supra eas tamen quara maxime evehatur. 7. ut illi ad viam salutis adducantur. Cum igitur Deus ac Salvator noster totius salumediorum tiferae doctrinae veritatem. ut terreni homines atque iuduentes. presbyt. sed adeo in semetipsa perfecta. Haer. uno eius spiritu orancs vivificarentur. ut nihil praetermittamud. de fid. ad. spiritualem et super naturalem. et per Apostolos sues eorumque iugiter usque ad consummationem saeculi in universe mundo et ex omni creatura colligendam. sed religionem suam ita societati a se Corpus Cliristi mysticum. auctor fidei et consummator lesus ipsa fundavit atque instituit. 4-25 coll. potiora capita verae et catholicae doctrinae. ut dum ab omnibus humanis societatibus distinguitur. quae.

c. Caput IV. a quo crcdenda interius exteriusque profitenda fides ^ publico proponatur visibile quoque ministerium. ep. quasi iudifferens sit ad salutem. * Cf. Hinc omnes intelligant. praeter quod nullam aliam commuuiontm ipse nutrit et fovet tanquam Ecclesiam suam. 32. coll. concupiscant promissam aeternam Dei gloriam. 74. De quo Apostolus inquit. visibile demum totum Ecclesiae corpus.^ Idcirco docemus. Quibus fit. . quibus interior sanc. cuius caput est Cliristus. 3 St. et conspicua patesceret. Crescon. spirituali- bus et invisibilibus vinculis. quibus fideles supremo ac invisibili Ecclesiae capiti per Spiritum sanctum adhaerent. Ecclesiam ad salutem quendam omnino necessariam. 239. 40. ticipatio nisi veritatis et vitae non obtinetur. n. quam necessaria tificatio hominibus et debitus Deo cultus comparatur. una mentium fide et et inter se cohaereant.ididit pro en. carnis desideria ab eius. ii. b. 45. con. abunde etiam iugiter diffunditur in filios adoptionis. c. et per omnia et in omnibus nobis. ijrofessione tamen fidei et communione cum . ac veluti lucern-a super candelabrum. ad salutem obtinendam societas sit Ecclesia Christi. Doiwtist. . ad Ephes. lu-1. munere publico motleratur ac curat visibile regimen. b. einn sive nosse sive ignorare sive ingredi sive relinquere . enarrat. '29. neque per varias christiani norainis consociationes disjjersam atque diifusam. Hinc visibile magisterium. in sua conspicua unitate indivisiun ac ihdivisibile corpus praeferre. et 25-27. I. v. externa quoque ac visibilia respondere. 16. aut aliquid huiusmodi. ad quod non iusti tantum aut praedeslinati pertinent. esse illam ipsam divinarum promissionum ac misericordiarum Ecclesiam quam Christus tot praerogativis ac privilegiis distinguere et exoruare voluit. inter se communionem et ordinut. aut rugam. ad Rom. Unus Dominus. declaramus. n. n. Tantae nimirum necessitatis. 10. Ap. atque ordinis omnino super: Cum eiusmodi sit vera Christi Ecclesia.* 1 Ep. atque bis eiusdem sancti Ppiritus nexibus in vmitate cohaereant Ecclesia ipsa spiritualis societas est. qui est super omnes. ill Ps.' ac prorsus invisibilem fieri. externamque Ecclesia omnem publicam fidelium in vitam disponit ac dirigit. non habentem maculam. ut Deo adhaereant pignus liaeiedi- tatis in cordibus suis circumferentes. sicut vocati estis in naturalis. et beata una communique spe flimati. ii. Caput V. quia in institute salutaris providentiae ordine communicatio sancti Spiritus. Aeterna siquidem Dei sapientia ac virtus vobiit. con. Unus Deus et Pater omnium. [DOCUMEKT XIII. credat.312 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. et quidem necessitate non tantum praccepti dominici. ep. et unus spiritus. n. Ecclesiam esse societatem visihilem. incarnati ipsius Verbi ministerium operamque fundata. unum corpus. li. sed ut sit sancta et immaculata. ut iidem lumine cius collustrati De visibili Ecclesiae unitale. Kp. sed totam in se colkctam penitusque cohaerenlem. mundans lavacro aquae in verbo vitae ut exhibcret ipse sibi gloriosam Ecclesiam. 10. Petil. banc visibilem conspicuamque societatem. Ecclesiae membra nonnisi iuternis ac latentibus vinculis iungi. un. in Ecclesia et per Ecclesiam. ut quaecumque societates a fidei unitate vel a communione huius corporis seiunctae nullo modo pars eius aut membrum dici possint. quam solam dilexit et seipsum tr. sed etiam peccatores. xviii. 1. Pet. litt. Ecclesiam non liberam societatem esse. unum baptisma. c. sed esse omnino necessariam.^ veluti civitas excolsa et illustris in monte. quod est ipsum corpus mysticum Christi. 1. et abditam inde societatem Absit tamen. 36. x. ut illam sanctificuret. iv. 26.^ quae abscondi non potest. quo Salvator omnibus gentibus earn ingrediendam praescripsit verum etiam medii. n. ut quis una fides. ' 2 Cf. atque adeo per bona ojiera certam suam vocationem et electionom faciant. una spe vocationis vestrae. ut spiritualis ilia Caput VI. de unit. quod visibilia Dei mysteria. ad Kphes. in Spiritii sancto constituta piimiini largissime est. 4. par: . ut Christi Ecclesia in terris nee invisibilis nee latens sit sed in manifestaticme posita. 4-6. c. quae in mundo est. Ecd. qui in Apostolos eifusus. eandemque ita plane in sua constitutione esse determiuatam. Augustin. eo coniuncti. n. esse societatem conse- ac supernaturalis societas extrinsccus appareret. c. eoiicupiscentiae corruplione avellant.' Quum autem his bonorum divitiis in Ecclcsia liomines per Spiritum sanctum augeantur. II. quantae consortium et coniunctio est cum Christo capite et mystico eius corpore. quod membrorum . i.

est tamen eiusmodi. quique facienti quod in se est non denegat gratiam. non autem certitudinem haberi posse. 14. deserere religionem. ut Christi corpus aedificetur. quam quidam promittentes. ideoque ab omni erroris falsitatisque periculo libera et immunis. et oppositi(jnes falsi nominis scientiiie. et ut Christus per corpus suum visibile perpetuo sit omnibus hominibus via. ministerio regimine. exjionenda si eadem a salutari fidei morumque veritate aberrare. qui vult omnes homines salvos fieri et ad agnitionem veritatis venire. sine quo illud tuto cnnservari. ut iuslifieationem et vitam aeternam consequi po-sit sed hanc nullus consequitur. in qua quis natus vel ediicatus ac institutus est. qui claudunt regnum coelorum ante homines. falsis praetextibus affirmantes. omnibus aeternae vitae portum ex qualibet religione patere: aut contendunt de veritate religionis opiniones tantum plus minusve probabiles. 2 3 Ep. Eteuira cum ad finem usque mundi qui in fectibilem. Si quis in hac area non fuerit. necnon Ecclesiam ipsam. ambitu suo complecti turn universura Dei verbum revelatum. approbante Concilio docemus atque declaramus. 313 Caput VII. qui habitat in nobis. ciim nulla obstringantur huiusce rei culpa ante ociilos Domini. Neque tamen. devitans profanas vocum novitates. Ep. Quare Christi Ecclesia nunquam potest excidere suis proprietatibus et dotibus. ad Timoth. sive exsistentia sive constitutio tetur. quaeque nee cum inspirationis chari. . tum id omne. quod Christus in Ecclesia sua perpetuum inslituit cum ad Apostolos dixit: Euntes infallibilitas. Christi Ecclesiam.^ Obiectum igitur infallibilitatis tunttim patere docemus. 15. Pariterque reprobamus impietatem illorimi. De Ecclesiae infallihilitate. licet cuius finis est fidelium societatis in doctrina fidei et morum iutemerata Veritas. iii. et a quavis novitatis immutationisque corruptela sal! immune cum iniquitate. De Ecclesiae indefectihilitate. Extra Ecdesiam salvari neminem Porro dogma fidei est. 20. ac iu ea praedicanda atque falli vel fallere posset. aut societas lucls ad tenebras. dicunt. I. Sacro autem et univer- decorum vel ad Sidutem minime necessarium esse. Ep. Excideret porro Ecclesia Christi a sua immutabilitate et dignitate. eius spec- Declaramus insuper. quae sola est salutis societas. societatem esse perennem atque indenullamque post illam neque pleniorem neque perfectiorem salutis oeconomiam in hoc sneculo exspectandam esse. varie sese explicet eadem . Licet igitur Ecclesia terris deiDOsitum custodi per Spuitum sanctum. et eius custodiendi otficium postulat . ad Timoth. in universal! Christi Ecclesia integrum. ad Timoth. tamen in se suaque a Christo accepta constitutione immutabilis perseverat. At colunma et firm amentum veritatis ' est . Haec autem crescat. quae tanquam perpetua Ecclesiae Christi praerogativa revelata est. 13. vi. 1 pro varia aetate sua. magisterio inest. secundum Timothee. adeoque praerogativam infallibilitatis. quae se religionem esse unice veram profitetur. perinde ac si uUa unquara esse posset participatio iustitiae Christi ad Belial. propter hauc ignorantiam poenis aeternis daninundi sunt. dotem infallibilitatis. Quare reprobamus et detestamiu" impiam aeque ac ipsi rationi repugriantem de religionum indifterentia doctrinam.Document XIII. fide et in : : Bonum Caput VIII. et desineret esse societas vitae ac necessarium salutis medium. Veritas et vita. coUatam ad hoc esse.>mate confundi debet. sacro suo magisterio. etsi falsam. in. et utinam augeatur iugiter fide et caritate. et conventio asseratur et custodiatur. posse. omnes autem religiones et sectas a sua communione separatas proscribit et damnat criminantur. ut verbum Dei. et pro diversitate adiuuctorum. extra Ecclesiam salvari neminem pnsse. veritatis et erroris sublato discrimine.^ Quod idem Apostolus Formam babe iterum inculcat scribens sanorum verborum. peregrinanlurmortales Christo auctore salvandi sitit: Ecclesia ipsius. 'c]uae a me audisti in dilectione in Christo Jesu.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. deillud Apostoli mandatum positum custodi. qua Christi Ecclesia pollet. quod licet in se revelatum non sit. circa fidem exciderunt. qui a fidei imitate vel ab Ecclesiae communione culpal)iliter seiunctus ex hac vita decedit. quantum fidei patet depositum. I. qua filii huius saeculi. sive id scriptum sive traditum sit. qui circa Christum eiusque Ecclesiam invincibili ignorantia laboraut. inter quae oonstanter militando versatur. Caput IX. ut Ecclesia novis revelationibua ditescat. certo ac definitive ad credendum proponi et explicari. H. i. neque eo spectat. peribit regnante diluvio. aut contra errores hominum ac falsi nominis scientiae oppositiones valide asseri defeudique non possit. ad finem usque mimdi in sua constitutione inimufabilis semper et immota persistet.

ail Cor. . 17. in eis esset. Pasce oves meas. et Spiritus sancti docentes eos servare omnia quaecumque niandavi vobis. quicumque in hac cathedra Petro succedit. Christus Filius Dei vivi dixit Tu es Petrus et super banc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. cp. . n. et Ftlii. xvi. •>{). sicut Pater et Filius unum universam Ecclesiam obtineat. qui eam libere et a qua vis saeculari dominatioue independenter exercent adeoquc cum omni imperio^ regunt Ecclesiam l)ei tum necessariis et conscientiam quoque .ad Tit. et verum Christi Vicarium. Christi autera . iv. et 1 2 Cf. eundem primatum non immediate directeque ipsi beato Petro. qui maneret cum eis in aeternum.' uni Simoni Petro contidit Jesus post suam resurrectionem suinmi pastoris et rectoris Ecclesia non est societas aequalium. quia iidelium alii clerici sunt. ut credentes in ipsum omnes unum essent. absolutam atque omnino plenam. quae externam Ecclesiae disciplinam et administration em respiciunt. 16. Manet ergo dispositio veritatis. et coerciPotestatis autem huiusmodi sub- seorsum singulis sive omnibus simul vero proprioque iurisdictionis primatu fuisse a Christo iustruetum aut qui affirmant. docendum et regendum Cum vero praediti sunt. » Cf. Joann. Caput XI. baplizantes eos in nomine Patris. quod in Ecclesia est potestas divinitus instituta. totiusque Ecclesiae caput. in bcato Petro Apostolo instituit persunt. eosque omnem veii- mediate in universam Dei Ecclesiam imatque contulit. tum decretoriis iudidenique salutaribus poenis in ciis. Cf. is iuxta Christi ipsius mauam. nimirum legiferam. quae fimdata super petram ad finem saeculorum usque firmiter stabit. institutionem primatum Petri in De Bomani Pontificis primatu. cull. et hoc non ideo tantum. solum Petrum prae omnibus Apostolis sive publici. 10. ut ab Ecclesia catholica semper intellecta est. qui constitutam a Ciiristo Domino in sua Ecclesia regiminis fornJkm pervertentes negant. 17. Matth Kp. alia iurisdictionis de hac altera speciatim docemus. et beatus Petrus suscepta Ecclesiae gubcrnacula non reliquit. qiia alii ad sanctiiicandum. Haec autem vera et tam felix Cliristi Ecclesia alia non est. xxi.^ Apostolicam Sedem. xvi. qiii priusquam clarifioaretur rogavit Patrem.1. et portae et directo promisit Ad unum namque Petrum : inferi tibi non praevalebunt adversus eam.: 314 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. •^ •f 1. 3. earn non solum esse fori interni sed etiam fori externi ac et sacrameutalis . ]!). erit solutum et in coelis. is.'rias eorum sententias. obligantibus legibvis. cp. et ecce ego vobiscvim sum omnibus diebus. eiusque consecratae sanguine. Uinc iuuovantes atque in omnibus sequentcs tum praedecessorum Nufctrorum Komauorum Pontificum decreta.' Et iisdem promisit Cliristus vcritatis suae Spiritum. in univcrsum orliem tenere primatum. 16.il. iurisdictiouem in totum ipsius ovile dicens Pasce agnos meos. . Be Ecchsiae Potestate. tum sontes etiam invites. 19. Unde Ecclesia Christi perfecta societas credenda est. . vivit et praesidet et iudicium exercet. sed in iis etiam. vii. 6. coll. i. acsi omnes in ea fideles eadem iura haberent varum est societas inaequalis. ita ut. xvil. creCbristi fidelibus esse. 20. et per banc illi ut suo ministro delatum . cultum et sanctificationem. sanctam. ab ipso primum fundatae. xiii. '. l. Pastor aetenius et episcopus animarum nostrarum. ligaveris super terram. M. et dabo claves regni coelorum et quod: : cumque tatem doceret. et apostolicam Eo- Quod autem in beato Apostolo Petro princeps pastorum et pastor magnus ovium Dominus Christus Jesus * in perpetuam salutem ac perenne bonum Ecclesiae instituit. alii destituuntui-. iugiter durare iiecesse est.i. 2).^ Caput X. ii. xiv. Joann. erit ligatum et in coelis et quodcumque solveris super Atque terram. praeter unam. coll. S.Joann. dum iuxta evangelii tcstinionia Petro Apostolo primatum iuris' Romanum principis succossorcin esse beati Petri Apostolorum. xxviii. tivam. 6cr. quae lidem et mores. id eodem auctore in Ecclesia. dictionis [Document XIII. Ecclesiae potestas alia sit et dicatur ordinis. iectum sunt Pastores et Doctcres a Christo dati.^ Unde condemnamus atque reiicimus huic : tam manifestae saciarum Scripturarum doctrinae. I'ct. 1. usque ad cousummatiouem saeculi. contr. nee solum in iis. tum praecedentium Coiiciliormn generalium disertas perspicuasque definitiones. ad catbolicae fidei et communionis unitatem in sua Ecclesia iugiter conservandam. Leo. iudiciariam. et Romanum Pontificem. ep. 2 . docemus dendum ab omnibus banc sanctam et declaramus. 3(al. episcopis sanctae Komanae Sedis.ul llcbr. alii laici: sed propterea maxime. fuisse. sed Ecclesiae. ergo tlocete omnes gentes. s<j. * Matth. et ipsum Pontificem petuum utriusque unitatis principium ac vi^^ibiIe iuudamentum. catholicam.'' Semper enim in suis successoribus.

rcpugnare iuri divino. 1 Cor. Romano Puntifici neeessarium ius esse. 2-<. ex divini fundatoris sui omniumque Redemptoiis mandulo in sinum suum maternum colligit omnes gentes. 315 (. et quae pro re ac tempore ad maiorem totius christianae reipublicae utilitatem pertinere ijise cognosceret. nulli principi subiectus. iurisdictionem Eomanorum Pontificum ordinariam et immediatam non esse tarn in omnes simul quam in singulas seorsum particularium pastorum ecclesias aut etiam contendunt. pascendi regeudique jjotestatem auctoritatemque ab ipso Cbristo Domino aeceptam per universum orbem plenissima libertate exercere.' et Patri. eorum . lis indigebat praesidiis. ad Tim. qune sicut indole ac moribus inter se diversae. nisi potestatis saecularis placito confirmentur. . Ecclesia Cliristi sit uuus grex sub uno summo pastore. efiicacius peragere posset. quae propria est . Ecclesiarum jjastores bonum et utilitatem ordiet ab ea omnibus iuris titulis legitime tot sai culoriun decursu possessum. quam sacrae litterae regnum Dei appellant. quae temporum conditioni et necessitati congruesibi ' I^xple!^sa ad formulas fidei Cone. aut eandem reddunt saeculari potestati obnoxiam.ct Pii VI. ordinariani esse et immediatam. Lugdunens. primatus potestatem a Cbristo Domino fuisse in beato Petro ita institutam.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. ab illius decisionibus hac de re editis recedere aliterque sentire. ordinaria et immediata tum in Ecclesiam universalem. quae ab Apostolica Sede vel eius auctoritate ad regimen Ecclesiae constituuntur. Ut autem Romanus Pontifex primatus divinitus collati munus. ita etiam multiplici et varia civilis societatis forma sunt constilutae. in huius sui muneris exercitio libere communicandi cum pastoribus et gregibus totius Ecclesiae. Perfecta haec civitas. in rei christianae natum." 2 Ep. Cum vero impii homines. . erga quam particulariuui ecclesiarum pastores atque fideles tarn seoriurisdictionis totius Ecclesiae pastor. de huius principatus civilis ad generale christianae reipublicae bonum lelatione quidpiam cum auctoritate conttituere adeoque licere catholicis hominibus.-hristiauoruiu rent. si. regindi ac guber- nandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Jesu Cliristo plenam potestatem traditam esse et banc. Hob. Be temporali Sancfae Sedis Dominio. Romana quoque Ecclesia temporalem dominationem haberet quo Romanus Pontifex. De Concordia inter Ecclesiam ac societateiu civilem. ut in lanta saecularium Undo beato Petio pascendi. Haec est catliolicae veritatis doctrina. ut iidem ab ipso in via salutis doceri ac regi possint.Document onininm iudicem XIII. Caput XIII. superna quidem est. qui omne in teriis ius mutare conantur. damnamus atque proscribimus tum eorum haereticam dnctrinam. qui contendunt. ut cum spirituali potestate in Romanis Pontificibus principatus civil is coniimgatur. principum multitudine et varietate. qui banc supremi capitis cum pastoribus et gregibus commuuicationem imjDediendam dicunt. 1.. . summus : potestas. cogitatur. tum in omnes et singulos particularium et fideles potestate iurisdictionis consequitur. 22. Ecclesiae non esse. uti par est. 23. ii. a qua deviare salva fide atque salute nemo Quare damnamus atque reprobamus senteutias. tum perver^m eorum sententiam. iv. licere ab iudiciis Eomanorum Pontificum ad futurum generals Concilium tanquam ad auctoritatem Romano Pontifice potest. qui afiirmant. Quaro damnamus ac reprobamus perniciosas illorum sententias. vim ac valorem non habere. supremum existere et ipso in singular! divinae providentiae cunsilio factum est. ita ut contendant. xv. xii. adimpleret. unde orta sit et quo tendat. doctorcm ft . Qui enim homiius. Cone. Florcntin. " Supersoliditate. Nunc vero ut sit Eccle- Caput XII. Ex hac autem suprema. 1. bupremam uuiversi dominici grcgis sura singuli quam simul omnes officio hierarcbicae subordiuationis veraeque obedientiae obstringuntur. ut eundem oporteat perpetuos in coUata sibi primatus potestate successores hatere aut affirmant. superiorera appellare. Brcv.' ut custodita cum Romano Pontiiice tarn commuuiunis quam eiusdem fidei professionis imitate. hunc civilem Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae principatum. ac simul facilius divinam religionem magis in dies augere. quae sursum est Jerusalem consummatorum. qui a fide discedentes et attendentes sjiiritibiis erroris ^ negant. usque ad finem saeculorum in terris atque inter terrenas civitates adhuc militans. patrem. ad sui coDseivationem et congruam ration! 1 Cf. 21. descendens quasi Christi sponsa de coelo et transitura in coelestem illam. quovis insidiarum et violentiarum genere labefactare ac convellere adnitantur: sacro approbante Concilio innovantes huius Apostulicae Sedis ac iH'aecedentium Couciliorum indicia ac decreta. cum Christus tradiderit sia regnum Deo Deus omnia in omnibus.

singuli privatim homines sed etiam omnes in vita publica ipsaque societas ad veram religionem erga Deum tenentur religionisque legibus obstringuntur. ut humana societas constituatur et gubernetur nuUo habito ad religionem rcspcctu. eiusque seIlia enim instituta ad prospicit. sed ad ofiicium providendi sibi datam esse a Domino potestatem et virtutem ab Altissimo. non minus reges quoque dncet prospicere populis. quibus iitraque regitur. 5. i-9. felicitatem tcmporalera. vi. ut homines legitimae potestati subditi sint non solum propter iram. atque in his singulorum omnia conditionis hominum religione divina tum iura tuetur tum officia docet ao praecipit. sed pretioso sanguine Christi redenq)tarum. n. 13S. quales esse praecipit doctrina catholica. et vitiie aeternae felicitas. ad Miircellin. Praecipit enim religio catholica sua auctoritate divina.. gratia Dei Salvatoris vocantur. sanctificandos homines. Christo Domino nihil versum lucrari. xiii. non liberae hominum option! permissa sed Dei lege praecepta ' severissimis verbis iuculprodesse homini mundum unianimae suae detrimentum patiatur. ^ (jf. testas in temporal! utilitate et poenarum curitati ' metu suam observandariim legum sanctionem positam habeat. ut tamquam ministri regni eius recte iudicent. = Rom. quae verae religionis doctrinam et leges et iura ex divino mandato custodit ac tuetTir. quae est Ecclesia. Quamvis igitur civilis societatis dispositio per so et direete non ad supernaturalcm felicitatem. Deus infinite sanctus et sapiens sit auctor ex ipsa uatura inter Ecclesiam et societatem civilem vel inter potestates. ^ Quodsi Ecclesia monet ac iubet subditos secundum mandatum divinitus acceptum obedire regibus. . vel ex hoc uno omnes intelligant.316 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. iu sanctam illam societatem. non posse auctoritatem et iura Ecclesiae cum saecularis potestatis iuribus et auctoritate cousistere atque ideo ad optimam societatis publicae rationem necessariam esse civilis reipublicae ab Ecclesia separationem. quam Ecclesia semper optat et humili supplicatione postulat a Deo. uon : sane pugna est aut oppositio. vel omiiino ita. ut intelligant et erudiantur. servari . si libertas sponsae Jesu Christi opprimitur et violantur iura. ipsa virtute et pietate Christiana bonos etiam cives facit. reipublicae civili Ecclesiam Jesu Christi tantum praecellere. Quapropter nemo dicere praesumat. ad quam homines per Ecclesiam sunt deducendi. nuuquam potest. matri suae nuuquam inferrent. auctoritatem imperantium validius doctrina legi- busque divinis confirmat. licet modo diverso pro diverso earum ordine ac fine. vel saltem nullo facto veram inter falsasque religiones discrimine. quae ipsi a divino suo fundatore iuiuncta sunt ad salutem animarum. niitura duce et Dei creatorid ordinatione in civilem societatem coierunt. cata. esse fiuem sublimiorem et unice necessarium beatitudinis aeternae. cp. Quin immo Ecclesia rempublicam maximo mnnimento flrmat ac tuetur. ideoque habita vel sola ratione finis. Huiusmodi bella iniquissima. Aut. Pax vera inter utram(£ue potestatem et concordia. [Document XIII. Sap.^ Ecclesia igitur catholica regum et populorum. ad quam civilis potestas per se ordiuntur. ' atque adeo supra illam felicitatem vitae humanae. quae Ecclesia exercere atque Integra servare non solum potest sed etiam debet. si est. qui volunt esse Ecclesiae filii. ita ut imperio ncgetur ius et officiura coercendi sancitis pounis violatores catholieae religionis. nisi quatenus pax publica postulet . Cum igilur utriusque societatis. Quoniam enim non solum 15. sed ad teraporale communitalis Cr. vera religio. non ad dominandi cupiditatem. sine dubio magna erunt salus Praeterea cum terrena poreipublicae. si imperantium et popvdorum mentibus constanter obversaretur Veritas a Quare cum haeo civitas Dei tantum conferat ad securitatem et felicitatem civitatis terrenae. quanta sapientia ac bonitate Deus auctor naturae et gratiae atque utriusque civitatis oidinator potestates sacerdotii et imperii non inimicas acd vinculo pacis coniungendas Haec autem utriusque civitatis disposuerit. qui utrique praestituitur. quia simul cum officiis cohaereut. Quod inter sacc-rdotium et imperium dissidia orta sunt et in dies oriuntur. iidem ut aeternum salventur. cuius et custos et magistra est Ecclesia catholica. ac si ea non existeret. . sed etiam propter conscientiam. coniunctio ex qua in ipsam civilem societatem tanta bona promanant. quantum huius vitae commoda ac bona superat salus animarum non auro vel argento. cuius cives simul fideles sint. id nemo audeat asserere ex ipsa indole ac natura potestatis ecclesiasticae provenire. hinc ipsa publica sucietas. raagnis necessariis ofiieiis obligatur erga Dei Ecclesiam. et custodiant legem iustitiae quoniam pusillum et magnum ipse fecit et aequaliter cura est llli de omnibus. qui indicant terram. atque ita legibus humauis sanctius fundamentum ponit et fideliorem conciliat obedientiani. qui si tales sint.

ut finem hominis ultimum et neeessariuni ab oculis dimittant. a Deo ordinatae sunt " et ex eiusdem Apostoli sententia. quando ad illicita ac Dei legi repugnantia impellunt.. ut ea Integra et inviolata cusDoeemus igitur. ditorum nunt. ut dicunt. de licito vel illicito stacivili etiam societate publicisque negotiis ad supremum Ecclesiae ma- tuendum est. Contra huiusmodi errores. omnibus in mentem revocandam statuimus doctrinam todiatiu'. eo ipso in publicis rebus ac negotiis ex lege politica iustum eradere et honestum.^ potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit. quatenus de honestate. quae autem sunt. pro gisterium pertinet. qui autem resistunt. "Omnis anima. ita non minus pro lis qui pracsunt. omniaque parentum in filios iura dimanare ac pendere affirment. quam ut incommutabilis sanctitas et iustitia aeterni Dei auferatur a recordatione filiorum hominum.^ atque ideo sub. itaque docere audeat. 1. ita ut ab eodem statu politico eiusque lege turn ius proprietatis privatae unice derivari. Is. secimdum fontem omnis inter homines auctoritatis omnisque iuris. ipsi sibi damnationem acquirunt. Quiu et eo usque non paucos progresses esse videmus. quaiu in privatis ne. Neque de imperantibus minus verum est: qui Ecclesiam matrem non habet. aut in multitudinis opinione ac voluntate constitui potest. ideoque etiam civilern. 1 Cf. aut per Nemo detestandum facinus earn coniurationibus ac rebellione evertere. imperantibus in suae potestalisusu eandem normam divinae legis esse sequendam. id quod ex lege moral i esset iniustum. ' ita ut nulla lege. Dei ordinationi resistit . 4. dominationem contem- catholicam. non est enim potestas nisi a Deo.] TflE VATICAN COUNCIL. tiun societatem domesticam seu familiam suae existentiae totani rationem mutuari. mutaverunt ius. 817 perfcincat. nisi quam ipsi sponte susceperiut. unde si quando videantur utilia regno tempnrali. ut turn privata possessionum proprietas turn alia nnQoyis unius prae reliquis praerogativa iniusta censeri et abrogari debeat. lit temporali bono praeferant sempiternum. Spreta Ecclesiae catholicae doctrina et auL'toritate. Norma itaque agendi non in utilitate. ' Rom. 3.irotiis. et inficiatur terra ab liabitatoribus suis. finem inferiorem non ita respiciant. Deum patrem habere non potest. qui etiam inter catholicos populos serpere coeperunt. qui banc potestatem tenet. qui non solum Ecclesiae. quern vocant. scribit Apostolus. 3 Cf. dissipaverunt foedus sempiternum. obligari se posse dicant. eiusque circa humanam socie- tatem iuribus conculcatis. ' Document bouum seil XIII. si felicem habea't exitum. Lex enim moralis sive luinine rationis sive per supernaturalem revelationem manifestata sicut pro hominibus actionibusque privatis. quod ab Apostolo traditum semper docuit Ecclesia. ut terrestre regnum coelesti regno famuletur. Rom. sed etiam omnis huniaui consortii hostes. atque ideo non miuns in publicis rebus. quia transgress! sunt leges. 2. ut fortunatis eventibus vim iuris tribueiites audeant dicere. De ipsa autem agendi norma iudicium. actus non aequo ac ad privates sese porrigeret. . opiuioue positam esse velint supremam conscientiae et offieiorum pro publicis et socialibus sive imperantium sive subditorum actionibus. quom pro lubitu abiicere atque evertcre liceat: immo etiam contra manifestam Dei legem aflSrmant. Deum habere auctorem. quae bonis sublimioribus Ecclesiae et aeternae saluti repugnent. christianis tamen homiiii- bus non in hoe soluuunodo sistendum est postiilatur ab eis. in eorum animis sensus extinguatur iusti et iniusti. At liaec humanae superbiae figmenta non alio tendunt. subintroierunt nostris temporibus magistri mendaces.* Pari vero ratione doeemus. omnemque sublimiorem potestatem ab ipsis independentem pro iuiusto dominatu habeant. sive malum agentibus vindex in iram. xiii. ea niinquam babebunt pro veris bonis. sed necessaria morum regula sicut pro subditis ita pro imperantibus etiam in ipsorum muneribus administrandis est lex Dei iubentis aut vetantis. Dei minister est sive bonum facientibus in bonum. Caput XIV. qui enim resistit potestati. xiii. omnem legitimam potestatem. licitum esse huic legitimae potestati vi resistere. sed sincere consequi studebunt. quod aiebat magnus ille Gregorius. Alii autem falsam civilis societatis speciem ac formam animo suo effingentes statinii politicum. quasi vero lex moralis ad socialcs et polilicos quam omnes morum normam in supremo iudieio communi Domino aut stabunt aut cadent. omnes homines ex lege naturae ita aequales iuribus esse. 5. et pro publicorum muuerum administratione actibusque socialibus ac politicis posita est. Be iure et usu potestatis civilis secundum Ecclesiae catholicae doctrinam. turn in eius lege vel in maioris numeri civium placitis et in publica. xxiv. ib. vers. constituunt obedientiam iure suo postulat. Sane in via salutis aeternae omnibus tam subditis quam principibus Ecclesia a Deo coustituta est dux et magistra.

et esse cum eius magisterio divinitus institute. adeoque humanis legibus nou posse auferri. relictis omnibus. necessario servanda sed etiam pro Ecclesia praemonstravit in sue evangelio statum perfectionis. citati De specialihus quihusdam Ecclesiae iuribus in relatione ad societatem civilem. 17-'20. qua frauduleuti homines contendunt. vocatis evangelicam perfectionem bus rite instituatur. quae voverunt.' Consilia haec lesu Christi ad Ecclesiam sponsam ac reginam ornandam varietatibus^ non potuerunt manere irrita unde operante divina grntia omnibus Ecclesiae aetatibus plurimi utriusque sexus . Contra huiusmodi saniie doetrinae morumque corruptelas ex ipso fine Ecclesiae a Christo Salvatore fundatae. vel ex regnis et civitatibus nostrae aetatis eliminandam esse. ultra pracceptorum observationem consilia quoque evangelica ad docenduDi. Ecclesiam necessariis consectandi media non deessent. ut inventus catholica in primis vera fide et Sanctis mori- cam religionem a qui se catholicos profiteutur. neque licere sibi existiment sive in privatis sive in publicis negotiis ob politicas rationes Dei et sanctae matris Ecclesiae leges ae iura violare. si volunt ad vitam ingredi. ilia est vel miixime perniciosa. ut homines per salutarem fldem ac disciplinam docendo regendoque ad vitam aeternam adducat. scholas omnes directioni ac arbitrio solius potestatis laicae subiiciendas esse. ut thesaurum habeant in coelis. quibus datum est a Patre Christum vocantem audire et sequi. Quin CO usque progressi sunt. Hanc iniquitatem cumularunt alia usurpatione. qu(jd ilia profectui ac feli- Caput XV. irritum reddere non vereantur. continentiae. . non desint. eoque magis dolendum. ab omnibus agnoscenduni est ius et officium.-l's. qua Christus 1 CA: Matlli. crucis Christi Dominum ducem Ut sic sectatores in hac via ipsum ac magistrum secuti sunt. Quare declaramus et docemus. quae nostra aetate ad uationes erroribus inficiendas corrumpeudosque in eis mores christianos perpetrantur. Ii vero. qui in sortem Domini vocantur. idem Dominus Noster lesus Christus non solum sancta dedit mandata omnibus. Legis enim pro summa auctoritate vel ipsa tulit vel a sanctissimis viris propositas probavit. xlivr - lU-l(j. ita ut auctoritas Ecclesiae ad providendum religiosae institutioni et edueationi iuventutis christianae omnino impediatur. Quare tuni liaoc Ecclesiae et fidelium iura turn susce[)ta votis religiosis ofiicia in supernaturali Dei lege ac ordinatione fundantur. reddere Domino Deo. Alia gravis iniuria sanctae Ecrlesiae inferlur ab illis. Quamvis igitur sint ad hanc vitae rationem in consiliis evangelicis voluntariae ac perpetuae paupertatis. . earn aposto- licae doetrinae consentaneam esse et ad christianam perfectionem conducere. a sancta sua vocatione per vim avellere et iniquissima lege subiicere militiae saeculari alicubi veriti non sunt. iura praedicta atque otticia ad Ecclesiam peitinero. et ad sanctum suum finem dirigeretur. atque iugiter sanctitatis praerogativa fulgere debet. quantum valent. quo ipsa pervigilat. Ipsam enim Clericorum educationem ac institutionem in disciplinis ecclesiasticis turn in aliis publicis scholis turn in ipsis Seminariis eflScaci directioni ac vigilantiae Ecclesiae subducere et potestati laicae mancipare praesumunt contra ius proprium Ecclesiae.12. atque ita quantum in ipsis est. xix. quo ii. Ut igitur Regem rrgum patrem ac piopitium habere possiut. ipsum lesum Christum propinquiori imitatione sequantur.318 THE VATICAN COUNCIL [Document XI IT. quibus religiosa vita et professio liima ac tnta consisteret. atque affirraare audent. providentissima mater Ecclesia semper sedulo curavit. ac divina gratia opitulaute possunt et tenentur. Ecclesiara se matrem habere re et opere comprobare studeant. quo maxime in suis ministris sanitati catholicae doetrinae et sanctitati vitae ecclesiasticae providere debet. 11. et obedieutiae sequendam attame!) ex constant! Ecclesiae declaratione atque usu : non omnes vocati omnibus necesse est aestimare. professionem religiosam iuribus naturae libertatisque humanae contrariam. Quin etiam eoa ipsos. atque universim scholas nuUius professionia religiosae. ut ipsam catholi- publica educatione arcere. populorum opponatur. quod inter ipsos legum latores. qui Deo vocante capiuut verbum istud. Quoniam vero sponsa lesu Christi ijisam divini sponsi sui vitam et exemplum in se suisque membris exprimere. qui in hac re Ecclesiae ius conculcare et iniquis legibus. cum ipsius constitutione ac fine intime coniuncta. sed litterarias tantummodo esse debere dicant. giosis ab eadem Ecclesia approbatis iniqua oppug-natione persequuntur. qui professionem perfectionis evangelicac in Ordinibus Institutiscjue reli- in institutis religiosis non solum activae sed etiam contemplativae vitae secundum modum ab Ecclesia approbatum pie et laudabiliter amplectuntur. Cf. regeiidum et sanctificandum populum Dei ministris privare conantur. 1 Inter sanctissimorum iiirinm violationes.

sed ex — — . proprietatis sunt in possessione Ecclesiae aut dispositionem ac distributioiiem ecclesiasticorum non secus ac eoruni. de evangelio vivant:^ : anathema Canon II. per easque diffusam esse. sed ab ea independentes sacris muneribus fungaiitur atque ideo iure suo Ecclesia eis prospicit. catholicam veritatem fucilius agnoscere et tenere possint. Hie porro aliam sacrilegam iniustitiam. Christi . Dicunt niniirum. quae jjublica simt totius nationis. Quare docemns. et per hoc ipsi Christo Deo specialius dicata sunt. acquirendi et possidendi bona temporalia. divinarum promissiouum Ecclesiam non esse societatem externam ac conspicuara. etiam sanctius est ac superioris ordinis. ut in societate divinitus et ad altiorem finem instituta et ad imperils mundanis independente.Document sapientia XIII. subserviant. pertinere ad nativum ius supremae potestatis sunt. propterea rebus etiam visibilibus et externis atque inter haec bonis quoque temporalibus utitur et iuvatur tamquam mediis ad divinam suam missiontm adimpleudam et ad fiuem sibi a Cbristo Salvatore propositum assequendum. pro — tempormn diversitate . quae ex ipsa eius divinitus data constitutione promanant. suprema auctoritatis possit illud ius abolere. et leges quibus status politicus tanquam ex supremo iure sibi inhaerente bona ecclesiastica usurpat. sed a singulis seorsum. turn impios honiinura conatus. iniustas spoliationes esse declaramus. ut iuxta ordinationem Domini qui evangeliimi annvmtiant. eiusdemque Ecclesiae sicut offlcium ita proprium ius est. esse. sane illud ius acquirendi ac possidendi titulo proprietatis. iterum damnare et pemiciosissimas faliacias. tempoi-alia 319 aeterna in sancta Ecclesia sua viam perfectionis evangelicae naonstiavit ac nee ilia politicis legibus sive disi^osuit dirigi sive deleri possuut. ut societati visibili a Deo inter homines constitutae. Si quis dixerit Ecclesiam a Christo Domino nullam certam ac immutabilem constitutionis formam accepisse. tiun multiplicibus indigentium membrorum tatis" quae opportuna bus Christi necessitatibus. tanquam membra vel partes uuam et universalem constituere Christi Ecclesiam. sed in ea. Damnamus igitnr turn doctrinam. Si quis dixerit. His vero muntriEcclesiae atque officiis exseqixendis cum variis dissitisque christiani nomluis societatibus constare. quae legitimo affirmant. ex hominibus et ad hominum salutem in teriis consistens. Ecclesia namque cum sit perfecta societas divino iure constituta. Canon IV. et ab eius libera concessione iugiter pendere. Huiusmodi autem perversis doctrinis impugnantur iura Ecclesiae certissima. veram Ecclesiam non esse umun in se corijus. aut varias societates ab invicem fidei professione dissideutes atque commuuione seiunctas. neque hoc iure eam a quavis potestate saeculari privari posse. Canon — . Haec : docere bonorum Be Canon I. quibus homines mendaces illam obvelare student. sed totam internam ac invisibilem anathema sit. et tantam ipsi Deo ac sanctae relii^ioni eatholicae irrogant iniuriam. 1 Coi-. Ecclesiae. ac propterea eliminanda esse dicitur. qua professio religiosa illicita vel vero profectui populorum noxia. quia bona huiusmodi mystico corpori Christi. Si quis dixerit. supernaturalis quidem. tum aliis. non habita ratione ad ullam societatem quae vera ipsius Ecclesia sit. adiuvante Christo fid'ei regula utentes. secundum ordinem divinae providentiae bona ' Cf. Ecclesiam non esse societatem ad aeternam salutem consequendam omnino necessariam aut homines per cuiusvis religionis cultum salvari posse anathema sit. domino vacun. cbristianae cariet pietatis operibus. providendi tum decori externi divini cultus. . V. qui commemorata Ecclesiae ac fidelium iura invadunt. qui non pntt'stati saccular! subordinati. sibi vindicare velut latisque legibus titulo bona .] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. sit. est. politicae. Clu-isti reli- gionem in nulla peculiari societate ab ipso Ciiristo fundata exstantem et expressam esse. qua contra matrem Ecclesiam crudeliter et . Si quis dixerit. quod mere humanis societatibus legitime constitutis competere potest. in Ecclesia non deficit. ut omnes. Ecclesia Christi. quae generatim visum Nobis Christi fidoles circa Ecclesiam Christi his autem contraria certis et {)ropriis Canonibus in hunc qui sequitur modum damnare. sed aeque ac reliquas hominum societates. sed eadem societas visibilis — Si quis dixerit. ius in dies latins grassatur. ius Ecclesiae. aut subiici posse anathema sit. iudicaverit. i-t. Ad banc enim suam missionem Ecclesia visibilis ex natura sua et ex divina institutione miuistros proprios babet ex hominibus assumptos et pro hominibus constitutes. anathema sit. rite observari et excoli posse. esse subiectum arbitrio status politici. vicissitudiuibus et transformationibus subiectam fuisse. ita ut potestas politica vi suae bona temporalia acquirendi et possidendi. ix. Canon III. proscribere necesse Nobis est. ac propterea praedictos errores damnamus.

esse iure divino Canon VI. che pill Canton! cattolici (per esempio. Canon XIX. ut sac- Canon XVII. quae necessario requiruntur.. ut revelationis depositum integrum custodiatur anathema sit. Si quis dixerit. beatum a Christo Domino con- non esse Apostolorum omnium principem et totius Ecclesiae militantis visibile caput. Si dixerit. Si quis dixerit. ideoque omnes sectas religiosas ab Ecclesia tolerandas esse anathema sit. anathema sit. 320 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. . civilis eidem . et apostolicam Romanam . .— Si quis dixerit. Ecclesiae infallibilitatem ad ca tantum restringi. civilem non posse simul consistere. sed exspectandam esse aliam. potestatem. aliam esse praeter unam. ita ut iura utriusque salva sint anathema sit. DOCUMENT XIV. cular! dominationi sit. Si quis dixerit. ec. catholicum. sanctam. sed collegium. — . — . qua Ecclesia catholica omnes religiosas sectas a sua communione separatas proseribit aut tie et damnat. Ecclesiam institutam divinitus esse tanquam societatem aequalium ab episcopis vero haberi quidem officivim et ministerium. subiiciatur . Neuchatel. omnia inter homines iura derivari a statu politico. in lege status politic! vel in publica hominum opinione constitutam esse pro publicis ac socialibus actionibus supremam conscientiae normam aut ad easdem non extendi Eccle. Ticino) hauno suolo pill fertile di quelle dei Protestant! di Ginevra. ipsius Christi Domini . cercassimo di ascrivere uu tal fatto alia difmostreremmo ignorare fereiiza del territorio. aut niiUam nisi ab ipso communicatam dari auctoritatem anathema sit. Si quis dixerit. nisi quatenus . sionem . Canon XVI.— Si quis dixerit. quae divina revelatione continentur. aut depravata et corrupta esse anathema sit. anathema Canon XI. non . Canon XXI. Canon XIV. potestatem ecclesiasticam independentem. Apparisce da questo prospetto. Canon XIIL— Si quis dixerit. quod iure divino vel ecclesiastico est illisiae indicia. . — .— Si quis dixerit. eandem Christi Ecclesiam posse offundi tenebris. vel eum tantum honoris. Frihurgo.— Si quis dixerit. veritate plenam tionis in et tantummodo officium non autem supremam potestatem iurisdichabere vel directionis. Canon XV. e consta dalle relazioni unanimi di quanti lianno percorsa la Svizzera. quae ad regendam civilem societatem necessaria est. Romanum religionis opinioiies tautum non autem certitudinem baberi posse. — manum Petri in Pontiticem non eodem primatu successorem. extra quam nemo salvus esse potest. Si quis dixerit. Lucerna. anathema sit.— Si quis dixerit. che i Protestant! vi godono Se di maggior prosperita che i Cattolici. Canon X. — . [Document XIV. anathema sit. . . che dove i Cattolici si trovano misti ai Riformati su terrene di cgurtl indole. non autem verae propriaeque iurisdictionis priesse ex institutionc. ac devios contumacesque exteriori iudicio ac salubribus poenis coercendi atque cogendi anathema sit. . ivi sono questi non poco superior! a quell! in bcnessere. non autem propriam regimiuis potestatem. Pontificem inspectionis — Si quis dixerit. praesentem Clnisti Ecclesiam non esse ultimam ac supremam consequendae salutis oeconomiam. aut intici malis. potestatis sauctione firmentur aut civili potestati v! suae siipremae auctoritatis competere. per novam vel pleniorem divini Spiritus effu- tandem desinat — . Solera. veram Christi Ecclesiam. tmiversam Ecclesiam aut banc quis dixerit. nee ad alias etiam veritates extendi. leges Ecclevim obligandi non habere. e cio . — pronuntiat quibus ea de lie! to et illicito aut vi iuris civilis fieri licitum. Canon VIII. libere cxercenda Canon XII. ut beatus Petrus in primatu super universam I'^cclesiam habcat perpctuos successuros aut Ro- matum accepisse anathema sit. intolerantiam illam. quam Ecclesia catholica sibi a Christo tributam esse docet. aut ita in civili sen in statu esse. . quibus a salutari fidei morum- Canon VII. Canon IX. Si Pctnim Apostolorum stitiitiim — quis dixerit. potestatem que veritate aberret. supremamque potestatem. anathema sit.— Si eius non esse ordinariam et immediatam in omnes ac singulas ecclesias anathema sit. divino iure non praecipi . a Christo Domino et Salvatore nostro Ecclesiae suae collatam tantam fuisse potestatem dirigendi per consilia et suasiones. non vero etiam iubendi per leges. nare . Canon XX. citum siae anathema sit. quae ipsis diviua ordinatione competat quaeque ab iisdem sit . Canon XVIII. Ecclesiam non esse societatem perfectam. ab tutione originali sua iustideviet. Si quis dixerit. in causis religionis iudicare et decernere anathema sit. non esse a Deo aut eidem ex ipsa Dei lege subiectionem non deberi aut eam naturali hominis libertati repug. ana- thema sit.

e cbi un' altra. deren lauteste Stimmfiibrer nicbt Bischofe. Kircbe und damit unsere tiefsten Lebeusinteressen unmittelbar beriibrenden Saclie. XVI. . sondern Ordensmiinner und Laien sind. dont vous avez public le texte et dont vous avez eu I'exfreme bonte' de m'envoyer un exemplaire. ticinese. a vous et a vos amis. " Vous me permettrez d'ajouter bien aux antecedents des catho- liques fran9ais." DOCUMENT " Monsieur.. eifrigst bemiiiit. " 321 nei Cantoiii di Glarona. alle diejenigen im Gegensatze zu den " eigentlichen " fiir " liberale " Katholikeu erklaren. j'ai tiiucbe au bord de la tombe. Toutefois. V. nous out valu I'bonneur d'inaugurer la de'fcnse de la liberie religieuse sur le continent . . {Statistica della Svizzera di Stefano FraiiLugano. XV.) scini. ". San Gallo. ihre Wiinsclie und Lieblingsmeimmgen mit dem Glauben und den Bediirfnissen der Kircbe verwecbselnd. J'en aui-ais Tout my que je me sens un peu bumilie' par la pensee que vous autres. DOCUMENT XVI. selbst in wicbtigen Fragen. — AdRESSE AN Trier. sondern aller Glieder der Kircbe Erfaiirung und Einsicbt dort gebort und beacbtet werde. etc. J'ai cru voir luire im eclair au milieu des tenebres. unsere b. Hocbwiirdigster Herr In Ilnem diesjabrigen Fastenhirteubriefe. ma essi la discorrono alia peggio. . " Au milieu de cette mine du corps. wie sie. aucb Laien. Monsieur. Grigioiii. mes maux ne peut tarder et des a present il me semble que je puis juger des cboses et des personiies d'ici bas avec un desinte'ressement et ime inde'pendance dont la mort seule a le privilege. der Wirksamkeit des kunftigen Concils gleichsam eine bestimmte Eicbtung anzuweisen. .] si THE VATICAN COUNCIL. perche sonosi i Cattolici lasciati sorpassare in prosperita dai Eiformati? Cbi adduce ima causa. . Deux fait la fin de laquelle je soupiie et que le bon Dieu me attendre si longtemps. Adunque molti dei Protestant! vanno dicendo esser la religione ritbrmata migliore della cattolica. " Ch. et c'est avec une intiiue et profonde jouissance que mon cceiir et mon esprit vont se re'fugier sur ces bords du Ebin oil se sont de'veloppees mes premieres impressions d'etudiant. . dass nicbt nur Priester.. mais surtout a ladmirable Adresse de ceitains la'iques de Cobleuce a I'e'veque de Treves sur le futur concile. sans pouvoir y trouver la delivrance apres fois. In der Tbat sehen wir demgemass aucb beute eine Anzabl von Glaubigen. c'est a vous. ec. welcbe ibre Lebrsatze als Dogmen anzuerkennen und ibre Bestrebuiigen als beilbringend zu betracbten ausser . dass in einem allgemeinen Concil zwar nur die Biscbofe als die Nacbfolger der Apostel entscbeidendes Stimmrecbt liaben. a votre excellent journal les Kcelniscbe Blsetter. " Je ne saurais vous dire a quel point j'ai e'te emu et cliarme' par ce glorieux Maniftste de la conscience et de la raison des catholiques. " Paris. pendant la premiere moitie du dix-neuvieme siecle. die uuterzticbneten Glaubigen der Diocese Trier. . tocca con mano a paru irreprocbable dans la forme comme dans le fond. Appeuzello. BiscLoflichen unserem geistlichen Hirten und naben wir. Einfluss auf die BescblUsse der Coucilien zu iiben berufen seiu konnten. von unserem Gewissen gedrungen. "Agreez. . eine ebrfurcbtsvoUe. in welcbem Sie die Gliiubigen auf die Bedeutung des bevor- Hocbwiirdigster Herr als Gnaden Bischofe ! .. ernsteu. und boren. erwabnten Sie. in einer bocb-wicbtigen. . a la savante et courageuse Feuille the'ologique de Bonn. ec.Documents XV. perche in cio 1' essenza della religione non ba parte ma dicesi dunque. B. gioiii. et entendre enfin un accent viril et cbretien au milieu des de'clamati ins et des adulations ecoeurantts dont nous somraes assourdis. Allemands du Ebin. juiUet 1869. . comme aux convictions qui. ! DEN depuis quelques semaines. Lettre du Comte de Montalembebt. de Montalembeut. 1 827. ame me simble avoir conserve encore une certaine vigueur. mon . stebenden allgemeinen Concils binwiesen. " Ces consolations. Friburgo. vous avez eu cette fois I'initiative d'une de'monstration qui convenait si volontiers signe cliaque ligne. offene und freimiitbige Erklarung vor Ibnen imd der gauzen Kirclie abzugeben. I prudeuti sono d' avviso concorrere iiisieme pareccbie ra. dass aber nicbt bloss ibre. et oil je retrouve aujourd'bui les seules consolations qu'il me soit donne de rencontrer dans la spbere des preoccupations du polemiste politique et religieux. que je les dois. Ew. COBLENZER LaiEN.

deren Falschheit christliclien I'angst durch die grossen Wahrheiten in helles Licbt gesetzt ist. und vor AUem erwartet man von den Bischofen. unserem Bischofe. durch keinerlei Gunstbezeugungen einer von Seiten kirchlidien Autorifat mchrte. Hochwiirdigster Herr Unsere Zeit hat. wie sie friihere Concilien zur Formulirung kirchlicher Lehren veranlasste. und den Anschein. Diese Glaubi^en haben im Stande sind. welche ihn direct zu beriihren scheint. in der That eigenthiimliche. "Die Katholiken wiinschen. die — Ew. liat durch spatere Erklarungen nicht Avesentlich abgescbwachte Satze veroifentlichten "Die libeialen Katboliken fiircbten. wie schon gesagt. falls es von keiner Seite oifenen Widerspruch erfahren sollte. . . Aber man hofft. iiber die Gesinnungen der Katholiken bedeutende. aus unscrer Zuriickhaltung hervorzutreten. aus dem .st. die allgemeinste Zustimmung beanspruchendes Vorgehen. unter den gegenwartigen Umstanden doppelt veranlasste. der Papst in dieser Frage. uns sind im Hinblick auf die vom heil. : es laut aussprechen Wir theilen jene Ansichten. so beredt sie auch sein mag . nahren ganz andere Hoffnungen. vereinzelten. das kiiuftige Concilium mochte etwa die Doctrin des Syllabus und die dogmafische ducirte. auch von uns lebhaft gefiihlte Bediirfnissc. . wir diirften wohl schwerlich uns veranlasst gesehen haben. unter den gegenwartigen Umstanden eine langdauernde Versammlung zu lialten. so dass die Minoritat nicht lange wird opponiren konnen.. 322 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. dass die einstimmige Kundgebung d. verliarrcn. es ware demnach leicht erklarlich. verwahren uns vielmehr gegen dieselben auf das entschiedenste. " Endlich giebt cs in Frankreich auch noch eine Menge Katholiken welche den Wunsch aussprechen. hoffen jedoch wieder andererseits das Concilium konne etwa einige von den S'atzen des Syllabus modificiren oder in einem ibnen giinstigen Sinne erlautern. so sehen wir in neuerer Zeit nirgendwo eine haretische Punkte des Glaubensbekenntnisses beriihrende Spaltung. r Document XVI. Orden mit der ganzen Wucht einheitlicher Organisation nach denselben Zielen drange. . dass jene Glaubigen mit der Zuneigung kirchlicher Autorit'aten und des heil. die Initiative nicht ergreifen. " Ziemlicli allgemein findet man dieUeberzeugung verbreitet. wenn auch nicht in der eben bezeichneten Richtung. imd eine Vereinigung mit unsern im Glauben getrennten christliehen Briidern mochte kaum dadurch erleichtert werden. Nun aber ist es nicht imbekannt. dass das okumenische Concil die Doctrinen des Syllabus proclamire " Die Katholiken werden die Proclamation der dogmatischen Unfeblbarkeit des Papstes Natiirlich wird rait Jubel aufnehmen. Geistes durch den Mund der Yater des okumenischen Concils das Dogma der Unfeblbarkeit des Papstes per acelamationem definiren wird. das heisst die grosse Mehrbeit der Glaubigen. beklagenswerthe Irrthiimer Angesichts einer solchen Lage aber diirfen und konnen auch wir nicht im Schweigen treue. oder doch wenigstens niclit erledigen " Die eigentlichen Katholiken aber. Mittelpunkte der Kirche. als ob ein grosser Unfeblbarkeit des Papstes proklamiren. dass man die Summe noch satze um der iins trennenden Glaubenseinige neu formulirte ver! Aufnahme Maria aufsetzen ! in den Himmel die Krone ! Waren das AeusHochwiirdigster Herr serungen irgend einer beliebigen. es Stuhles selbst sich schmeichcln. Der uns rings sich umgebende Unglaube sophische stiitzt auf pliilo- Meiuungen. ein Pressore-an. die Allen Alles zu sein bcstimmt i. denen gerecht zu werden die Kirche. in Kiirze darzulegen uns vergonnt sein moge. als jene wir raiissen vielmehr unsere Stimme erheben und vor Ihnen. sondern schweigsam und zuriickhaltend sein. dass sie in den Hauptfragen einig sein werden. die Civilta Cattolica. in Kom selbst. etwa wie das von Chalcedoii. sein werde. unter denen das allgemeine Concil zusammenzutreten im Begriflfe ist. . . wenn ein so planmassiges und energisches. Ueberschauen wir die Verlialtnisse. hervortreten. dass das kiinftige Concil ein kurzes. die wir nicht minder glaubige und fiir das Wohl unserer gemeinsamen Mutter ohne Eiickhalt begeisterte Kinder der Kirche zu sein bestrebt sind. . Hoffnungen und Wiinsche der sogenannten eigentlichen Katholiken nicht. Vater in seiner Berufungsbulle erl'auterte Eedeutung des bevorstehenden Concils Gedanken anderer Art vor die Seele getreten. das kiinftige Concilium moge d^n vielen von der Kirche der unbefleckten Jungfiau Maria dargebrachten Huldigungen durch das Dogma von der glorreichen .: " . Ebeuso liegen sie die Erwartung das Concilium werJe die Unfeblbarkeit des Papstes gar nicht beliandeln. denn man fiihlt die Schwierigkeit. Bischoflichen Gnaden .. in welchem sie vor Kurzem in Form einer Correspondenz aus Frankreich folgende auch in einer Zeitscbrift deutsclier Ordensmanner repro- aufgemunterten katholisclien Zeitung. h.

Gerade der Staat wird unserer Meinung nacb der christlicbste sein. die wir in Bezug auf die kircblichen Verb'altnisse in unserem Vaterlande so manchen betriibenden und bedenklicben Erscbeinungen der Gegenwart gegeniiber Ew. Denn das ist es vorziiglicb.] nnerschopfliclien THE VATICAN COUNCIL. innerbalb jener geistigen Erkenntnisse imd sittlichen Gesetze bescldossen ist.ns und des einzelnen Cbristen zur allgemeinen Bildung und zur Wissenscbaft an diesen das kircblicbe Leben im weitesten Sinne umfassenden Aufgaben miiht die Gegeuwart in geistigem Eiugen eicb ab. Znnacbst und vor Allem wiirden wir es daher als sicbere Biirgscbaft segensreicber Entwicklung mit Freude begriissen. um das natiirliche Gesetz immer tiefer zu erfassen und in seinen Ordnungen immer reiner zum Ausdruck zu bringen. die freieste und selbststandigste Bewegung auf ihrem Gebiete xmd den Scbutz ihrer Rechte sichert seinerseits freiwillig.sittliclie eigene seine welche Gnmdlage anerkennen. die tbeokratiscben Staatsformen des Mittelalters herzustellen. Concil keinen dass das bevorstebende Zweifel dariiber lasse. Wir verkennen nicbt. achtet. in der organiscben Regelung der Tbeilnabme der Glaubigen an der Gestaltung der kircblichen Lebensbeziehungen. Biscboflichen Gnaden ans Herz zu legen vertrauensvoll wagen werden. die gesunden Krafte sicb in segensreicber Wirkung enlfalten konnen. von der Einsicbt der ganzen Kircbe getragenen bevorstebenden Concil zu erwarten. auf die religiose Sitte des Volkes Riicksicht nimmt und die bobere Einsicbt der durch das Christenthum erzogenen Biirger gern benutzt. insofem die Ordnung dos Staates und die obrigkeitlicbo Gewalt auf der Anerkennung eines lebendigen personlichen Gottes und des von ihm der Seele eingepflanzten Sittengesetzes beruben aber wir sind uns aucb mit voller Ueberzeugung bewusst. vollstandig gebrocben. von ibrer Herstellung. welche obne die von staatlicbem Zwange freie Hingebuug der Glaubigen nicbt zu besteben vermag. und fiir ibre : Losung scbeint sie sebnsuchtsvoll Hiilfe und Beistand von dem vom gottlicbem Geiste geleiteten. Provinzial. Born ihrer 323 gottlichon Kraft die Mittel zii schopfen vermag. in denen nacb Gottes Willen das Leben der Menscbheit sicb entfalten soil. soweit es obne Verletzung der Eechtsgleicbheit gescbeben kann. im Aufsucben der ricbtigen Stellung des I\Jei.und Diocesansynoden ausginge. Ricbten wir vorher noch unsero Auf- merlcsamkeit auf das allgemeine Verbaltniss der Kircbe zum Staate und zur raodernen Gesellscbaft iiberbaupt. in der Herstellung einer selbststandigen und harmonischen Bewegung der beiden Ordnungen. nicbt Uoss der iiusseren Form. sind von jeher ein Quell des Heiles fiir die Kircbe gewesen. als die Geund schicbte sie bis jetzt geseben hat wenn dennocb im Leben der Einzelnen Conflicte zwiscben beiden Ordnungen eintreten. dass ein naberes. so werden es doch nur solcbe sein. Solcbe Synoden. wie die Kirche. jene Zeiten mocbten wiederkebren. dass die Spbare des Staates.Document XVI. . dass aucb das Staatsleben eine religiose Grundlage hat. wenn ibre Bescbliisse aus wabrbaft freier und griindlicber Beriitbung gescbopft und auf die Forderungen des wirklicben Lebens gerichtet waren. ibr Auflioren war fast iiberall Beginn oder Zeicben der Erstarrung imd des Hinwelkens. wo die Staatsgewalt mit weltlicben Zwangsmitteln fiir die Dogmen und Gesetze einea bestimmten auf iibernatiirlicbe Offenbarung zuriickgefiibrten religiosen Bekenntnisses eintrat. Organismus der Kircbe selbst wird in scinen einzelnen Tbeilen die Formen bervorzubringen baben. der Kircbe und den Confessiunen. religios . was die Geister heute der Kirche entfremdet. auf dem ihm eigenthiimlicben Gebiete in voller Selbstsfandigkeit sicb bewegt. eine idealere Ausgestaltung von Staat und Kircbe erreichen lassen. dass man fiircbtet. . in denen die Scliadcn Heilung findeu. diirfen wir daber die Erfiillung derjenigen Wiinsclie lioffen. wenn vom bevorstebenden Concil eine Neubelebung des grossen kircblicben Organismus durch allgemeine Wiedereinfiihrung jener durcb Jalirliunderte erprobten regelm'assigen National-. die Kircbe babe mit dem Wunscbe. In der Befreiung der Kirr-he von der Staatsgewalt. welcbe durch die natiirlichen Kj-afte des Menscben erfasst werden. und wabrend er der iibematiirlichen Religion. eine fruchtbarere Wirksamkeit. sondern dem Geiste und Wesen nacb. Wir verbeblen una nicbt. gescbadigt ^vurde. Auf diesem Wege wird sicb eine vollkommnere Harmonic. Einzelbeiten bestimmendes Eingeben auf alle diese in dem vielgestaltigen und reicbgegliederten Leben der Kircbe wurzelnden Bediirfnisse einem allgemeinen Der Concil kaum moglicb sein wiirde. in der Zuriickfiibrung der getrennten Briider zur Kircbe. der in gleicber Weise. der diese seine Scbranken am gewissenhaftesten . so scbeint es uns im Interesae der Freibeit und Selbststandigkeit der Kircbe aufa dringendste geratben. wo demnacb das Gewissen gebunden und die Wiirde der Religion selbst. in der Bewaltigung des socialen Elendes.

so geniigt ein Blick auf das Verhaltniss. welche die socialen Uebel der Zeit an dio christiche Liebesthatigkeit ! doch miisste nicht nur die Verwaltung des kirchlichen Vermogens. da war der Gemeindeverband so innig und fest. von denjenigen Disciplinen ausscbliessen. Und Bildung der angehenden Geistlichen beschrauken. die eincrseits aus dem diirch das Cliristenthum zuerst klar ausgcsproclienen Unterschiede der Kirche und des Staates. sondern auch cine augemossene Vcrbindung uud planvollo Lei lung aller betiieiligten Kriifte crmoglicln n wiirden. als kircldicbe Organe der b<>zeiclmeten Art ihrer Natur nach zwingendc Entscheidungen nicht zu treflfen batten. Seelsorger und Gemeinde umschlingen soil. da war diese Einmiithigkeit voUkommen. welclie. schon an sich den Interessen der Kirche Culturmacht widerspricht. endlich freien Gcnossenschaften iiberlassen.. in welchem der Clerus mehrerer romanisclicn Lauder zu den gebildeten Laien steht. sionsthatigkeit imd den allgemeiucn Augelegenheiten der Kirche. das Alles miisste der Idee nach Sache der ganzen mit ihrem Seelsorger auch mit Riicksicht auf diese Verhaltnisse in zeitgemassen Formen organisch verbundenen Gemeinde sein. aus. in die einzutreteu selir viele durch Gleichgiiltigkeit. nicht vertreten zu sein. lichen Aufopferung und Hingebimg religioser Orden und dem Ilirtenwalten des Seelsorgers auf diese Weise beengende Schranken zu Ziehen kann um so weniger unsere Absicht sein. Der freien Liebesthatigkeit Einzelner. Gegenstande der Berathung machen sollte. um die alle Nachbarn uns beneiden. Denn heute gibt es kaum noch einen lebendigen regelmiissigen christlich-socialen Verkehr der gauzen Gemeinde als soldier unit ihrem Seelsorger. dass dio Stimme des Volkes bei der Wahl des Bischof's gehort wurde. Die Gemeinde hut fast iiberall kein Organ. den Clerus uud die durch akademische Studien vorbereiteten welt- lichen Wenn es Berufsstande einigte. auf die eigeuthiimlichen Verhaltnisse unseres Vaterlandes vorsorglich Riicksicht nehmen.324 THE VATICAN COUNCIL [Document XV I. kleines Gebiet beschrankt imd kaum der Schatten einer wirklichen Vertretung. welche in die unmittelbaren Quelleu des Glaubens und der kirchliclien Kntwicklimg einfiihren.s Clerus-imd Laien. wenn das Band. wie es in offeutliclien Blattern heisst. M'clche nicht nur cine allgemeinere Heranziehung dor Laien. dem Piarrer. Hochwiirdigster Herr! Noch peinlicher tind driickender. so miissten wir darin geiade zu eine unheilvolle Schailigung der kircldichen Wissenschaft wie des kirchliclien Lebens Wir sprechen daher den Wunsch erblicken. denn die Kirchenvorstande unserer Tage siud auf ein sehr : . welche bisher in Deutschland. stellen. gar eine Dis- Mit schmerzlicliem Bedauern wiirden wir daher jeden Versuch betrachten. die gemeinsame Bildungsgrundlage zu zerstoren. dass alle Cxl'aubigen im engsten Verbande mit ihren Seelsorgern am kiiclilichen Leben theilnehmend und in einmuthiger Gemeindeth'atigkeit die gauze Als Fiille christlicb'en Wirlcens entfalten. die bedeutenden Antbrderungeu. wollte man Studirenden der Theologie. sondern auch die Sorge fiir Arme. odor die entgiiltige Festsetzung dieses Gegenstandes nationalen Synoden iibcrlassen. miisste es vou uns empfimden werden. Krauke uud Elende aller Art uud fiir die christliche Erziehung der Jugend. als die Stoning der Harmouie zwischen Kirche imd Staat. andererseits aus der Schwache und Fehlerhaftigkeit alles Menschlichen sich mebr oder weniger nolhwendig ergeben. don socialen Uebeln der .'ster Herr welche der Kirche in imseren Tageu durch den uns von alien Seiten bekiimpfenden Unglauben drohen. es miisste die Begutachtung der Niederlassung religioser auf Unterstiitzung durch die Glaubigen oder tiffeutliche Wirksamkeit innerlialb der Gemeinde angewiesener Orden. Einzelnen. viele audere durch eine nicht unberechtigte Scheu sich hindern lassen. wohl aber scbeint uns die Hoffnuug begriindet. Die zeitgemasse Herstellung auch dieser Einrichtung wird freilich wohl erst einer ferneren Zukunft vorbelialten und von einer freundlichen Auseinandersetzung zwischen Kirche und Staat abhangig sein schon jetzt aber scbeint uns eine allgemeinere organisch geregelte Betheiligung dur Laien am christlichsocialen Leben der Pfarrgemeinde hochst wiinschenswerth. gelockert wiiide Oder harmonie tiefgreifende zwischen ihneu eulst'ande. weuigstens im Allgemeinen noch. Die Gefahren. das bevorstehende allgemeine Concil falls es die Bildung des Clerus zum moge. HochwUrdi. der riihm- lassen es mehr als je nothwendig cvscheinen. WUrde man aber gar die theologische als der ersten in ahnlicher Lage die alto Kirche dereinst die heidnische Welt iiberwaud. an den grossen Bildungssfatten unserer Nation. Fast nur im Gottesliause oder bei den Cultushandlungen steht der Pfarrer der ganzen Gemeinde gegeniiber dio christlichen Liebeswerke siud religiosen Orden. dieTheilnalime an der Mis-. uns vor den Folgen Bildung der einseitiger Erziehung und kiinftigen Seelsorger zuriickschrecken zu lassen. dass mit Hiilfc solcher Orgnne.

dass durch sie nameutlicb jene von Tage zn Tage sicb eiweitemde KluFt zwisclieu sogeuanntt-n giiten und gewdhulicbcn Katholiken am ersten iibtrbriickt werden konnte. at wohl nur dann Aussicht auf Eifolg.die Biicber. welcbe die Hierarcbie iiberfliissig macben soUten. welcber man den Vcrfall des kiicblichen Lebens Scbuld gab. dass es der kircblicben Autoritaten beilige Pflicht ist. . Wenn sie aucb ein wabres. beseclt. Irrende auf den recbten Weg zu leitLn. Irrtbumer zu bezticbneu und zu verbessern.Document XVI. Was das Eintreten der Kirchenspaltung wabrscbeinlicb verbindert liatte. welches man in den lefzten Jabrbundcrten in Ausiibung dieses Berufs eingfschlagen bat. es miii^e dem bevcrdebenden andere nicbt unwicbtige Frage endlicb. sicb eine solcbe diffimirende Strafe zuzuzieben. dass eine herrscbfciichtige Hierarcbie in der Kircbe die Glaubigeu ausbeute und die Geister gewaltsam in falscbe Eicbtuugen leuke oder uiederihiicke. auf welcbes allein die kircblicbe Gemtrinde sicb erbauen lasst wir aber. welcbe wir Ew. nocb fiir die Entwicklung der Wissenscbaften beilsam. Vater. wenn aucla kleingl'aubige Verzweiflung im Gnuide jene Lehren geboien. die Eiutragung solcber Scbriften. wenn sie bei uns die grossen Organe der Kircbe wieder lebendig thiitig. Furcht zu begen liberredet werden koiinten. weil unmoglich alle Scbriften mit irrigen und bedenklichen iSatzen katulogisirt werden konnen und es dah'T oft von Zufalli. und in einem demnacb. ni cb dem Giiste und der Wurde der Kircbe vollkommen angr mtssen. solche Biicber zu lesen. Hochwih-digsler Herr Der heisse Wunsch. welcbe Biicber eingetragen werden. konnen unschwer auf den nnzcrstorten Fundamenten die nur lose gt schlcliteten Steine zum berrlicben Tempel zusammonfiigen. Bisclioflichen Gnaden gewiss recht wobl bekannt ist. die in der beaten Absicht geirrt oder aucb nur Missfalliges geaussert baben. dieses Verfabren scbeint uns weder seinem eigentlichen Zwecke zu entsprc cben. aucb gauz allgemein nicht beachtet wird es ist der Wiirde imd dem Geiste der Kircbe nicbt vollkommen augemessen. weil die Furcht. den Index librorum probibitorum aufzubeben. Die altcbristliche Kirclie. betrifft die Eiuiicb° tung des Index lilirorum probibitorum. als gefahrlicli gekennzeiclmet imd fiir alle Zeit mit einem Makel bebaftet werden. solcbe Biicber obne besondere Erlauhniss der kircbliclien Obern zu lesen. den ganzen bocbwiirdigen Episcopat. uns durch Y . der Wunsch. . deren Lectiire nicbt gestattet sei. diese in jencn Tagen erklarlicbe. Es erfiillt seinen Zweck nicbt. um die Furebt und das Misstrauen bei unsern Briidern zu beseitigen. . sondern mu. welcbe nicbt weil fcrner niclit die irrigen imd bedenklicbeu L( hren selbst.. Wie viele ihrer Vorurtbeile aber wurdeu nicbt mit tiuem Male scbwindcn. Es ist das IJecbt der kircblicben Autorittit. mitunter unmittelbar neben den Verfassern wahrer Scbandscbriften. wcnn von unsenr Seite Entscbeidendes gescbielit. das alt: cbristlicbe Gemeindeleben woUte man berdps stellen. Vorurtbeile zu Uberwinden und Vertrauen zu erweckeu. und dereu Autoren l)eze:chnet werden. religiose GleichgUltigkeit Ricbtungen besser hintangehalten. der den b. durch Notirung ihres Namens. und dalier unmoglich liinger die misstrauiscbe elier gehobeii. Allein das Verfabren. etwa von Denunciationen. Biscbofliclien Gnaden und des ganzen zum allgemeimn Eine allgemeinen Concil gefallen. die Einwirkung des Klerus auf das Volk. vielleicbt gar in Folge der unberufenen Dienstfertigkeit eines Gegners. das wird aucb wobl am besten nun aber bat die sie aufzubeben vermogen Verzweiflung an der Hierarcbie.st veroffentlicbten Katalog und das Verbot. abliangen muss. \\alirend Wissenscbaft und Kircbe ibneu fiir beileutende Leistungen eher Dank schuldig waren es ist endlicb fiir den wissenscbaftlicben Fortschritt nicbt beilsam. wie Ew. die Versobnung der von uns getreunten protestantiscben Confetsionen mit der Kircbe zu erleben. den Wunsch. die wir die festen Saulen mm : uns bewahrt Laben. durch irgend einen unwillkiirlicben Fehltritt oder Missgriif. die irrige oder bedenklicbe unsittlicbe Darstellungen entbalten. von der Mebrzahl der gebildeten Katholiken in seiir vielen Fallen gar nicbt beachtet werden kann und. Wir wissen. es gelang niclit.keiten. liber die Eeinbeit der Lebre zu wacben. sicb wie ein Bleigewicht an die Forschungcn der kathoWir begen daher lifcchen Gelehrten langt. eiuseitige ! 1 Concil eingeladenen Episcopats Erwiigung unterbieiteu miJcbten.] THE YATICAX COUNCIL. weil das Verbot. weil priesterlicbe verworfen batte. weil iifter gliiubige katbolische Verfasser. die socialen Aufgaben des Cbristentbums erfiillendes Gemeindeleben bei uns wieder bliihc n salien. die Durchdringung des Lebens mit christlichen Grundsatzen sicherer erzielt. jedeu gliiubigen Katboliken imd vor Allen uns deuti^clle Katbolikm. 325 Gegenwart von dtr Kirche mit durchgreifenderem Erfolge begegnet. in dessen weit geoflfnete Pforttn nacb Gottcs gnadiger Fiigung die btirakebrenden Briider freudig wieder einzieben.

326 THE VATICAN COUNCIL.^ Von keiner Seite eifulgfe ein Widcrsprucb. von aufrichtiger Besorgn ss fiir deren Wohl eingegeben und in langjabrigem Naclidenlicn gebildet sind. so lange sie in gl'aubiger Demuth bereit ist. aher die Legaten. ist vollig verscliii>ilon von allem. dass wiederholte kommen iinterricbtet. Sodann sollen die gewichligsten Fragen des Glaubens und der Lehre durch einfache ' Die neue GeschUftsordmwr] (les Conrils und Hire theologische Bcdeutung. Auf die Petitionen dor Bischofe ist iudess in der neuin Einrichtuug keine Riick. die wir als trtue Sohne der Kirche in der Einheit mit ibr imd ihrem Mittelpunkte. den Irrthum aufzugeben. welche vor Ihnen unser Gewissen uns ge- draugt hat. sorgten fiir Orduung und leiteten die Verhandlungen in einfachster Weise. mid liir die zahlreichen Ducrete. .' Alles wurde in voller Versammlung vorgetragen jeder Tiiscbof konnte Antiage welcho er wollte. 2 10. Orientirung mag nur in der Kiirze erwahnt werden. die von treuer Auhanglichkeit an unsere heilige Kirche. imd nicbt eine aiisserate Gefabr fur das Seelen heil der Glaubigen Warnung vor dem so oft sie es fiir . Audi der traurigen Kirchenspaltimg des l(j. dass. welche durcli sie zu Stande gebracht werden sollen. die Ueberzeugungen nnd Wiinsche. welche dem Coucil dureh die fiinf Cardinal-Logaten Le I'lat. stellcn. lebliaft erregt rlurch die Wabrnehmung znuaclist der weitverbreiteten Abneigung mit der man in katbodie oben inifgetbeilten lisclien Kreisen Auslassimgen der Civilta aufgenommen. dem Stuhle zu Eom. der C'irdinal de IMonti. und abgeUruckt bci Maiisi. so gut wie alle andern. so muss absprechenden Behauptungen einseitig gegeniibcr die lehrtnde und regierende Kirche durch bestimmte und klare Bekenntnisse von dem Zustande der Geister voll- auferlegt worden. da die Theilung und Abstimmung nacli Nutionen oingefuhrt wurden. [Document XVII. Sie verdieuen. liic AfomimenUi. In Trient wurde diese Ei irichtung wicder verlassen. iii. sodann der beMagenswerthen Bedenklichkeit. nothig halt die unfreiwillig irremle Person aber darf von der christlichen Liebe der kirchlicben Obern Schonimg ibres Namens und Rufes erwarten. offentlich niit unserm Namen bervorzutreten. Zwei Ziige tretcn darin vor allem hervor. Nur fiir roinisclie und spanische ProvincialConcilien gab es ein liturgisches Cereraoniell. 1. diinkt uns. den Mund unseier Seelsnr^er vor irrigen Lehren i\nd iinsittlicben Buchern zu warnen. die es nicht sollten. Jahrbtmderts ging ein allgemeines Cnncil unmittelbar voraus. um nissen der Zeit entgegenzukommen in den Stand gesetzt seiii.^ liess dariiher abstimmen. was sonst auf Concilien gebrauchlicli war. als die geistHchen. christlichen Volker durch das fiir die Kirclie wirklich wiedergewonncn werden. mit den Bi:-chofon. ausztisprechen Das sind. Das erste Jiegolaineufo erwios sich so hem- mend imd Gesuohe unpraktisch. Uns hat iiichts anderes veranlasst. So ist denn die lieutige romisclie Synode die erste in der Geschicbte der Kirche. Biscbuflichcn Gnaden mit Gottes Hiilfe zu leben und zu sterben cntschlossen sind. und die Prlisidenten. mit der so mauche. in welcher den versammelten Vatern ohne jede Theilnahrae von ihrer Seite die Pi-ocedur voigeschrieben worden ist. die weltlicben sowohl welche die Kaiser sandten. Uonc. wann und Irrlebrer erbeiscl. vorfreimiithigemWiderspruchzuriickscbreckeu. dabei genornmen worden. als das Gefiild der Pflicht. obne auf die Entwicklung der Dinge eiuen giinstigen SoUeu heute die Einfiuss auszuiiben. liocliwiirdigster Herr." abge. dass fiir die allgemeinen Concilien der altin Kirche im ersten Jahrtausend cine bestimmte Gescbaftsordnimg nicbt existirle.sei. Die grossen Cnncilierv zu Koiistanz imd Basrd machten bIcIi einc eiu'ene Ordimng.t. aber nach dritthalb Monaten fonden die fiinf Legaten eiidlich 'selher.bicht DOCUMENT X\IT. so dass das Concil selbst ihnen gegeniibcr maohtlos und willenlos ersclieint.-tininit wuiiU'. Cull. gehort zu werden. 418: utrnm modus procpdeiidi " Diount Patros. den wahven Bediirf- Abiinderung und Gestattung freierer Bewegung von verschiedenen Fractionen des Episkopats an den Pap»t gerichtet wunleu. Einrnal ist alle Macht undaller Einfiuss auf den Gang des Concils in die Hiinde der prilsidirenden Legaten und der Deputationen gelcgt. und alle gtudimigtcn sie.ste Beacbtuug. vereinbarten die Geschartst>rdnuiig . Die neue Gescbaftsordnung. wenn das Concil nicht ins Stocken gerathen solle. Dies war virgeblich. Sie vcrdient daher die sorgZur gcschicbtlichen faltig. Au''genotnnien von Pseudoisidor. und in kindlichem Gehnrsam gegen Ew. AVurauf tis placoat. wehdie pvasidirten. eine Aenderung und Erganzung diingend nothwendig . und zugleich massgebend und entscheidend fiir den ferneren Verlauf flieser Versammlung. und dazu nacli Kriiften beizutragen fiihlten aiich wir ims verpflicbtet.

in deu zwei Jahreu. fiir {die Zeiten unantastbar und unwiderrutiich gelten.um denScbluss der Disfussion zu beantragen.schriftliche Erin- Man sielit nun wohl. und ehe nrch eine inzige Abstimi entscheidet. eiiie Moiige von Abh^mdlungen mit dazu gehorigen Decreten undCanonesnusarbeiten lassen diese sollen nun vun dem Concil angenoinnien imd dann voni Papst . wortet. In politischen Versammlungen konnen . scharf und entschieherausgestellt bat. wenn 63 ihnen scheiut.zweckmiissig halt. den Abstimmungen die abwogende den nun folgenMehrheit dieses Concils nicl. Aber die dogmatischen Betchliisse eines Concils sollen. zu erwiederu. weder fiir einzelne noch fih. Voraus. Solcbe Antiage werden durcti den den hier gegebeneu ahnliche Einrichtungen bestelien. Zelm Vaterreicheu liin. wobei jcder der V'iiter Uiit ^Racet oder non placet ant9. dann iiber den von der Deputation \orgelegteu Text durch Aufstehen oder Sitzenbleiben abge>timmt. Ob auch _ die blosse Mehrheit ''approbante Coucilio" als Lehr.wieder (in Stiick odtr Theil v. Das Verfabren welches bei der Bei-athung und Abstininiung stattfinden soil. Es scheint aber nach der Analogic b jaht werden zu miissen. so wiirden wohl gerade die wichtigern. 2. dass einige parlamentarische Formen in diese Geschaftsordnuiig heriibergenommen sind. abzuschneidin und also der Minderheit das Wort zu entziehen dies wird um so peinliclier wirken. die j\Iehrheit noch maclitiger und unwiderstehlich zu maclien. tobald es ihr gefallt. Secrttar der eiusehlagigeu Deputatiou (ts sind deren viei) iibergebeu. Bei der Abstimmung iiber die f inzelnen Theile des Schema wird zuerest iiber die vorgeschlagenen Versiuderungen. welclie der Eroflnung des Concils vorhergeganyen.Document XVII. 7. Die Bischofe der Deputationen konnen in jedem Moment d.nnd GLaiben»normeu fiir Gesetze. 5. 8. sondein sie wird sich. welche dann nacb ihrein Erinessen davou Gebraueh inaclit.. wie sicli dies besonders in dem ihr eingeiiiumten Eechte zeigt. 327 hii r Mehrheit der Koi)fzulil. von wcli. sich in gedruckten Gutachten oder Aufkiiirungen den iibrigen Mitgliedein des Concils mitzutheilen. w'ahrend sie hier umgekehrt zu dem Zwecke gegeben zu sein scbeinen. woriiber dann mit eiufacher Mehrheit durch Aufstehen 6. indem sie das Schema. 4. und es liegt durchaus kein Grund vor.n cinem grossern Ganzen. Denn es ist bekannt. Aber wenn in politibchen Versammlungen gewisse mrungeu. Schemate verloren gehen. tiefcr einschneidenden. selbst Ge etze gegeben stellen. so sollen sie gewohnlich zum Schutze der Miiiderheit gegeu Majorisirung dienen. auf- und oder Sitzenbltiben entschieden wird. Jede kann zujedcr Zeit eine Satzung ihrer Vorgiiugcrinnen jindern oder abrogiren. sie wird niclit wechseln mit den zu fassendtn Beschliissen. weil in der Fiage von der piipstlichen Unfehlbarkeit . ganze Schema mit Namen^aufruf abgestimnit. Verbesserungsautrage mafbeu konuen. die Discuss'on. wenn sie es liii. Die Pr'asilenten konn^njedes Schema cntweder bloss im Gauzr^n oder auch in Abschnitte getlieilt der Berathung uuttr- Beschliisse gefasst. aber nur summarisch gehalteuen. 3. mit dem grossern Stiick anders zu verfabren als mil dem k!eiiiern. denn das ganze Schema ist ja doch nui. Wurde das Princip der schleclithuiigen Meliiheit hicr verlassei). Mau liat hekainitlic-h. Hierauf wild iiber das stattgefunden. durch AufstelRn und Sitzeublciben.-ichtlich wird bei bleibe. dass die Theilung der Bischofe in eine Mehrheit und eine Minderheit .gauze Gruppen von Bischofen gegeben ist. wenn es wirklich ein okumenisches ist.] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. inn den Bisehofen. ist nun fcilgeudes: 1. da keine der folgenden Parlameute oder Kammern dm-ch die Bei-chlii. so dass die einfache Mehrheit sein. Berichte dem Coucil von den gestellttn Antiagen eine Notiz gibt. So musste es kommen. als bekanntlich auch die Moglichkeit. Ans>tellnngeu. Bei der Beiatlmng kounen die Prasidenten jeden Kedner unterbrecheu.sich gltich von Aufang an schon bei der Wahl der Deputationen. Wi Iche dann .'-ich alsbald ein durch- mung den Y 2 . Das Seliemawiid mLlirere(zelin) Tage vor der Berathung deu Vatern des Concils ausgetheilt. Es sin(i im ganzen tinundtuiilzig solcher Schemate. And. ist niclit angi geben.sse und Gesetze der tiiihern gebunden ist.'heu bis jetzt erst fiinf disi'iitirt der Kopfzahl eutscheiden solle. dass ernicht bei der Sache werden durch einfache Mebrheit. In dietem Fall mussen sie st^gleich eine ncue Forinel oder Fassung des betrefl'enden Artikels statt d( ill s von ibneu beanstaudeten Vorsclilfig brill gen. mit geringen Schwankungen der Zahl. in ihrer Zusammeusetzung wesentlicli gleicii bleiben.is Wort eigreifen. entschiedeu wenlen.t etwa eine flus>ige. reformirt und dann in ciiieni. welche den Wortlaut des Schema beaustanden. als die gauze katbolisclie Cbristenheit verkiiudigt werden.

dies klar zu machen. man. fidem non atting. quae sunt ix objccto diversa. drei Itidiener. Wirceburg. sowie sie aus den hervorgehei'.iit per quascun\que deterniinationes. der sc'hon in der Vorbereitung. nur dass ihre richterlicbe Gewalt iiber den Glauben nicht iiber den Bereich ihres Zeugenthums liinausgehen clarf. cujus sunt tantummodo procuratorcs et simplex repraesentatio. vidrre est in (M^miilis Ariniinensis. ut quicquam tale vel non tale faciant. nihil potest hodie declarari de fide. sammlung dass die Reprasentation. . und dafur ist ausreichend gesorgt. 361.s:i ecclesia. Welt heit zu eiklaren. quae sunt necessurio inclusae in articulis creditis. dass in . ex nomine totins . quam modernorum doctorum sententiam ecclesia uou potest. so wiirde die diirfen. so ist es audi J Die Theologie hat sich in drr Kntwicldung dieser Fragen angesclilossen an die allucmein al8 elassisch und vcillig correct angenommene Schriftdes Vincentius von Lerin?." (Kuvres de Fhielnn. Versaiiies. endlich Simor Regnierund Sharp'' sie habeu ira Namen der Gesammtwas diese Gesanimtheit der Gliiuingen iiher eine religiose Frage denkt und glaubt. p. das sclion um das Jahr 434 erschien. : ' • universilatis.s-Cornmission das Dogma der papstlichen Unfehlbarkeit in einer eigeiien Denkschiift empfohlenund in seiner Commission hat annehmen lassen. Neben ihm der Jesuit Steins. Sie sind also als Procuratoren anzuseben..— 328 greifender ergab. Dieser Grundsatz steht mit dein ganzen System der katholischen Kirche im engsten Zusammenhatg. den Depiitationen. in seiner Streitschrlft gegen Luther (^Op-ra.Scotus " In eorum " (des Concils mit dmi : Es Um rung erbitten. Si igitur per accidens coDJunguntur.jam declarant.«niMiiniii'in sibi creditam tantillum exUmii' cmsi:!!.' Sie em'pfangt keine neuen Offenburungen. uiiivcr. deren Vertreter sie sind. declarent. was sie iilsUeberlieferung empfangen hat. mit Birufung auf den gleichen Au>spriRli des Duns . schaftstra'^er aller Kirchen der katholisehen tlieorie Handeu die Auhauger der Unfeldbarkeitsdie Vorlageu. ed. dass Decrete iiber cten Glauben und die Lebre nur mit einer wenigstens moralisohen Stimmeneinhelligkeit votirt warden sollten. sodann die berelten Namen Dechamps von Meoheln. ist kein Beispiel eines Dogma bekannt. •wekdies duvch eine eiiifaehe Stimmenmehrheit unter clem Widersprucbe einer Mindeiheit beschlossen und darauf bin eingefiihrt worden ware.ehre und Definition nicbt besfatigen. zwei Spanier. imo repudiaret. Spalding von Baltimore. . tam veterum. der Deputatinnen auoh unbedenklich votiren werden denn ganz folgeriehtig alles masssie ist flir gebend. quid ipsa universitas sentiat Itaque ejnsnmdi legati et quid traditum acceperit. vor allem Zeurjen tiren. p. Blick auf das Personal der wichtigsten Deputation. quia Concilia noa possunt identificare. Gasser von Brixen. omnium call sianiiii sunt veluti prociiratores. quae solum apparenter. Ledochowski. . Eiorte- 1 f-o saptt der Bischof Fisher von Rochester. 1-10: "Secundum receptam. vel si solum probabiliter sequuntur ex articulis. quibus in dem folgenden. von Deutscben Martin. welche die ihnen gegebene Vollmaeht durc. ii. siiam de fide coimmuii drclavanda procurationem tantillum excederent. (die Glaubenslelire) nicbt erst zu machen. Die Kirche hat ein ibr von Anfang an iibergebeiies Depositura geoffenbarter I. ut cedere. sed ipsam tantiim repraesentat . drei Sudamerikaner. imd alle anderu von ilir Es steht zu erwarteu. und sie macht keine neuen Glaubensartikel. man principieller sofort erkannte. qui.ehre zu bewahren und zu vcrwalten. welrhen jetzt iiber alle oiif die Verbesseruug der Schemate beziiglichen Antrage die umfassendste und inappellable Gewalt iibertragen ist. agere ultra revelationes antiquas. nee necessario inlen-e ea." Und der Minorit Da^enytoit. Pie von Poitiers. vielmelir als etwas ihrem ihnen aufgestellie glaubigen weisen. ein Irlander.' Gegensatz mit ist dem allgemeinen Das Concil Hauptaugelegenheit der Ver- bilde. nefas essci |ir. unci Fia^e die unci THE VATICAN COUNCIL. was vom romischen Stuble ausge) t. 592). 1597. Senestrey. .inlra imagines coactae synodi.^ Kirche." geniigt. . i|Uod si quingenti episcopi. dass diese [Document XVIT. id quod revera pridem de subsUintia fidei fuerat. muss ich mir Raum fiir eine kurze tlieologische. Dift Bischofe Bewusst<ein * fremdes zuriick- auf . 182f). sed spirllu potins veritatis edocti. das Conimnnitoriiim. beherrfecht wunlen. vielmehr durch dieses fort wahrond bediugt und unischiieben Als Richter baben sie das Gesctz ist. Coiicil. Seit 1800 Jahren hat es in der Kirche als Grundsatz gegolten.. esse de substantia fidei. de Preux von Sitten. et Constantinopolitanai" e. seu probabiliter sunt inciusa in articulis creditis. Systema fidti. der fiir den Primat des Papstes sein Lcben opferte. id est ppiscopi illi qui concilio adsunt. quod non Un<le habet talem identitatera cuni prius revelatis semper docet Scotus Quod illae conclusione^ solum possunt infallibiliter declarari et determinari per ecclesiiim. .haus nicht iibersclireiten Thiiten sie es. aber hoffentlich allgemein versfandliche. Und wie mit der Kirche selbst. Hassun der Armenier. die von : i. legati mittunlur ab omnibus omnium gentium catholicarum ecclesiig. Vor alletn findet sich da der Romer Cardoni. 2 " Concilium non est ipsamet ecclesia. die Zusammenfassung der ganzen Kirche die BischoFe aiif demselben sind die Gesandten und Ge. de tide. nur eine Ein Ansicht sich geltend maclien kann. Auf diese bezidie kii micli daher Papstel "arbitrio non est situni. Concil sind also sie sagen aus und consta- dem was sie unci ihre Geraeinden als' Glaubenslehre empfangen unci bisher be- kannt liaben sie sind aber auch Ricliler. definitionem factara all illis ratam non haberet.

also stets mindestens unsicher gewesen ist. Verum enimvero quia et ipse error antiquus es>e potest idcirco cum consulitur vetustas." m Orat'an? De-ret A u'u ib!. sicut constat de Ariana . vel in suis prlncipiis a Deo. so kann sie nie. novaque contagio eccle^iatn ommacuiare incipit. keine mit logischer Folgeiichtigkeit sich ergebende Coiisequenz. nee per successionem et tradition. quae universitatis est. jedes . so kann und darf auch ein Coucil die Substunz d s Glaubens nicht sein. als wirklielier Bestandtheil des gottlichen Depositums. allgeniein geglaubt wurden. alien gezeigt und ilir Bekenntniss jedem Christen anferlcgt werden konne.— : Document XVIT. quibus recti(jnem animaruin ipse unicus pastor et rector dedit. an : dem oftuntsie glaubten und halten welchem klnre Folgerungen in den bereits gegelehrten Grundsatzen entsiml. tion ware. bemerkt dass die Kaiser an den Concilien theilgenommen "haben. ecclesiae vel SS. " Ubinam legistis. niminim antiquitate et consen^ioue stare non potest. sed decernendi nun omnibus patet. ext^rpando^que errores et abusus mfallibiliter etiuiu ex revelatis cuUigant populo Chribtiano credenda et u^urpanda in fide et moribus. So ist von dem Amte der Biscliofe auf Concilien jede Willkiir.So Vincentius: "Hoc semiter nee quidquam aliud Conciliorum decretis catholica perfecit ecclesia.. si quid vel sibi vel ecclesiae opus esse censeant." Papst Nikolaus 1. lichi-n Sie stehen imter Ec'chte der Kirche. die damit auf den Kopf gestellt wiirde. verum etiam ad Laicos et ad onines omnino Diese Stelle fand audi pertinet Chribtianus. Quod si universitatis ncita deficit et nova aliqua qiiacstio exoritur. weiin eiti bisher freies Gimeinwesen plotzlich uiiter das Joch eines absolut herrscheiiden Monarchen g<-bracht wiirde.is. Sie iiben ilir Richteramt. \v<dclie schon in der Kirche. imperatores antecessnres vestros synodalii)us conventibus interfuisse ? nisi forsitan in quibus de fide tiactatuni est. indem sie nach gewissenhafter Priifimg ob an einer Lehre die drei unentbelirlichen Bediugungen der Universalitat. Paris. ab omnibus ") zutreffen. nee eiiim est apostolica. Es Daher der gewolmliche Euf der Vater auf den Concilien nach der Aunahme und Verstandigung eiues dogmatischen Decrets " haec fides Patrum. keine Explication des vorher implicit Geglaubten. ut ventates jam alias.-slen beiath. 1645. ist al. quae non solum ad clericos. 395: " Universitas sine duabus aliis. Kt quantunivis doctrina aliqua latissime patcat. so ist das keiue Entwicklung. an die Stelle der friiher geglaubten und gelehrten Irrthumsfreiheit der ganzen Kirche die Unfehlbarkeit eines Einzigen gesetzt werden. ap.o . imd an7Ai- 329 zu interi5vetiren und wenden. niclits niclits hinzufiigen. andern. tunc hac universitate praesentiiun ecclesiarum deficiente recurrendum est ad autiqiiitatem. der Perpetuit'at und des Consensus (" ubique.-o stets eine Zeit der lebhaftesten Erweckung dts religiosen Bewu:>stBeins. 9 " Concilia generalia boo tantimi habent. das heisst zur Dignitat einer gottlich geoffenbarten Lehre." Commonit. Deinde. Der I'ridentinische Theologe Vega. et : : infallibiles deelarent veritates ecclesiae revesecundo. eine Ee voluden. vel in seipsis.] sonilcrn niir THE VATICAN COUNCIL. in .^ primo ut lat. wie die Geschichte der Kirche beweist. De dmciUo. kanu und darf jc'kr. Zeugni-ss ablegen.i Jhre Priifung hat sioh demnach sowohl iiber die Vergangenlieit als die Gegenwart zu erstrecken. Die Zeit.'t. Patribus revelatas vel per scripturas vel tniditionem piophetarum et apustolorum turn deelarent.aiungen emp Ian •." 1 So sagt der Caidinal Reginald Pole. erstens indem sie die von ihnen abgelegten Zengnisse miter einander priifen und vergleiclien und deren Tragweite erwagen zweitens. cap. auch der Laie. po^se aliquam haerebeos contagiunem occiipare multas ecclesias. wenn vom (jlauben gebandelt worden sei. Wenn aber eine Meinung stets niehts zu andern vermogen. 32." Soil also z. in welclier ein okumenisches davon wegnehmen und Ein Concilium macht also dngmatische Decrete nur iiWer Dinge. wiirde da irevelhalt und verderblieh denu da die Kirche keiue neuen Offenl. 11 : " Patet quidem locus ouiuibus et singulis exponendi. Addit: {tad hocdico: Praetentia Spiritus sancti illu^trantiir. auf die Bediirfuisse der Kirche hinweisen. Wiinsche aussprechen. keiue neuen Glaubensartikel machr. semper. Gerade wie es im jiolitisrhen Lebcn keine Foitbildung oder Entwicklung. einer der Prasidenten des Tridentinischen Concils.-s man gerade durch solche Kundgebungen dem Coneil seine Aul'gabe erleichtere. 1562. gewesen. Notat enim Vincent. Geistliche wie Laien. zur Gewisslieit. sondern einfach das gerado Gegeiitheil der friiheren Lehre. : Jahrhimdeite lang pestossen und niit alien auf Wideisprucli theologischen Waflen bestritten worden.itione confirmatur.^ oder welche als evidente Schritt 1 So der Jesuit Bagot in seiner Institutio Theo^ogica de vera Rdigirme.'m ad nos usque pervenit. ( Coneil uber den Glauben der Chri. baud dubie erronea est. sondern einiach ein Umsturz. verum lis tantum. hoc deinde pusteris per scripturae ehirographum consignaret. allgemein. p. autiquilas nun potest jam seduci. Man glaubte. est baud dubie ecclesiasticum et catbolicuni. erlioben wer- blo-^s subjective Gutdiinken ausgesehlos-sen. in ea quaerenda est cohsensio. als duicli imd Tradition bezeugf. ut ad terminjnda dubia in ecclesia sutwrta. adeo ut aliqiianilo plures ecclesiae et tpiscopi diversarum nationum Arianl quam Catholici reperirentur. B. da. si tamen novam esse constat." . p. eine Zeit der abzulegenden Zengnisse und der offeiien lOrkiiirungen fiir aile treuen Sohne der Kirche. fol. und nicht die Vater dadurch store oder hemme. ob also die Lehre als die allgimeine I^elire der gauzen Kirche. auch duich ein Concilium nicht. quae omnium communis est. nisi ut quod a majuribus sola traditione susceperat. ut notat idem Vincentius. Davenport. turn confirment et sua auctoritate Claras et apertas et absque ulla ambiguitateab omnibus Catholicis tenendas tradant.seinem Buche. Quod autem triplicl ilia prob.

Nicht blops physischer Zwang wiirde die Beschliisse eines Concils kraftlos und werthlos machen. um das Wahre vom Zweifelhaften zu sclieiden. Protest der siclienten im Jahr 787. dem Bewusstsein dcr Glaubigen fremd ht dung unter Zustimmung worden sei. atriiu' ctlecit. Niesorgfiiltigcn Berathi^ngen : mand. ne vcro (luicquam praoter Cunrilii. wenigstens die wescntliche Form dcrselben beibehalten werden. iKinnn iKniccnim dubitatio plurimorum inipetuni retardavit. etc. dass vollige Freiheit auf demselben herrsche. Freiheit des Stiminens. ut res in aliam sessiononi liilata. es miisse alios in der Weise der alti'. und uiizweifclhatt sein sie ist es aber nicht. omnium Icre caliulis tantlem definiretuv. Noch ehe Kaiser Marcian die Synode entliess. IT: "Cum quiiiIcre nut viginti' diibitaie se aiebant. habe Einstimmigman das Decret publicirt. Die wahrhatte Katliolicifat. Freiiieit des Redeus. dass in den von ihnen repnisentirteu Theilkirehen diese Meinung niclit fUr wahr. als an sechshimdert Bischofe das gemeinsarae Bekenntnisd verlaugneten und pieisgaben.330 Ganz besouders wenn Einl'iihrung es THE VATICAN COUNCIL sich [DOCUMKNT XVII. da war es " Geistesschwaclie und Scheu vor einer raiihseligen Reise " (" partim imbecillitatc 1 Defensio Fidei Tn'dcnt'nae. wo unter 318 Bischofen zuletzt nur zwei sich der Unterschrift weigtrteii. Darum war bei jedem Concil die Haupt" Sind die Glaubensdecreto von frage allei Mitgliedern genehmigt wojden?" Sogleich aut dem ersten allgemeinen Ccmcil zu Nicaa. dass sein Schreiben " niicli alien Zweifcln und Bcdcnken docii endlich durch die unvviderlegliche Zwstimmung des gesammten Episkojiats" best'atigt worden sei.' Und Bossuet bemerkt iiber die Vorschrift Pius IV dies sei eine trefHiche Kegel. Man siebt. Als der grosse Abfall zu Seleucia und Rimini gleichzeitig stattfand. Daruin hat man es in der Kirche stets fiir uothwendig erachtet. vou eiuer Seite her gefordert. sobald das Zeugniss wenn auch einer . " quatenus Sancta auf dem Und wiederum von dem Concil zu Auhanglichkeit an den ilinen iiberlieferten Glauben. Mouate lang unentschieden ge lassen. omnium lassen. wird auch durch die gar mannigfaltigen Formen." Man verglcicho dort das Wcitere. und auch jetzt niclit diifiir gehalten wird. welche hesonders die illyrischen imd die paliistinensischcn Bischofe gegen dns Schrtiben Leo's aiifauglich hegten. draug er auf eine Erklarung ob wirklich alle Bisc. Concil die Bischofe auf die Frage des dass die dogmatische EntscheiKaisers : welches etwa.rum vetu-tum niorem concluilcic'tur. was Entsclieidungeii. So vcrsiciierten auch auf dem sechsten allgcmeint n . Zu halcedon zogi rte man so lange mit den : snjzt Toimiely. die Definition imterblieb. Payva fiihrt mehrere. sobald eine nur eini^ermassen betrtichtliche Anzahl von Bischofen einem von der Mehrheit etwa \ orgeschlagenen oder beabsichtigten Decret widetspracii. Die Freiheit. bis endlich alle Bedciiken. aller aufgestellt Dasselbe geschah und ilmeu dann als eiue Neutrung ist der sich erhebende Laien ein ebenso gerechter als nothwen- crscheint. (liger. B. In Trient gab Papst Pius IV den Legaten die Weisung nichts entsclieiden zu Auf dem Coucil selbst aber beweist der Widersprucli. Alle Theologen machen es zur Bedingung der Oekumenicitat eines* Concils. wenn endlich nach Ian gen Einer : . einer Lehre soil evident was nicht alien V'atern genehm sei. und die Legitimitilt des Concils dadurch aufgehoben. 3s*i. der dort betindlichcn Theologen. I'ayva de Andrada. 2 De Eccksia. Beispiele davon an. dass. dass zu Trient die Ueberzeugung heirschte. f. zerstort. der gehort werden will. dass sie also auch nicht der ganztu Kirche als gottliche Olfenbarung aufgcdrungen werden darf. dass ganze Abtheilungen der Kirche dicse Lehre nicht glauben und nicht bekennen. berichtet mehrnials habe man ein Dicret Woclieu. und keit der V'ater erzielt worden." . Tourucly nenut als die auf Freiheit Furcht. und worauf Papst Leo selbst Gott dankte. durch die versehiedeneu Arten der Simonie). Damit ist aber schon entschieden. diese Lebensluft eines wahren Concils. unaniniitas decerm-ret. in denen moralisclicr Zwang eiutritt. dass dieser Lehre oder Meinung die drei wesentlichen Erfordernisse der Universaliiat. ofe (cs wnren iiber 600) der Glaubensdefinition zustimniten. sucht. Geldgeiz und Hab- ( liess sich immer wieder auf neue Eiorterungen ein.- S\noden wirksamen und die couciliarische aufhebenden Leideuschaften Stellengier. gehoben waren. weil einige wenige Bischofe wiilerstrebten oder Bedenken ausserten erst dann. Miiiderzahl den Beweis liefert. der Perpetuifat und des Consinsus abgehen. und sle erliillen damit eine Pilicht gegen die Kirche. darf zuriickgewieseu werden. eines neueii Dogma urn die handelt. nicbt fiir gottUch geolfenbart gehalten worden ist. den eine Anzahl der Bischofe gegen eine als Dogma zu verkiindende Meinung erhebt.n Cuntilien beliandelt und entschieden. dieses Decret beiseite gelegt ward. und unvermeidliches Zeugniss der meldete Karl der Grosse Frankfort 79-i den spanischen Bischofen: alles tei geschehen. i. oder der Mensch sich willig knechteu liisst (z. : (lecini denn auch alio heroitwilligst bejahteii.

dass etwas dort be£chlo.* Aber die Kircbe hat die Verbeissungen. ob es dies aber aucU dem Verlauf imd Ausgang nach sei. B. sondern auch zu wissen. Ver- zusammengetragen" worden. avaritiae. welclie mit dem Glauben eines betrachtlicben Theils der Kircbe im Widerspruch stehen. Den 1 9 Marz 1870." (^Fritendus Reformes convaincus de schisme.xios esse.'' &c. quas voluit Tournely. . 2. Und darum ist auch in der ganzen Kirclie die vollste Publicifat stets als zu einem Concil : san. oder die Gewissbeit besitzen. wie die denkwlirdigen Jahie 359.— Document XVI L] THE VATICAN COUNCIL. 1200 und 1203). 384. 449.* also zeigen. zu?ammengetragen worden. bischoflichen Versammlung ist alsouocli lange keiuBeweis der wirkliehen Oekumenicitat eiues Concils oder. via su) ematurali aperta et manifesta non ade. die z. nomine suo congreg. und sie iDuss eist sich uberzeugen. alle Tlieologen und dies w ie annebmen. denu es liegt der gesammteu cbristlichen Welt bochlich daian. partira taedio peregriuatioiiis evic- Sulp. In diesem Sinn sagt Bossuet von Concil einem cikumeniscben Concil der Biscbofe auf demselben miissten so viele und aus so verscbiedeneu Landern. Sever. und die Zustimmung : als 1 der iihrigen so evident sein. 2. . dass pbysiscber oder moralibcber Zwang. qui omnia suaviter disponit ac moderatur. n. .-e gefasst worden seien. iv.cben Die blosse "die Ansicht der gnnzen Welt .) Die Kirche gibt den Concilien Zeugniss (nicht erst Autoritat). Ista general!: Si in : DoiXINGER. dass ibr Zeugniss niclit beacbtet worden ist? dass bie majoiisirt worden sind? Von den Antwoiten. 165. adbibita . z. welcbe. noch weiter aus: " (Iteus) episcopos permittit omnibus humanae infirmitatis periculis obno. Concil. 289. conciliis quibus conditionibus promisit Cbristus se adfuturum ? Re^p.ita fuei int hoc est servata sufFrMgiorum libert. Congiegari autem in suo nomine censentur." dem Concil keineswegs katboli. es sei nicbts anderes da gescheben. s. i. arabilionis. wahrend natiirlich die innere Autoritat derfelben nicht von der Kirche ausflies-st. An diesem Wie icie es bescb lessen wird. sicli ausdriicken. 43).-t conciliis.-. die auf diese Fragen ertheilt werden. sed hoc unum. sondern auch. i.--sen wird. V. oder das Zeugniss der ganzen Kircbe.ch iiber jeJem Coucil stebeude Autoritat. quoties eas observant leges et conditiones. Sie ist auch da " testis. humana . was sie iiberwand. J raelechonts thtohgicoe Ue Deo observari. . 7. Leideuscbaften. damals in der Feme mit wirklichen Decreten verwechselt . qu'on n'y ait fait qu'apporter le sentiment de touts laterre. qui in tuo nomine congregarentur. werden dann die ferneren Ereignisse in der Kircbe bedingt sein. dariiber kauu das Coucil selbst nicht entscheiden. dann wiirden gewiss in der katlioliscben Welt die Fiagen aufgeworfen werden Haben uui^ere Biscbofe ricbtig Zeugniss gegeben von dem Glauben ibrer Diocesen ? und wenn nicbt. el en alles auf das "in seinem Namen entb'alt. dass man klar sebe.. se a conciliis ejusmodi pericula certo . indu^tiia etdiligtntia in conqtiirenda veritate." . was heutzutage bei dem Stand der Presse nicbt mehr moglich ware.les autres consentent si evidemment a Ifur asseinbleo. bangt zuletzt alles. qu'il sera clair. Furcht. dans I'acceptation qu'en fait I'Eglise. Gedanken in seinen evidente que le Concile qui se dit Universel doit etie re9U pour tel.meltsein " an. Verf iihrun^skiinste Dinge wie sie zu Kimini und nod gar oft gewirkt liaben nicbt auf — I — dem iibeiniacbtig geworden sind. talis. : " Et qui. Deus scilicet. B. non autor fidei.ite inxocato coele^ti auxilio. 15. p. dass sie nach Schrift und Tradition und nach den kirchlichen hegeln ihre Entscheidungen gefasst babe. Die Coneilion als seiche liabcn keiue Verheissung audi iu den gewiJhnlieb angefiibrten Worlen des Herm von den " zwei oder drei " kommt ti. wie die Tlieologen. 754 u. Tournely. dats sie von der ganzen Kirche angenommensei: "quam cuncta recepit ecclesia" (Epist. und zweitens betraf die Erinnerung nur die Bekanutmacbung von Entwiirfen. 'lournely aufFuhrt. se lis semper adfuturum. inelirere Bediu- gungen. 13 bei Lalbe. dass auf Sollte 331 sich iugeuii. dass vielmehr Mebrbeitsbeschliis.icae de (ccltsia Christi. cupid. sind sie wabrhaft frei gewesen ? Oder wie kommt es. nicbt niir zu wisseu. kann nicbt sclber sich Zeuguiss gebeu da muss erst die doch audi nc. Tournely liihrt denselben et divinis aitnliutis. 1." { Histoire de Und durum fordrrt der \'ariatio7is. als eutsclieideud und besfatigend binzutreteu. Und Nicole bemerkt gegf n die Calvinisten : " lis out une mai c|ue Fraelectiove-^ thfdlo. nietus scilicet. sowie sie durch ihren biblischen Canon deneinzelnen BUchern der Bibel Zeugniss gibt. episcopos omnibus humanae infirmitatis periculis subjacere et aliquando succumbere neque enim unquam promisit. beweisen. I'hatsache einer weuu auch Tioch so zahlreichea. IdOO. Auf das Concil von Trient batte niiin sich bezUglich des zwangsweise auferlegten Schweigens nicht berufen sollen denn erstens wurde dort bloss eine Mabnung gegeben. dass die Ansicht der ganzen Welt Quaeres geborig gewahrt worden. wunlen.^emper propulsaturum . w.) Papst Gelasius zu einer "bene gesta synodus" nicht nur. es kann -wobl okumeniscli der Berufuiig uach sein. sed occulta Spiritus subministratione (Deus) permittit. dass also die walire Freiheit dort gel\errscbt babe.

animo recolimus. ac lapses eiigere. diniinutis paullatim veritatibus. in sectas paullatim dissoiutas esse multiplices. et filios Dei. qui orbi christiano e Conciliis (Ecumenicis ac nominatim e Tridentino. inde ))otissimum orta. ad rediturus. iam non pro divinis liaberi. in l. quibus inter se dissentientibus et concertantibus. scientiam humanam et lidem divinam perperam commiscentes. promotum in Clero scientiae et pietatis studium. parata adolescen'ibus ad sat^ram militiam educandis collegia. qiuescere : potest. congregaret in unum.s. qui est in te. alia<]ue hinc ille christianae pietatis instituta etiaiu assiduus et usque ad sanguinis efiusionem constans ardor in Christi regno late . et generis Dominus coelestera noster Jesus Christus. ut salvum quemadmodum per orbcm propagando. merae quod vocant rationis vel naturae regnum stabiliatur. quod perierat. negate vero Dl'O et Christo eius.: 332 THE VATICAN COUNCIL. dentia. PIUS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SEEVORUM DEI Turn nata est et late nimis per orbem SACRO APPROBANTE CONCILIO AD PERPETUAM Dei Filius KEI MEMORIAM. pLviclitauti pore destitit. ut non commoveantur intima Ecclesiae viscera? Quemadmodum enim Dens vult omnes homines talvos fieri. Hinc praeterea arctior membroruiii cum visibili Capite commuuio. ima hunianae societatis fundament. quae posui in ore tuo. genuinum seusum dogmatum. oumis tandem in CI iristimi fides apud non )):iiicos Itaque ipsa sacra BiMia. ut iam ipsam ratiunalem naturam. quas Tridentini Patres proscripserunt. ut plures etiam cathulicae Ecclesiae filiis a viaverae pietatis aberrarent. ut Christo. Hac porro impietate circumquaque grassante. integritatemque et sinceritatem fidei in periculura adducere comperiuntur. quae per ultlmam maxime oecunienicam Synodum divina dementia Ecclesiae largita est. in iisque. omnemque iusl^j recfique norinam negantes. sibi dictmn esse non ignorans Spiritus mens. atheismi barathrum. adsistere docenti. naluram et gratiam. nuiii reiecto divino Ecclesiae magisterio. quae antea christianae doctriuae unions fons et index asserebantur. tum iis manifestissime . comperta est t'ructibu. quae religioni christianae utpote sui^ernaturali iustituto per omnia adversans. inliacrentes Praedccessorum Nostrorum vestigiis. prolapsa tandem est multorum mens in panthtismi. Quapropte