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ADVERBS/ADVERBIALS: POSITION 1. x Always he arrives late. He always arrives late. x I have difficulty often in understanding her.

. I often have difficulty in understanding her. Some adverbs normally go immediately before the main verb: (AUXILIARY) She He They You have should ADVERB usually almost probably always MAIN VERB stays fell got lock

at the Hilton. off the ladder. lost again. the door.

Adverbs that go in this position are called middle position adverbs. The group includes: almost, already, also, always, barely, certainly, definitely, even, ever, frequently, generally, hardly, hardly ever, just, merely, nearly, never, normally, obviously, occasionally, often, once, only, probably, rarely, really, scarcely, seldom, simply, sometimes, soon, still, suddenly, usually. Note that some of these adverbs may also come at the beginning or end of the clause, especially when we wish to emphasize them: Im surprised that Tina is late. Usually she arrives early. Dont worry. Im sure that shell be here soon. 2. x The rest of my family still is in France. The rest of my family is still in France. x I shall introduce you to Kumar, who also is a member of the Debating Society. I shall introduce you to Kumar, who is also a member of the Debating Society. When the main verb is be (and there are no auxiliary verbs) a middle position adverb normally goes immediately after it (NOT before it): BE The trains She are is ADVERB usually almost on time. sixteen.

3. x My letters still are being sent to the wrong address. My letters are still being sent to the wrong address. x My family will be soon joining me in London. My family will soon be joining me in London. When there is more than one auxiliary verb, a middle position adverb normally goes immediately after the first one: FIRST AUXILIARY are could ADVERB always probably SECOND AUXILIARY being have MAIN VERB asked done

We They

to work overtime. the job themselves.

4. x You have to usually pay for the tickets in advance. You usually have to pay for the tickets in advance. A middle position adverb normally goes immediately before have to, ought to and used to: You My father really sometimes ought to see a doctor. used to make me to work with him.

5. x He was too busy unfortunately to see me yesterday. Unfortunately, he was too busy to see me yesterday. Some adverb/adverbials express our attitude to what we are about to say, e.g. sadly, unfortunately, surprisingly, luckily, undoubtedly, frankly, apparently, naturally, of course, on the whole, in short, to be precise. These disjuncts normally come at the beginning of the sentence: Apparently her car broke down and she had to come by train. Of course, we would all be delighted if you could stay longer. Many of them can also be used like middle position adverbs: We would naturally be delighted if you could stay longer. St. Pauls is undoubtedly one of the finest buildings in London. 6.

x He told us to read carefully the questions. He told us to read the questions carefully. x I like very much living in England. I like living in England very much. An adverb/adverbial does not normally come between a verb and its object. VERB read like + OBJECT the questions living in England + ADVERB/ADVERBIAL carefully very much

7. x I shall be every afternoon available. I shall be available every afternoon. x Children cannot be expected to keep all the time quiet. Children cannot be expected to keep quiet all the time. An adverb/adverbial does not normally come between a verb and a complement. VERB be keep + COMPLEMENT available quiet + ADVERB/ADVERBIAL every afternoon all the time

Note, however, the following pattern: SUBJECT She They + BE is are + MIDDLE POSITION ADVERB always often + COMPLEMENT very helpful. late.

8. x Last August I went with some friends camping. Last August I went camping with some friends. x He likes in the summer to play golf. In the summer he likes to play golf. We do not normally put an adverb/adverbial between a main verb + -ing form (e.g. went camping) or a main verb + to-infinitive (likes to play). 9.

x We would like to eventually buy our own house. Eventually, we would like to buy our own house. We would like to buy our own house eventually. x I told him to not be so impatient. I told him not to be so impatient. Although it is sometimes unavoidable, we do not normally separate the two parts of a toinfinitive. Note that not and never go before the to: She promised never to do it again. 10. ! Rubber became one of the most important materials in the world after the motor car was invented. After the motor car was invented, rubber became one of the most important materials in the world. The first sentence above is grammatical, but it fails to communicate the writers main point (rubber became one of the most important materials in the world). Normally, we arrange the parts of a sentence so that the most important information comes last.