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Zanda van Rooyen
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Magister in Business Administration at the NMMU Business School
Research supervisor: Prof JJ Pieterse
DECLARATION “I, Zanda van Rooyen, ID No 6503190043080 hereby declare that: the work in this research paper is my own original work; all sources used or referred to have been documented and recognised; and this research paper has not been previously submitted in full or partial fulfilment of the requirements for an equivalent of higher qualification at any other recognised education institution.”
ABSTRACT The Eden District Municipality (EDM) is a local authority whose area of responsibility covers the Garden Route and also includes the Klein Karoo. The boundaries are from Storms River in the east, to Swellendam in the west and the Swartberg Mountains in the north. The EDM covers a very big area with seven big municipalities to consider and work with. Five of the municipalities, Langeberg, Mossel Bay, Knysna, George and Oudtshoorn have their own fire fighting services. The EDM fire fighting serves mainly the rural area. This is very costly due to the large distance required to travel to a fire, whereas the local municipalities are operating in their own towns. The new municipal boundaries include the rural areas, but the municipalities cannot service the rural areas because they do not as yet charge rates in the rural areas and therefore there is no revenue for the fire fighting service. They operate on the basis of verbal working agreements that make coordination of fire fighting very difficult. The fire fighting functions of the EDM as a category C municipality and the local municipalities as category B municipalities have been specified in the Municipal Structure Act. The allocation (division) of functions and powers relating to fire fighting service between the district municipality and local municipalities as determined by the Municipal Structure Act (Act 117 of 1998) has not been done. Due to the lack of invested capital, the resources are in a bad state. Some of the services have no capacity to attend to chemical fires or hazardous substance emergencies. Internationally, private fire fighting services can be contracted by government departments. These private fire fighting services are very large and the areas that they serve are extensive. These services have their own personnel structures functioning in an organisational structure that serves them well. These private services are very cost-effective and can therefore offer reasonable rates.
speed. flexibility and cost. the proposed structure for fire fighting in the EDM area will be a combination of structures.Bases on an investigation of various fire fighting services and different structures. The diverse nature of the area will make the location of a sectoral structure and extension of its capacity difficult. and several factors that will impact on an new structure must be kept in mind. iv . If all works well it will be relatively easy to achieve the five operations performance objectives envisaged for restructuring namely quality. dependability.
.To God. my pillar. To the George study group. To fire fighters Andrè Tomlinson and Deon van Wyk who shared with me their passion for fire fighting. v . for making information available. namely Marius Neser Trix Holtzhausen For their support during our years of studying. Eden District Municipality.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I hereby wish to express my gratitude to the following individuals who contributed to the successful and timeous completion of this dissertation To Peet van Rooyen for his support.
DEDICATION This dissertation is dedicated to my family: Tom. vi . Ina. Thomas and Diane. Elzaan. Peet. Glenda.
1 1.4 1.2 1.6 INTRODUCTION MAIN PROBLEM SUB-PROBLEMS DELIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH Demarcation of Organisations to be researched Geographic demarcation DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS The Fire Fighting Service Demarcation Benchmarking Unique features of an organisation Efficiency Configuration 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 vii .5 1.5 1.5.5. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND OUTLINE OF RESEARCH PROJECT 1.5.3 1.4 220.127.116.11 1.1 1.5.2 1.4.3 1.4.TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DEDICATION CHAPTER 1 ii iii iii vi 1 INTRODUCTION.1 1.
7.10 DATABASES LITERATURE OVERVIEW OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS CHAPTER 2 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND LOCATION OF CAPACITY 2.2 2.6 1.2 Sample 18.104.22.168 1.3.1 1.7 1.5 INTRODUCTION ORGANISATION CHARTS DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS BUREAUCRATIC ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE Flat Organization Structure Network Organisation The Virtual Organisation Geographic Organisation viii .2 Stakeholders The five performance objectives IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH RESEARCH DESIGN Literature Study Empirical study 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 10 11 11 11 13 15 16 17 18 20 22 1.1 22.214.171.124 1.3 Statistical analysis of data 1.2 2.3 2.3.8 126.96.36.199 2.1 Measuring Instruments 1.3.3 2.9 188.8.131.52.7.2.1 2.7.
6 THE LOCATION OF CAPACITY THE FIVE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES The Quality Objective The Speed Objective The Dependability Objective The Flexibility Objective The Cost Objective SUMMARY 24 28 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 35 35 36 39 CHAPTER 3 BENCHMARKING 3.5 184.108.40.206 3.2. 2.5 3.1 3.5.1 2.4 2.3 3.5.6 INTRODUCTION RURAL/METRO CORPORATION ZULULAND FIRE PROTECTION SERVICES SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN FIRE DISTRICT (METRO FIRE) 46 METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT SUMMARY 51 60 61 61 CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY ix . 2.3.2 3.2.5 2.5.4 2.
3.2 INTRODUCTION CLIMATE x .1 4.3.2 4.4 INTRODUCTION RESEARCH DESIGN DESIGN AND STRUCTURE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE Administration of the questionnaire Variables in questionnaire SUMMARY 61 61 62 65 66 67 68 68 68 68 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY 5.2 4.3 INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY CALLS ATTENDED ANALYSIS OF QUANTITY OF FIRE STATIONS.6 ANALYSIS OF FIRE SERVICES EXPENDITURE ANALYSIS OF MANPOWER CONCLUSION CHAPTER 6 RISK PROFILE AND CAPACITY ANALYSIS 6. SUB-STATIONS 71 72 73 75 76 76 76 77 AND CONTROL CENTRES 5.2 5.4 5.3 4.1 6.1 5.4.1 4.5 5.
2 6.4.3 6.1 6.2 220.127.116.11 6.1 7.4.3 7.7 6.2 7.6.4 6.4 7.1 7.6 6.3.3 INTRODUCTION ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE THE LOCATION OF CAPACITY THE FIVE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Is the fire fighting service doing things right? Is the fire fighting service first on a scene? Is the fire fighting service doing things on time? .3 6.4 6.3.8 GEOPHYSICAL PROFILE Coastal Platform Upper Plateaux Mountains Vegetation INFRASTRUCTURE ROADS AND TRANSPORTATION RAIL TRANSPORT AIRPORTS 78 78 78 79 79 81 84 86 86 FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FIRE SERVICES AND 87 92 94 94 94 95 101 103 104 107 107 xi GEOGRAPHICAL SERVICE PROFILE 6.9 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 7.3.
5 Is the fire fighting service making changes where necessary? Is the fire fighting service doing their jobs cost effectively? SUMMARY 107 108 110 112 117 REFERENCES ANNEXURE A .4.5 7.4 7.QUESTIONNAIRE xii .4.7.
......1 .SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN FIRE DISTRICT ...PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES .......45 TABLE 3...........................FACTS ABOUT SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN FIRE DISTRICTS ..............................CORPORATE ORGANISATIONAL CHART ..........ELEMENTS OF THE FIREHAWK SYSTEM ....4 FLAT ORGANISATION ...................EDM FIRE DEPARTMENT ..4 ..............24 FIGURE 2....65 TABLE 4......................3 BUREAUCRATIC ORGANISATION STRUCTURE.......8 .... SUB-STATIONS AND CONTROL ROOMS........54 FIGURE 3.............. ..............................................................................1: An Extract from the Questionnaire....30 FIGURE 2.5 – PROPOSED NEW STRUCTURE OF METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT ...............................43 FIGURE 3............................5 A DYNAMIC NETWORK .............. ....57 TABLE 4.....6: NEST OF VIRTUALNESS ..26 FIGURE 2......................................SUPPLY AND DEMAND: SIDE-FACTORS FOR LOCATION DECISIONS............6 – PROPOSED ROLE STRUCTURE OF METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT .....................51 FIGURE 3.................3: An Extract from the Questionnaire (continued) ...............................19 FIGURE 2........................REGIONAL ORGANISATIONAL CHART..........10 ........2 ZULULAND COASTAL FIRES AND LOSSES ......2 ...........................................1 .............31 FIGURE 3..........2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRATEGIC CHOICE AND THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE .65 TABLE 5.......1 TABLE 3.........................2 – FIRE STATIONS.......................................17 FIGURE 2.69 TABLE 5.......3 ...................64 TABLE 4...............12 FIGURE 2.....................................71 xiii ...........................TABLE OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURE 2.......................2: An Extract from the Questionnaire (continued) ...............................4: An Extract from the Questionnaire (continued) ....14 FIGURE 2.....................38 FIGURE 3.........64 TABLE 4..........48 FIGURE 3................THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A GEOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE......................3 ...............................................21 FIGURE 2.......................................................................................9 ...................................................................................................7 THE GEOGRAPHIC ORGANISATION STRUCTURE.............................................18 FIGURE 2.............39 TABLE 3..................................11 – QUALITY MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS IN DIFFERENT OPERATIONS.....................................................42 ZULULAND INLAND FIRES AND LOSSES ........23 FIGURE 2..............1 – EMERGENCY CALLS ATTENDED ANNUALLY .........................
..............84 TABLE 6.........96 TABLE 7...................4 – EDM OPERATIONAL MANPOWER PROFILE ......................7 – MAIN FIRE FIGHTING RESOURCES IN THE EDM .........................................TOWN DISTRIBUTION AND TRAVEL DISTANCES IN THE EDM ......... .3 ........................3 – MUNICIPAL TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITURE AND FIRE SERVICES OPERATING EXPENDITURE .MAIN URBAN CENTRES AND SETTLEMENTS IN THE EDM..............................................102 TABLE 7.2 ......................TABLE 5.98 TABLE 7....3 .....MAP OF THE EDM AREA………………………………………….6 – MAIN FIRE FIGHTING RESOURCES IN THE EDM ................1 ..TOTAL MANPOWER STATISTICS....................................105 xiv ..96 TABLE 7.....2 – REGIONAL COMMANDER COASTAL PLATEAUX A .......74 TABLE 6.........................83 TABLE 6.....4 .....103 TABLE 7.....................DEMOGRAPHICS OF EDM DIVIDED INTO THE THREE AREAS ......97 FIGURE 7........................................................................4 – SUPPLY-SIDE FACTORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS .........................87 TABLE 6..................2 – THE EDM DEMOGRAPHICS .........................85 TABLE 6..............................90 TABLE 7.......5 – ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS ......98 FIGURE 7.............80 TABLE 6..............................5 – DEMAND-SIDE FACTORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS .......................................1 ................72 TABLE 5.....................1 .................................IDENTIFICATION OF THE THREE GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS .6 – RESOURCE ASSESSMENT FOR STRUCTURE FIRES......81 FIGURE 6..1 – REGIONAL VEGETATION FEATURES...88 TABLE 6......GEOGRAPHIC ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF EDM AREA ....
is the decisions and practices concerned 1 . regional and sometimes local boundaries. as one already knows who the customers are. Erasmus. To be able to go virtual you will need to redraw your mental maps. Swanepoel. Many local authorities recognise this and successfully achieve high standards. A fire service forms part of all the public services that a local authority can provide. Business strategy on the other hand. but the real barrier is in your imagination. The importance of a fire service is realised when disaster strikes. Obeng (1997:198) states that you can find new ways of delivering old needs. 2002:31). namely Corporate strategy determines what types or areas of business it would be best to get involved in. Efficient and effective public services are an essential part of a healthy democratic society. is going to be challenged. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND OUTLINE OF RESEARCH PROJECT 1.1 INTRODUCTION Perhaps the greatest change evident in the way that public services will look from a perspective of twenty years hence is that there is likely to be a much more logical and end-user focused approach to the way in which organisations operate. That is when a municipality must demonstrate what resources are available to the fire services and what can be achieved within the resources that are available (Johnson & Scholes. The current model. where they are and what colour underpants they wear. Management formulates strategic goals and objectives which the total organisation will seek to obtain. 2000:177). It is all out there for the taking. Van Wyk and Schenk (2000:87) define three different possible strategies. possibly to the point of extinction (Milner. The opportunity is there but to convince people to redraw their mental maps will be a large task. often in difficult circumstances. which typically sees a split of provision and responsibility across national.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.
specialisation and centralisation. The explosive growth in computing power and networks. operations and human resources.2 MAIN PROBLEM The main problem that was researched in this project is as follows: How can an effective fire service operational structure be implemented in the Eden District Municipality Area? 1. scope of operations. is turning organisations into networked enterprises. Information can be distributed within and beyond the organisation. Variables that influence design of a structure are as follows: configuration. including the Internet. formalisation. Information systems can reduce the number of levels in an organisation. Typically. giving a flatter organisational structure that will provide managers with information to supervise large numbers of workers and giving lower-level employees more decisionmaking authority. the pyramid-shaped structure (bureaucratic) consists of a hierarchy of many different levels. work practices. Every person’s knowledge is relatively unique. 1. This capability can be used to redesign and reshape organisations. transforming their structure. There are many ways to structure an organisation. products and services.with how to complete and achieve success in these particular industries or sectors. reporting and control mechanisms. works flows.3 • • • SUB-PROBLEMS How do regional fire fighting services ideally operate? What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service does it operate and how? How can the current fire fighting services be improved? 2 The main problem was resolved by addressing the following sub-problems: . standardisation. public relations. Functional strategy refers to the strategies relating to the various functional areas such as marketing. Structuring the flow of work also involves decisions about how the organisation as a whole is to be structured.
Farmers.5. Nature conservation.• What is the risk profile and capacity of current fire fighting services in the Eden District Municipality (EDM) area? 1.. certain key terms used throughout the study are defined below. Communication is primarily conducted via a multitude of meetings. The boundaries are from Storms River in the east to Swellendam in the west and the Swartberg Mountains in the north.5 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS To ensure common understanding.4.4 DELIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH 1. The EDM covers a very big area with seven big municipalities to consider and work with.4.1 The Fire Fighting Service Each of the seven municipalities has a fire department.1 Demarcation of Organisations to be researched The scope of the research was limited to the Southern Cape and Klein Karoo region. Forestry. The organisational structures of each fire department differ from one another. They are: • • • • • Working For Fire. 1. PetroSA. 3 . 1. 1. Apart from the municipalities there are other groups that also maintain some kind of fire fighting service.2 Geographic demarcation The Eden District Municipality (EDM) covers the Garden Route area and also includes the Klein Karoo.
standards set by other companies. 2002:72). although all organisations have common characteristics.5. 2001:130).e. 27 of 1998]. goals. constituencies. Inputs can be identified as labour. Most organisations do not cope with large environmental shifts and fail to adapt to a rapidly changing environment and a lack of resources (Laudon & Laudon.5. Rural areas were thereby included in greater municipal boundary.2 Demarcation During July 1998 wall-to-wall municipalities were created with the demarcation of the municipalities as per Local Government Municipal Demarcation Act [No. Jackson. and they have a reciprocal relationship with the environment. Slocum.1. politics and people.5.5 Efficiency According to Robbins (1998:23). leadership styles. or internally developed high standards.4 Unique features of an organisation No two organisations are identical. Organisations are open to and dependent on the social and physical environment that surrounds them. 1. tasks and surrounding environments. New government regulations put pressure on any organisation’s culture. efficiency is the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it. Organisations differ in structure or shape. land and capital. 1. When a hospital for example meets the needs of its clientele successfully. Previously the rural areas had been serviced by the District Councils. 4 . Staude & Associates. Efficiency is achieved by minimizing input and maximizing productive outputs (Hellriegel.5. i.3 Benchmarking Laudon and Laudon (2002:315) define benchmarking as measuring performance against external industry standards. but it is efficient when the hospital can do so at a low cost. Organisations must respond to legislative and other requirements imposed by the government and they can form alliances with others to influence the political process. it is effective. 1. or some combination of the two.
To do things first → speed objective. stakeholders can overlap.. Internal stakeholders are identified as the operation’s employees and the external stakeholders are the society or community groups and the company’s shareholders. they can be “shareholders” of a public service agency as well as their main customer. To make changes where necessary → flexibility. The five basic performance objectives can be applied to all types of operations. who are non-profit organisations. relationships and boundaries through which the organisation operates (Johnson & Scholes. Chambers and Johnston (2001:43) state that stakeholders are the people and groups of people who have an interest in the operation and who may be influenced or can influence the operation’s activities.5.5.7 Stakeholders Useful classifications of the performance objectives which any operation might pursue can be gained by identifying the operation stakeholders. In government departments. To do things on time → dependability. processes. 1.1.8 The five performance objectives In order to be more competitive. Stakeholders can also be identified as internal or external. External stakeholders can have a direct commercial relationship with the company by means of the company’s value chain.5.6 Configuration An organisation’s configuration consists of the structures. 2002:398). 2001:49). 1. The following five objectives can be applied to achieve greater competitiveness: • • • • • To do things right → quality objective. there are objectives that will contribute to achieve the goals. 5 . Slack. To do things cheaply → cost objective (Slack et al.
The lower the cost of producing services or goods. This situation is due to the functions relating to the Municipal Structures Amendment Act (Act 33 of 2000) that are not clearly divided between the municipalities and the District Councils. Organised operations reduce administrative overheads. Comparing the cost structure of different operations is not always straightforward and depends on how costs are categorized. Flexible operations adapt to changing circumstances quickly and without disrupting the rest of the operation. The geography and climate in the region require various fire fighting management strategies. Cost is the major operation objective. Fast operations reduce the level of in-process inventory between micro operations. There are forests. Costs can be categorized as fixed costs and variable costs. technology. In the meantime the taxpayers are paying for a very expensive fire fighting service. facilities. the Karoo and the south 6 . Cost is affected by the other performance objectives: • • • • • High-quality operations do not waste time or effort having to re-do things. The cost factor is only one of the reasons why it was important to do this research. Dependable operations do not spring any unwelcome surprises on their internal customers. Flexible micro operations can also change over between tasks quickly and without wasting time and capacity. give good value for money to the taxpayers or whoever is funding the operation. while the District Council is still responsible for the rural areas.1. An operation will spend its money on staff. Each area has to cope with a different fire hazard in the various seasons. or getting no service at all. mountains. while still allowing for a return to the organisation or a non-for-profit organisation.6 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH The production of goods and the delivery of services at market-related costs. equipment cost and material costs. The current situation in the EDM is that the seven big municipalities have a fully functional fire fighting service that only services areas within the old municipal boundaries. the lower the price to customers.
1 Literature Study A literature study was conducted to identify key factors leading to successes in strategic fire fighting decisions. as well as the subsequent interviews.1 a. In conducting the research the subsequent procedure was espoused to solve the main problem as well as the sub-problems. Resources must be managed in such a way that all the different situations are catered for.Personal as well as telephonic interviews were conducted with selected employees of stakeholders. Literature was obtained from the libraries of the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.2. Municipalities in Eden District Municipal area and the Internet. and to obtain an inventory of equipment and skills.7 RESEARCH DESIGN In this section the methodology followed in the research project is described. 1.) Measuring Instruments Case study – Data from case studies on the functioning of different existing fire fighting services were collected and analysed.7. The aim of investigating these case studies. It was also necessary to determine which would be more viable: the larger. was to quantify what knowledgeable people believed are the requirements or strategies for a regional fire fighting service. 1.) Interviews .7.western districts. 7 . The main objective of the interviews was to obtain information regarding the status of the fire fighting services in the EDM area.7. b. and managed as cost effectively as possible. 1. A questionnaire was completed by the interviewees. regional fire fighting service. or whether it would be more beneficial to retain the status quo.2 Empirical study The empirical study consists of: 1. These key factors were compared to the current situation as well as the creation of a regional fire fighting service.
Kinicki and Buelens (2002:24) define a case study as an in-depth study of a single person. Interpretation of single instances. 1. Kreitner. The sub-problems were matched to some literature. These trends were used as a guideline for the strategic development process.3 Statistical analysis of data Analysis of the data was done by following the following steps: • • • • • Organisation of detail about the case. Knysna.2. municipals and other stakeholders were accessed to obtain information on trends in fire fighting structures.2 Sample The sample was restricted to the seven big municipalities in the Eden District municipal area. Identification of patterns. George.7. Demarcation Area (DMA). and Synthesis and generalization (Leedy. group or organisation. Ormrod. the current situation was analysed by means of a case study and interviews. The 8 . Oudtshoorn.8 DATABASES Research publications and relevant statistical data of governmental agencies. although subsections of the sub-problems had to be researched as well.9 LITERATURE OVERVIEW In an attempt to resolve the main and sub-problems.2. 1. 1. a literature study was undertaken. What method(s) could be used to analyse the ideal fire fighting service? To address this sub-problem. Bitou. Mosselbay. Categorisation of data. These seven municipalities are: • • • • • • • Langeberg.7. 2001:150).1.
How to improve the current situation? Strategic management is the process of examining both the present and future environments. The dilemma for organisations is how to turn individual knowledge into a corporate resource and asset. best practices. Perhaps the greatest change evident in the way that public services will look from a perspective of twenty years hence. it can also be acquired by field training. e. for example. Holland and Wärnich (2000:136) classify business knowledge into various categories: • • • Advantaged knowledge is knowledge that does or can provide competitive advantage for the company.methods of data collection of case studies are observations. suppliers and competitors. Knowledge is generally related to the level of education of a person. how and why the customer reaches a decision to purchase a product or to hire a service. interviews and appropriate written documents and/or audiovisual material (Leedy. formulating the organisation’s objectives and making. Grobler. Dowling. it does not necessarily have to be taught in schools or universities. Van Wyk & Schenk. is that there is likely to be a much more logical and end-user focused approach to the way in which organisations 9 . staff. 2001:157) Clark (1998:28) defines knowledge as the understanding of why and how something works. implementing and controlling decisions focused on achieving these objectives in the present and future environments (Swanepoel.g. Knowledge creates the capacity to act and is an individual human activity. 2000:202). Base knowledge forms an integral part of the business. It is created at the moment of interpretation and resides in the heads of individuals. customers. This provides only a short-term advantage. Erasmus. Brewster. Although it is something that has to be taught. Trivial knowledge has no major impact on the company. Every person’s knowledge is relatively unique. It is important to note that knowledge does not have to be of an academic nature.
is going to be challenged. Organisational structure and location of capacity. temperatures during different seasons and link to a fire call out. What influence does the geographic demarcation have on the fire fighting service? Historic data such as rainfall patterns.10 OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS The study is presented as follows: • • • • • • • • • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Annexure The introduction to and overview of the research thesis.operate. Benchmarking Design of the empirical study Results and analysis of the empirical study Risk profile and capacity analysis Summary and conclusion. 2000:177). the number of call outs and the kind of call outs as well as the duration of the service rendering and the location of the call out are important. possibly to the point of extinction (Milner. The current model. which typically sees a split of provision and responsibility across national. List of references Questionnaire References - 10 . This survey was done in both municipal and rural areas. 1. regional and sometimes local boundaries.
Specialisation is the only factor that distinguishes one department from the other. The corporate strategy is to maximise income and the business strategy is to take up all the functions being given the authority to by law for example. Even the merge with Klein Karoo District Municipality did not alter the structure. to supply water. Corporative Services. Mr. namely Finance. Management comprises the top three levels of the organisational structure and the number of levels downward depends on the function of the different departments. The fire department is a necessity. includes the Klein Karoo. tourism and health services. 11 . A Lamont.CHAPTER 2 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND LOCATION OF CAPACITY 2. it is a taste of Eden and we all are crazy about Eden.1 INTRODUCTION “Come and visit the Garden Route. situated on the Garden Route. best describe the area. A current organisational structure of the EDM fire department is presented in figure 2. The Eden District Municipality (EDM). sewerage and fire fighting.1. The EDM is a local authority. but unfortunately this service is expensive.” These words of former Mayor. The organisational structure of EDM is the typical pyramid-shape. for example Finance and the Fire Department. The EDM consists of five departments. The Fire Department is part of the Community Services Department. Roads and Economic Development and Tourism. The boundaries are from Storms River in the east to Swellendam in the west and the Swartberg Mountains in the north. Community Services.
capabilities and structure (Thomson & Strickland. The three major organisation-building actions are as follows: • • • Filling key positions with able people. 1999:307). November 2003). Structuring the internal work effort and melding it with the collaborative efforts of strategic allies (Thomson & Strickland. New strategic priorities like short design-to-market cycles. resource strengths and organisational capabilities needed to perform its value chain activities proficiently. This chapter addresses the following sub-problem: How does a regional fire fighting service ideally operate? This problem will be addressed by looking at the strategic advantages and disadvantages of different organisational structures and also matching organisational structure to strategy. Building the core competencies.Goosen. Acting Human Resources Manager. The question is where to locate the fire fighting service to operate efficiently and what the specific performance objectives are against which its success can be measured. All organisation structures have strategic advantages and disadvantages. George. Thomson stated that the strategy-implementing challenge is to create a series of tight fits between strategy and the organisation’s competencies.1 . (personal communication.FIGURE 2. 1999:307).EDM FIRE DEPARTMENT FIRE CHIEF STATION OFFICER ADMINISTRATION CLERK SHIFT A • • Shift Leader Fireman Fireman • • SHIFT B Shift Leader Fireman Fireman • • SHIFT C Shift Leader Fireman Fireman • • • Source: F. EDM. multi version production and personalised customer services are promoting a revolution in organisation 12 .
. is determined largely by a dominant coalition of top management strategists (Kreitner et al. as a model of organisational structure. horizontal structures that are responsive and innovative (Thomson & Strickland. Viedge & Werner. It is still necessary to cope with routine functions.building featuring lean. Making sure that the right people do the right things at the right time is called the hierarchy of authority or chain of command. Bagraim. but the four common factors in all organisations are: • • • • Co-ordination of effort.. 2002:509). John Child proposed a strategic choice model that was based on behavioural rather than on rational economic principles. Keeping al these factors in mind. Division of labour occurs where individuals perform different tasks but want to achieve the same goal (common goal). Advances in information technology have made it possible for organisations to focus on their core competencies. Division of labour. although it cannot be expected to deal with strategic issues (Schultz. an organisation chart can be defined as a graphic illustration showing chain of formal authority and division of labour (Kreitner et al. 2. The co-ordination of effort is achieved through formulation and enforcement of policies.2 ORGANISATION CHARTS Organisation theorists have many definitions for an organisation structure. A common goal. 2003:236). 2002:528). 13 . This model resulted from a political process involving organisational power holders. Potgieter. Hierarchy of authority (Kreitner et al. rules and regulations. 2002:508). This model. However traditional hierarchical design with its top-down command structure is not totally obsolete.1999:309).. flat.
2 illustrates that specific strategic choices or decisions reflect how the dominant coalition perceives environmental constraints and the organisation’s objectives. The personal beliefs.2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRATEGIC CHOICE AND THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE Organisational Objectives Organisational Strategic Environmental constraints decisions made by dominant • • • Target markets Capital sources/uses Human resources Technology Total quality management strategies Organisational structure Organisational effectiveness Decision makers’ personal beliefs • • Corrective action Source: Kreitner et al. • • The environment is just one of many determinants of structure.. values and ethics of decision makers are used to temper strategic choices. (Kreitner et al. 2002:529). Relative 14 .FIGURE 2. (2002:528). Figure 2. The design is subject to the interplays of personal power and politics. Different organisations have different problems: an organisation that provides goods or services in an environment with slow technological innovation and relatively few competitors differs from an organisation in a growing. The strategic choice theory and research teach managers two practical lessons. attitudes. Therefore corrective action must be taken if the organisation effectiveness criteria are not met. This theory directs our attention that an organisation is structured to accommodate its mix of strategies. changing and highly competitive market where there is a lot of uncertainty.
Flat organisation. Network organisation. o Informing employees about the rules. 2001:223). The following structures will be discussed: • • • • • Bureaucratic organisation. o Establishing procedures for collecting and evaluating information to help management to make decisions and solve problems.. The age of the Internet and e-commerce demands adaptations of new organisational architectures. Virtual organisation. Firms operate in stable and changing environments and therefore some functions may undergo little structural changes and others may change considerably (Hellriegel et al. it is important to investigate what the different structures in the organisation are. To be able to create an organisational structure for the EDM fire-fighting service.3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS The movement towards tighter and leaner organisations has drawn attention to the importance of alternative forms of structure and has placed increased emphasis on the demand for flexibility. Geographic structure. Due to the revolutionary changes in organisations. (2001:202) conclude that organisational structures help employees work together effectively by: o Assigning human and other resources to tasks. operating procedures and performance standards. 15 . the need is great for new and flexible structures. Hellriegel et al. 2. o Clarifying the responsibilities of employees and how their efforts should mesh through job description. organisational charts and line of authority.stability in an organisation’s environment has major implications for its strategy and structure.
Centralised authority.1 Bureaucratic Organisational Structure Swanepoel et al.. the majority of large organisations still take on basic bureaucratic characteristics. sections. Figure 2. 16 . 2000:244). Although this structure is currently out of fashion. with definite boundaries between different jobs.2. authority has become more decentralised and the functional departments have been supplemented with an increased use of teams (Robbins. There is little need for innovative and experienced decision makers below the level of senior executives. Robbins (1989:489) states that the primary strength of the bureaucracy lies in its ability to perform standardised activities in a highly efficient manner. (2000:244) define the bureaucratic organisational structure as a structure that results from what is known as the mechanistic approach to organisation design. Emphasis is placed on departmentalisation. military-like structure. divisions and other word units (Swanepoel et al. 1989:490). Characteristics of a bureaucratic organisation are: • • • • • • • • Emphasising the importance of achieving high levels of production.3.3 is an example of a bureaucratic organisation structure. Work is often structure in rigid functional work units. particularly specialisation and high formalisation organisations. Firms such as IBM and General Electric were organised as a bureaucracy. Tall pyramid-shape structure with a hierarchy of many levels. Top-down. High specialisation of labour. Efficiency through extensive use of rules and procedures. “command-and-control”. departments. The peak of a bureaucracy’s popularity was probably in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The span of control has generally been widened.
FIGURE 2. Teams are part of flat structures (Swanepoel et al. regulations and procedures. Characteristics of a flat organisation structure are: • • • • • • Importance of high levels of adaptiveness. Wide spans of control. Decentralisation of authority. 2. 17 . Figure 2.2 Flat Organisation Structure Swanepoel et al. (2000:245). 2000:245).3 BUREAUCRATIC ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Source: Swanepoel et al.3. Jobs are more broadly defined with greater overlaps and flexible boundaries between different word units. responsiveness and development through limiting the use of rules.4 is a graphic illustration of a flat organisational structure. (2000:244) state that a flat structure is essentially the result of following the organic model or approach to organisation design. Lower degrees of specialisation..
but as a web of interrelationships among many firms with flexible arrangements among designers. Interdependence of participants helps maintain the balance of power.3. (2000:245) 2. Bateman and Snell (1999:322) define a network organisation not as one organisation. Viedge and Werner (2003:238) are of the opinion that to create successful external relationships. management attention and sponsorship. process engineering and nurturing role to make certain the relationships are healthy and mutually beneficial. 18 .4 FLAT ORGANISATION Source: Swanepoel et al. Investment in the form of financial resources.FIGURE 2. The broker assembles and coordinates participants in a network and plays a designer. 2000:246). producers. multidisciplinary teams and business networks across the enterprise with a modular or virtual organisation structure (Swanepoel et al. This gives companies the opportunity to downsize to their core areas of competence and establish alliances with independent suppliers and distributors. The structure relies heavily on outsourcing and contracting out. suppliers. the six “I’s” can be effective in creating alliances of flexible partnerships: • • • Importance of relationships is stressed.. distributors and customers. Potgieter. Bagraim. Schultz. The role of managers shifts in a network from that of command and control to more like broker.3 Network Organisation The network structure blends traditional management concepts by the exchange of agreements. Each firm is able to pursue their own distinctive competence. This structure is based on cooperative.
• • • Integration of participants takes place in order to maintain essential points of contract and communication. (2003:238) state that the network design emphasises horizontal structures and processes needed to manage complex sequential and reciprocal interdependencies among individuals.5 A DYNAMIC NETWORK Designer Producer Brokers Supplier Distributors Source: Bateman and Snell (1999:323) Schultz et al. Hellriegel et al. Information is disseminated to each partner. also draws on the revolution in information technologies that enables formation of convenient and low-cost networks. as per figure 2. When these capabilities exist. Advantages of the network structure is that of a very lean structure with very few employees on the payroll because most production and services are 19 . FIGURE 2.5. Maximise the use of resources. This design. Look only at core competencies. from legal requirements to shared values. (2001:235) reiterate that organisations cannot operate effectively unless they can communicate quickly. teams. departments and divisions. managers of network organisations can: • • • • Search globally for opportunities and resources. Outsource activities that can be better done by someone else at less cost. and changes as needs and goals change. accurately and over great distance. Institutionalisation bolsters a framework of supporting mechanisms.
2001:236). The firm must make certain that all parties fully understand the strategic goals of the partnership.3. But for these arrangements to be successful. operations are not under one roof and managers must rely on independent contractors and subcontractors to do the work. Skyrme (1999:20) defines the virtual corporation as “a temporary network of independent companies that co-ordinates activities to meet a common 20 . Workforce is flexible and challenges are because employees are contractors who respond to changing tasks and new demands. 2001:236).. which results in mistrust. The most prominent disadvantages of a network structure are that the managers have very little control..4 The Virtual Organisation A key effect of information and communications technologies such as the Internet is an increase of virtualisation in business activities and ways of working. 1999:323). The relationship building takes time and is a money consumer due to the frequency. Each party must be able to trust the others with strategic information and also trust that each collaborator will deliver quality products (Bateman and Snell. The firm must choose collaborators that are also excellent at what they do and that provide complementary strengths.contracted for and coordinated by means of vertical information processing systems. and reduced cost and risk. innovation. Virtualisation overcomes constraints of time and distance. Some networks organisations preserve highly specialised teams (Hellriegel et al. several things must occur: • • • • The firm must choose the right specialty. The frequent change of contractors has the effect that new relationships must be built every time a contractor changes. quick responses to threats and opportunities. Defining the organisation is very difficult due to the continuous changes that are taking place. Successful networks potentially offer flexibility. 2. Commitment to the organisation is low because employees tend to be committed to the contractor that employs them (Hellriegel et al. Contractors can make mistakes and not report them.
FIGURE 2.6 illustrates some of these types in the form of a nested hierarchy where there is a large degree of inclusivity between the levels. The barriers of time and space are reduced. The following are common features that distinguish virtualisation from traditional organisations: • • Information and communications technology allows operations to be dispersed. such as a new product development or to meet a common objective.skyrme. ranging from workers communicating with colleagues globally via phone or e-mail. to a loose federation of independent firms that come together temporarily for specific activities. These variations give rise to many types of virtuality. from individual to interorganisational. Outsourcing and virtual organisations should not be confused. such as a new product development or to meet a customer’s needs” Virtual organisations can range from a stable supply network that works as a single organisation.objective. Virtualness can also operate at several levels. 21 .6: NEST OF VIRTUALNESS Source: www. Figure 2.com [Accessed November 2003] A virtual organisation is not just outsourcing. Virtual organisations are more about sharing of strengths and not about people coming in to do a particular task. or the creation of consortia to work on a specific project.
Company can be virtual and real. Brewster. “Commitment. 22 . The only primary drawback to this structure is that it reduces management’s control over key parts of its business.. team priorities. Postal Service and the Red Cross have adopted territorial structures in order to be directly accessible to geographically dispersed clienteles. suppliers.edu/ (2002). as the faceto-face approaches which have worked well over the years will disappear. http://www. Relationships not as bureaucratic. The main reason for its popularity is that it promotes improved performance. Employees and associates (business partners. Dowling.” According to Handy: “A shared commitment still requires contact to make the commitment feel real’” (Kreitner et al. It is not necessary in a specific place. managers and team members will have to form clear agreements from the outset regarding issues such as performance expectations. trust and loyalty could erode badly if managers do not heed this caution by Charles Handy. the British management expert quoted earlier. 2. Holland and Wärnich (2000:211) say that issues such as effective communication and planning will need attention. communication links and resource allocation. 2002:533).emporia. In the public sector.• • • • • • Organisational structures are network-like and more dynamic. customers) adopt new patterns of work.S. In addition. to capitalise on the flexibility and speed that are possible through these networks. is a common structural form for enterprises operating in diverse geographic markets or serving an expansive geographic area. The locus of knowledge is diffused.5 Geographic Organisation Thomson and Strickland (1999:291) define a geographic organisation as a structure that suits firms well and that pursues different strategies in different geographic regions. such organisations as the U. Robbins (1989:493) states that the virtual organisation is highly centralised with little or no departmentalisation. Grobler. The interface with customers and markets is different. The virtual organisation holds a number of important challenges for the future.3. which is organised on the basis of geographic areas or territories. This organisation.
Hill (2004) has designed a geographical structure for a geographic organisation: FIGURE 2.7 THE GEOGRAPHIC ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Individual Stores Source:http://courses. But again. 1999:292).ppt 23 .msu. better service.“The primary advantage of both the product and customer/regional approaches to departmentalisation is the ability to focus on customer needs and to provide faster.bus.edu/materials/1022/ch11a. duplication of activities across many customer groups and geographic areas is expensive” (Bateman & Snell.
If the location is wrong it can have a significant impact on profit. Sometimes operations cannot logically justify their location. other operations or customers with which it interacts. The decision not to move is made on an assumption that the cost and disruption involved in changing location would outweigh any potential benefits of a new location.FIGURE 2.8 . as some are where they are for historical reasons.4 THE LOCATION OF CAPACITY Slack.THE ADVANTAGES GEOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE STRATEGIC ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A STRATEGIC DISADVANTAGES Allows tailoring of strategy to Poses a problem of how much needs of each geographical geographic uniformity headquarters market should impose versus how much geographic allowed Delegates responsibility strategic level to profit/loss Greater difficulty in maintaining lowest consistent company image/reputation from area to area when geographic managers exercise much strategic freedom Improves market Takes advantage of economies Can result in duplication of staff of local operations services at headquarters and geographic levels. The location decision 24 . Chambers and Johnston (2001:159) define location as the geographical positioning of an operation relative to the input resources. The retail industry knows what it means not to be at the right location. creating a cost disadvantage Regional units make an excellent training ground for higher level general managers Source: Thomson and Strickland (1999:293) functional Adds another layer of management to coordination within the target run the geographic units diversity should be 2.
These objectives are as follows: • • • The spatially variable cost of the operation due to the variables that change with the geographical location. For example. For example. these changes may occur in response to a demand for goods and services that can increase or decrease according to the aggregated volume of demand. 2001. the increase in call outs for fires in a certain region due to the lack of rain and changing weather patterns can suggest that a fire station could open a new station. Secondly.is also important in other types of operations. There are two reasons for an organisation to make location decisions. revenue potential might not be a relevant objective and so cost and customer service are often taken as the twin objectives of location. The service the operation is able to provide to its customers. the changes in supply and availability of inputs to the operation and the changes in cost are reasons for making the location decision. The decision to relocate is very important due to the fact that moving an operation from one site to another can be very expensive and the risks of inconveniencing customers is very high and it is very difficult to undo or reverse.159). it can slow down the average journey time of the fire crew in getting to the fire. customers may not care very much where the products are made and location is unlikely to affect the operation’s revenues significantly. 2001:161). the last two objectives are related. In non-profit organisations like the public service. The cost of the operation will be greatly 25 . for example the cost of fuel when travelling long distances to fire call outs (Slack et al. For organisations that are profit driven. All types of organisation are affected by both variables but not always equally for all organisations. Therefore the location decision will usually have an effect on an operation’s cost as well as on its ability to serve its customers... The revenue potential of the operation (Slack et al. If a fire service station is incorrectly located. It is very important to achieve an appropriate balance between three related objectives to make a location decision. The decisions made about where to locate an operation are concerned with minimizing spatially variable costs and maximizing revenue and/or customer service. Firstly.
26 . FIGURE 2.9. Slack et al. 2001:161).g. Supply–side factors Which can vary in such ways as to influence cost The Operation Demand–side factors Which can vary in such ways as to influence customer • • • • • Labour Costs Land Costs Energy Costs Transportation Costs Community Costs • • • • Labour Skills Suitability of Site Image Convenience for Customers (e. Community factors. (2001:161). The following supply-side factors influence location. Energy costs.9. the supply-side influences vary in such a way as to influence cost as location varies. speed and dependability) Source: Slack et al. According to figure 2.SUPPLY AND DEMAND: SIDE-FACTORS FOR LOCATION DECISIONS. (2001:161) also state that the location decision for any operation is determined by the relative strength of supply-side and demand-side factors as shown in figure 2.9 ..affected by the location. • • • • • Labour costs. Transportation costs. Services are both cost and revenue affected by location (Slack et al. Land costs.
Labour costs are the costs of employing people with particular skills... such as aluminium melting which is directly dependent on the availability of hydroelectric generation of energy in an area. Labour cost can differ from area to area and also between different countries. 2001:162). Capital movement restrictions. 2001:162). 2001:161). Community factors can have a direct influence on the profitability of an organisation. These costs include both direct wage costs and non-wage costs. 2001:163).. These factors are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • Local tax rates. Local attitudes to inward investments... Availability of support services. 27 . for example the taxes are very high. Local amenities (for example schools. Government financial assistance. Land costs are the costs to acquire the site itself or to rent the site. shops). Labour costs exert a major influence on the location decision (Slack et al. 2001:162). Transportation costs can be considered in two parts. One is the cost of transporting inputs for their source to the site of operation. theatres. the rent will be much higher than that for a site in a rural area (Slack et al. Language. Community factors are those that derive operation costs from the social. Planning procedures and restrictions (Slack et al. Environmental restrictions and waste disposal. political and economic environment of its site. Government planning assistance. If the site is in a main street. The other part of transportation cost is the transporting of goods from the site to customers (Slack et al. This factor can influence a location decision directly (Slack et al. Energy costs are important for an operation that uses large amounts of energy. Political stability. History of labour relations and behaviour.
2001:165). it will rapidly lose its attraction and revenue collection will decrease (Slack et al. Labour skills are important as the ability of the local labour force can have an effect on customer’s reaction to the products or services which the operation produces (Slack et al. if a luxury hotel moves away from a lovely beach with palm trees to an industrial estate..Demand-side factors can vary in such a way as to influence customer service/revenue as location varies.5 THE FIVE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Useful classifications of the performance objectives are used to identify the operation stakeholders. there are two more techniques to help make this decision. Convenience for customers (speed and dependability). Similarly with other public services. Slack et al. 2. Hospitals are therefore located close to centres of demand. Image. The demand-side factor areas are as follows. For example. The suitability of the site itself can affect an operation’s ability to serve customers’ and generate revenue. Suitability of site. The image of location is important due to the fact that some locations are firmly associated in customers’ minds. for example the different images of a hospital and a bank Convenience for customers is the most important demand-side factor for many operations. 2001:165). • • • • Labour skills. (2001:43) stated that stakeholders are the 28 . To assist managers in making a good judgement in a location decision. location has a significant effect on the ability of an organisation to serve its customers effectively (Slack et al. These are the weight-score method and the centre-of-gravity method... 2001:165).
In order to be more competitive. The five basic performance objectives can be applied to all types of operations. Internal stakeholders are identified as the operation’s employees and the external stakeholders are the society or community groups and the company’s shareholders. You want to do things first → speed objective. External stakeholders can have a direct commercial relationship with the company by means of the company’s value chain. You want to do things cheaply → cost objective. In government departments. Stakeholders can also be identified as internal or external. You want to do things on time → dependability.10.people and groups of people who have an interest in the operation and who may be influenced or can influence the operation’s activities. stakeholders can overlap. These five objectives that will assist you to be more competitive are: • • • • • You want to do things right → quality objective. they can be “shareholders” of a public service agency as well as their main customer. who are a non-profit organisations. A graphic display of these objectives is given in figure 2. You want to make changes where necessary → flexibility. there are objectives that will contribute to achieve the goals. 29 .
Each operation has it own set of tasks or procedures that needs to be done right.FIGURE 2. 30 . (2001:57) 2. Highest Value Dependable Quick Delivery COST Delivery DEPENDABILITY Minimum cost SPEED Maximum value Fast Throughput Error-Free Processes Reliable Operation Ability to Change FLEXIBILITY QUALITY Error -free products and services Frequent new products Maximum choice Source: Slack et al.1 The Quality Objective Everyone strives for error-free or mistake-free services or goods that are “fit for their purpose”.5.10 .11. In some ways quality is the most visible part of what an operation does. An example of what quality can be is given in figure 2. Quality means doing things right. Good quality products and services mean high customer satisfaction and therefore the likelihood that the customer will return or use the service again.PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Minimum Price.
Fewer mistakes in micro operations will use less time for corrections. The product is reliable. The effect thereof is that the shelf life of 31 . A supermarket cannot afford to run out of stock. Source: Adapted from Slack et al. Quality could mean…. 2. Quality reduces cost. the more likely he or she will be to purchase them or use it. Speed also reduces the turn around time of inventory. AUTOMOBILE PLANT • • • All parts are made to specification. Another way of qualifying quality is as follows: • • • Quality inside the operation.2. The faster a customer can receive the goods or services. it will lose customers and also income due to the fact that the customers will go and buy from the opposition.FIGURE 2. (2001:45).11 – QUALITY MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS IN DIFFERENT OPERATIONS. All assembly is to specification. Speed can also be inside the operation if fast response to external customers is made possible by fast decision-making and speedy movement of materials and information inside the organisation. The Speed Objective The time between a customer asking for goods or services and the time the customer receives the goods or services must be kept to a minimum.5. Quality increases dependability. • Patients are consulted and kept informed. Thus increase the availability of goods or services. HOSPITAL • Patients receive the most appropriate treatment • Treatment is carried out in the correct manner. especially in manufacturing plants where the increase in demand requires the increase in production.
Ineffective use of time will translate into extra cost. If everything in an operation is perfectly dependable. a level of trust will have been built up between the different sections/departments of the operation.5. 2. No matter how inexpensive the service is or the goods are or how fast it is advertised as being available. Dependability gives stability. 2001:50).. 2001:49).. Customers may judge the dependability of an operation after the product or service has been delivered (Slack et al. 32 . Speed reduces risks. Automation increases flexibility. 2001:51) 2.. The Dependability Objective Giving the dependability advantage to the customer means that you are doing things on time so as to keep the delivery promise you have given your customers..3. Physical links move work-in-process quickly from one activity to the next.inventory is kept to a minimum. The elimination of dead time is a good example of increasing dependability. Spare parts might cost more to be delivered at short notice. An operation’s internal dependability is governed by the micro operations. Everything will be more predictable and each section of the operation can concentrate on improving its own area of responsibility without having its attention diverted to other sections (Slack et al. since many steps usually inhibit flexibility. Forecasting tomorrow’s events is far less of a risk than forecasting next year’s (Slack et al. A decrease in process cycle time can be achieved by means of excellent scheduling of tasks and ensuring sufficient supply of the required resources (Slack et al.5. but they also increase changeover time between runs for different products.4 The Flexibility Objective Melnyk and Denzler (1996:206) state that flexibility of a process should be evaluated by measuring the number of steps. then the potential customer will seek service elsewhere. 2001:50). if the service is always late or for example the buses are always full.
Cost is the major operation objective. Dependable operations do not spring any unwelcome surprises on their internal customers. Organised operations reduce administrative overheads. 2001:51). Operations can take place on schedule when unexpected events disrupt the normal events (Slack et al. facilities. An operation will spend its money on staff. 2001:54). and depends on how costs are categorised.. Customers will need the operation to change so that it can provide four types of requirement: • • • • Product/service flexibility → different products and services. 2001:55). Delivery flexibility → different delivery times (Slack et al.5. Comparing the cost structure of different operations is not always straightforward. Flexibility maintains dependability. The lower the cost of producing their services or goods. Flexibility speeds up response time due to the fact that operations can be changed to handle special circumstances. Volume flexibility → different quantities or volumes of products and services. equipment cost and material costs. 2. 33 . Mix flexibility → a wide range or mix of products and services. Cost can be categorised as fixed costs and variable costs. Developing a flexible operation can also have advantages to the organisation itself..5 The Cost Objective The production of goods and services at a cost which enables them to be priced appropriately for the market while still allowing for a return to the organisation or a non-for-profit organisation gives good value to the taxpayers or whoever is funding the operation. Flexibility can also save time where people are multi skilled and can adapt quickly from one task to another. technology. the lower is the price to their customers (Slack et al.Flexibility is also able to change far enough and fast enough to meet customer requirements. Fast operations reduce the level of in-process inventory between micro operations.. Cost is affected by the other performance objectives: • • • • High-quality operations do not waste time or effort having to re-do things.
6 SUMMARY In creating the working operational structure for the EDM fire fighting service and in obtaining enough funds to upgrade the resources to an effective and efficient service. the EDM fire fighting service will be the number one fire fighting service in South Africa. 2. Chapter 3 will determine those factors by addressing the following sub-problem: What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service and how should this service operate? 34 .. 2001:56).• Flexible operations adapt to changing circumstances quickly and without disrupting the rest of the operation. This can only be achieved if the localisation decision is made correctly and the five performance objectives have been met. Flexible micro operations can also change over between tasks quickly and without wasting time and capacity (Slack et al. The organisational structure and location may not be the factors that influence the performance of a fire fighting service.
are very passionate about their jobs. For the purpose of this study the following will be investigated: • • Public fire fighting service.1 INTRODUCTION “Being a paramedic is the most fulfilling profession I’ve ever experienced it is full of challenges. The Rural/Metro Corporation in the US is a private fire fighting service that operates in 35 . Most of the fire brigades in South Africa form part of a municipality which is situated in big towns. This chapter addresses the following sub-problem: What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service and how should it operate? Each fire fighting service is unique in how it operates and who are funding the service.com/htm/careers_frameset. Private fire fighting service. It is part of Working For Fire. is it important to create organisational structures for them to do their work. and that include fire fighters. and the opportunity to help someone in need. Private fire fighting services are still in the embryo state as most of these services are owned by private companies like PetroSA and Sappi. http:www.htm). Due to the fact that paramedics.CHAPTER 3 BENCHMARKING 3. Rural/Metro paramedic. variety. under funded and management seems to be unaccountable. Public fire fighting service is still very common in South Africa. The Zululand Fire Protection Service is an example of one semi-private fire fighting service in South Africa. The problems are that they are understaffed. To be able to create a workable organisational structure it is important to benchmark what knowledgeable people‘s viewpoints are about a fire fighting service. It's an honour to be a paramedic” (Casey O’Brien. I smile to myself because I know that I made a difference. At the end of each day.ruralmetrotn.
Therefore the following fire fighting and public services were investigated: • • • • Rural/Metro Corporation. a free-lance writer based in Scottsdale. wildland and hazardous materials response ( www. Poole (2004).com/ 2004).2 RURAL/METRO CORPORATION The Rural/Metro Corporation is a private emergency-services company specialising in ambulance and fire protection services.org/ 1 Nov. Metropolitan Police Department. This service is funded by an annual subscription basis (www.com/ 2004). It operates in 50 communities in five states in America (hhtp:/blog.com/ 2004). non-emergency transports and other support services.lewrockhwell. industrial. In the light of the above statements.ruralmetrotn. Arizona. 36 .ruralmetrotn.Scottsdale.ruralmetrotn. Rural/Metro Corporation started its first fire service in 1948. The ambulance services include emergency medical services (EMS). 2004). Arizona. airport/rescue. 3. Rural/Metro has created a concept of providing a service to areas that may have no service at all. Oregon. Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District (METRO FIRE).fee. states that fire fighting services don’t need to be provided by government (www. emergency response training for cruise lines. Fire services include municipal.com/ 2004). Zululand Fire Protection Services. The company now employs more than 11 000 people. Corporate headquarters are located in Scottsdale. it may be beneficial to investigate public as well as private fire fighting services. Rural/Metro stock is traded on the NASDAQ stock exchange (www. An ambulance service was added in 1975. or otherwise may have difficulty in obtaining such a service. Tennessee. answering 2 million emergency calls a year in 400 communities in the United States. Arizona.
The third is by contract. In addition to ambulance and fire protection. Funding is by three methods. The Rural/Metro Fire Department provides a high-quality. for all fire calls. Non-member fees for a typical house fire can cost as much as 10 years’ worth of membership costs. and they work hard to provide a work environment that is stimulating.com/ 2004). 2004). Another method is a licensing agreement. where the town has an ordinance (law) that demands of all residents in the community to pay a subscription. Free home fire and safety inspections. 37 . Knox. Every member of the Rural/Metro team is a partner in the organisation’s success. Applicable discounts on a homeowner’s insurance premiums. First Responder medical service.com/ 2004). and home escape plans that can save a family in the event of a fire. civic groups. Rural/Metro’s employees are at the heart of everything they do. The Rural/Metro Corporation provides the following services: • • • • Fire response. where the town collects a tax and in turn pays for the services under contract. and industrial and maritime emergency response training (www. including Shelby County (Memphis).ruralmetrotn. (Morris. They are an organisation of people serving people in their hour of need. Blount. a plant safety and security agreement with ALCOA. churches. Loudon and Franklin counties.Rural/Metro has several operations in Tennessee.ruralmetrotn. leaving the property owner responsible for the difference. • • Rural/Metro’s life-saving fire prevention and safety programs at schools. cost-effective fire service. per apparatus. Rural/Metro’s Tennessee operations include an airport rescue fire fighting contract with FedEx in Memphis. engaging and rewarding. Some areas are funded by a volunteer subscription method where the home owner pays an annual fee based on square footage. Homeowner’s insurance usually pays only a fraction of the bill. checks of smoke detectors and fire extinguishers. Nashville. Non-members are billed for service at the rate of $800 per hour. neighbourhood meetings or workplaces. Services involving hazardous materials (www.
They are in the Phoenix. Tucson and Yuma areas. a willingness to work as a team and a deep sense of community partnership and support (www.S. Figure 3. The organisational structure as per region is illustrated in Figure 3. They are all of similar size with their own fire chief.ruralmetrotn.com/ (2004).2004).CORPORATE ORGANISATIONAL CHART Corporate Organizational Chart Board of Directors Cor J.com/./Central Florida Emergency Service Group Boo Heffner Group President Source: www. Clement Sr.1 is an example of the corporate organisation structure. The Rural/Metro organisation structure is as follows. Chairman Board Audit Committee Board Governance Committee Board Compensation Committee Jack Brucker President & CEO Christine Wilson Executive Assistant Barry Landon* SVP Billing & Collection Kurt Krumperman VP Strategic Initiatives & Federal Affairs Michael Zarriello SVP & CFO Donna Berlinski Director of Corporate Governance & Compliance *Also Group President October 26. 2004 SW Ambulance & Arizona Fire Barry Landon President Southern Emergency Group Susan Brown Group President Mid-Atlantic/N. The fire services are divided into three fire “regions” in Arizona. FIGURE 3..Rural/Metro Corporation believes in searching for excellence in the employment process and it seeks to employ only those individuals with innovative ideas. 38 . Emergency Service Group Todd Walker Group President Western U.1 . The Fire Chief reports to the Vice President (Morris.E. 2005).ruralmetrotn.2.
2 . Dev.za. Redden Programmer/System Analyst Charles Landon Communications Manager E.000 hectares of timber. Lawson Fire Prevention District Chief Mike Norton Sta # 822 Sta # 823 Prevention Sta # 828 Sta # 821 Sta # 837 Sta # 841 Sta # 854 Sta # 855 Sta # 857 Sta # 859 Shop Warehouse Queen Creek Westside Cave Creek / Carefree Assist W/ F H & P V Source: R Hightower (2004). 2004). District Chief C.3 ZULULAND FIRE PROTECTION SERVICES Jake Oosthuizen formed Zululand Fire Protection Services cc after 16 years of aerial spraying and aerial fire fighting. with the object of providing a service to the Zululand timber industry. Exec. Grubb Fleet Manager C. The operation control room was not very sophisticated and only provided a basic communication service to the timber growers in the area (http:/www. The internet is used for weather predictions. Asst.co. Caudle B. Chief D. Rathbun Chief of Operations Human Resources C. Pendleton Chief of Operations Bus. Hansen Yuma Fire Operations D./Pub. Mulder Regional Training Officer TBN Pima Fire Operations C. Zimmerman Central Cty. 12 months a year. Relations Randa Hightower Comm Center Ftn. Chief B. Today the control room is manned 24 hours a day. Hills District Chief M. Ojile Training/Special Projects Assistant Chief K. Acting Batt.zpfs. Batt. Weather information is collected via the internet from approximately eight weather stations twice a day and fire danger index (FDI) is calculated. 3. Chief M. 39 . Anderson Scheduling/Finance M. Fitzgerald West Cty. satellite images and communication with the forestry industry world wide. Norling East Cty.REGIONAL ORGANISATIONAL CHART Fire Chief Gary Morris Maricopa/Pinal Fire Ops. Initially the operation was started by taking over the control centre of the Zululand Fire Protection Association (ZFPA) which coordinated all fire fighting operations in the Zululand Coastal Area (ZCA) which covered approximately 80.FIGURE 3. Brewer/T.
Zululand Inland Fire Protection Association and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry contract in bomber and spotter aircraft from private aircraft operators. ZFPSD co-ordinates the aerial operations of the four fire associations which cover the KwaZulu-Natal area. During severe fire weather conditions. ZFPS co-ordinates all the aircraft operations on behalf of all the stakeholders and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in the Maputaland area.1 x C182 spotter (http:/www. ZFPA. ZIFPA .zpfs. one turbo Thrush and one C182 are based in Kwambonambi covering the Zululand Coastal area. With sufficient bombers available. ZFPA. Two turbo Thrushes and one C182 are based in Melmoth.zpfs.co. One turbo Thrush and one C182 cover the Maputaland area of Mbazwana and Manzingwenya. Zululand Inland Fire Protection Association (ZIFPA) and Maputoland. 400 gallon bomber and 1 x C182 spotter. depending on the fire situation. A fully laden Air Tractor 802 (3000lts) can travel across any terrain at 6. MAPUTALAND . One AT402. Fast reliable bomber aircraft are indispensable.The services of the Zululand Fire Protection Services (ZFPS) are contracted to the majority of the timber growers in KwaZulu-Natal and the North East Cape to co-ordinate aerial fire fighting operations.co. covering the Zululand Inland Area. The total timber area of these associations is approximately 550 000 hectares. During the dry winter months which last from July to October. 2004).2 x Turbine. All this is happening while the ground crew are still on their way (http:/www. bomber aircraft are placed on standby throughout the timber area to decrease the reaction time from call out to first drop. During the dry winter months. 40 .1 x Turbine. This aerial attack can prevent a fire from climbing into the crowns. a load could be dropped on the fire every 3 minutes. 2004).16 kilometers per minute. for example KZNFPA. As ZFPS’s core competency is aerial fire fighting they have the following aircraft that are used by the three Zululand Associations: • • • ZFPA .za. which slows down the spread. as the area is wetted. 400 gallon bombers and 1 x C182 spotter. Once at the fire the aircraft can dump a large load of foam or retardant or several smaller loads.za.
za. 2004).plant preparation.co. including full cover sprays and burning. These vehicles and fire fighters are strategically placed with regard to current fire danger weather and remain in contact with the operation center at all times (http:/www. 2004). These vehicles are backed up by other tankers that carry 2500 liters of water and five fire fighters. Aircraft cannot operate efficiently without adequate ground support.za. 2004). Silviculture services are the following. Wattle and Eucalyptus plantations that are harvested in an average of 12 years. including burning. Pre. Chemical and manual weed control. working towards the common goal of preventing fires.zpfs. Maintenance of conservation areas. 6 000ha has been destroyed in 6 hours! Extreme fire 41 .co. they do silviculture operations. The Zululand Inland Area is covered by the Zululand Inland Fire Protection Association (ZIFPA). The area has the unfortunate notoriety of having the fastest. most devastating fires. • • • • • Fire break preparation. During the dry winter months the aircrafts are the first line of attack. detecting fires.zpfs. one tanker with 5000 liters of water and eight fire fighters and a bulk tanker with 13 000 liters of water. ZFPS utilizes fast attack vehicles with the capacity of 700 liters of water and three fire fighters that operate as the first line of attack. utilizing initial attack fire fighting principles to minimize agricultural and forestry losses through fire (http:/www.za. ZIFPA is made up of 25 members.zifpa. covering approximately 44 000ha. Planting (http:/www. When fire fighters are not fighting fires or training.In October 1999 Zululand Fire Protection Services secured a contract with a major timber company and provided a complete ground fire detection and control service. During the remainder of the year. This support must be in the form of trained ground crews equipped with quality equipment. In Zululand history. The staff of ZFPS is highly motivated and each is a specialist in his field. The Zululand interior is relatively mountainous with a fairly even mix of Pine.co.
25 R 2.43 R 3.co. 2004).za (2004). detecting fires.72 0.89 Source: http://www.144.10 R 5. The ZFPA is made up of 20 members.weather conditions.52 0.59 Ave A/c costs per Fire R 1. 42 .173. High temperatures. coupled with high humidities and the average rainfall of approximately 1100mm per year.186.148.367.7 1.04 1.zfps.15 R1. The trees grow straight and fast unfortunately so do the fire fuels! The following are aircraft and fire statistics updated 09/10/2004 TABLE 3.28 R 4.23 R 6.za.26 R 3.804.933.778. It is a relatively flat area with predominantly colonial Eucalyptus plantations that are harvested in an average of seven years.227.80 R 22.88 R 7.62 0.1 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Average ZULULAND COASTAL FIRES AND LOSSES Total Fires 299 240 196 416 457 154 260 565 557 195 334 A/c Fires 45 36 23 47 30 21 48 101 188 22 56 Timber Burnt 310 365 149 2380 282 109 187 481 1284 198 575 Ha/Fire 1. Zululand Coastal is one of the very few areas in South Africa that has a twelve month fire season due to the unique weather conditions.827.315.31 1.02 2. working towards the common goal of preventing fires.76 5.47 R 6. and utilizing initial fire fighting attack principles to minimize agricultural and forestry losses through fire.co.52 1.zifpa. The Zululand Coastal Area is covered by the Zululand Fire Protection Association (ZFPA). aspect and terrain make this area a nightmare to fight fires in (http:/www. make Zululand Coastal the 'Forestry Pantry' of South Africa.72 0. covering approximately 80 000ha.
65 6. yet nothing has ever been done to improve detection methods which have remained the same for hundreds of years. More often lookout towers are late in reporting fires.75 5. It is also very difficult for these staff members to pinpoint the 43 .43 R 11.29 R 9.883. Forest fires are one of nature’s most destructive forces.24 1. Guards have to work long hours under difficult circumstances with only short breaks in concentration. The Firehawk is a computerised fire detection system whereby rotating digital cameras covering large forestry areas transmit information to a base station where the Firehawk software differentiates between fire.2 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Average ZULULAND INLAND FIRES AND LOSSES Total Fires 170 69 79 110 141 102 178 140 113 44 115 A/c Fires 41 12 17 35 56 36 46 28 32 16 32 Timber Burnt 5789 360 112 2254 981 456 416 443 927. the ZFPS have 11 electronic fire detection cameras.52 R 2.99 9.za (2004). This camera system is called the Firehawk.35 Ave A/c costs per Fire R 2.17 8.96 5.co.79 R 16.577.12 Source: http://www.331.264.21 6. In order to help preventing great damage caused by a fire.93 R 1.19 R 13.23 R 11.004.11 R 9.93 R 8.TABLE 3. The human element associated with these lookout towers is the problem.080.212.000.095. The Firehawk has replaced the manned lookout towers that are as old as forestry itself. Technology plays a vital role in all spheres of forestry today.75 R 14. These cameras send live video images from seventy two meter towers up to thirty five kilometres away.875.720.01 20.5 360 1210 Ha/Fire 33.14 2. smoke and glow and automatically raises an alarm.33 3. Firehawk is a computer aided forest risk management system that is controlled by a human operator.zfps.
• User friendly software. • Geographical information on any camera and sector position by a simple touch of a button operation. Unwanted image alarms are filtered out and only those required are reported. Firehawk’s capabilities are as follows: • Multi-tower capabilities. but nothing is done about their early detection. fire and glow 24 hours a day. 44 . Manual manipulation of any camera in the system without affecting any other camera in the system. Although the capability of cameras is far beyond the 6 to 8 km radius. Unwanted image alarms are filtered out. These video images are fed to a central command base where they are processed.co. A base station can have many processors. The system can be used for Management check-ups and controlling of fire fighting operations (http://wwwfirehawk. Yet this antiquated method is still used in many parts of the world. using the latest software platforms and operating systems. Alarms are reported by the system without affecting any camera scanning its designated area. • • • Multiple time zones setup capabilities.actual location of any fire and to provide the best access details to the forester. Detection of smoke. such as fire location and best access details. • • • Cameras scan a full 360 degrees in less than four minutes. • Multiple alarm reporting capabilities.(day night and twilight). This provides valuable information to forestry personnel. weather conditions do not always allow detection of fires beyond this safe margin. Up to eight (8) remote camera installations can be connected to a single Firehawk processor.za. Real-time video images can be transmitted up to 30 km. Firehawk has been designed to be installed in remote areas where cameras can cover a radius of 6 to 8 km from the point of installation. Millions of dollars are spent annually in the combating fires. 2004). without repetition being required.
Forestry companies Mondi. Presently Firehawk is installed in two regions of South Africa. and is continuously being expanded.ELEMENTS OF THE FIREHAWK SYSTEM Source www. hot summers and very cold winters with snow on high ground. This ensured that the system was tested and developed to not only work under severe weather conditions.zfps. FIGURE 3. Sappi.co. but also to be accurate enough to guide foresters to the source of a fire in the shortest possible time once detected.za/firehawk_detection (2004).3 . extreme temperature changes that occur. NCT.During the past six years the system has been installed and tested in various forestry areas throughout South Africa. The first installation was in the Richmond area of KwaZulu-Natal. SQF and Masonite. private growers and Government agencies have committed themselves to the Firehawk system as being the preferred system for the detection of forest fires. 45 . This area was chosen because of the mountains.
This proved that by having the capability to detect fires more rapidly. 2004).The results of using the Firehawk are as follows: • In 2000 during the fire season of Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal a total of 153 fires were detected. Emergency medical response. The administration and membership of the District recognise the contribution and rich history of its processor departments. 3. 2004). ground crews and aerial support are able to get to the source of fires much faster. thereby limiting damage and costs drastically.za. The combined District will consist of approximately six hundred and ninety employees with an area encompassing 417 square miles that include Sacramento and Placer counties (http:www. • • Rescue services.7 ha per fire).co.smfd. • In the 1998 fire season. Results at the end of the season showed a burnt area rate of less than one hectare per fire (0. The Fire District Law contained within the State of California Health and Safety code authorises a fire district to provide much more than only fire fighting.68 ha per fire (http://wwwfirehawk. The Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District is the largest district in the County of Sacramento and the seventh largest local fire agency in the State of California. The new organisation was named the Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District or Metro Fire. Of these 87 fires were detected at night. before the Firehawk system was installed the burnt area rate was 5. There are 16 prior fire departments represented in the Metro Fire organisation. The name fire district implies that the primary responsibility is to suppress fires and that is why the district was created in the first place.4 SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN FIRE DISTRICT (METRO FIRE) The Board of Directors of the American River Fire District adopted an application for reorganisation with the Sacramento County Fire Protection District on 25 September 1999. The following additional services are also provided.ca.gov. 46 .
The local constituency determines the needed function that the special districts must fulfil. 47 . drainage function and fire services. Water storage districts. • • • • • • • • • • • Airport districts.gov/specialdistrict.htm.gov/specialdistrict. Utility districts. The following types of special districts are identified. Any other services related to protecting life and property (www. Municipal districts.ca.ca. Special districts are also formed to provide mosquito abatement.smfd. In the multipurpose district. at least two services are rendered for example fire suppression and prevention and arson investigation (www. road maintenance. Public utility districts. special purpose governmental units other than school districts that exist as separate entities with substantial administrative and fiscal independence from generalpurpose governments (www. The US Census Bureau defined a special district as independent. Water districts. 2004).ca.gov/ADMIN. Resource conservation districts.htm. Sanitary districts. Hospital districts. Ambulance services.smfd. 2004). Levee districts. Recreation and park districts.smfd. library services. 2004).• • • Hazardous materials emergency response. The fire protection service forms part of the non-enterprise districts that generally do not charge for their services.htm.
TABLE 3.3 - FACTS ABOUT SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN FIRE DISTRICTS
These statistics are from 2004-2005 Budget General Budget Demographics Area served (sq. mi.) Population ISO Rating Counties served Cities served Geography 417 599,257 3 in hydranted /8 in un-watered areas Sacramento and Placer City of Citrus Heights Mostly level. Two rivers, American & Consumnes Mather Field, McClellan Field, Rancho Murrieta, and Rio Linda $120,819,311
Incidents 2003 Authorized Personnel Management Fire Suppression Support Staff Total Paid Personnel Reserve fire fighters Physical Resources Fire Stations (Full Time) Fire Stations (Volunteer) Fire Stations (Part Time) Engine Companies Truck Companies Reserve Firefighter Engine Companies Transporting Medic Units Transporting Medic Units (Part Time) Personal Watercraft Response Units Inflatable Rubber Boat Response Units ARFF Units Historical Fire Apparatus 38 2 2 39 5 14 10 2 2 2 3 8 17 534 122 673 19 56 700
Source: http:// www.smfd.ca.gov (2004) The Operations Division provides a multitude of emergency and non-emergency services to the public. More than 500 firefighters working out of 42 stations are directly responsible to mitigate a wide variety of emergency incidents 24/7. In 2002 the fire district responded to over 54,000 alarms. The following equipment is operated by the fire district; • • • • • • 10 transporting Advanced Life Support medics, 7 reserve transporting medics, 38 engine companies, truck companies, 24 grass engines, 2 crash rescue rigs, 49
• • • • • •
6 water tenders, swift water rescue bikes, swift water rescue inflatable rubber boats, air units, 3 reserve fire fighter engine companies, 2 reserve fire fighter grass engines (http:// www.smfd.ca.gov; 2004).
Many of the District's engines are paramedic staffed and all responding units provide EMT coverage. In addition to emergency medical alarms and structural or wildland fire responses, the District's personnel are trained and equipped to deal with swift water emergencies, confined space incidents, technical rescues, hazardous materials incidents and crash fire rescue. In the 2000 wildland fire season the District sent engine companies to Arizona, Wyoming and Nevada to battle record size fires. Some of the District's personnel are trained and experienced as overhead team staff and served on major complex fires in Wyoming, Arizona, Colorado and Montana. Additionally, many of their members hold critical roles. In addition to emergency medical alarms and structural or wildland fire responses, the District's personnel are trained and equipped to deal with swift water emergencies, confined space incidents, technical rescues, hazardous materials incidents and crash fire rescue. Many of their members hold critical roles on the urban search and rescue “Task Force 7 Team”. This Team responds to large-scale disasters, both natural and manmade (http:// www.smfd.ca.gov; 2004)
200 members that consist of 3.ca.4 . as we work with others to build safe and healthy communities throughout the District of Columbia” (www. impose fines and establish inspection and licensing procedures.am. Ramsey (www. the department is also committed to building safer neighbourhoods in partnership with the community. the Metropolitan Police Department includes more than 4. The mission of the MPD is: “ to prevent crime and the fear of crime.FIGURE 3. Members of the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) have been serving the District of Columbia (DC) for well over 100 years.htm (2004). police authority was centralised and power was granted to the city itself to establish patrols.SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN FIRE DISTRICT Source: www.mpdc.gov/mission.gov.mpdc.5 METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT The Metropolitan Police Department is not only a fire fighting service but they are also a public service working in the community. Until the creation of the Metropolitan Police Department in 1861. when the original charter of Washington was approved. 2004). Their leader is Chief Charles H. the city had only an auxiliary watch with one captain and 15 policemen. In 1802. During that time. 51 . Today. the MPD has grown in diversity as well as size.600 sworn police officers and more than 600 civilian employees. 2004).go/org_chart. While serving and protecting the community remains central to the MPD mission.smfd. 3.
2004).com/police/980909. The Metropolitan Police Department took the decision to make the police service more effective. The resources devoted to it were inadequate and a major problem was that the rest of the Police Department remained locked in a rigid bureaucratic structure that not only failed to embrace the new operating model. 2004).htm.dcwatch. The restructuring plan reduces the number of PSA from 83 to 45. On May 2. The managers decided to restructure the entire department for three main reasons. The goal of the restructuring is to ensure better police services for DC neighborhoods by providing greater flexibility in neighborhood patrols and by aligning PSA more closely with natural neighborhood boundaries.mpdc. as well as new boundaries for some police districts (www.htm.dcwatch. 2004. thus creating new boundaries for all of the PSA. a basic building block of community policing in the DC. To identify and solve broader crime and disorder problems.com/police/980909. The PSA model represented a good start. 2004).The mission of the MPD is in line with reasons why police departments do exist: • • • To respond to and solve criminal incidents. The new structure gave teams of PSA officers and supervisors greater responsibility for fighting crime and established new ways for police and community to work together to solve all the communities’ www. • • Place more resources in the community. Focus resources on reducing crime and solving problems in the city's 83 PSA.gov/psadistricts. problems (http: 52 . These three functions are the unique responsibility of the police (http:/ www. the Metropolitan Police Department implemented a major restructuring of its Police Service Areas (PSA). but actually got in the way of how basic police work gets done. To respond to and resolve non-criminal incidents.
investigations. focused missions. community by community and in partnership with residents and other agencies. traffic and prevention are being placed in the districts and at the district level. More field resources are being assigned in direct support of the PSA.• Hold managers at every level of the organisation accountable for the quality of policing services within their geographic commands (http:/ www. Those four bureaus are being eliminated. The existing bureau structure created excessive bureaucracy and made coordination across units cumbersome and inefficient. and PSA managers are being given greater authority and responsibility to build partnerships and solve problems. all the way up to the chief of police. communication and geographic accountability for fighting crime. The managers were of the opinion that the new organisational structure would enhance their ability to fight crime by: • Increasing police resources in the community. Key operational services such as patrols. • Strengthening the PSA. Additional sworn personnel like detectives. investigators and uniformed officers are being moved out of centralised units to assignments in the community. 53 . More officers and supervisors are being assigned directly to the PSA.dcwatch.htm. • Creating full-service police districts. These crime-fighting services will be more accessible to the community and of greater support to the PSA. districts and regions. block by block. located in the community and led by a Regional Assistant Chief who is accountable for managing resources and coordinating efforts throughout the region.com/police/980909. This actually means that they are putting the Police Department in a much stronger position to take back the city’s neighbourhoods. The new structure organises the districts into three Regional Operations Commands. • Eliminating bureaus and cutting bureaucracy. replaced by a more logical and streamlined command system which promotes team work. 2004). • Establishing geographic accountability throughout the organisation. This creates a complete system of geographic accountability for fighting crime in each PSA.
A new focus on strategic planning will identify opportunities to improve the organisation and develop innovative strategies and programs that meet the needs of Department personnel..5. • Creating the capacity to continuously improve the Department.C. FIGURE 3.com/police/980909.dcwatch. 54 .5 – PROPOSED NEW STRUCTURE OF METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT CHIEF of POLICE Executive Assistant Chief in Charge of Assistant Chief in Charge of Corporate Support Regional Operations Command Special Services Group Source: http://www.htm. (http:/ www. figure 3.com/police/980909.dcwatch. eliminates the four bureaus and creates a more streamlined organisation that promotes teamwork. training and technology that are critically important to field personnel.htm (2004) The new structure as presented in. Administrative and technical functions are being consolidated under a unified command that can more efficiently provide the tools.• Streamlining the business side of the organisation. ensuring compliance with new programs and standards and identifying areas in need of further improvement. 2004). communication and accountability. A new quality assurance team will follow up on this work. The new organisational structure is a significant departure from the way police departments as in Washington D.
dcwatch. 55 . • The new structure will put the MPDC in a position to regain their place as the nation's leading police agency (http:/ www. etc.htm.com/police/980909. Community policing simply provides the principles or values that guide their efforts and principles such as listening to the community. All the units will share the same goals and be held accountable for achieving the same results. all the way up the chain of command. involving other government agencies.dcwatch. In recent years. It will bring a wider range of police services closer to the customer. The reorganising of the new structure is not simple. The new structure represents nothing short of the wholesale transformation of the MPDC. The new structure will have the following advantages: • • • • • • It will bring the MPDC in line with the way police work gets done. It will promote a team orientation in fighting crime.and across the country have been organised. police departments across the country (including the MPDC) have struggled with trying to implement the philosophy of community policing with the same organisational structures they had used for years. The transformation will take place in phases over the next few months and each phase will be carefully planned and implemented. The new structure will not become effective immediately. Community policing does not provide the organisational structure needed to effectively carry out their work. will be organised by geographic area. thus encouraging partnerships and problem solving that are key factors to effective community policing.com/ police/ 980909. 2004). The result is that the MPDC has become fundamentally out of sync with the way work gets done in the organisation (http:/ www. 2004). and it will not happen overnight. customer-driven service organisation and one that is focused on forging alliances to more effectively fight crime and solve problems. incident-driven agency to a streamlined. establishing partnerships. The structure will support the MPDC commitment to community policing. All operational units. from a bureaucratic.
and then given to a combination of still other units for follow-up. 2004). A call to 911 was received by one bureau. This was time constraining and this structure provided little or no accountability for the end result. 2004) The MPDC needs a new organisational structure that addresses the shortcomings of the traditional model and will replace isolated operational bureaus based on function with more unified operational commands based on geography and geographic accountability. The new structure will streamline internal communications. support investigative services. The communication across bureaus is often haphazard. most police work takes place laterally.com/police/980909. dispatched to a unit in another bureau for initial response. problem solving and prevention. and will enable the smooth transition of work from one unit to another (http:/ www. overly bureaucratic or nonexistent and this is the reason that the traditional police organisation has become incompatible with the way police work needs to get done.com/police/980909. however. with work passing across different organisational units. 2004).com/police/980909.dcwatch. The new structure will promote common goals. In reality.htm. assigned to a third bureau for investigation. objectives and performance measures throughout the organisation. with separate bureaus organised around specific functions (patrol services. 56 .dcwatch. vertical organisational structure. The PSA and the MPDC both operate as an individual unit and each bureau tends to follow its own goals and performance measures.htm.htm. which may or may not reflect the goals and performance measures of the Department as a whole of the community. etcetera).The MPDC (like most other police departments) has long relied on a very traditional.dcwatch. especially under the philosophy of community policing (http:/ www. and that is to solve the incident or addressing the problem in the quickest time possible (http:/ www. and will establish new levels of managerial accountability based on geography.
from a narrow focus on patrol to the full range of police services 57 . The PSA manager will report directly to the District Commander.com/police/980909.6 – PROPOSED ROLE STRUCTURE OF METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT Source: http://www/dcwatch.htm (2004). Each PSA will be led by a manager who is clearly accountable.The role of the police district is being dramatically expanded. thus ensuring that other district resources are supporting crime fighting and problem solving in the PSA. Full-Service Police Districts .6.com/police/980909. The PSA will be enhanced by the addition of resources (both officers and supervisors) and the expansion of the PSA management team. for the results and behaviour of the members of the PSA team. who will oversee the work on each shift. are as follows: Enhanced PSA.FIGURE 3. The PSA manager will be assisted by a team of first-line PSA supervisors.htm. 2004). The key elements of the MPDC's new structure as presented in figure 3. 24 hours a day. assist the PSA manager with special projects and be accessible to the community and responsive to their needs around the clock (http://www/dcwatch.
htm. department-wide command presence. Special Services. Highly specialised operational units that are citywide in scope are being organised under a new Special Services Group. This group includes those functions. Like the Regional Operations Commands. Focused Mission Teams. special events and major narcotics that have unique training.The seven service police districts are being restructured into three Regional Operations Commands (ROC). Each ROC is commanded by a Regional Assistant Chief whose office is located in the community and who has the authority and who is free of the traditional bureaucracy to make decisions and allocate resources to support crime fighting and problem solving throughout the region. They will be identified as follows: Northern (Districts 2 and 4). Regional Operations Commands . Operational Support Team.htm. each ROC includes a youth investigations unit. a crime analysis capability and an executive officer who serves as the liaison to the rest of the organisation. Operations Command. 3 and 5).com/police/980909. Customer Service (http://www/dcwatch. A new citywide operations command is being established within the Office of the Executive Assistant Chief. That is to ensure a 24-hour-a-day.needed to solve crimes and address neighbourhood problems. Central (Districts 1. district and regional operations. 2004). such as emergency response. To supplement district and PSA efforts. This ensures coordination between these specialised units and PSA. Each district will include: Violent Crimes Investigators. Command- 58 . Eastern (Districts 6 and 7) (http://www/dcwatch. 2004). the Special Services Group reports to the Executive Assistant Chief in charge of operations. resource and operational needs.com/police/980909. Property Crimes Investigators. including the 911 center.
moving personnel to their new assignments in the community. This new structure is designed to provide the personnel. Organising these corporate services under a single command helps to ensure greater coordination within these functions and more effective delivery of services to the operational side of the organisation (http:/ www. establishing policies and procedures. Many of these functions will be staffed by personnel reassigned from centralised units. and more (http:/ www. Most operational services are being organised under three regional commands.htm.level personnel will be available to respond to and oversee major incidents that require their presence at any location in the city.htm. The Department's critical business functions are unified under a new corporate support structure.htm. 2004). however. The result is seven full service police districts in which the primary crimefighting resources of the Department are more accessible to the community through the PSA structure (http:/ www. 2004) The new organisational structure goes a long way toward accomplishing all three reasons mentioned to restructure. putting in place the physical infrastructure. this structure streamlines the delivery of services in four key areas: human services. training services and operational support services. from a narrow focus on patrol to the broad range of services needed to fight crime and solve problems. This process will involve identifying new leadership in some areas. That will continue to depend on the hard work.com/police/980909. 2004). training.dcwatch. business services.dcwatch. at any hour of the day.dcwatch. Led by an Assistant Chief. The role of the police district is being expanded. defining and re-defining relationships between units. dedication and service of members. Corporate Support. Creating 59 . the access to resources and the management support they need to do their jobs. the front-line officers and supervisors with the tools. the new structure does not guarantee success. By itself.com/police/980909.com/police/980909. This creates geographic accountability for fighting crime throughout the organisation as from the PSA up to the Chief of Police. A lot of work remains to be done in implementing the new organisational structure.
C. is because they experience problems with the clarity of their structure. chapter four will analyse the EDM as well as the fire fighting service of all its seven municipalities. The decrease of management cost will also result in a decrease in cost charged to the public for a fire fighting service and it will make the idea of a private fire fighting service or a tax charge for the service real. The reason why companies lost control over their structure and their bureaucratic costs are escalating.an organisation that is more efficient and more responsive to its members’ needs puts the MPDC in a position to fulfil their commitment to make Washington D.dcwatch.com/police/980909.. The challenge for a company is to manage its structure and control systems so that it can economise on bureaucratic costs and ensure that they match the potential gains from its strategy. To complete the picture.htm. the safest major city in America. 60 . 3. community by community (http:/ www.6 SUMMARY The different fire fighting services make the point that the EDM Fire Fighting Service is not unique in the way of operating over a large area. block by block. a much better and more cost effective service can be provided. 2004). By obtaining the geographical organisational structure.
1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter has focused on how a regional fire fighting service ideally operates. and the second sub-problem: Risk profile and capacity assessment analysis of the current fire fighting services in the Eden District Municipality (EDM) area. 4.Chapter 4 DESIGN OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY 4. It was of the utmost importance to determine the risk profile and to do a capacity analysis of the EDM area in order to determine what knowledgeable people believe the requirements for effective fire fighting management are. which would otherwise be too expensive and too difficult to tap. Kotler (2000:110) is of the opinion that market researchers have a choice of two main research instruments in collecting data: questionnaires and mechanical devices.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The empirical study was utilised to solve the sub-problem: What is the risk profile and capacity analysis of the EDM area? As well as: What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service and how does this system operate? 61 . In certain sections in this literature study there are adequate guidelines on how to prepare a questionnaire and to analyse the data that have been collected. To address these two sub-problems. This chapter addresses the following sub-problems: What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service and how does this system operate. Laudon and Laudon (2002:284) are of the opinion that rapid access to knowledge is critical to the success of many companies and that the internet will help with this problem. the current situation was analysed by means of questionnaires and by doing research using the internet. This information is available with blinding speed and the system provides mountains of data from all over the world.
2001:2). A questionnaire needs to be carefully developed. 2001:17). This can be done by looking at the performance of organisations in the same industry or sector against a set of agreed performance indicators. This collected data must then be analysed to make a meaningful decision. The information available from the ODS Consultant cc was used to assist in creating a risk assessment as comprehensively as possible. if they did not.The first sub-problems was addressed by administering a questionnaire and the second sub-problem by using the internet as a research tool for benchmarking the different fire services.3 DESIGN AND STRUCTURE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE The aim of any data collection effort is to obtain good quality information. 62 . they were likely to lose their competitive advantage or even drop out of the market as customer expectations and the performance of competitors were rising. They argued that. Johnson and Scholes (2002:174) used the abovementioned method and some others to determine what organisations should be concerned with when improving their performance over time. Kotler (2000:110) states that a questionnaire is. Due to the nature of the business for this research a structured interview was used. tested and debugged. a structured interview is where a researcher asks a standard set of questions and no more. by far the most common used instrument for collecting primary data. thus the questionnaire was used in a telephone interview after forwarding the said questionnaire to the respondent. According to Leedy and Ormrod (2001:196). A questionnaire should consist of three sections: • The administrative section – used to record the identity and details of the respondent and also where the interview took place. 4. accurate and relevant (Wegner. This information must be timely. because of its flexibility. An additional requirement for this study was to ease the operation of data collection. The design of a questionnaire is of utmost importance to ensure that the correct research questions are addressed (Wegner.
• The demographic section – describes the respondent by a number of demographic characteristics such as gender. Judgment sample – the researcher selected population members who were good prospects for accurate information. 2000:112). Such a sampling plan calls for three decisions: • • • Sampling unit – who is to be surveyed? Clearly identify the target population that will be sampled. Quota sample – the researcher found and interviewed a prescribed number of people in each of several categories (Kotler. Sampling procedure – how should the respondents be chosen? A sample is selected on a probability or a non-probability basis (Kotler. The purpose of the 63 . A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Annexure A to C. An extract of the questions in the questionnaire is presented in Table 3. 2000:112).2. Sample size – how many people should be surveyed? Large samples give more reliable results than small samples. • The information sought – this makes up the major part of the questionnaire and consists of all the questions which will extract data from respondents to address the research objective (Wegner. 2001:19). The structure of the questionnaire for this study was based on the following requirements for data collection: • • • • The emergency calls attended to annually by the different local authorities. Part of the empirical study and the subsequent questionnaire is a sampling plan. The number of fire stations. sub-stations and control rooms in the EDM area. company size or market sector. Manpower profile. Because of the limited size of the sample used in this study the non-probability sampling method was used and consisted of the following three methods: • • • Convenience sample – the researcher selected the most accessible population members. The total municipal operating expenditure and the total fire fighting expenditure of each municipality.
TABLE 4. This information also indicates the number of fire fighters required.questionnaire and the type of questions asked with specific reference to the different Municipalities were to determine specific information in creating a holistic picture of each fire fighting service in the EDM area.2 would provide information on where all the fire stations are located in the different areas. Number of 64 .1: An Extract from the Questionnaire Date Authority Official FIRES Formal/informal dwellings/ &field fires Storage Industry Transport Other RESCUE Transport accident Environmental (mountains) not sea rescues HAZMAT(chemical fires or emergencies) Number of The information in Table 4.2: An Extract from the Questionnaire (continued) Detail How many fire stations How many sub-stations How many satellite stations How many control centers The data in Table 4.1 determined where the “hot spots” were and what type of service was required: a fire fighting service or a rescue service. TABLE 4.
1 Administration of the questionnaire The questionnaire was taken to the seven Municipalities in the EDM area. Reservists and Volunteers Qualified/trained leadership Unqualified and untrained leadership Qualified/trained fire-fighters Unqualified/untrained fire-fighters Table 4.TABLE 4.3: The data would reveal the total operating expenditure of a municipality compared with the fire fighting expenditure of the same municipality.3.4: Data would determine the skills of and the number of fire fighters in the EDM area. 65 . The questions were asked by telephone interviewing. Quantity 4. Total Operating Expenditure Amount TABLE 4. At certain Municipalities the financial department could provide the researcher with all the answers.3: An Extract from the Questionnaire (continued) DETAIL / DESCRIPTION Municipal 2002/2003 Fire Fighting Total Operating Operating Operating Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure 2002/2003 Municipal 2003/2004 Fire Fighting 2003/2004 Source: Table 4.4: An Extract from the Questionnaire (continued) Full time Staff Qualified/Trained leadership Unqualified and untrained leadership Qualified/ trained fire-fighters Unqualified/untrained fire-fighters Part time Staff.
4. sub-stations and control rooms Manpower profile o Qualified full time staff o Unqualified full time staff o Part time staff.According to Kotler (2001:112). After interviewing all seven municipalities.3. The researcher assisted in all of these interviews. the researcher processed the completed questionnaires. reservists and volunteers • • Total Municipal operating expenditure Total Municipal fire fighting operating expenditure 66 .2 Variables in questionnaire Wegner (2001:3) states that a variable is any characteristic that is being measured or observed and that such a variable can take on different (random) values at each observation or measurement and is called a random variable. and the interviewer is also able to clarify the questions and therefore the response rate is higher than when mailing the questionnaires. telephone interviewing is the best method for gathering information quickly. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine: What is the risk profile and capacity analysis of the EDM area? As well as: What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service and how does this structure operate? In this questionnaire there were a number of random variables such as: • Emergency calls attended annually o Fires o Rescue o Hazmat • • The number of fire stations. The aim of these interviews was to obtain information as accurate as possible that was about the fire fighting services in the EDM area.
Chapter 5 will reflect on the results obtained from the questionnaire.Data on these above mentioned variables assisted the researcher in determining the assessment analysis of the fire fighting services in the EDM area. 67 .4 SUMMARY The questionnaire was the selected tool to determine: What is the risk profile and capacity analysis of the EDM area? As well as: What viewpoints do knowledgeable people have about an operational structure for a fire fighting service and how does this service operate? Data obtained also assisted in determining in which organisational structure would fit the fire services for the EDM area the best. The benchmarking against other fire fighting service would help in designing the best operational structure using all the possible resources. 4.
(2001:604) state that a prerequisite for benchmarking success is to understand thoroughly your own processes and also to look at what is already available. 68 . 2001:602). and their way of doing things and those adopted by other operations. where a comparison is made between an organisation’s operation practices. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Annexure A. (Slack et al. Therefore it is very important to know what the area looks like. 5. Slack et al. how many people are staying in the EDM area.. what resources they have and what the total expenditure of it operation is. (2001:604). Chambers and Johnston (2001:601) state that benchmarking is one approach that some companies can use to compare their operations with those of other companies.CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY 5. was discussed in chapter three.1 presents data about all the call outs in a year in the three major fire fighting services as well as in the EDM area. Table 5. The practice of benchmarking. This information was obtained by a telephonic questionnaire. The objective was to see whether anything could be learnt from practices adopted by other organisations.. Benchmarking is no longer restricted to only manufacturing operations but also confined to services such as hospital and banks (Slack et al.2 ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY CALLS ATTENDED The completion of the questionnaire presented an opportunity to determine where the high risk areas are.1 INTRODUCTION Slack.
The climate of Mossel Bay. but it is expected that their statistics are nearly the same as those in Table 5. Mossel Bay includes a large quantity of towns with high risk areas. which is “wet”. Van Rensburg 150 30 17 7 1 473 2 1 19 3 22 3 8 360 86 35 CALLS Mossel Bay EDM George Oudtshoorn Incidents in the rural areas are not always reported.1.Krapohl 42 A. ad hoc structural fire fighting function but only has the capacity to mitigate small to medium sized veld fires. that has a larger population. Marais 111 H. therefore the statistics may generally be understated.1 shows that Mossel Bay attended more emergency calls than George. Table 5. George and Mossel Bay: 69 .3. Risks are predominantly small and the municipality performs a rudimentary..1 – EMERGENCY CALLS ATTENDED ANNUALLY EMERGENCY ATTENDED ANNUALLY FIRES Formal/informal dwellings and field fires Storage Industry Transport Other RESCUE Transport accident Environmental HAZMAT TOTAL CALLS Source interviews) (Personal 678 H. The following are high risk area identified in EDM. is also drier than the climate of George.1. Langeberg Municipality has numerous towns and coastal settlements that are widely fragmented by distance and topography. Botha 395 C. The statistics of the fire fighting services of Knysna and Plettenberg Bay (Bitou) are not shown in Table 5. As shown per Table 6.TABLE 5.
o thatched dwellings (Wilderness). o shopping centres. o environmental pollution of the sea and rivers. o Mossel Bay harbour. o LPG gas supply establishments. o Wolwedans Dam. o veld and forest fires. o squatter camp (Wilderness Heights). o wooden houses (Victoria Bay). o accidents and hazardous substances associated with commercial transport. Kleinkrantz) o electrical transformer stations. o motor vehicle accidents. o swift water and cliff rescues.EDM (including Kannaland and the DMA) o plantations (Haarlem). Mossel Bay o major hazardous installations represented by PetroSA and the Voorbaai tank farm. o sawmills (Dieprivier). o aircraft accidents. guest lodges and holiday resorts. informal dwellings (Touwsranten. o structural and informal settlement fires and rescues. o hazardous substance emergencies involving motor transport and large structure fires. o passengers and hazardous substances associated with rail transport. o filling stations. o high buildings. o the sawmill at Great Brak River. o rescues after heavy and light motor vehicle accidents. o hotels. George o George airport and aircraft accidents. ii. o filling stations and LPG gas outlets. i. 70 .
o institutional buildings and schools.
ANALYSIS OF QUANTITY OF FIRE STATIONS, SUB-STATIONS AND CONTROL CENTRES The purpose of these questions was to determine where in the EDM area the stations, sub-stations and control centres are situated and the quantity of each. In designing a new operational structure it is important to know the number of stations and where they are situated due to the cost factor in creating new stations. Some of the stations are already situated on the main routes of the area. Table 5.2 shows the quantity of fire stations, sub-stations and control centres in the EDM area:
TABLE 5.2 – FIRE STATIONS, SUB-STATIONS AND CONTROL ROOMS Oudtshoorn Mossel Bay Langeberg
Bitou 1 1 1 1
Fire Stations Sub-stations Satellite Control Centres Source: Otto: 2004
0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 1 2 1
Due to the responsibility of the EDM to provide a full range of fire fighting services in the DMA and in the Kannaland Municipality as well as for combating veld and mountain fires in all local municipalities, they have satellite stations in the area. Control centers with call-taking facilities are located in all centres, except in Langeberg, and are manned on a 24-hour basis by full time staff. The Oudtshoorn centre does not appear to be manned at all times. Fire stations are mainly situated in the different main towns.
EDM 1 2 6 1 71
ANALYSIS OF FIRE SERVICES EXPENDITURE
The fire fighting services are the “poor man” of the municipalities due to the fact that very little capital expenditure has been channelled to the fire services for several years. Table 5.3 shows the total operating expenditure of a municipality with the fire fighting expenditure of the same municipality.
TABLE 5.3 – MUNICIPAL TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITURE AND FIRE SERVICES OPERATING EXPENDITURE
Municipal Total Code Municipality Operating Expenditure 2002/2003
WC041 WC042 WC043 WC044 WC045 WC047 WC048 DC4 Kannaland Langeberg Mossel Bay George Oudtshoorn Bitou Knysna Eden District 156 154 822 257 800 000 87 446 135 76 173 826 137 862 750 38 601 693
Municipal Total Operating Expenditure 2003/2004
169 147 557 312 000 000 101 748 206 86 440 859 158 692 280 44 579 933
Fire Fighting Operating Expenditure 2003/2004
108 000 3 954 929 2 960 000 277 913 2 508 240 2 649 100 4 299 673
Operating Expenditure 2002/2003
100 000 3 798 757 2 600 000 264 454 1 394 165 2 366 130 3 873 578
Source: WC042 (Maddison:2004) WC043 (Botha:2004) WC044 (Marais:2004) WC045 (Krapohl:2004) WC047 (Burger:2004) WC048 (Nortier:2004) DC4 (Zeelie:2004) Table 5.3 indicates that the EDM fire fighting service covers 10% of the total expenditure in 2003/2004. The EDM is also responsible for fire fighting services in the rural areas, Kannaland and Langeberg. The fire service is labour intensive and as may be expected, staff costs that include allowances for part-time staff, uniforms and protective clothing, generally account for between 60% and 85% (average 75%) of the total operating budget of the service. As the fire services are subsidised services,
any improvements or expansion of these services will have important implications for municipal operating budgets and will directly impact on rates. It will be equally significant to note the impact that future capital charges will have on operating budgets due to the need for capitalisation and recapitalisation of fire services inventory. By using the tables above an estimation on conversion costs for existing municipal premises into sub-stations or satellite stations may be in the order of R250 000 to R300 000 each. The general operating costs, excluding staff costs per station, may be in the order of between R90 000 and R100 000 per annum. With raising external costs many operating expenditures may have been effectively reduced. The fire fighting services are mainly funded by revenue in the form of taxes or the services are charged by tariffs and accounts have been sent out to clients. The payment of these accounts is very slow due to the fact that some accounts must be paid by insurance companies and others by the person himself. The public are not educated or mind shifted to acknowledge that they should pay for a fire fighting service.
ANALYSIS OF MANPOWER
The manpower of a fire fighting service of a municipality differs from other municipal departments and is most often overlooked by decision makers. The fire services are provided at full operational capacity, 24 hours per day and seven days per week. Depending on the particular shift system employed and when leave and illness is taken into account, this therefore translates into an available or on-duty complement of (less than) 25 percent or 33 percent of the total manpower reflected on the staff establishment of the municipality. The purpose of these questions asked in the questionnaire was to emphasize the factors relating to fire fighting effectiveness. It was necessary to know if there is suitable leadership and what the levels of knowledge and skills in management are. The main indicators in this regard are qualifications and the amount and level(s) of training received. If levels of training provide the criterion for manpower effectiveness, there should be no distinction between full-time 73
there may be significant differences in crewing configurations of fire fighting vehicles that may generally vary between two and four members per vehicle. Due to manpower constraints. Table 5.4 – EDM OPERATIONAL MANPOWER PROFILE George Municipality (training relates to formal training only) Bitou Municipality 2 0 5 0 0 0 0 15 (excl CFO) Knysna Municipality EDM Operational Manpower Profile Oudtshoorn Municipality Mossel Bay Municipality Langeberg Municipality Full time Staff Qualified/Trained leadership Unqualified and untrained leadership Qualified/ trained fire fighters Unqualified/untrained fire fighters Part time Staff. Reservists and 0 0 0 0 3 0 22 1 2 0 4 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 13 4 0 6 0 Volunteers Qualified/trained leadership Unqualified and untrained leadership Qualified/trained fire fighters Unqualified/untrained fire fighters 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 28 0 0 0 12 Source: Otto:2004 Table 5. TABLE 5. personal communication.staff.4 indicates that the majority of full-time fire fighters in the district only have skills-based training. The EDM area does not have any dedicated fire prevention officers and no operational capacity to assist in this function (Otto. 2004).4 indicates that there are a total of seventy two full-time fire fighters and 29 percent are not qualified or trained. Operational safety and effectiveness require that officers are also equipped with knowledge-based qualifications. 74 EDM . The standard number of crew members for all structural fire fighting vehicles is four. The reliability of volunteers/reservists reporting for duty is generally recognised to be a planning and organisational problem. part-time staff and volunteers.
75 . Kannaland and Oudtshoorn Municipalities have very basic part-time staffing arrangements. Knysna. All the part-time or volunteer workers are untrained. The shortage in resources may result in reduced effectiveness in all level risks of fires. Chapter 6 addresses the risk profile and capacity assessment analysis of the current fire services in the EDM area.Plettenberg Bay. Due to all the facts. Local municipalities are extremely fragmented by both geography and distance that will limit the utility and effectiveness of operation agreements. it is very important that all functions are standardised and the service standards determined. 5. Due to the fact that some of the Municipalities are not providing fire cover to all risks located within their boundaries.6 CONCLUSION The fire services in the rural areas are generally under resourced and the manpower levels are very low. Langeberg. George and Mossel Bay and the District Municipality each has a small core of full-time fire staff with the remainder of the complement being made up of part-time staff. the very limited District Municipality resources must often respond over excessive distances to deal with emergencies.
albeit rational.1 INTRODUCTION Hellriegel et al. Department of Surveys and local maps. Extraordinary risks would therefore be treated in terms of “the polluter pays”principle by which special measures may be imposed by the relevant parties (ODS Consultants. as the extent of the damage or reward that may result may also change (ODS Consultants.CHAPTER 6 RISK PROFILE AND CAPACITY ANALYSIS 6. 2004:29). Part of this investigation included a risk profile and risk analysis. Local information bureaus and publications. it would be important that such decisions are communicated to the affected parties or communities. specify the probability of certain events. Personal site and area inspection and observations. (2001:150) define risk as the condition under which individuals can define a problem. When decisions are taken on such a basis. This analysis was done by: • • • • • Interviews with fire services management officials. identify alternative solutions and state the probability of each solution leading to the desired result. Internet research. In these terms it would appear reasonable for a municipality to provide emergency services that would reflect the general risks within a specified area. The nature and the cause of the risk may change over time. Risk is therefore pervasive and cannot be avoided. 2004:9). usually based on low probability evaluations and even sacrificial policy. 76 . The definition of risk points out that risk includes the concept of acceptable risk. This chapter addresses the following sub-problem: Risk profile and capacity assessment analysis of the current fire services in the EDM area.
The average rainfall of the Outeniqua region is between 700mm and 1200mm per year. 2004). The influence of the sea results in moderate temperature ranges along the coastal zone and coastal platform. The Little Karoo experiences the least rainfall in the EDM area with annual rainfall of less than 400mm per year. Summer berg winds result in very hot periods which. The average temperature for coastal areas is between 14. in the absence of rainfall. Flooding generally contributes to various forms of environmental degradation (Van Wyk. Winds are predominantly south-east and south-west (www. personal communication. 6. increase the risk and occurrence of mountain and field fires throughout the region. The Karoo is the warmest region experiencing temperature variances of between 15°C and 17°C. Therefore it is very important to know what the area looks like. The risk of flash floods occurs in the valleys that cut deeply through the coastal plains throughout the region.za/nature/ecoregions/fynbosmountains. 77 . Coastal and low lying areas in the central and eastern regions experience dense fog and mist during late autumn and early winter (May/June). posing a high risk of road accidents from the vicinity of Mossel Bay to Plettenberg Bay (Van Wyk. (2001:604) state that a prerequisite for benchmarking success in an organisation is to understand thoroughly that organisation’s processes and also to look at what is already available. the low-lying eastern regions and especially the lake area around Sedgefield are especially susceptible. how many people are staying in the EDM area. There is also a risk of general flooding throughout the district. Lower temperatures are experienced at increased altitude in the mountains (Van Wyk.6°C and 20. what resources they have and what the climate and the infrastructure are. personal communication.2 CLIMATE The EDM area has a moderate climate with rainfall occurring throughout the year.routes.7°C. however. 2004). 2005) The western area experiences more wind than the central and eastern regions.Slack et al. personal communication. 2004).co.
The coastal platform terminates at the foothills of the mountain ranges and averages 230m in altitude.In terms of the disaster management plan. 6. 2004). Most valleys are densely vegetated in contrast to the plateau. The main rivers and their tributaries and deeply incised valleys partition and compartmentalise this platform limiting road access across the plain and to coastal settlements. Maritime accidents and disasters fall outside the jurisdiction of the local Municipalities. 6. form the Klein Karoo and occur inland between the Outeniqua and Swartberg mountains. upper plateaux and mountains. The National Sea Rescue Institute is responsible for all maritime accidents. it is very important to do climate monitoring and the provision of early warnings to relevant sectors and/or population groupings (Otto. The Kannaland plateau in the west represents a sub-region of the Klein Karoo and is separated from the Oudhtshoorn region by the Rooiberge.3. local authorities are nonetheless often exposed to the consequences of such events. oyster. personal Communications. 6.3 GEOPHYSICAL PROFILE The geophysical profile of the EDM area has three characteristics namely the coastal platform. averaging an altitude of about 400m.1 Coastal Platform The coastal platform varies from flat to undulating with a width of about 40km in the west in the Langeberg region to about five kilometres in the central and eastern areas of the district. The entire length of the southern boundary of the Eden District comprises coastline and the river mouths.3. abalone and seaweed production. estuaries and lagoons support an established and growing marine culture industry comprising mussel.2 Upper Plateaux These plateaux. 78 .
6. The Rooiberge in the west form an intermediate mountain range while the Kammanassie and Kouga Mountains east of Oudtshoorn define the eastern geophysical boundary of the Klein Karoo. Karoo shrub and Afro-montane forest. Indigenous vegetation includes fynbos species. The Langeberg and Outeniqua Mountain ranges form a natural barrier. The regional biosphere is variously described as being threatened and endangered. separating the coastal region from the Little Karoo. with the Klein Swartberg.plantzaafrica. Fynbos includes mountain fynbos. The Langkloof Mountains in the east separate the narrow coastal plain from the mountainous interior. coastal fynbos and renosterveld that occur from mountainous regions through coastal plains to the marine interface (www. The lower reaches of mountains are variously wooded or populated by fynbos. 2005) Various types of thicket are found where there is fire protection and specifically in disturbed ground.4 Vegetation Invasive alien vegetation of various exotic types is found throughout the district.6. Groot Swartberg and Kouga Mountains generally forming the northern boundary of the district.3. The EDM area has several important conservation areas and National Parks occur throughout and including all local municipal areas.3 Mountains Foothills and mountain ranges that traverse the area from west to east characterise the EDM and account for the greatest percentage of the total land area. dry river valleys and interspersed with fynbos in dune sands along the coast. the main ones being: • • • • • • Gamka Mountain Nature Reserve Goukamma Nature and Marine Reserve Grootvadersbosch Nature Reserve Boosmansbos Wilderness Area Baviaanskloof Wilderness Area Kammanassie Nature Reserve 10 428 ha 2 500 ha 250 ha 15 202 ha 15 321 ha 49 430 ha 79 .3. occurring with indigenous plant types and species.com/vegetation.
1 – REGIONAL VEGETATION FEATURES.• • • • • • • • • • Keurbooms River Nature Reserve Outeniqua Nature Reserve Robberg Nature and Marine Reserve Swartberg Nature Reserve Gamkapoort Nature Reserve Doring Rivier Wilderness Area Rooiberg Nature Reserve Knysna National Lake Area Wilderness National Park Tsitsikamma National Park 740 ha 38 000 ha 1 897 ha 121 000 ha 8 000 ha 12 519 ha 12 839 ha 15 000 ha 2 500 ha 10 600 ha (www.za. Seasonal fires in natural vegetation and open grazing land are predictable with a high percentage being attributed to the human element. plantation and farmland Grassland. grassland. thicket and bush land. plantation and farmland Forest. The forests with their high humidity. along with their herbaceous plant layers and fire tolerant fringes.plantzaafrica. low fynbos and farmland.org. 2005). shrub land and low fynbos and farmland Grassland. rarely burn. Table 6.capenature. shrub land and low fynbos.1 shows the predominant regional vegetation features. with the greatest consolidation occurring near Knysna. plantation and farmland Oudtshoorn Shrub land and low fynbos. grassland and farmland Source: ODS Consultants (2004:17).plantation and farmland Forest.com/vegetation. except in very hot and windy conditions (www. 2005). The high percentage 80 . shrub land. low fynbos and farmland George Knysna Bitou Kannaland DMA Forest. TABLE 6. Afro-montane forests occur in the south-eastern coastal part of the district from George to Bitou (Plettenberg Bay) and cover about 60 500ha. Region Langeberg Vegetation features Plantations. Mossel Bay Shrub land.
but to convince people to redraw their mental maps will be a mammoth task. Plantations in the Outeniqua region cover about 80 000ha with substantial coverage occurring around Uniondale and in the foothills of the Langeberg Mountains.3 97.69 15.94 14. but still in the old way through hundreds of meetings. adding to the localised intensity of many fires (Van Wyk. The opportunity is there.gov. personal interview. 2004). Links are created not via networks. TABLE 6.75 14.of exotic species has a tendency of achieving higher than normal combustion temperatures.42 3.31 2.4 INFRASTRUCTURE The Eden District Municipality covers a vast area with seven large municipalities to consider and to work with. The following are important points relating to district demographics: 81 .72 18.7 91. 6.27 11. greater flame heights and the rapid propagation of fires even in otherwise resistant plant species (Van Wyk.2 presents the demographics of the EDM area.statssa.31 9.9 82. Forestry and timber plantations are the predominant coverage in the area from George to Knysna.58 3.7 1 604 71 6 245 188 3 792 618 2 851 1 585 16 954 18.62 100 8 759 3 528 35 525 6 062 14 731 12 510 20 059 18 123 119 307 7 156 3 454 29 247 5 877 10 931 11 891 17 204 16 538 102 298 81.21 29.2 85.4 85.7 97.za/census01 (2005).2 – THE EDM DEMOGRAPHICS Population % of Population Total Households Total Formal Dwellings % Formal Dwellings of Total Households Total Informal Dwellings % Informal Dwellings of Total Households Bitou DMA George Kannaland Knysna Langeberg Mossel Bay Oudtshoorn TOTAL 29 184 14 597 135 415 23 970 51 472 44 104 71 494 84 685 454 921 6.10 25.21 8. Table 6. The weeding out of alien vegetation through the “Working for Water” programme has resulted in the dense accumulation of dead combustible vegetation in many mountain catchments areas. personal interview. 2004).2 98.74 4.2 74.01 17.21 Source: www.77 5.
water reticulation.7%) and Mossel Bay (15. makes up approximately 20% of the total population. commercial.• Almost 57% of the total population and about 66% of all dwellings (12% of which are informal) are found within a ten-kilometre belt from the coast on a narrow coastal plateau. Infrastructure in terms of fire risk analysis primarily includes. Within the ten-kilometre belt from the coast are numerous coastal resorts which primarily provide tourist accommodation and recreational facilities. The region from Mossel Bay to Bitou also provides a similar percentage of essential services and infrastructure including roads. • The region experiences a high average of in-migration and growth rates. The towns provide smaller scale institutional. Over 85% of all informal dwellings in the EDM area is found in the Mossel Bay to Bitou areas. stretching from Mossel Bay to Bitou. • • The vast majority of the population is urbanised.7%) have more than 45% of the district population and possess the majority and greatest diversity of commercial. • • The rural population in Bitou. • • The urban distribution within local municipalities and within the EDM is very fragmented. infrastructure and services. communications. municipal and private institutions. • • • Only 27% (Oudtshoorn 18. • The municipalities of George (29.7% of the total population. The Langeberg Municipality.6%) of the total EDM population may be found north of the Langeberg and Outeniqua Mountains. only accommodates about 9. industrial and manufacturing industries in the district. however. • • George also represents the industrial. but is not limited. retail. commercial and institutional hub of the district. Rural population densities are generally low with the majority of the rural population and rural settlements being directly associated with farming and forestry activities in the region. energy distribution. educational and social structures. sewage treatment and state. to all built structures. and includes built structures that accommodate 82 . bridges.
Similarly. e. however. industries. the Knysna Oyster Festival.org.demarcation. Figures generally describe this population category in terms of total seasonal turnover (for example Mossel Bay. the Diaz Festival and “Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees” (KKNK). Most notably. this would be significant and in many instances could more than double the resident population. It is important to note that all coastal municipalities experience a substantial influx of tourists and visitors during peak season. The lack of capacity to efficiently and effectively deal with such emergencies presents a problem.the population as well as those that support and propagate human endeavour. these include golfing competitions in Bitou and George. 400 000).1 – MAP OF THE EDM AREA Map source – www.g.za 83 . It would be difficult to assess actual daily or weekly averages for each town or resort. The probability of fires and other emergencies in certain areas in the EDM district is high. seasonal and out-ofseason promotional events provide exceptional influxes that inflate local populations by similar proportions. • Building structures are centred in towns. FIGURE 6.
Zoar Albertinia. Brenton-onLake. Riversdal. The roads network inland to Kannaland. Dysseldorp. 6. Hartenbos. Van Wyksdorp. Natures Valley. Oudtshoorn Knysna. Herold.3 .3 with the map in Figure 6. Noetzie Keurboomstrand. Great Brak River. TABLE 6.5 ROADS AND TRANSPORTATION The roads network that dissects the EDM area is dictated and limited by mountains and deep river valleys. Victoria Bay. 84 . Little Brak River George Oudtshoorn Knysna Bitou DMA George. Buffelo Bay. Still Bay.org. Calitzdorp. Towns and Settlements Ladismith. Herbertsdale.The City of George and all main towns and rural settlements in the Eden District are listed hereunder. The name of the municipality will be used as the main reference. Herold's Bay. The roads network in the rural are is poorly connected to main roads and other minor roads.coastal resorts: Vlees Bay. Oudtshoorn and the Demarcation Area (DMA) is restricted to a few passes through mountain ranges. Gouritzmond. Sedgefield – coastal resorts – Brenton-on-Sea. The normal road distances between major population centres and between municipalities vary between forty kilometres to over ninety kilometres.demarcation. Heidelberg. Droëvlei. Wilderness De Rust/Blomnek.za/ward_delimitation/FINAL/wc/munic(2005) The listings in Table 6. The municipalities in the area are extremely fragmented with numerous isolated and potentially vulnerable rural and coastal communities. Witsand/Fort Beaufort Friemersheim. Glentana. Haarlem. Dana Bay.MAIN URBAN CENTRES AND SETTLEMENTS IN THE EDM Municipality Kannaland Langeberg Mossel Bay Cities. Boggoms Bay. Mossel Bay . Noll Source: www.1 are used as a point of reference in future discussions. Slang River. Plettenberg Bay Uniondale.
The N2 is also the important transit routé to the Eastern Cape and to the Cape Town Metropolitan area. Table 6.4 .TOWN DISTRIBUTION AND TRAVEL DISTANCES IN THE EDM Town Heidelberg Riversdal Nearest Town Witsand Riversdal Stilbaai Vermaaklikheid Albertinia Slang River Gouritzmond Ladismith Albertinia Mossel Bay Gouritzmond Mossel Bay Hartenbos Groot Brak River Vleesbaai George Oudtshoorn George Herold's Bay Pacaltsdorp Herold Wilderness Sedgefield Knysna Oudtshoorn Oudtshoorn Dysseldorp De Rust Calitzdorp Ladismith Ladismith Knysna Zoar Calitzdorp Sedgefield Karatara Kilometres 38km 29km 40 – 42km 44km 39km 64km 76km 99km 40km 46km 10km 24km 43km 45km 96km 15km 12km 30km 15km 38km 60km 61km 24km 35km 53km 99km 19km 46km 22km – Karatara 18km 28km 85 . Other important routes are the N12 from George to Beaufort West via Oudtshoorn.The N2-highway is the main link between municipalities along the cost and coastal plateau. TABLE 6. the N9 through Uniondale to Graaff-Reinet and the R62 from Oudtshoorn to Montagu.4 indicates the distances between the various towns.
6 RAIL TRANSPORT There is a single route that enters the district out of Worcester via Swellendam and continues along the coastal plateau through all the main towns to George and Knysna.routes. 2004:26). The coastal line between George and Knysna includes special tourist train services. Airports pose variable accident risks to populations in their immediate surrounds and by aircraft overflights.za/wc (2005) Road distances between the towns of adjoining municipalities along the coastal zone average over 40km and between adjoining municipalities exceed 53km. Cargos may include raw industrial materials. A steam train service is alleged to be the primary cause of veld fires along the coast during the dry season (ODS Consultants.7 AIRPORTS The George Airport is the largest commercial airport in the region and handles both passengers and freight. All roads carry private vehicles. household and commercial goods. agricultural produce. The proximity of mountains. public passenger transport and commercial vehicles.co. mountain passes and limited bypass alternatives make the limited transportation arteries extremely vulnerable when disruption occurs in any emergency situation.Plettenberg Bay Plettenberg Bay Wittedrift The Crags Knysna 39km 10km 11km 39km Source: www. Accidents pose life and injury risks to passengers and the local community as 86 . A line passes from George over the Outeniqua Mountains to Oudtshoorn where it branches westwards to Calitzdorp and eastwards to the Eastern Cape Province. Distances from coastal towns to inland urban centres average 82km (including the negotiation of mountain passes). Commercial aircraft pass over the entire district. 6. 2004:26). livestock and processed and manufactured products and goods. 6. Hazardous materials are also transported. There is also a commercial airport in Plettenberg Bay and airstrips in Oudtshoorn and Riversdal (ODS Consultants.
well as the possibility of damage to building structures and infrastructure with secondary environmental pollution risks. Hazardous freight and aircraft fuel poses serious risks of fire and environmental pollution. Airport risks include tanker vehicles with aviation fuel and the possibility of quantities of pesticides during seasonally determined crop spraying (ODS Consultants; 2004:26). The transportation of aviation fuels by road is very risky and can cause serious emergencies.
GEOGRAPHICAL SERVICE PROFILE The evaluation of the capacity of a fire service is very important due to the fact that it provides an overview of the functions performed by the fire services in the district. This investigation evaluated their actual ability to effectively perform the relevant functions to acceptable standards. Capacity in this instance relates to the required manpower, training, skills, vehicles, machinery, equipment, tools and infrastructural capacity to efficiently and effectively prevent, mitigate, control and deal with all emergencies (ODS Consultants; 2004:32). The following table identifies only the primary activities done by a fire service.
TABLE 6.5 – ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
Mossel Bay Municipality
ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FOR THE MAIN URBAN AREA ONLY
Kannaland Municipality X 1 2 1 0
Bitou Municipality X 2 3 1 1
Fire Risk Categories (fire fighting) Category A – Extensive CBDs commercial and industrial areas Category B – Limited CBDs commercial and industrial areas Category C – Conventional residential areas Category D – Remote rural areas of limited buildings Category E – Special risks (over and above predominant X 1 1 0 0 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 X 2 3 1 1 X 2 3 2 1
risks) Veld and mountain fires Fire safety Building plans scrutiny Building construction inspections Rational design appraisal Fire prevention inspections Major hazard assessments and approvals Rescue Fire-related rescue Automotive and industrial extrication High angle rescue Environmental rescue Confined space and collapse rescue 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 3
TABLE 6.6 – RESOURCE ASSESSMENT FOR STRUCTURE FIRES
Mossel Bay Municipality
THE MAIN URBAN AREA ONLY Due to inadequate resources throughout, all other urban centres and rural areas in local municipalities were not scored Structural fire-fighting vehicles Veld fire-fighting vehicles General fire-fighting equipment Flammable liquid fire-fighting equipment Rescue vehicles Accident rescue equipment Environmental rescue equipment HAZMAT equipment Protective clothing and safety equipment Breathing apparatus Trained leadership Trained manpower Structural/specialist fire fighting average Accident/environmental rescue average Hazardous substances average
Kannaland Municipality 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 3 1 2 2 2 2
RESOURCE ASSESSMENT FOR STRUCTURE FIRES IN
Bitou Municipality 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
2 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 2 3 1 0 0 0 1 3 3 2 2 3 0 3
2 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 2 0
2 2 3 4 0 3 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3
3 3 2 1 0 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
Note: The legend 88
X - not applicable 0 1 2 3 4 <10% effectiveness 10 – 25% effectiveness 26 – 50% effectiveness 51 – 75% effectiveness >75% effectiveness
Source: ODS Consultants (2004:33) With reference to Tables 6.5 and 6.6 Langeberg municipality will be discussed: • Langeberg municipality performs a rudimentary, ad hoc structural fire fighting function but only has the capacity to mitigate small to mediumsized veld fires. Other fires may be mitigated by chance and if attended during the very early stages of their development. • • • • • • Vehicles and equipment are basic and no formal training of staff is evident. The maintenance profile of resources is low and there is no dedicated call-taking centre or fire administration. The municipality has no trained leadership as in a Chief Fire Officer appointed in terms of the Fire Brigade Services Act, 1987. The municipality has no training and little practical capacity for fire fighting other than for small to medium-ized veld fires. It has no capacity to attend chemical fires or hazardous substance emergencies. There is no fire safety (fire prevention) capacity. Planned scrutiny, fire inspections and enforcement occur via the building control department without fire service input or recommendations. • The municipality does not have the resources or training and does not perform rescues of any type.
7 – MAIN FIRE FIGHTING RESOURCES IN THE EDM Oudtshoorn Mossel Bay Langeberg Kannaland Major/Heavy Pumps (3850 ℓ/min) Medium Pumps (2250 ℓ/min) Light Pumps (<2250 ℓ/min) 2 x 4 Bush Fire Unit 4 x 4 Bush Fire Unit Rescue Vehicle HAZMAT Vehicle Water Tanker Aerial Appliance Control Vehicle Trailer (specify) B/A Compressor Power Generator Portable Pump Floating Pump Power Cutting Tools Fire Hose Branches Ropes and Lines Ladders Breathing Apparatus Foam-Making Equipment Power Rescue Tools Pneumatic Rescue Equipment First Aid/Life Support Equipment Fire Station Lecture Hall Training Facilities Chief Fire Officer Deputising Officer Fire Prevention Officer Training Officer Control Room Operator Administration/Clerk Operational Officer Fire fighter Reservist/Volunteer 9 3 23 11 1 4 1 2 10 1 10 2 5 15 16 28 1 4 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 57 11 4 4 10 13 3 3 3 12 1 1 1 6 2 3f 1c 1 2 1 4 2 2 1 60 12 1 10 1 1 5 60 16 1 6 10 3 1 7 1set 2 21 4 2 2 1 4 1 2 41 8 2 2 1 1 1c 1 2 1c 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 4 1 1 2 1 10 1 3c 12 3 5 4 6 12 90 (George) Knysna George Bitou DMA EDM .TABLE 6.
Only three chief fire fighting staff in the EDM area.Note : Legend denotes combination pumper/tanker denotes vehicles in George and EDM rural area f denotes fire trailers c denotes HAZMAT trailer Source: ODS Consultants (2004:43). The following are interesting facts from Table 6. There are no municipal fire training facilities in the district. however. • The fire services do not generally operate on independent and secure communications. The conventional pumpers are maintained at constant gross weight. Only two rescue vehicles operate in the area. • • • • • • Each Municipality has its own shift systems resulting in differing fire station configurations. Knysna and Plettenberg Bay only. water and materials from the date of commission. but radio coverage is reasonably extensive except in mountainous areas. Accommodation for on-duty staff is provided in Mossel Bay. fire prevention functions have generally been neglected.7: • • • • All the conventional pumpers in the district are older than 15 years with an average age of over 20 years. that is fully laden with equipment. Pumpers are expected to perform at peak engine revolutions in all seasons and weather conditions without the benefit of “warming up”. George. With the increase of the area and complexity of all municipalities and the increase in the numbers of emergencies attended. Lecture facilities are located in most fire stations or alternative venues are readily available. The chief fire officers and operational officers of the individual municipal fire services are presently performing fire prevention functions. This function should have dedicated. specialist staff and resources and should perform the full range of fire prevention activities in terms of those described in SANS 10090:2003. 91 .
9 CONCLUSION This analysis should stimulate the exploration of rational alternatives and also enable a planned approach for the cost-effective extensions of functions and services in all areas. Risk profile illustrates that all local municipalities are extremely fragmented by both geography and distances between towns and settlements. • The EDM has limited rescue equipment and HAZMAT resources.and high-risk emergencies.• The Oudtshoorn Municipality has a single medium-pumping capacity vehicle and the necessary equipment to attend low risk and limited moderate. • • Veld fire fighting in the Oudtshoorn Municipal boundaries is very limited. • The George Municipality has two medium pumpers supported by a water tanker/pumper which constitute the predominant of the fire fighting capacity at George. The shortage in resources may result in reduced effectiveness in mitigating large low-risk fires. • The Bitou Municipality possesses a satisfactory array of vehicles for conducting veld fire operations. Using the information of other fire fighting services and that of the EDM area.This chapter will be looking at the implications of the supply-side and demand-side factors of 92 . a suggested organisational structure is presented in chapter 7. however. Mossel Bay Municipality has one medium fire appliance with two support vehicles that do not appear to be fully serviceable and are thus of questionable reliability. the effectiveness and/or serviceability of most other fire fighting resources are viewed with considerable reserve. only a single light pumper is available for structural fire fighting. • The Knysna fire department has the capacity to confidently combat only low risk fires with a single light pumper and may manage small fires of moderate risks. • The Langeberg Municipality has a light GMC pumper that is situated in Riversdal and is in reasonable condition. small moderate-risk fires and most high-risk fires. otherwise. 6.
To be a competitive fire fighting service.location. the five performance objectives must be applied. 93 .
2000:177). Interesting times can be seen as a curse. is going to be challenged. The implementation of a fire fighting service operational structure will be a new approach for fire fighting in the EDM area. Eddie Obeng (1997:198) states that you can find new ways of delivering old needs: you already know who the customers are. This research did not include a study of the legal framework in which the fire fighting service must operate. possibly to the point of extinction (Milner. The legal framework stipulates the following issues: Executive authority for fire fighting services as specified by the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996). but the real barrier is in your imagination. We need to build new mental maps. which typically sees a split of provision and responsibility across national. 1996:16). In the language of the Chinese people there is a saying that goes like this: “May you live in interesting times. 94 .1 INTRODUCTION Perhaps the greatest change evident in the way that public services will look from a perspective of twenty years hence is that there is likely to be a much more logical and end-user focused approach to the way in which organisations operate. It is all out there for the taking. you will need to redraw your mental maps. To be able to go virtual. The current model. regional and sometimes local boundaries. because they often bring about change and chaos.” According to their tradition this is considered to be a curse. where they are and what colour underpants they wear. They are times when old ways of doing things no longer apply and people need new approaches and perspectives (Melnyk & Denzler. The opportunity is there but to convince people to redraw their mental maps will be a huge task.CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 7.
the need is great for new and flexible structures. The new structure should include some characteristics of the bureaucratic organisational structure. The division of functions and powers relating to fire fighting services between the district municipality and local municipalities by the Municipal Structures Act (Act 117 of 1998). The above mentioned issues cannot be changed like an organisational structure. This struggle for power also impacts on the morale of the fire fighters because they feel that there is no actual direction due to a clumsy structure and an ineffective centralising or decentralising of decision making.2 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE The movement towards tighter and leaner organisations has drawn attention to the importance of alternative forms of structure. Thomson and Strickland (1999:291) state that a geographic organisation. Due to the revolutionary changes in organisations. suits firms pursuing different strategies in different geographic regions 95 . The Fire Brigade Services Act (Act 99 of 1987) that defines the functions of a fire fighting service (ODS Consultants. The division of powers between the Eden District Municipality and the other seven local municipalities is still a struggle for power and will not be solved in the near future. There is no definite division of boundaries when it comes to a disaster in the rural areas.The prescribed requirements and processes for deciding on a mechanism for service delivery by the Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000). It is therefore very important to create a fire fighting management structure that will comprise all aspects of the EDM area. 7. including the diversity of the environment. virtual organisation. Therefore it is important to create a new organisational structure that includes both district and local municipalities. 2004:9). as a structure. namely the flat organisation. network organisation and the geographic structure. but to be objective in creating a new structure the above mentioned legal requirements have been taken into consideration. and has placed increased emphasis on the demand for flexibility.
Slang River. VAN WYKSDORP. Witsand/Fort Beaufort Friemersheim. Gouritzmond. Noll Albertinia.TOTAL MANPOWER STATISTICS. Towns and Settlements UPPER PLATEAUX Kannaland LADISMITH.1 shows the available manpower and Table 7. The primary advantage is to focus on customer needs and provide faster. The geographic structure will be the design for both the District Municipality and the other seven municipalities. Oudtshoorn Uniondale.1 . Mossel Bay - Coastal Platform A 96 . this structure is the one to use as it will promote improved performance. Still Bay. Dysseldorp. Haarlem. Herbertsdale.IDENTIFICATION OF THE THREE GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS Municipality Cities. DROËVLEI. The available manpower will be divided into geographical areas according to the risks in that specific area.well. better service. Riversdal. CALITZDORP.2 the different areas: TABLE 7. The duplication of parts of the organisation structure will be expensive. Table 7. but the needs of a specific area will be attended to and will result in faster and better service. Rank Chief Fire Officer Deputising Officer Fire Prevention Officer Training Officer Control Room Operator Administration/Clerk Operational Officer Fire fighter Reservist/Volunteer Total 3 0 0 0 18 1 11 61 85 Source: Otto (2004) TABLE 7. ZOAR Oudtshoorn DMA Langeberg Mossel Bay De Rust/Blomnek. Heidelberg. Due to the geographic diversity.2 . Great Brak River.
Table 7. The upper plateaux that are situated between the Outeniqua mountain and the Swartberg mountain are smaller than the other two.statssa. but the infrastructure is not so developed as on the other side of the mountain.za/census01 (2005). Victoria Bay. households and dwellings per area. Boggoms Bay. Hartenbos. Noetzie Keurboomstrand.DEMOGRAPHICS OF EDM DIVIDED INTO THE THREE AREAS Population 123 246 115 604 216 056 Total Households 27 713 32 569 59 015 Total Formal Dwellings 25 869 29 095 47 334 Total Informal Dwellings 1 844 3 469 11 641 Upper Plateaux Coastal Platform A Coastal Platform B Source: (www.1 shows the possible organisation structure for the EDM fire fighting area: 97 . TABLE 7. with the same number of dwellings.2 divides all the towns into three areas and Table 7.3 is the total population.coastal resorts: Vlees Bay. Herold's Bay. Herold. As shown in the above tables the EDM area is divided into three parts by rivers and mountains. Natures Valley.3 . The areas are nearly the same size. Sedgefield – coastal resorts – Brenton-on-Sea.gov. Little Brak River Coastal Platform B George George. Glentana. Buffels Bay. Wilderness Knysna Bitou Knysna. Figure 7. Plettenberg Bay Source: ODS Consultant (2004:20). Dana Bay. Brenton-on-Lake.
2 – REGIONAL COMMANDER COASTAL PLATEAUX A REGIONAL COMMANDER: COASTAL PLATEAUX A SHIFT A • • Shift Leader Fireman Fireman • • Regional Commander: Coastal Platform B Administrative support staff and Chief Fire Officer Regional Commander: Coastal Platform A Fire Stations UNIT SUPERVISOR Administrative support SHIFT B Shift Leader Fireman Fireman • • SHIFT C Shift Leader Fireman Fireman • • • Source: Adapted from Figure 2.1 98 .1 .FIGURE 7.GEOGRAPHIC ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF EDM AREA Regional Commander: Upper Fire Safety Coordinator Plateaus Source: Adapted from http://www.courses.bus. Regional Commander Coastal Plateaux A and Regional Commander Coastal Plateaux B. FIGURE 7.msu/materials/1022/ch11a.ppt The regional operations will be divided into Regional Commander Upper Plateaux.
Knysna. The fire services must include the total package of fire services policies. communication and accountability.Each regional command structure will look like the above structure and should have characteristics of a bureaucratic organisational structure. Vehicle/equipment availability and maintenance. functions. There can be more than one unit supervisor with fire fighting teams. they will also be able to perform all the functions according to the Fire Brigade Services Act (Act 99 of 1987). If the fire fighting services in the EDM area transform to a new structure. This part of the structure performs a particular high specialisation of labour. depending of the size of the regional office. The Metropolitan Police Department also converted to a geographical organisational structure. subfunctions and related activities. 673 paid personnel to cope with 56 700 call outs and the system of working in districts. sections (in other word units). Rescue. can still be used as sub-stations due to their urban fire fighting capacity and the realistic distances from them to the rural areas. The Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District is also divided into districts and is much larger than our local fire fighting services. Mossel Bay. Incident management procedures. which are: Fire prevention. who each has a fire station in town. Call receipt and processing requirements (including communications). Fire fighting. Pre-fire planning and risk visits. Other characteristics are: centralised authority. The Coastal Plateau B will have more than one unit supervisor. George. top-down structure with definite boundaries between different jobs. shows that the geographical model can work. Bitou and Oudtshoorn. The new structure created a more streamlined organisation that promotes teamwork. Risk profile of the area of jurisdiction (risk categories). The success of having 38 fire stations. Support and allied activities including. Training/personnel. 99 . They could focus on what they really must do.
Mountain fires are regular seasonal occurrences and due to their inaccessibility.Water supplies. Fire safety (fire prevention) functions and. These fires. height. Occupational health and safety. Plantations in the Outeniqua region cover about 80 000ha with substantial coverage occurring around Uniondale and in the foothills of the Langeberg Mountains. gorges and isolated valleys. The jobs will be more broadly defined. This is especially significant in mountain passes and in areas that are in close proximity to roads and human habitation. 100 . Mountain fires also destabilise rock faces and significantly contribute to rock falls and erosion. ravines. This would require high-level strategic co-ordination and complex tactical management preceded by detailed pre-incident planning and multilateral co-operation (agreements) (ODS Consultants. The lack of a roads network near the mountain areas make it very difficult to fight a fire when it is still small. generally termed “chimney effects”. with greater overlap and flexible boundaries among the different regional offices. They most often require multi-agency attendance and due to the size of areas involved and their complexity. These fires create their own dynamics that include firestorms and rapid vertical propagation. The weeding out of alien vegetation has resulted in the dense accumulation of dead combustible vegetation in many mountain catchment areas. The new EDM fire fighting service organisation structure will be a flatter structure than decentralised authority by creating the regional offices. will most correctly be termed and dealt with as disaster situations. their prevention and control require special management knowledge and skills coupled to intimate knowledge of the terrain and local agency structures and functioning. The area from George to Knysna is predominantly covered with forestry and timber plantations. they pose serious safety risks to fire fighters and isolated communities alike. adding to the localised intensity of many fires (ODS Consultants. 2004:18). steep slopes. 2004:18).
If all the fire fighters in the EDM area were privately employed and the communication networks were in place. is that location is the geographical positioning of an operation relative to the input resources. The only permanent employees would be those in the call centre. With sufficient bombers available. The Firehawk will be identifying the exact spot where the fire is by using a geographical information system. If the Firehawk system is a possibility. Slack et al. However. (2001:159). it would not be possible to create a virtual organisation. a load could be dropped on the fire every three minutes. The Firehawk system can be installed on the various maintain tops and can overlook each plateau and send the images to the control room. Some are where they are for historical reasons. due to the current lack of computer skills of the fire fighting personnel. The identification will reduce cost by searching for the fire and will decrease the time that it usually takes to arrive at a fire.3 THE LOCATION OF CAPACITY The definition of location of capacity. A network organisation can be created with an organisation like ZFPS. The decision not to move is made on an assumption that the cost and 101 . a virtual organisation would be the organisational structure to implement. other operations or customers with which it interacts.The Zululand Fire Protection Services (ZFPS) is a private aerial fire fighting service that is contracted by the timber growers in Kwazulu-Natal. Due to the regular seasonal mountain fire occurrences. Sometimes operations cannot logically justify their location. The ZFPS is also using the Firehawk computerised fire detection system as described in chapter 3. due to fact that it is a computerised system. The EDM fire fighting service can use such a system to increase efficiency effectively. these fires can be spotted by the Firehawk system when it is still very small. the control room personnel must be educated to use it successfully. 7. The ZFPS or similar organisation is highly specialised and also understands the strategic goals of the partnership. which would be happening while the ground crew are still on their way.
The identification of the supply-side and demand-side factors will simplify the decision of location.5 identifies the demand-side factors that exert an influence on a location decision. The two fire fighting services in George are situated almost next to each other.disruption involved in changing location would outweigh any potential benefits of a new location. Cost of delivering goods such as chemicals for submitting a fire. Sometimes they are disputing who is going on a call out. Cost of upgrading existing stations to required standards Energy costs Transportation costs The only important factor is the availability of water. IMPLICATIONS The demand-side factors can influence service to/revenue from customers as the location varies.4 – SUPPLY-SIDE FACTORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS SUPPLY-SIDE FACTORS Labour costs Cost of employing extra fire fighters. and sometimes they both arrive at an emergency scene. TABLE 7. Land costs Cost of obtaining a fire station where no other exists. Language will be that of the region. Table 7.4. 102 . Community factors Government financial assistance in creating a infrastructure for emergency services. Cost off relocating existing fire fighters to areas needed. Travelling cost of fire fighters if necessary. The supply-side factors as implemented in the EDM area are identified in Table 7.
Resources must be in a dependable working condition.htm. (speed and dependability). 2004). limited damage and cost will decrease with a subsequent advantage to the customer and community.4 THE FIVE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Today’s business world is swept. To be clear in business today.dcwatch. whole industries dissolve and re-form before our very eyes. But when great transformations are unfolding. and technology defies the imagination almost weekly. by epic change. • • • To place resources in the community. adaptability. 1999:2) 103 . Easy-to-reach main roads network. In such times. By choosing the best location and the capacity to detect fires more rapidly and quickly.TABLE 7. customers The same as suitable site. the great strengths are not clairvoyance and omniscience – in short. Great strengths are flexibility. supply is the requirement under the best of circumstances. one does need to grasp the opportunity first (PriceWaterhouseCoopers. a capacity for learning quickly.5 – DEMAND-SIDE FACTORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS DEMAND-SIDE FACTORS Labour skills IMPLICATIONS Do the local people have the skills to be fire fighters? Cost of training. Image Convenience for Must look like a professional fire fighting service to be proud of. Suitability of site The fire station must be on such a site to be able to move quickly to a call out. 7. To hold managers at every level of the organisation accountable for the quality of policing service within their geographic commands (http://www. some would say convulsed. one does not need to be a prophet. Focus on resources on reducing crime and solving problems in the 83 areas (districts). The Metropolitan Police Department decided to restructure the entire department and relocate responsibilities to the districts for three reasons.com/police/980909.
Vehicles and equipment that are redundant or nearing redundancy.These five performance objectives can be applied to any type of operation and will help the fire fighting service to be more competitive within themselves and against other fire fighting services.1 Is the fire fighting service doing things right? This begs the question what the quality of the fire fighting service is. The five objectives can be tested by asking the following five questions. • • • • • Is the fire fighting service doing things right? Is the fire fighting service first on a scene? Is the fire fighting service doing things on time? Is the fire fighting service making changes where necessary? Is the fire fighting service doing there job cost-effectively? 7. 104 . • • Inappropriate vehicles and equipment for the intended/stated application. Are they following procedures when they are fighting a fire? What is the quality of their resources? The vehicles and much equipment throughout the district fall into two categories.4.
TABLE 7. Maintenance is done on a continuous base. Using the Firehawk will also improve the quality of the service. 105 Total 3 6 6 7 17 2 0 8 0 2 9 4 13 2 9 7 .6 lists only the most important resources available within the district which are shown as totals in Table 6. Funding will be needed to invest in new vehicles.8 in chapter 6. The conventional pumpers in the district are older than 15 years with an average age of over 20 years. Table 7.6 – MAIN FIRE FIGHTING RESOURCES IN THE EDM DESCRIPTION Major/Heavy Pumps (3850 ℓ/min) Medium Pumps (2250 ℓ/min) Light Pumps (<2250 ℓ/min) 2 x 4 Bush Fire Unit 4 x 4 Bush Fire Unit Rescue Vehicle HAZMAT Vehicle Water Tanker Aerial Appliance Control Vehicle Trailer (specify) B/A Compressor Power Generator Portable Pump Floating Pump Power Cutting Tools Fire Hose Branches Ropes and Lines Ladders Breathing Apparatus Foam-Making Equipment Power Rescue Tools Pneumatic Rescue Equipment First Aid/Life Support Equipment Fire Station 230 55 6 18 73 23 7 8 1 10 Source:ODS Consultants (2004:43).
The EDM maintains a main fire station in George with sub-stations in Uniondale (DMA) and Ladismith (Kannaland). is satisfactory. Capacity. Calitzdorp – 500ℓ veld fire trailer. Goedehoop – 500ℓ LDV veld fire unit. The trained fire fighters know all the procedures and are leaders of a fire fighting team. The Bitou Municipal fire service has extremely limited capacity for managing fires other than medium-size low-risk and small moderate-risk fires. it is believed that the vehicle fleet and the distribution of resources are inadequate to provide equitable services to all communities or to manage complex or major fires with any confidence. are important factors to make a localisation decision for fire fighting operations as well as for the replenishment of tanker vehicles that are virtually non-existent. Eensaamheid – 500ℓ LDV veld fire unit. (Otto. General fire fighting equipment.With the exception of the vehicles. the other equipment is in a better condition and can safeguard an error-free service. Taking the risk profile of the municipality into account. The resources of the Oudtshoorn Municipality will generally be inadequate to effectively manage any complex fire situation. including the other equipment. to deal with veld fires is limited but satisfactory for the main George urban area. The Mossel Bay Municipality’s vehicles are generally well equipped. The existing vehicles of the George Municipality. will be successful in controlling most expected fires. with the exception of structural fire rescue. There is a total of 17 LDV veld fire units in the district. The distribution of fire fighting resources is as follows: • • • • • • • De Vlugt (Bitou) – 500ℓ LDV veld fire unit. Equipment may generally be classified as rudimentary and the fire service would be unable to deal with moderate flammable liquid fires.2004) Water for fire fighting and the availability of fire hydrants. Haarlem – 500ℓ LDV veld fire unit. except in the 106 . Uniondale – 6000ℓ tanker fire engine and 500ℓ 4 x 4 LDV veld fire unit. Ladismith – 6000ℓ tanker unit and 750ℓ 4 x 4 LDV veld fire unit. Knysna Municipality will be able to manage small to medium-size veld fires with some confidence.
The fire is identified when it is just a smoke signal. 7. the control room reports the fire to the nearest fire station. The quality of the resources plays a major role in the reaction time of the fire fighting service. 107 .4. the quality of the resources plays a vital role.3 Is the fire fighting service doing things on time? If the local fire department is always late when it is called out to an emergency and there is another option. The district generally has limited bulk water storage facilities. In the EDM area the response time is not so fast due to the load of water the vehicle carries and the mountain passes. The fire fighting services is flexible in their operation when its members are able to change shifts quickly when they are busy fighting a fire. 7.larger towns.4. They have the flexibility to change over to different procedures and products during the process of fire fighting.2 Is the fire fighting service first on a scene? Speed is the one objective that a fire fighting service is measure by. In terms of dependability of a fire fighting service.4 Is the fire fighting service making changes where necessary? Flexibility is the ability to change far enough and fast enough to meet customer requirements. In the EDM area the different fire stations have an agreement that they will help if the specific station cannot help with an emergency. When a fire has been reported telephonically by a member of the public. however. the first response of Zululand Fire Protection Services is fast and reduces the risk that the fire may develop into a disaster. who is to blame? Speed reduces risks. 7.4. By using the Firehawk. the customer will phone the private fire fighting service when needed. The general status of water supplies in many developing towns and in most rural and coastal settlements is tenuous. If the fire fighters arrive late at a fire and it destroys everything. The poor quality of resources can have a hampering effect on their flexibility. general proximity to the coast may provide a source of water for aerial fire fighting.
improvement and/or extension of any service as well as the allocation of financial resources to achieve this will require the revision of the Integrated Development Plan(s) and Council approval of anticipated changes. When an emergency occurs and the fire services cannot operate due to restricted resources because of a lack of funding. no provision has been made for several years towards the replacement and upgrading of obsolete fire fighting vehicles and major 108 .5 Is the fire fighting service doing its job cost effectively? Cost is the major operation objective. Although some light veld fire vehicles have been procured.7. a source that cannot realistically be viewed to be secure and sustainable. Cost can be categorised as fixed cost and variable cost. expenditures have primarily entailed the purchase of minor equipment and the upgrading of existing infrastructure. and when it is a non-profit organisation is it good value and the cost is relative low. the higher the profit. especially in terms of programmes for asset capitalisation or recapitalisation. While the present situation may be understandable. Due to the relatively small capital allocations for fire fighting services. everybody asks questions. 2004:53).4. Councils have therefore committed the greatest proportion of capital expenditure to the development and extension of the necessary infrastructure in terms of approved five-year developmental programmes. it is believed that further delays may make future capitalisation and recapitalisation of the fire services unaffordable (ODS Consultants. The creation. But when nothing happens and the fire service decides to buy a new fire engine. Plans should or could be revised to accommodate the necessary costs associated with the upgrading of the fire services. By using tax payers’ money to provide a service that is actually very expensive. This is also generally indicative of the quantum and terms of capital commitment by most municipalities. the fire fighting service must be cost-effective. It has been noted that the limited capital expenditures for most fire services have been financed from revenue. The costs are influenced by other performance objectives. The lower the cost. then no funding is available.
for all fire calls. Should agreement on a centralised or co-operative service structure be reached. As incentives for improving fire safety. it is believed that the option of an emergency services levy should be considered. Non-members are billed for service at the rate of $800 per hour. resources are inadequate to provide for the necessary functions as described or to support the geographical or area-wide roll-out of services (ODS Consultants. Various abatements may also be considered for areas with designated services (FBSA) and in defined self-help municipal areas. Problems in funding the fire fighting services are further compounded by various obligations imposed on both local and district municipalities in terms of the Local Government: Municipal Systems Act and Local Government: Municipal Structures Act. 2004:54). This would be especially relevant to developing services in/for disadvantaged communities (ODS Consultants. This is believed to be the best option in that it would be based on property ownership and may be further aligned to the particular service delivery standards applicable to a particular area. Their revenue is not tax-based as the customer pays Rural/Metro an annual fee based on the total square footage of their home. Further options include the sourcing of local capital funding via grants from the National Lottery or via foreign donor developmental aid. A recent government initiative to recapitulated fire services which the Provincial Government is administering may also be investigated. 2004:53). 2004:53). per apparatus.equipment. Alternative capital funding via grant(s) may also be sourced from the Department of Provincial and Local Government (DPLG) in terms of Municipal Infrastructure Grants (MIG) and such alternatives may be explored. cost-effective fire service. it would require agreement on equitable but proportional contributions by each participating municipality for such a service. further abatements may also be offered to industries that employ special fire safety measures (ODS Consultants. however. The Rural/Metro Fire Department provides a high-quality. Non-member fees for a typical house fire can cost as much as 10 years’ worth 109 . Operating costs are generally funded via the rates accounts of local municipalities. At this juncture.
The establishment of an organisational structure must follow the decision of location which will have a major impact on the EDM fire fighting service in the whole area. if any. The following are suggestions that could be implemented: • • Establish a single district disaster management/emergency service control centre and communications network. 2004) 7. fires and natural disasters are often viewed to be Acts of God. The need to establish an integrated plan for fire management is an important matter. 110 .html. Homeowners’ insurance usually pays only a fraction of the bill. It is those living at the margins. who are always the most vulnerable.” (http://blog. procedures.lewrockwell. This has the tendency of diminishing the importance and significance of organised prevention and mitigation measures such as public education and awareness of fire safety programmes and fire prevention activities. The implementation of a new structure for the EDM area is not simple and it will not happen overnight. government fire departments can match the quality of the Rural/Metro’s services. An undivided fire fighting function whereby both the Municipalities and District Municipalities form part of the new fire fighting service.of membership costs. Speedy response and adequate ground support are absolutely critical factors in fighting fires. training and politics. cannot be overstated. Thomas DiLorenzo (2003) writes the following: “The average cost to Rural/Metro customers is 25-50 percent lower than similar services provided by governments although very few. The new structure will not be effective immediately but rather be done in phases over a few months. it is imperative that all functions are standardised and service standards determined. Prior to any decisions relating to the fire fighting services.5 SUMMARY Finally.com/lewrw/archives/002233. particularly the rural poor. leaving the property owner responsible for the difference. Each phase must be planned and implemented carefully from logistics to policies. The impact of fire on natural vegetation or on the poorest of the poor.
the new structure will bring the fire fighting service in line with the way fire services ideally operate. Fire Prevention function. • Structures and mechanisms should be explored to streamline and improve service co-operation in the short term which can be prolonged to the future. All derived or associated functions in connection with the above.• The immediate establishment of a co-ordinating structure for the purpose of jointly determining standards. Their functions are: • • • • • Fire fighting ( fire suppression) function. Hazardous Substances Emergency (HAZMAT) function. Once everything is in place. 111 . service delivery models. Rescue function. regulatory mechanisms and operating guidelines for the fire services as a whole and.
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ANNEXURE A .QUESTIONNAIRE Date Authority Official FIRES Formal / informal dwellings / & veld fires Storage Industry Transport Other Number of RESCUE Transport accident Environmental (mountains) not sea rescues HAZMAT(chemical fires or emergencies) Number of How many fire Stations How many sub-stations How many satellite How many control centers Official Amount Municipal Total Operating Expenditure 2002/2003 Fire Fighting Operating Expenditure 117 .
Reservists and Volunteers Qualified/trained leadership Unqualified and untrained leadership Qualified/trained fire-fighters Unqualified/untrained fire-fighters 118 .2002/2003 Municipal Total Operating Expenditure 2003/2004 Fire Fighting Operating Expenditure 2003/2004 Official: Full time Staff Qualified/Trained leadership Unqualified and untrained leadership Qualified/ trained fire-fighters Unqualified/untrained fire-fighters Part time Staff.
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