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VELAYUTHA NADAR
LAKSHMITHAIAMMAL
POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
SIVAGAMIPURAM, PAVOORCHATRAM627808
THIRUNELVELI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU
m s p vl p @ s a n c h arne t .in
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS &
INSTRUMENTATION
Lab Manual
YEAR: II SEMESTER: III
AUTHOR:
Mr. C. Saravana Sathya Seelan,, B.E
Sr.Lecturer/ECE
Mr. P. Rama Ganesan, B.E
Lecturer/ECE
PUBLISHER: M.S.P.V.L. POLYTECHNIC
COLLEGE PAVOORCHATRAM –
627 808
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
C O N T E N TS
S.
NO
NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT Page No.
1. VERIFICATION OF OHM’S LAW 3
2.
VERIFICATION OF KIRCHOFF’S CURRENT
&KIRCHOFF’S VOLTAGE LAW
7
3. VERIFICATION OF SUPER POSITION THEOREM 13
4. VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM 17
5. VERIFICATION OF NORTONS THEOREM 23
6.
VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER
TRANSFER THEOREM
29
7.
OC AND SC TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
35
8. CALIBRATION OF AMMETER AND VOLTMETER 41
9. WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE 47
10. WIEN BRIDGE 51
11. PHOTO ELECTRIC TRANSDUCER 57
12. MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND PHASE ANGLE 61
13.
MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND
AMPLITUDE USING CRO
67
14. RLC BRIDGE 71
15. STRAIN GAUGE MEASUREMENT 75
16. MEASUREMENT OF LOADCELL 79
17. LVDT MEASUREMENT 83
18.
MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE USING
THERMISTOR
87
19.
Extra syllabus:
EXTENDING THE RANGE OF AMMETER
91
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
VERIFICATION OF OHM’S LAW:
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
DRB
+
RPS
(030) V

+
(0–10) mA
A

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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
1. VERIFICATION OF OHM’S LAW
Aim
:
To verify the ohm’s law using standard resistances, Ammeter and voltmeter.
Objective:
To know the relation between potential differences (v), current flow (I) and
Resistance(R).
Ohm’s law:
The ratio to potential difference (V) between any two points on a conductor
to the current (i) flowing between them is constant, provided the temperature of the
conductor does not change.
V/I=constant.
Apparatus Required:
S. No Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030)V 1
2 Ammeter (010)mA 1
3. Resistance 1 kΩ 1
4. Bread board  1
5. Connecting wires  10
Formula
:
V = IR
Where V = Voltage (potential difference) in volts
I = Current in milli Amperes
R=Resistance in ohms.
Theory:
Ohm’s law says that the current is directly proportional to the potential
difference across the ends of the conductor, provided temperature is kept constant.
This linear relation between V and I does not to all non metallic conductors and non
linear devices such as Zener diodes and voltage regulators (V
R
) tubes.
Procedure:
• Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
• The voltage is varied and the corresponding current is noted.
• The ratio of voltage (v)and current (I)is noted
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
S.NO Applied voltage (V) Current I (mA)
Resistance R=V/I
in ohm
4
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Applications:
It is used in the electrical &electronics circuits.
Result:
Thus the ohm’s law was verified using standard resistances, ammeter and
voltmeter.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Kirchoff’s Current Law
Circuit Diagram:
TABULATION:
Voltage (V)
Current (mA)
I
3
= I
1
+ I
2
(mA)
I
1
I
2
I3
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
2. VERIFICATION OF KIRCHOFF’S CURRENT
&KIRCHOFF’S VOLTAGE LAW
Aim
:
To verify the Kirchoff’s current and kirchoff’s voltage law by using standard
resistances, Ammeter and voltmeter.
Kcl’s law:
This law states that the algebric sum of current at a junction of a network is
zero.
Kvl’s law:
This law states that the algebric sum of a voltage in a closed circuit is equal to
zero
Apparatus required:
S. No Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030)V 2
2 Ammeter (010)mA 3
3. Resistance 1 KΩ 1
4. Resistance 10 KΩ 2
5. Resistance 5 KΩ 1
6. Bread board  1
7. Connecting wires  10
Theory:
Kirchoff’s Current Law (First Law):
The KCL states that the sum of current flowing towards a junction is equal to
the sum of current flowing away from the junction.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law:
Circuit Diagram:
Tabulation:
Voltage (V) Current I (mA)
Resistance (KΩ) I(R
1
+ R
2
)
mA R
1
R
2
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
According to KCL,
i
1
+ i
3
+ i
5
= i
2
+ i
4
Sum of incoming current = Sum of Outgoing current
(b) Second Law (or) Voltage Law:
The algebraic sum of voltage in a closed circuit is equal to zero.
(i.e) Alvebraic sum of emfs + Algebraic sum of voltage droft = 0
E = IR
1
+ IR
2
E – IR
1
– IR
2
= 0
E – I (R
1
+ R
2
) = 0
Procedure:
KCL’s Law:
• Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
• Switch on the power supply.
• The voltage is varied and the corresponding current is noted.
• Now verify the kirchoff’s current law
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
KCL’s Law:
• Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
• Switch on the power supply.
• The voltage is varied and the corresponding current is noted.
Now verify the kirchoff’s voltage law
Safety Devices:
• Tester
• Fuse
• Shoes
Precaution for Personal Safety:
• The safety material should be wearied.
• Connection should be verified correctly
• Maintain some distance from equipments and stand.
• Keep the power supply “OFF” when making connection.
Precautions for Device Safety:
• Turn the voltage knob in minimum position in the RPS before switch
‘ON’ the RPS.
• The current knob in the RPS must be in maximum position before
switch ‘ON’ the RPS.
• If the power supply indicates over load bring the voltage level to zero
and switch off the supply voltage.
• Before making connections, check the components correctly.
Viva Questions:
1. State KCL
2. State KVL
3. What is meant by Current?
4. What is power? What is the unit of it?
Applications:
It is used in all the electrical &electronics circuits.
Result:
Thus the KCL and KVL was verified by using standard resistances, ammeter
and voltmeter.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Verification of Super Position Theorem:
Circuit Diagram:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
RPS
(0–
30)V

V
1
5.6KΩ
+
A
(0–10) mA

+
RPS
(0–30)V

V
2
V
1
Source Shorted:
10KΩ
10KΩ
(5.6) KΩ
+
RPS
(0–30) V
+

A
(0–10) mA

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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
3. VERIFICATION OF SUPER POSITION
THEOREM
Aim:
To device an experiment to verify super position theorem.
Objective:
To acquire the knowledge about the replacement of voltage source by their
internal resistance.
Super Position Theorem:
In a network of linear resistances containing more than one generator,
the current which flows at any point is the sum of all the currents which would flow at
that points if the each generator were considered separately and all the other
generators replaced for the time being by resistance equal to their internal resistances.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030)V 1
2 Ammeter (010) mA 1
3. Resistance 10 kΩ 2
4. Resistance 5.6 kΩ 1
5. Bread board  1
6. Connecting wires  10
Formula:
I = I
1
+I
2
mA
I
1
= Current due to one source, mA
I
2
= Current due to one source, mA
I = Total current at that point, mA
Theory:
In a linear circuit the response at any element due to several sources is given
by the super position of the responses due to individual sources acting one at a time
while the next of the sources reduced to zero values. To apply the super
position theorem for the analysis of a linear circuit, the constant voltage sources are
reduced
to zero voltages(short circuit) and the constant current sources are reduced to zero
current(open circuit).
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
V
2
Source Shorted:
Circuit Diagram:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
RPS
(0–
30)V
5.6KΩ
+
V

A
(0–10) mA

Tabulation:
S.NO
Source voltage(V
1
) in
volt
Source voltage(V
2
) in
volt
Total current I(mA)
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Procedure:
• Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
• Both Supplies are switched “ON” and the reading of ammeter is noted as
I.
• The source v
2
is replaced by short circuit and the source v
1
is switched
“ON”, now the reading of Ammeter is noted asI
1
.
• The source v1 is replaced by short circuit and the source v
2
is switched
“ON”. Now the reading of Ammeter is noted as I
2
.
Applications:
1. It is used for replacement of voltage sources.
2. It is used when source of power are provided.
Viva Questions:
1. State the super position theorem?
2. What is meant by network?
3. What is meant by bilinear network?
4. Application of super position Theorem.
Result:
Thus the super position theorem was verified.
15
Ω
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Verification of Thevenin’s Theorem:
Circuit Diagram:
To Find I
L
:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
RPS
(0–30)V
5.6K

1.5KΩ
+
A
(0–10) mA

To Find R
TH
:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
5.6KΩ
M

16
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
4. VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM
Aim:
To device an experiment to verify Thevenin’s Theorem.
Objective:
To make our complex circuit into equivalent simple circuit.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030) V 1
2. Ammeter (010) mA 1
3. Voltmeter (010)V 1
4. Resistor 10 kΩ 2
5. Resistor 5.6 kΩ 1
6. Resistor 1.5 kΩ 1
7. Bread board  1
8. Multimeter  1
9. Connecting wires  10
Formula
:
I
L
·
V
TH
m
A
(R
TH
+
R
L
)
Where V
TH
= Thevenin’s voltage, (V)
R
TH
= Thevenin’s Resistance (KΩ)
R
L
= Load Resistance (KΩ)
Resistance (R
TH
) if viewed from any one point in a network.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
To Find V
TH
:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
+
RPS
(0–30)V
5.6KΩ
V


(010)V
To Find I
L
:
R
TH
+
V
TH

R
L
+
A
(0–10) mA

18
L
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Theory:
In any linear network contains voltage sources and resistances can be
replaced by equivalent voltage source (V
TH
) in series with equivalent
Resistance(R
TH
) if viewed from any one point in a network.
Step1: Remove the load Resistor R
L
where current is required.
Step2: Label the terminal from which R
L
is removed.
Step3: Calculate the open circuit voltage across the labeled terminal.
This is the Thevenin’s voltage (V
TH
).
Step4: Draw the equivalent circuit.
Step5: Find the current in RL using the formula, I
·
V
TH
R
TH
+ R
L
Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Switch “ON” the power supply.
3. The load current is noted from Ammeter.
4. The load resistance R
L
and ammeter are removed from the circuit and V
TH
is formed.
5. The RPS is also removed and R
TH
is found.
6. Now we can draw Thevenin’s equivalent circuit which consists of R
TH
and
R
L
connected in series with V
TH
.
7. Now we can find I
L
.
Safety Devices:
Tester
Fuse
Shoes
Precautions for Machine Safety:
Turn the voltage knob in minimum position in the RPS before switch
‘ON’ the RPS.
The current knob in the RPS must be in maximum position before
switch ‘ON’ the RPS.
If the power supply indicates over load bring the voltage level to zero
and switch off the supply voltage.
Before making connections, check the components correctly.
19
LLLLLLLL
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation for Thevenin’s Theorem:
Load current(I
L
)
in mA
Thevenin’s Resistance
(R
TH
) in KΩ
Thevenin’s Voltage(V
TH
) in V
Model Calculation for Thevenin’s Theorem:
I
·
V
TH
R
TH
+ R
L
When V
TH
= 5.37V, R
TH
=13.33KΩ and R
L
=1.5 KΩ
I
·
5.37
×
10
3
L
13.33 + 1.5
5.37
3
· × 10
14.83
= 0.362mA
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Precaution for Personal Safety:
The safety material should be weared.
Connection should be verified correctly
Maintain some distance from equipments and stand. Keep
the power supply “OFF” when making connection.
Application of the Skill in Professional Life:
Used to analyze the circuit and make it quit easy.
Used to simplify the complex circuit into simple circuit.
Help in employment:
To become a circuit designer.
For example, in any power plant has many numbers of current (or) voltage
sources it can be replaced by its equivalent circuit.
Viva Questions:
1. State the Thevenin’s theorem?
2. What’s the use of it?
3. What is Network?
4. What is meant by branch?
5. What is a junction?
6. What are the elements contained in the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit?
Result:
Thus the Thevenin’s Theorem was verified.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Verification of Norton’s Theorem:
Circuit Diagram:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
RPS
(0–30)V
5.6KΩ
1.5KΩ
+

A
(0–10) mA

To Find R
N
:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
M
5.6KΩ

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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
5. VERIFICATION OF NORTON’S THEOREM
Aim:
To device an experiment to verify Norton’s theorem.
Objective:
To make our complex circuit into equivalent simple circuit.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030)V 1
2. Ammeter (010) mA 1
3. Resistor 10 kΩ 2
4. Resistor 5.6 kΩ 1
5. Resistor 1.5 kΩ 1
6. Bread board  1
7. Multimeter  1
8. Connecting wires  10
Formula
:
I
L
·
I
N
×
R
N
m
A
R
N
+
R
L
Where I
L
= Load current in (mA)
I
N
= Norton current in (mA)
R
N
= Norton’s equivalent Resistance in (kΩ)
R
L
= Load Resistance in (kΩ)
Resistance (R
TH
) if viewed from any one point in a network
Norton’s Theorem:
Any two terminal active linear network containing voltage sources
and resistance when viewed from its output terminals, is equivalent to a constant
current source and a parallel resistance. The constant current is equal to the current
which would flow ion a short circuit placed across the terminals and parallel
resistance is the resistance of the network when viewed from these open circuited
terminals after
all voltage and current sources have been removed and replaced by their internal
resistances.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
To Find I
N
:
10KΩ
10KΩ
+
RPS
(0–30)V
5.6KΩ

+
A (0–10)mA

To Find I
L
:
I
L
I
N
R
N
1.5KΩ
24
R
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Step1: Remove the load Resistor R
L
(if any) and put a short circuit across
Step2: Find the short circuit current.
Step3: Calculate the Norton’s looking back resistance R
N
from the
Load Terminal.
Step4: Draw the equivalent circuit.
Step5: Find the current in R
L using
the formula, I
·
I
R
N
L N ×
N
+ R
L
Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Switch “ON” the power supply.
3. The load resistance R
L
and ammeter are removed from the circuit and
I
N
values is noted.
4. The RPS is also removed and R
N
is found.
5. Now we can draw Norton’s equivalent circuit.
6. Now we can find the value of load current I
L
.
Safety Devices:
Tester
Fuse
Shoes
Precautions for Machine Safety:
Turn the voltage knob in minimum position in the RPS before
switch
‘ON’ the RPS.
The current knob in the RPS must be in maximum position before
switch ‘ON’ the RPS.
If the power supply indicates over load bring the voltage level to zero
and switch off the supply voltage.
Before making connections, check the components correctly.
25
−3
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation for Norton’s Theorem:
Load current(I
L
) in mA Norton’s Resistance (R
N
)in
KΩ
Norton’s Current(I
N
)in mA
Model Calculation for Norton’s Theorem:
I
L
·
I
N
×
R
N
m
A
(R
N
+
R
L
)
When I
N
= 0.28mA, R
N
=13.6KΩ&R
L
=1.5KΩ
I
·
0.28 × 10 × 13.6 × 10
3
L
(13.6 × 10
3
+ 1.5 × 10
3
)
= 0.25mA
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Precaution for Personal Safety:
The safety material should be weared.
Connection should be verified correctly
Maintain some distance from equipments and stand. Keep
the power supply “OFF” when making connection.
Viva Questions:
1. State the Norton’s theorem?
2. What’s the use of it?
3. What do you meant by linear network?
4. What are the elements contained in the Norton’s equivalent circuit?
Result:
Thus the Norton’s theorem was verified.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem:
Circuit Diagram:
1.5 KΩ 1.5 KΩ
(0–10) mA
+
A

+
RPS
(030) V

1.5KΩ
+
V
(010) V

DRB
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
6. VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER
TRANSFER THEOREM
Aim
:
To verify the maximum power transfer theorem.
Objective:
To observe when the maximum power is transferred from source to load.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030) V 1
2. Ammeter (010) mA 1
3. Resistor 1.5 kΩ 3
4. Multimeter  1
5. voltmeter (010) V 1
6. DRB  1
7. Bread board  1
8. Connecting wires  10
Theory:
A Resistive load will abstract maximum power from a network when the load
resistance is equal to the resistance of the network as viewed from the output
terminals, with all energy sources removed leaving behind their internal resistances.
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the supply voltage constant by varying DRB and the
corresponding ammeter and voltmeter readings are noted.
3. Plot the curve between load resistance and power.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Model Graph:
Load Resistance in KΩ
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Safety Devices:
Tester
Fuse
Shoes
Precautions for Machine Safety:
Turn the voltage knob in minimum position in the RPS before switch
‘ON’ the RPS.
The current knob in the RPS must be in maximum position before
switch ‘ON’ the RPS.
If the power supply indicates over load bring the voltage level to zero
and switch off the supply voltage.
Before making connections, check the components correctly.
Precaution for Personal Safety:
The safety material should be weared.
Connection should be verified correctly
Maintain some distance from equipments and stand. Keep
the power supply “OFF” when making connection.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
S.NO Load resistor R
L
in KΩ
Voltage in
volt
Current in
mA
Power P=VI
in W
Model Calculation:
If V = 3.75V&I=0.3mA
The power transferred to the load
P = V×I
= 3.75×0.3×10
3
W
= 1.125×10
3
W
= 1.125mW
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Applications of the Skill:
1. In a public address system, the circuit is adjusted for maximum power
transfer by making load (i.e. speaker) resistance equal to source (i.e.
amplifier) resistance.
2. In starting a car engine, the power delivered to starter motor depend on
the effective resistance of the motor and internal resistance of the
motor and internal resistance of the battery. If the two resistances are
equal, m maximum power will be transferred to the motor to turn
the engine.
3. Telephone and TV aerial leads to be matched with telephone
instrument and TV receiver respectively.
4. Used in transmission lines and Antennas.
List of Viva Voice Questions:
1. State maximum power transfer theorem?
2. When the maximum power transfer theorem?
3. What is meant by power? Mention its unit?
4. What is meant by Energy?
5. What are the applications?
Result:
Thus the maximum power transfer theorem was verified and the graph was
drawn.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Circuit diagram:
Tabulation for Open Circuit Test:
Multiplying Factor
=
Vo(volts) Io(A) Woc (watts)
Actual Reading=Observed
Reading *Multiplying Factor
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
7. OC AND SC TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
Aim
:
To conduct the open circuit and the short circuit test on a single phase
transformer and determine the percentage of efficiency.
Objective:
To calculate the losses occur in the transformer, the open &short circuit test is
conducted.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus Name Range Type Quantity
1. Ammeter (05)A MI 1
2. Ammeter (010)A MI 1
3. Voltmeter (0150)V MI 1
4. Voltmeter (0300)V MC 1
5. Wattmeter 300V,5A Dynamometer 1
6. Auto transformer   1
7. Transformer   1
8. Connecting wires   10
Formula Used:
Iron loss = Woc
Copper loss = Wsc
Total loss = Woc+Wsc
Output power = capacity*cos Φ
% of efficiency
(Output Power)
· × 100
(Input Power)
Theory:
Open Circuit Test:
Open circuit test is called as no load test. The purpose of this test is to
determine noload loss or core loss and no load current Io which is helpful in winding
Ro&Xo.Supply is given to the primary winding through a wattmeter with secondary
winding open circuited. The readings of the wattmeter gives the no load losses when
rated voltage is applied to the primary. No load current is very small and the primary
resistance is negligible.Therfore copper loss (I
2
R) is very small. The input to the
transformer.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation for Short Circuit Test:
Multiplying
Factor=
Vsc(volts) Isc(A) Wsc(watts)
Actual Reading=Observed
Reading *Multiplying Factor
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Short Circuit Test:
Short circuit test can be determined by the copper loss. The copper loss
occurs when the current flows through the winding .It is equal to I
2
R. This loss varies
as the square of the load current knowing the load current and the equivalent
resistance of secondary side the copper loss can be calculated by using an auto
transformer the input voltage is varied from zero to small value. This is applied to the
primary winding .Secondary winding is short circuited using the ammeter. Voltage is
varied slowly till the secondary side ammeter reads rated secondary rated current.
As the primary voltage is very small, the iron loses are assumed to be small
and neglected. The wattmeter reading gives the total copper losses at full load current.
%
efficiency
(output in watts)
· × 100
(output + copper loss + core loss)
Procedure:
Open Circuit Test or No Load Test:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. The primary terminal of the high voltage side of transformer is kept up
to n.
3. The power supply is switched ‘ON’ by adjusting the auto transformer.
The rate voltage is applied to their position the voltmeter readings are
noted.
4. Switch ‘OFF’ the power supply.
Short Circuit Test or Impedance Test:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram
2. The secondary terminal of the low voltage side of transformer is kept
as short circuit.
3. The power supply is switched ‘ON’ at this position of the voltage.
4. Ammeter and voltmeter readings are noted.
5. Switch ‘OFF’, the power supply.
Safety Devices:
Tester
Fuse
Shoes
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Model Calculation:
Iron loss Woc = 30w
Copper loss Wsc = 100w
Total loss = Woc+Wsc
= (30+100) w
= 130w
Capacity = 2KVA
= 2000VA
Cos Φ = 0.8
Output power = Capacity*CosΦ
= 2000 VA *0.8
= 1600w
Input power = output power+losses
= 1600+130
= 1730w
%Efficiency = output power/ input power
% = (1730/1600)*100
% = 92.49%
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
General Precautions:
• Understand the equipment to be tested and apparatus to be used.
• Select proper type (i.e. Ac or dc) and range of meters.
• Do not touch live terminals.
• Use suitable wires (type&size).
• All the connections should be tight.
• Do not leave wires not connected.
• Get the connections checked by staffin –charge, before switching ‘ON’
the supply.
• Never exceed permissible values of current, voltage, speed&load etc.
• Switch ‘ON’/switch ‘OFF’ the load gradually and not suddenly.
Viva Questions:
1. What are the different losses occurred in the transformer?
2. By conducting the o.c test, which loss can be determined?
3. By conducting the s.c test, which loss can be determined?
4. What is meant by power factor?
5. What is meant by efficiency?
Result:
Thus the open circuit and short circuit are conducted and the efficiency is
calculated.
% Efficiency =
 Iron
loss =

Copper loss =

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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Calibration of Ammeter:
Circuit Diagram:
DRB
(0 – 50) mA (0 – 50) mA
+
A
 +
A

+
RPS

(0 – 30) V
Calibration of Voltmeter:
1 KΩ
+
RPS
(0 – 30) V
(0 – 30) V
+ +
(0 – 30) V
V
V



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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
8. CALIBRATION OF AMMETER AND
VOLTMETER
Aim
:
To calibrate the ammeter and voltmeter with the standard meter.
Apparatus Required:
S. No Apparatus name Range Quantity
1 RPS (030)V 1
2 Resistor 1KΩ/1w 1
3 Ammeter (050) mA 2
4 Voltmeter (030) V 2
5 Bread board  1
6 Connecting wires  
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. The RPS is varied and the corresponding standard and test meter
readings are noted and tabulated.
4. Switch OFF the power supply.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
Calibration of Ammeter:
S. No.
I
S
in
(mA)
I
T
in
(mA)
Error =(I
T
 I
S
)
(mA)
Correction=(I
S
 I
T
) in (mA)
Model Graph
Error Curve Correction Curve
I
T
in mA
I
s
in mA
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Graph:
Error Curve:
axis.
It is drawn by taking test meter voltage along X – axis and error along Y–
Correction Curve:
It is drawn by taking test meter voltage along X axis and correction along
Y – axis.
Application:
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
Calibration of Voltmeter:
S. No.
V
S
in
(volts)
V
T
in
(volts)
Error =( V
T
 V
S
) Volts
Correction= (V
S
 V
T
) volts
Model Graph
Error Curve Correction Curve
I
T
in volt
I
s
in volt
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Result:
Thus the voltmeter and ammeter were calibrated with standard voltmeter and
ammeter respectively.
Viva questions:
1. What is calibration?
2. What is the used of calibration?
3. What do you mean by error?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Circuit Diagram:
b
33kΩ
12kΩ
P
Q
a
G
S
Rx DRB
Under Balanced Condition,
PS = QRx
Rx =
S
d
+

E = (0 – 30) V
Tabulation:
S. No.
R
1
(KΩ)
R
2
(KΩ)
R
3
(KΩ)
R
4
(KΩ)
Theoretical Value
R
S
x ·
Q
KΩ
46
Ω
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
9. WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE
Aim
:
To determine the unknown resistance value using wheatstone’s bridge.
Objective:
To find out the medium resistance value in the range of 1 Ω to 0.1mΩ
Apparatus Required:
S. No Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030)V 1
2. Resistors
12KΩ 1
33K 1
3. DRB  1
4. Galvanometer (30030) V 1
5. Unknown resistance  1
6. Bread board  1
7. Multimeter 1
8. Connecting wires  
Theory:
A very important device used in the measurement of medium resistances is
the wheat stone bridge. It is still an accurate and reliable instrument and
reliable instrument and is extensively used in industry. The wheat stone bridge
is an instrument for making comparison measurements and operator upon a null
indication principle. This means the indication is independent of the calibration
of the null indicating instrument or any of its characteristics. For this reason, very
high degree
of accuracy can be achieved using what stone bridge.
Fig. Shows the basic circuit of a wheat stone bridge. It has four resistive arms,
consisting of resistances P, Q, R and S together with a source of emf (a battery) and
a null detector (galvanometers) or other sensitive current meter.
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·
·
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Formula Derivation:
The bridge is said to be balanced when there is no current through the
galvanometer or when the pot. Difference across the galvanometer is zero. This
occurs when.
Vb  a = Va
d
or
Vd  c = Vbc
For bridge balance, we can write: I
1
, P= I
2
R
For the galvanometer current to be zero, the following conditions also exist.
I
1
·
I
3
I
·
I
E
P + Q
E
→ (2)
→
(
3
)
2 4
R + S
By substituting (2) and (3) in (1)
1 1
E
1
P
¸
P + Q
]
E
·
P + Q
·
E
R + S
E
1
R
¸
R + S
]
PR + PS · PR + QR
PS = QR
Un known resistance R ·
PS
Q
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram
2. By varying DRB, the voltage across the galvanometer is mode zero and R3 is
noted in DRB.
3. The unknown resistance value is found by using the formula.
Application:
It can be used for measuring low resistance value exactly.
Result:
Thus the unknown resistance of the different resistors were found out by
using Wheat stone’s bridge.
Viva Questions:
1. What is he bridge used for measuring inductance of the coil?
2. What is the bridge used for capacitance of capacitor?
3. What is accuracy?
4. What is precision?
5. What is sensitivity?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Wien Bridge Measuring Frequency:
Circuit Diagram:
R
1
R
2
C
1
E
Detector
R
3
R
4
C
3
50
Ω
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Aim
:
10. WEIN BRIDGE
To determine the unknown capacitance value using wein bridge.
Objective:
It can be used for measuring frequency but also used as a notch filter.
Apparatus Required:
S. No Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. Function Generator  1
2. Resistors
1KΩ 2
2K 1
3. Capacitor 1µF 1
4. DRB  1
5. DCB  1
6. Galvanometer (30030) V 1
7. Bread board  1
8. Multimeter  1
9. Connecting wires  
Wien Bridge:
Wien Bridge is used as an AC Bridge. This is used to measure frequency.
Wien Bridge is used as a notch filter in the harmonic distortion analyzer. Also used
in audio and high frequency oscillators as the frequency determining element.
The Wien Bridge used for the measurement of frequency is shown in this
bridge has a series RC combination in one arm and a parallel RC combination in the
adjoining arm. The impedance of arm 1 is Z
1
and an admittance of arm 3 is Y
3
.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
S. No.
Set Freq
(Hz)
C
1
(µF)
R
3
(KΩ)
Frequency =
1
Hz
2πR R C C
52
1
2
3 3
1
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
For the Bridge to Balance,
Z
1
Z
4
= Z
2
Z
3
∴
Z
2
·
Z
1
Z
4
Z
3
−−−−−−(1)
∴
Z
2
· R
1
−
J
wC
1
Z
2
= R
2
1
∴
Z
3
· + jwC
3
R
3
Substituting for Z
1
, Z
2
, Z
3
& Z
4
in Equ. (1) We get
¸ j _ 1
R
2
· R
1
−
wC
R
4
¸
_
¸ 1 ,
1
¸
R
3
+
jwC
3 ,
¸ j _
¸
1 _
R
2
·
R
4
R
1
−
+ jwC
3
¸
wC
1
,
¸
R
3 ,
R
·
R
4
R
1
−
R
R
4
j
+
R R jwC
+
R
4
w
C
3
R
4
wC R
1 4 3
wC
Equating real and imaginary terms we have
R
2
·
R
1
+
R
4
R
3
+
C
3
R
4
C
1
−−−−−− (2)
and
R
4
−
wC R R
· 0 −−−−−−(3)
wC
1
R
3
3 1 4
From equ. (2) We get
∴
R
2
R
4
·
R
1
R
3
+
C
3
−
−−−−−(4)
C
1
From equ. (3) We get
1
·
wC
1
R
3
wC
3
R
1
∴ w
2
·
1
C
1
R
1
R
3
C
3
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
w ·
1
C
1
C
3
R
1
R
3
w = 2πf
∴ f
·
1
−−−−−−(5)
2π C
1
C
3
R
1
R
3
In this the components are chosen so that R
1
= R
3
& C
1
= C
3
then equ. (4) reduces to
R
2
·
2
R
4
Therefore Equ. (5) Reduces to
F ·
1
2πRC
This bridge is used for measuring frequency in the audio range. Capacitors
C
1
and C
2
are normally of fixed values. Resistances R
1
and R
3
are having identical
values. In the audio range (from 202002k20kHz), the resistances are used
for range changing and capacitors C
1
and C
2
are used for the frequency control.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the power supply.
2. Set the value of frequency in FG.
3. By varying the value of capacitance & Resistance,
4. Note down the unknown value.
5. Find the value of calculated. f
·
1
2π C
1
C
3
R
1
R
3
Uses:
1. Used for measuring frequency
2. Can be used for measuring capacitances.
3. Used in harmonic distortion analyzer as a notch filter.
4. Used as frequency determining element in audio frequency and radio
frequency oscillators.
5. Accuracy from 0.5% to 1% can be obtained.
Result:
Thus the unknown frequency were found out by using Wein’s Bridge.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Circuit Diagram:
56
ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
11. PHOTO ELECTRIC TRANSDUCER
Aim
:
To determine the characteristics of photoelectric transducer (LDR).
Apparatus Required:
S. No Apparatus Name Range Quantity
1. RPS (030)V 1
2. Resistor 470Ω 1
3. Ammeter (010) mA 1
4. LDR  1
5. Lamp 60W 1
6. Bread Board  1
7. Wires  
Theory:
The photoconductive materials used are Cadmium Sulphide, Cadmium
Selenide or Cadmium Sulpho Selenide. These materials are very sensitive to light
radiation.
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Switch ON the power supply and setting the fixed voltage.
3. Now the bulb is ON and it’s placed at certain distance.
4. The distance is increased or decreased and corresponding ammeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
5. Switch OFF the power supply.
Graph:
It is drawn by taking distance along X – axis and current along Y – axis.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
S. No. DISTANCE IN cm CURRENT IN mA
Model Graph:
Distance in cm
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Application:
1. Opto electronic devices are designed for the emission and absorption of
optical radiation.
2. Used to detection and measurement of radiation in spectro photometers.
3. Used in pyrometry also.
Result:
Thus the characteristic of photoelectric transducer (LDR) was determined and
the graph was drawn.
Viva Question:
1. What is photoelectric phenomenon?
2. What is photo emissive cell?
3. What is photoconductive cell?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
To Measure the Phase Angle:
Circuit Diagram:
DCB
V
FGR
H H
CRO
1240Ω
V
To Measure the Frequency:
230 V
50Hz
AC
Supply
CRO
Function
Generator
Step Down Transformer
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
12. MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND
PHASE ANGLE
Aim
:
To measure the frequency and phase angle using lissajious figure.
Apparatus required:
S.NO Apparatus name Range Quantity
1. Function generator  1
2. CRO  1
3. Probe  3
4. DRB  1
5. DCB  1
6. Bread board  1
7. Connecting wires  10
8. Transformer (606) V 1
Theory:
Frequency Measurement:
To measure a frequency, the waveform viewed by the oscilloscope must be
periodic. For example, the period of the sine function is between any two alternate
zero crossing. The period can also be measured between any two positive peaks or
any two negative peaks. The frequency is determined by, Frequency = 1/period
Phase Angle Measurement
It is interesting to consider the characteristics of patterns that appear on the
screen of a CRT when sinusoidal voltages are simultaneously applied to horizontal
and vertical plates. These patterns are called ‘Lissajous patterns’.
When two sinusoidal voltages of equal frequency, which are in phase with
each other, are applied to the horizontal and vertical deflection plates, the
pattern appearing on the screen is a straight line. Thus when two equal voltages of
equal frequency but with 90° phase displacement are applied to a CRO, the trace on
the screen is a circle. When two equal voltages of equal frequency but with a phase
shift
φ (not equal to 0° or 90°) are applied to a CRO we obtain an ellipse. The
phase angle is either between 0° or 90° or between 270° to 360°. When the major
axis of ellipse lies in second and fourth quadrants i.e. when its slope is negative, the
phase angle is either between 90° and 180° or between 180°and 270°.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Frequency Measurement:
Tabulation:
S.NO.
Frequency
F
·
F
¸
T
H
_
in Hz
T
H TV
V H
T
¸ V ,
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Calculation:
Frequency:
F
V
F
H
·
T
H
T
V
Phase Angle:
(α)
· Sin
−1
¸
A
_
¸
B
,
Formula:
Phase angle (α) · Sin
−1
¸
A _
¸
B
,
Procedure:
Measurement of Phase Angle:
• Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram
• A sinusoidal voltage is applied to the horizontal and vertical input with same
magnitude.
• Press the X – Y button in the CRO. Now an ellipse is drawn on the CRO.
• From this ellipse, the value of A & B is noted and phase angle is measured.
Measurement of Frequency:
• The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
• A known frequency (F
H
) is applied to the horizontal input using step down
transformer.
• By varying unknown frequency, a pattern with loops is obtained.
• The number of lines which cut the horizontal input is noted as T
H
. Similarly the
number of lines cut the vertical input is noted as T
V
.
• From the values F
H,
T
H
, T
V
, the value of unknown frequency is calculated.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Graph:
It is drawn by taking T
H
along X – axis and T
V
along Y – axis.
Result:
Thus the Phase Angle and Frequency were measured using lissajious figure.
Viva Questions:
1. What are the applications of CRO?
2. What is Lissajious pattern?
3. What is dual trace oscilloscope?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Tabulation:
Measurement of Frequency& Amplitude:
AMPLITUDE TIME
FREQUENCY
WAVEFOR
M
Amp
in
div.
No. of
Box
Total
Amp.
(V)
Time
in
div.
No. of
Box
Total
Time
(ms)
IN KHz
SINE
WAVEFORM
TRIANGULAR
WAVEFORM
SQUARE
WAVEFORM
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
13. MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND
AMPLITUDE USING CRO
Aim:
circuit
.
To measure the frequency and amplitude using dual trace CRO for different
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus name Quantity
1. Function generator 1
2. CRO 1
3. Probe 2
4. Bread board 1
5. Connecting wires 10
Theory:
The oscilloscope consists of one set of horizontal plates (Xplate) and one set
of vertical plates (Yplate). The horizontal plates are connected to the vertical input
points. A ramp generator generates a time base sawtooth voltage. The input to the
Horizontal plates (Xinput) can be applied either internally from the time base
generator or externally. The voltage or the signal, which is to be analyzed, is applied
to the vertical plates (Yinput). The electrons emitted by the cathode towards a
phosphor coated screen causes a luminous spot on the screen. The spot moves
horizontally due to the electrostatic deflection caused by the Xplates.
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Switch “ON” the CRO.
3. The Function generator is connected to the CRO.
4. By varying the frequency, the readings are noted and tabulated.
5. Switch “OFF” the power supply.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Model Graph:
Amplitude
(V)
TIME in ms
Amplitude
(V)
TIME in ms
Amplitude
(V)
TIME in ms
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Application:
CRO is a very fast XY plotter, which displays an input signal with respect to
another signal or time. The luminous spot moves over the screen in response to the
input voltage. The CRO can present visual representations of any dynamic
phenomena by means of transducers, which convert pressure, strain, temperature,
acceleration, …etc, into voltages.
Result:
Thus the frequency and amplitude were measured by using CRO.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
RLC BRIDGE:
WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE
WEIN BRIDGE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
R
1
R
2
C
1
E
Detector
R
3
R
4
C
3
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
14. RLC BRIDGE
Aim
:
To measure the value of the Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance using
RLC bridge.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus name Quantity
1. Digital RLC Bridge 1
2. Unknown Resistor 2
3. Unknown Capacitor 2
4. DIB 1
5. Bread board 1
6. Connecting wires 10
Theory:
A simple bridge for the measurement of resistance, capacitance and
inductance may be constructed with four resistance decades in one arm, and binding
post terminals to which external resistors or capacitors may be connected, to
complete the other arms. Such a skeleton arrangement is useful in the laboratory,
since it permits the operator to set up a number of different bridge circuits simply by
plugging standards and unknown units into the proper terminals.
Procedure:
1. At first we can set the components in the digital bridge.
2. The dial is positioned in the corresponding resistance, inductance and the
capacitance mode.
3. Now the value should be noted from the display of the segment.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
RLC bridge measurement
S.No. APPARATUS DIGITAL VALUE ACTUAL VALUE
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Application:
This bridge is used for the measurement of resistance, capacitance and inductance
value by giving proper connections on the bridge arms
Result:
Thus the value of the Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance were
measured using Digital RLC Bridge.
Viva Questions:
1. What is the bridge used for measurement of inductance value?
2. What is the use of Schering Bridge?
3. What is the use of Hay’s bridge?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Strain Gauge Measurement:
T
2
SG
1
SG
2
5V
DC
SENSOR

+
SG
3
S
G
4
Tp
2
Gain
T
4
T
5
DPM
T
3
Tp
3
Gain
T
6
P
4
(05) V o/p
Tp
4
OFFSET
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
15. STRAIN GAUGE MEASUREMENT
Aim
:
To measure the strain in the beam using Strain Gauge Trainer Kit.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus name Quantity
1. Stain Gauge Trainer Kit 1
2. Connecting Pin 1
3. Multimete
r
1
4. Load 100gm
5. Cantilever Beam 1
Theory:
The strain gauge is an example of a passive transducer that uses the
variation in electrical resistance in wires to sense the strain produced by a force on
the wires.
It is well known that stress (force/unit area) and strain (elongation
or compression/unit length) in a member or portion of any object under
pressure is directly related to the modulus of elasticity.
Since strain can be measured more easily by using variable resistance
transducers, it is a common practice to measure strain instead of stress, to serve as an
index of pressure. Such transducers are popularly known as strain gauges.
If a metal conductor is stretched or compressed, its resistance changes on
account of the fact that both the length and diameter of the conductor changes. Also,
there is a change in the value of the Resistivity of the conductor when subjected to
strain, a property called the Piezo –resistive gauges.
When a gauge is subjected to a positive stress, its length increases while its
area of cross – section decreases. Since the resistance of a conductor is directly
proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its area of cross – section, the
resistance of the gauge increases with positive strain. The change in resistance
value of a conductor under strain is more than for an increase in resistance due to its
dimensional changes. This property is called the Piezo resistive effect.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
Strain Gauge Measurement
S. NO. LOAD in kg
BRIDGE OUTPUT
(T
2
, T
3
) mV
DISPLAY
READING
Volts
Model Graph:
LOAD in
Kg
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Procedure:
1. The connections are made shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Switch ON the Stain Gauge tutor.
3. The bridge output and display readings are noted without applying any load in
the input.
4. Then the input load is applied and the corresponding readings are taken.
5. The load is increased in 100gm for each step and readings are tabulated.
6. Switch OFF the supply.
Application:
• Strain gauge is used for measuring low input pressure or force value in
industries.
Model Graph:
The graph is drawn by taking Load along X – axis and display reading along Y
– axis.
Result:
Thus the Strain in the beam was measured using Strain Gauge Trainer Kit
and Cantilever Beam.
Viva Questions:
1. What is hysteretic effect in strain gauge?
2. What are the types of strain gauge?
3. Define Gauge factor.
4. What is Piezo resistive effect?
5. What is the material used for making strain gauge transducer?
6. What is semi conductor strain gauge?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Load Cell Measurement:
T
2
SG
1
SG
2
5V
SENSOR
DC
+
SG
3
S
G
4
Tp
2
T
4
T
5
DPM
T
3
Tp
3
Gain
T
6
P
4
(05) V o/p
Tp
4
OFFSET
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
16. MEASUREMENT OF LOAD CELL
Aim
:
To measure the load using Load Cell Trainer Kit and load cell panel.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus name Quantity
1. Load Cell Trainer Kit 1
2. Load Cell Panel 1
3. Multimete
r
1
4. Load (0  5) Kg
Theory:
The load cell is an electromechanical sensor employed to measure static and
dynamic forces. The device can be designed to handle a wide range of operating
forces with high level of reliability, and hence is it one of the most popular transducer
in industrial measurements. The load cell derives its output from the deformation of
an elastic member having high tensile strength.
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Initially one Kg load is applied and the corresponding readings are noted.
3. Then the load is increased in step by step and the corresponding readings are
noted and tabulated.
Model Graph:
The graph is drawn by taking load along X – axis and display reading along Y
– axis.
Application:
To measure high value of static and dynamic forces or pressure.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
Load Cell Measurement
S. No. LOAD in Kg
BRIDGE OUTPUT
(T
2
, T
3
) mV
DISPLAY
READING
Volts
Model graph:
LOAD in Kg
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Result:
Thus the load was measured using Load Cell Trainer Kit & Load Cell Panel.
Viva Question:
1. Is there any difference between sensor and transducer?
2. What is the transducer used to measure lowpressure measurement?
3. What is the use of Piezo resistive transducers?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
LVDT Measurement:
CORE
T
6
T
2
T
4
Half wave
Oscillatio
n
LVDT
AC
Amplifie
r
sync
RC Filter
TP
3
T
1
Buffe
r
T
3
Phase
Reference
Amplifier
DPM
T
8
T
7
Tp
5
Gain
P
4
(05) V
o/p
Tp
6
Non – Inverting
Amplifier
OFFSET
Non – Inverting
Amplifier
TP
2
 OFFSET
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
17. LVDT MEASUREMENT
Aim
:
To measure the displacement using LVDT Trainer Kit.
Apparatus Required:
S.NO Apparatus name Quantity
1. LVDT Trainer Kit 1
2. Screw Gauge 1
3. Multimeter 1
Theory:
The differential transformer is a passive inductive transformer. It is also known
as a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). The transformer consists of a
single primary winding P1 and two secondary windings S
1
and S
2
wound on a hollow
cylindrical former. The secondary windings have an equal number of turns and are
identically placed on either side of the primary winding. The primary winding is
connected to an ac source. An movable soft iron core slides within the hollow former
and therefore affects the magnetic coupling between the primary and the two
secondaries. The displacement to be measured is applied to an arm attached to the
soft iron core. (Ni –iron alloy)
When the core is in its normal (null) position, equal voltages are induced
in the two secondary windings. The frequency of the ac applied to the
primary winding ranges from 50Hz to 20KHz.
The output voltage of the secondary windings S
1
is Es
1
and that of secondary
winding S
2
is Es
2
.
In order to convert the output from S
1
to S
2
into a single voltage signal, the two
secondaries S
1
and S
2
are connected in series opposition.
Hence the output voltage of the transducer is the difference of the two
voltages. Therefore the differential output voltage E
0
=Es
1
~ Es
2
.
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. The power supply is switched ON.
3. The screw gauge is adjusted so that the LVDT reads 8mm.
4. The displacement of core is reduced by adjusting the Screw Gauge step by
step by 2mm and the corresponding readings are noted.
5. The Screw Gauge is adjusted up to the LVDT reads – 8mm. the Screw
Gauge reading is noted and display reading is noted across T
1
and T
8
.
6. The power supply is switched OFF.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
LVDT Measurement:
S.
No.
Screw guage
Readings (mm)
LVDT Display LVDT output Readings (v)
Model Graph:
LVDT Output Readings (V)
LVDT Display Readings (mV)
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Model Graph:
The graph is drawn by taking LVDT reading along X – axis and display
reading along Y – axis.
Application:
• It is widely used for measurement of displacement where linear displacement
from few mm to few cm.
• It is widely used in data systems to measure linear displacement, velocity,
acceleration, pressure, force, level, and rate of flow of liquids.
Result:
Thus the displacement was measured using LVDT Trainer Kit.
Viva Question:
1. Is the output voltage of LVDT linear?
2. How much is the power consumption of LVDT?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Measurement of Temperature:
A
R
2
+

(030) V
R
1
C
+
G

D
R
3
Thermistor
Characteristics of Thermistor:
Thermistor
Platinum
Temperature in
o
C
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
18. THERMISTOR
Aim
:
To study the construction, operation and characteristics of Thermistor.
Thermistor:
It stands for thermal resistor. It is a bulk semiconductor device, which behaves
as a resistor with a high positive and negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
Sometimes its coefficient as high as – 60º%/ deg C rise in temperature. This
high sensitivity of Thermistor is highly useful in precision temperature
measurement, temperature control and temperature compensation. It is mostly
used in lower temperature range of – 100ºC to 300ºC.
The two types of Thermistor are
1. NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistor)
2. PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor)
NTC Thermistor:
Thermistors are composed of a sintered mixture of metallic oxides such
as Manganese, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, Iron and Uranium. Their resistance at
ambient temperature may range from 100Ω to 100KΩ. Thermistors are available
in a wide variety of shapes and sizes such as bead, probe or rod.
Bead Thermistor:
It is a smallest Thermistor. It has a diameter of 15mm to 1.25mm. Beads may
be sealed in the tips of solid glass rods to form probes. The glass probes are used to
measure the temperature of liquids.
Disc Thermistor:
This is used when greater power dissipation is required. These
Thermistors are made by pressing Thermistor material under high pressure
Thermistor material into cylindrical shape. It has 1.25 – 2.5mm diameter and
0.25mm to .75mm thickness. These are sintered and coated with Silver on two flat
surfaces.
Whasher Thermistor:
They are just like disc Thermistor but they have a hole in the centre. This hole
is suitable for mounting on a bolt. Washer can be placed in series or parallel to
increases power dissipation rating.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
VI Characteristics of NTC:
I
V
VI Characteristics of PTC:
I
V
88
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
ROD Thermistor:
They are usually like long cylindrical units with 4.25mm diameter and 12.5 to
50mm long. Leads are attached to the ends of the rods. The advantage of this type
is they produce high resistance under moderate power.
Working:
The resistance of a Thermistor changes appreciably with a small change
in temperature. These characteristics of a Thermistor permit to use for the
accurate temperature measurement. For this purpose, Thermistor forms one of the
four arms
of Wheatstone bridge.
When there is no change in temperature the bridge is balanced and the
Galvanometer reads zero. When the Thermistor is exposed to a medium whose
temperature is to be measured, its resistance changes. This makes the bridge is
unbalanced and current flows through the Galvanometer. The change in resistance
of Thermistor i.e.) current through the Galvanometer is a measure of the magnitude
of temperature.
PTC Thermistor:
They are usually made from Barium Titrate. It is made from small
crystal, which is bonded to form inner cry stalling boundaries. The characteristics of
PTC are more complex than the NTC Thermistor. Here the temperature
increases, the resistance increases and this give a positive temperature
coefficient. After some threshold voltage, further increase in voltage decreases
current. This exhibits negative temperature coefficient.
Applications:
1. Thermistors are well suited for precision temperature measurement,
temperature measurement and compensation.
2. It is used for the measurement of the liquid level, liquid flow and pressure of
liquid.
3. Used for the measurement of composition of gases.
4. Used for providing time delay.
5. Used for Vacuum measurements.
6. It can be used where linearity is not important because of its non linear
characteristic
7. It is not used for wide temperature range.
Result:
Thus the construction, operation and characteristics of Thermistors were
studied.
Viva Question:
1. Where Thermistor is applied?
2. What is active transducer?
3. What is passive transducer?
4. What is negative temperature coefficient?
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Circuit Diagram:
1KΩ
(0 – 100) mA
+
A

RPS
+
Rsh
+
(0 – 30) V

DRB
A
(0 – 50) mA

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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
19. EXTENDING THE RANGE OF AMMETER
Aim:
meter.
To extend the range of Ammeter and calibrate the Ammeter with the standard
Apparatus Required:
S. NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE QUANTITY
1. RPS (030)V 1
2. Ammeter
(0100) mA 1
(050) mA 1
3. DRB  1
4. Bread Board  1
5. Wires  
Formula:
Shunt resistance Rsh ·
Rsh ·
(Im Rm)
(I −Im)
Rm
(m −1)
Multiplication Factor m ·
I
I
m
Theory:
The range of an electrical measurement is actually limited by the current.
This current can be carried by the coil of the instrument safely. The moving coil and
the spiral springs are used as coil connectors. These can be designed for a
maximum current of only 50mA and a potential drop of above 50mV. So, far
measuring large current or voltage, the range of the instrument has to be extended.
The common devices employed for extending the range of instruments are
shunts and multipliers. When instruments are supplied with such external
devices, the instrument is calibrated over the range of associated shunt or multiplier.
The basic movement of a DC ammeter is a permanent magnet moving
coil galvanometer. The basic movement coil is small and light. So it can carry only a
very small current. When large current is to be measured, it becomes necessary
to bypass the major part of current through shunt resistance.
An ammeter shunt is merely a low resistance. This is placed in parallel with
the instrument coil circuit to measure large current.
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Tabulation:
Extending the Range of Ammeter:
S.NO.
I
S
in
(mA
)
I
T =
m *
I
T
(mA)
Error =(I
T

I
S
)
(mA)
Correction=(I
S
 I
T
)
(mA)
Model Graph:
Error Curve Correction Curve
I
T
in mA
I
s
in mA
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ECE Department ECI Lab Manual
Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The power supply is switched ON.
3. RM is found by using Multimeter and find RSH.
4. By varying RPS test meter, standard meter readings are noted and
tabulated.
5. The power supply is switched OFF.
Graph:
Error Curve:
It is drawn by taking I
s
along X – axis and error along Y – axis.
Correction Curve:
It is drawn by taking I
T
along X – axis and correction along Y – axis.
Application:
The range of ammeter can be extended by using a suitable shunt across its
terminals. By using this experiment, we can increase the measuring capacity of
instrument.
Result:
Thus the range of ammeter was extended and the ammeter was calibrated
with the standard meter.
Viva Question:
1. How do we extend the range of ammeter?
2. What is damping torque?
3. What is the use of controlling torque?
93