Tenaga Nasional Berhad

TNB Research

First Edition, March 2005

Technical Guidebook for the Connection of Generation to the Distribution Network

Prepared by: TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. in Collaboration with: APS Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia RWE Npower plc, United Kingdom

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Tenaga Nasional Berhad

TNB Research

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................ 2 CONTRIBUTORS .............................................................................................. 7 PREFACE PREFACE....................................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION...............................................................................10 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................10 OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDEBOOK ............................................................................................11 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS USED IN THE GUIDEBOOK ..............................................................12 GUIDEBOOK APPROACH .......................................................................................................13 STATUTORY ACTS, REGULATIONS, RULES AND CODES ..............................................................14 SCOPE OF THE GUIDEBOOK ...................................................................................................14 USING THIS GUIDEBOOK .......................................................................................................15 CONTENTS OF THE GUIDEBOOK ..............................................................................................15

CHAPTER 2: PROCESS FOR GETTING CONNECTED CONNECTED.....................................................17 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 SUMMARY OF PROCESS .......................................................................................................17 PROJECT PLANNING ............................................................................................................20 EXCHANGE OF PLANNING INFORMATION & PRELIMINARY STUDY.................................................21 PROJECT DESIGN ................................................................................................................22 PROJECT CONSTRUCTION .....................................................................................................23 PROJECT TESTING AND COMMISSIONING ................................................................................23 DG OPERATION ..................................................................................................................23

CHAPTER 3: TECHNICAL ISSUES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CONNECTION ........................24 3.1 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DISTRIBUTORS TO CUSTOMERS AND THE DGS .....................................24 3.2 QUALITY OF SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS .....................................................................................24 3.3 TECHNICAL ISSUES..............................................................................................................28 3.4 VOLTAGE CONTROLS AND REGULATIONS .................................................................................28 3.5 FAULT LEVELS ....................................................................................................................32 3.6 NETWORK/FEEDER CAPACITY AND SECURITY ASSESSMENTS ......................................................34 3.7 SUPPLY QUALITY – RELIABILITY AND POWER QUALITY .............................................................38 3.8 PROTECTION AND CONTROLS ................................................................................................39 3.8.1 General General.......................................................................................................................39 3.8.2 Short term Occasional Parallel Operation ................................................................40 3.8.3 Loss of Mains Mains.............................................................................................................40 3.8.4 Auto-reclosing Auto-reclosing............................................................................................................42 3.8.5 Islanded Operation Operation.....................................................................................................42 3.9 LOSSES .............................................................................................................................44 3.10 EARTHING AND USE OF INTERFACE TRANSFORMERS ...................................................................46 3.11 STABILITY .........................................................................................................................47 3.12 OVER VOLTAGES AND RESONANT OVER-VOLTAGE ......................................................................47 3.13 DATA REQUIREMENTS..........................................................................................................48 3.14 SAFETY .............................................................................................................................48

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Tenaga Nasional Berhad

TNB Research

CHAPTER 4: PLANNING, CONNECTION AND OPERATION OF THE DGS DGS..............................50 4.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................50 4.2 PRELIMINARY PLANNING STUDY ...........................................................................................50 4.2.1 Objective ....................................................................................................................50 4.2.2 Connection Facilities Under the Distributor’s Responsibility...................................51 4.2.3 Basic Connection Issues Issues............................................................................................54 4.2.4 Preliminary System Study Procedure Procedure........................................................................55 4.2.5 Basic Protection, Control, Metering and Monitoring Requirements ........................56 4.2.6 Preliminary System Study Report .............................................................................56 4.3 POWER SYSTEM STUDY .......................................................................................................57 4.3.1 Objectives: .................................................................................................................57 4.3.2 Data Requirements ....................................................................................................57 4.3.3 Power System Study Methods and Analyses.............................................................58 4.3.4 Additional Analysis in Power System Study..............................................................59 4.3.5 Power System Study Report and Liaison ..................................................................62 4.4 CONNECTION OF THE DG PLANT TO THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ...............................................62 4.4.1 Connection Point and Connection Process................................................................62 4.4.2 Protection Coordination Study...................................................................................62 4.4.3 Protective Equipment Tests and Settings Settings..................................................................64 4.4.4 Inspection and Pre-Commissioning Tests Tests.................................................................65 4.4.5 Commissioning Procedure Procedure.........................................................................................66 4.4.6 Plant Commissioning and Tests Tests................................................................................67 4.4.7 Establishment of ‘Connection Operation Manual’ Manual’.....................................................68 4.5 OPERATION OF THE DG PLANT WITH THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK .............................................70 4.5.1 Control Operation.......................................................................................................70 4.5.2 DG Operating Modes..................................................................................................70 4.5.3 Distribution Operation Planning ................................................................................72 4.5.4 Exchange of Operational Information........................................................................72 4.5.5 Operating and Safety Requirements .........................................................................74 CHAPTER 5: INTERFACE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND NETWORK REINFORCEMENTS REINFORCEMENTS..........75 5.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................75 5.2 BASIC CONNECTION INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................76 5.2.1 Isolation .....................................................................................................................76 5.2.2 Connection through Star-Delta Transformer .............................................................77 5.3 UTILITY ACCESS .................................................................................................................78 5.4 SYNCHRONISATION .............................................................................................................79 5.5 PROTECTION AND CONTROL ..................................................................................................80 5.5.1 Protection Protection...................................................................................................................80 5.5.2 Controls Controls......................................................................................................................82 5.6 INTERLOCKING....................................................................................................................84 5.8 SCADA AND AUTOMATION ...................................................................................................86 5.9 COMMUNICATIONS ..............................................................................................................87 CHAPTER 6: GLOSSARY ....................................................................................89 6.1 6.2 GENERAL TERMS ................................................................................................................89 OTHER TERMS .................................................................................................................101

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.....................................................7 GEOTHERMAL .................................. 108 7....................................115 7........................117 7.....123 8.............................126 8.............................................3 Self Generation and Co-generation ....3.........116 7............................................................................................2 Voltages ...................108 7.....................................................................................................................3.....................122 8.................................1 Distribution Organisations.............................................................................................................4.4 Control operation (NLDC) ..............9...........................................3...................3.........................9 COGENERATION .................108 7..........................1 INTRODUCTION .....108 7................3.....................9...............2 HYDROPOWER ...3.......................................126 8................................................................2......................................................2.................................................................................120 8...............................4.................1..................116 7.......................................................1..2 Pass-out condensing steam turbine....2 POWER GENERATION ........................................................................2.....................................4 DISTRIBUTION ..........................................4.........115 7........................4 Current structure of electricity industry.....................1 Fault and fault current ..............................Tenaga Nasional Berhad 7...................114 7............126 8......................................................3...................................108 7...................120 8.........114 7............................................................................2.....................3 Control of System Frequency..........................................131 -4– 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .......................................................3 Gas Turbine............9...4.......120 8.....................1 Load forecasting ...........9...117 7.....................2....................................2 Planning & Investment............................................4 LANDFILL GAS ....3............................4...........111 7............1 Back-pressure steam turbine ....................................................................2...........3 Operational planning ..................128 8........1 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE .............................................1........................108 7..........4 Distribution Network Planning.....................................................................................112 7..................... TNB Research APPENDIX A: SUMMARY OF TNB POWER SYSTEMS SYSTEMS.........................2 Power System Operation .......................................112 7...........................................................4...............3...115 7.3............... APPENDIX B: TYPES OF DGS ........................................131 8..............................................1 Definitions of Cogeneration...1 Transmission System..........................................6 MICROTURBINES............................3 Renewable Energy (RE) and The Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) ..............5 Control and Operation of Distribution Network ...3.................................................3 FUEL CELLS ............................................116 7......................3 TRANSMISSION AND POWER SYSTEM OPERATION .........123 8............4 Control of System Voltage ................................1 Energy Source ..........130 8...........1.....................................................................................................................2 Generation Mix........125 8....3........................................115 7................... 120 8......................................3...................2 Protection system .....................1...........................5 WIND POWER ...........4........112 7..............................................3 Description of Cogeneration Technologies .............................1 Generation Entities .....9.....................................114 7.............................................................116 7......................................................................118 7...........................4................................................................................................110 7.....................2 Cogeneration plants in Malaysia.......................................................8 PHOTOVOLTAIC ................................................................................................130 8.......................118 8............................111 7.....................................................111 7..............................1 A Brief History of Electricity Industry in Malaysia...............................2......9...........................2 Electricity Industry Reform ....................5 Regulation and Licensing ................................................................................................125 8..................116 7.................................................3....................................................3 Fault level and equipment rating .........1.................................3 Protection in Distribution Networks..

..........2....141 10.....................2...................................................TNB POWER QUALITY COMPATIBILITY STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES .........5.7.....................3 Voltage Profile DG at the mid of feeder ......................2..................................7.........4......................................08.......................................1 Network Reliability ......2 9...................................................2......................4............ APPENDIX E: SYSTEM STUDIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONNECTION OF THE DG ........142 10...................................2 DISTRIBUTION NETWORK DESIGN PHILOSOPHY ........1 Power quality under steady-state conditions ...2 Review/Update Network Model .....4...4........ 10.....160 11................160 11...142 10............6 Voltage Profile DG at end of feeder with 33kV feeder connection ...142 10....4.1 Steady State Criteria................154 11.......4....165 -5– 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 ......................3 DATA AVAILABLE FROM TNB AT THE INITIAL STAGE .............6............08..........149 11......3 Connecting DG Plant and Modelling Approach .........7 System/Feeder Adequacy .............161 11........................................140 10..... 145 11..........6...................8 Conductor Selection Criteria........................135 APPENDIX D: TNB DISTRIBUTION PLANNING CRITERIA CRITERIA.........7..............................................4.....2 Urban/Sub-Urban Medium Voltage Distribution Feeders .....145 11............4........4......................................158 11.........1 INTRODUCTION .142 10............... TNB Research APPENDIX C: DATA AVAILABLE AND TO BE SUBMITTED .........................................................2..............6 Short-Circuit Analysis .......................................................................5 Voltage Profile DG at end of feeder with additional 11kV feeder ............7 Power Quality Criteria ..................144 11....152 11.....4.........................4..........................2 PRELIMINARY SYSTEM STUDY ................146 11.............141 10.........................................................................139 10....................141 10....143 TABLE 10.........2.................................3 Rural Medium Voltage Distribution Feeders (<1 MVA).....Tenaga Nasional Berhad 9.................139 10..........2.................................................................................................2 Power quality during transient disturbance conditions .........157 11.....................................2 Voltage Profile DG at the end of feeder ..134 DATA TO BE SUBMITTED FOR ‘POWER SYSTEM STUDY’ – ES...........2..........2..........5 System Losses ..........................2................................................140 10.......4 Network Voltage Profile..........................................................143 10.................................156 11........01 .............................................................2 Losses DG at the mid of the feeder ...............1 Losses DG at the end of the feeder .................................4 Voltage Profile DG at the source of feeder .............................4...........1 Generating unit data ......................155 11.............2 Steady State Voltage limits ......140 10.........4....................4....2................141 10.......150 11.................5..........142 10......................................................................................6.........................3 System Frequency................5...............2........4..7......4......4..................142 10...03........153 11...................4.................1 INTRODUCTION .....6 Security of Supply Criteria under Contingency Situation...3 Losses DG at the source of the feeder .................1 9...................4..............................................................141 10......................................... 139 10......3 Thermal Ratings Limits ...........................2............................................162 11........2..................................................133 DATA TO BE SUBMITTED BY DG DEVELOPER FOR ‘PRELIMINARY SYSTEM STUDY’ – ES..............3 NETWORK CAPACITY AND REINFORCEMENT NEEDS ...4 TNB Power Quality Compatibility Limits......................................................................................................................................................6.......................139 10......................4...............146 11.................................141 10.........................2......................................................................4.....................5 Frequency Limits .............................4 Low Voltage Distribution Networks.............2..................................163 11...................1 .............1 Voltage Profile Without the DG ......4...4 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING/DESIGN CRITERIA ................................................4 Fault Level Ratings Limits (Short-circuit Rating) ..... 133 9....................................................

.............................................2 Models for Speed-Governor........ .....3........1 Description of Facility and Site.......3 Master System ..............................2 CONNECTION AGREEMENT ..1 General Requirement..............184 13.....................................................173 12.............................179 12....... APPENDIX G: CONNECTION AGREEMENT ............................171 11........................3 Energy Accounting and Metering Equipment...................4. APPENDIX F: PROTECTION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS .....3......................3 Electricity Characteristics................................................2.......................................................................................................................................................................................................4...........................................................................................3.............2 Insulation Coordination Analysis..............................................................4 Interconnection Facilities..............4.............2 Design & Operations Standard ...........4...................................2 Communication Facilities........................182 12.......................................................6..............3 POWER SYSTEM STUDY ............2.....................................182 12................................................................................... Station......................................4 Stability Analysis....1 Stability Analysis ...............................4........179 12.............................6.....167 11....1 Overhead Line Feeder Protection ..........................................................................................................................2..................1 GENERAL .........................6 SCADA/DA REQUIREMENTS ................186 13.......................185 13...........................167 11...........181 12....................2 Underground Cable Feeder Protection ......4 SUMMARY OF TNB’S DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION PRACTICES .............................183 12....187 13............................................5 COORDINATION BETWEEN DG AND DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION ..178 12..................................................1........... ..................................................2 Protection Scheme Policy..............4.......................... 173 12...........182 12.............................................178 12......................................................................4 Busbar Protection .....................185 13...173 12........Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.................................................1 Maximum Fault Clearing Time......2..............................................178 12............................................................................................................................186 13..........2......180 12............................187 13.........................................2 SCADA Practices in TNB and Requirements .3...................2...................179 12.................................................3 DISTRIBUTED GENERATOR PROTECTION SCHEME ........................181 12..................... Operating and Reset Time.......................3 PSS/ADEPT Network Model to PSS/E Dynamics...........5..178 12......3 Transformer Protection Protection.....................167 11...................1 INTRODUCTION ....1 Models for Excitation Control..........4............... ............1 Basic SCADA .......167 11............................................2 Protection Relays Relays..3 CONNECTION OPERATION MANUAL...................3..186 13..........................1.................................................1 Master Station..........................................................3.....4.................................6.................................2 TYPES OF PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS .......6.......1.......177 12............................. 185 13..........................2......2..........1.......................5...................................................................188 -6– 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 ........1...3....................172 12......................185 13..............167 11.....................................1....

Sallehhudin Yusof Hamzah Ngah Abu Hanifah Azit Abdul Aziz Majid Loo Chin Koon Asnawi Organisation TNB Distribution TNB Research APS Sdn. RWE Npower. Fadzil Mohd Siam Dr.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Contributors Many individuals have made contributions to the Guidebook. the following persons have made major contributions and deserve to be recorded here: No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name Halim Osman Dr. plc TNB IT TNB Distribution TNB Distribution TNB Research -7– 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . However. Bhd.

Appendices A through G are provided to support main chapters of the Guidebook. technical issues are discussed so that their understanding will lead to an appreciation on how each of the issues is resolved (in chapter 3). The chapter also discusses how connection is established and the operation of the DG with the distribution network. Developers and Consultants have still to work on mutually acceptable. Before discussing the requirements for connection of the DG plant to the distribution network. The Guidebook in chapter 4 discusses how planning and design studies are carried out and how each of the technical issues is identified. Not all technical issues are required to be resolved unless they cause problems to the distribution network and its customers. a good plan always takes into consideration other related issues particularly DG plant operation. Consultants and Utility Engineers as guidelines for the planning of the connection of a distributed generation to the distribution network. the Guidebook is comprehensive in its contents. The focus of this Guidebook is on connection planning of DG Plants to the distribution network. safe and optimal solution for every case. Chapter 6 defines all the terms used in the Guidebook. These appendices contain detailed technical contents of the subjects discussed including case studies and worked examples. However. This Guidebook will be applicable from March 2005. assessed and resolved. -8– 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the intention is complementary thus may not be dealt with in full. The types of generating units addressed in this Guidebook include both synchronous and asynchronous. The Guidebook summarises interface requirements and possible distribution network reinforcements in chapter 5. Plant Managers/Engineers. The process starts with the DG Developer contacting TNB district or regional offices right up to testing and commissioning as well as identifying list of requirements for successful operation of the plant. it is not intended to present total solutions to all design and connection issues. Although. if other ancillary subjects apart from planning of connections are discussed. In this Guidebook. thus Distributors. Distributed Generation (DG) Plant is defined as a plant comprising of one or more generating units that is connected to the distribution network at the medium voltage level and whose total power output will be scheduled at all times to be totally consumed by loads in that distribution network (see chapter 1).Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Preface This “Technical Guidebook for the Connection of Generation to the Distribution Network” published by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is intended to be used by DG (Distributed Generation) Developers. Therefore. It is also not intended to be prescriptive. The Guidebook first discusses typical steps involved in connecting DG plant to the distribution network (see chapter 2).

Chapter 5 – Interface Design Requirements and Network Reinforcements Summarises interface requirements including typical network reinforcements. Discusses how issues are tackled during connection and operation. summary of contents Chapter 2 – Procedures for Getting Connected Describes steps involved in process of getting connected from initial contact with TNB to testing/commissioning and operation Chapter 3 – Technical Issues Associated with Connections of Distributed Generation Describes all possible technical issues that may arise with the connection of DG to the distribution network Chapter 4 – Planning. Connection and Operation of the DGs Describes planning and design approaches to identify issues and resolve them. Chapter 6 – Glossary Definition of terms Appendix A – G Supporting chapters. basic definitions. detailed methods/procedures and case studies Summary of the Contents of the Guidebook -9– 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . scope.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Chapter 1 – Introduction Objectives.

Suruhanjaya Tenaga. The approach to this revised Guidebook is to have chapters briefly addressing all issues.4 There are many tasks to be carried out and issues to be addressed in order to successfully implement a DG Plant project. etc. Where necessary. design and operation of the DGs. in the country’s recently revised Fuel Diversification Policy. mechanical design of DG plant.1.1. 1. design and operation by both TNB and DG Developers/Operators have compelled the electricity industry to review the technical guidelines for the connection of the DGs to ensure some transparencies in the processes and removal of any foreseeable technical barriers. Furthermore. Refer “Guidelines on Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP)”. Technical matters associated with energy conversion. other supplementary subjects not explicitly related to connection may also be discussed. However. the appendices will elaborate on the subject matter supplemented with case studies. This Guidebook focuses only on connection of DG Plant to the distribution network. is beyond the scope of this Guidebook.1 In 1996 Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) published a document entitled “Technical Guidebook for the Interconnection of Distribution Generators to TNB’s Medium Voltage Distribution Network”. either directly or indirectly.1 Background 1.2 This Guidebook is a complete revision of the “1996 Interconnection Guidebook” and has incorporated all the important issues to be addressed before connecting of a DG to the distribution network.3 This “Technical Guidebook for the Connection of Generation to the Distribution Network” (“the DG Guidebook” or ”the DG Connection Guidebook”) is intended for use mainly by DG Developers and Distribution Utility engineers for planning. environmental protection. Since the Guidebook will also cover all possible types of synchronous/asynchronous generator connections to the distribution network. hereafter referred to as the “1996 Interconnection Guidebook”.1. 1. it is also a useful reference to consulting engineers. . Many of the technical issues and selected commercial concerns are addressed in this Guidebook. Since then rapid development of distributed generation (DG) coupled with experience gained in planning.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Chapter 1: Introduction 1 .1.10 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . DG stakeholders have participated in two workshops and one meeting that resulted in a list of technical and commercial issues that need to be addressed further. Malaysia. not dated. Prior to the launching of this review work. in order to make clear some issues. the use renewable energy (RE) has been intensified and incorporated as the fifth fuel that obliges the electricity distribution industry players to encourage connections of RE-based DGs to the distribution network to make the policy a success1. 1. factory engineers and plant operators. 1.

regulation and practices may change from time to time and when necessary relevant parts of this Guidebook will be revised accordingly. and f) To find out what options could be used to resolve technical problems identified during planning and design analysis. c) To find out what types of schemes and equipment required for connecting the DG to distribution network and why they are necessary.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 1.1 The main objective of this DG Connection Guidebook is to provide guidance on the step-by-step process and procedures involved from DG Developers initiation of distributed generation to its connection to the distribution network as well as its commissioning and operation. 1. including: a) To understand how electricity distribution system works.1.2 Objectives of the Guidebook 1.2 DG Developers/Operators may use this Guidebook for several purposes.11 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . d) To identify the proper steps and methods to be used in conducting system studies and the timescales involved. e) To understand how a utility like TNB carries out planning studies to dimension the interface connection and why reinforcements in the distribution network may become necessary. . 1. b) To check compliance of the DG interface design with the standard requirements. d) To understand what supply quality standards are imposed by the Regulator on a utility like TNB and how a DG could contribute either positively or negatively to supply quality and security. its regulatory framework and utility industry practices. e) To establish cost estimates of connection to be provided to the DG Developer. The Guidebook is designed to give guidance on all technical aspects of the DG connection and may therefore have different objectives from the perspectives of DG Developers or Utility Engineers. b) To identify what information and their details that can be obtained from TNB with respect to connecting a DG plant. c) To find out what typical parameters could be used to model the DG plant for the purposes of studies when first proposed by the Developer. 1 .5 The DG Guidebook has been written based on the prevalent electricity industry structure in Peninsular Malaysia.2. and f) To understand how a DG is operated with the distribution network and how operational planning is carried out.2. design and operation engineers could refer to the DG Guidebook for several purposes but not limited to the following: a) To find out what information could be requested from DG Developers. The industry structure.3 Utility planning.2.

1. However.2 In practice the total capacity of a DG Plant connected to the medium voltage network could vary from hundreds of kW to 20MW as long as the generated power does not at any time spill over to the transmission network.3. any generating plant intended to be connected to the Transmission Grid (Grid System) must be referred to the Grid System Operator (currently assumed by the System Planning Department of TNB).3 Distributed or Embedded Generating Unit is a generating unit connected within a distribution network and not having direct access to the transmission network.1: Distributed generation 1. a DG Plant is defined “as a generating plant comprising of one or more generating units that is connected to the distribution network at the medium voltage level and whose total power output will be scheduled at all times to be totally consumed by loads in that distribution network”. . As illustrated in Figure 1. the output power of the DG is scheduled not to spill over to the transmission network to avoid reverse power flow at the interface of transmission and distribution networks.1 Distributed Generation (DG) or Embedded Generation (EG) is defined as the production of electrical power by converting another form of energy in a generating unit that is connected to a distribution system.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 1 .3. In this Guidebook.3 Definitions of Key Terms Used in the Guidebook 1.3. 1.12 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Distribution Network Power Flow Transmission Network Power Flow G Distributed Generation Load Figure 1. This includes an Embedded Generator connected to its own network whose network is interconnected with the Distribution network either directly or through an interface transformer.

3.3. 1.11 Grid System or the Grid is the system consisting (wholly or mainly) of high voltage. 1. 1.4 Guidebook Approach 1.7 A Distributed Generation Developer (DG Developer) is a person or organisation who develops or owns a generating plant that is intended to be connected to the distribution network. maintenance and safety of a generating plant and its associated network connected to the distribution network.4 A Distribution Network is defined as a system comprising of electrically connected equipment or elements that produce.3. 1.3. Low Voltage or LV is any voltage level less than 1000 volts or 1 kV.3. 132kV.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 1. 275kV.8 A Distributed Generation Operator (DG Operator) is a person or organisation who is responsible for the management. . and consume electrical power at medium and low voltage levels not greater than 33kV nominal. and includes any Plant and Apparatus and meters owned or operated by TNB in connection with the transmission of electricity. control. All these technical issues will at least be discussed in one of the five chapters of this Guidebook and the details of which would be provided in the appendices. 1.3.10 Medium Voltage or MV is any voltage equal to or exceeding 1kV but not exceeding nominal 33 kV. operation.3.4. In other words. if necessary.9 A Renewable Energy Plant (RE Plant)1 is a DG Plant that is categorized under the Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) that is being coordinated by a Special Committee on Renewable Energy (SCORE). 1. transport.5 A Distribution System is defined as a system consisting (wholly or mainly) of electrical lines which are owned and operated by a Distributor and used for the distribution of electricity from Grid Supply points or Generating Units or other entry points to the point of delivery to Customers or Other Distributors.6 A Distribution System Operator or Distributor is a person or organisation who is responsible for the management of any portion of a distribution system or for directing its operations during normal or emergency conditions. namely nominal 500kV.3. transform. the first five chapters contain pointers to more detail account of the subjects related to connections of the DGs. 1. and 66kV transmission lines owned and operated by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and used for the transmission of electricity from one power station to a substation or to another power station or between substations or to or from any external interconnection. 1 .13 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1 The Guidebook is written to address all possible technical issues associated with the connection of the DGs to the distribution network.

1. only relevant provision shall be applied to DG Plant such as effluent discharge (under Environment Quality (Prescribe Premises . Rules and Codes 1.Crude palm Oil) Regulation 1977).4 A DG plant that is to be connected to the distribution network must be designed to be compatible with the particular distribution network to which it is to be connected and the Grid System. 2) The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.2 There are many other issues that will not be addressed by this Guidebook because they are only the concern of either the Developer or the Distributor and . 3) The Electricity Regulations 1994. 5) Factories and Machinery (Noise Exposure) Regulation 1989. 1.5. 8) TNB's Safety Regulation. legal and regulatory requirement are mandatory and nothing in the Guidebook shall be taken to relieve these legal or regulatory obligations in the provisions of: 1) The Electricity Supply Act 1990. readers should always ensure that they consult the latest versions.1 This Guidebook may also refer to relevant legal documents that exist in Malaysia including acts. With respect to the "The Environmental Quality Act 1974". 4) The Environmental Quality Act 1974. 6) Licence issued by the Suruhanjaya Tenaga to industry players. Emission (under Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 1978) addressing issues such as open burning. transmission.14 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . commercial issues are not addressed except those necessary without which the subject cannot be fully dealt with.5 Statutory Acts.4.1 This Guidebook addresses technical issues associated with the connection of a DG to the distribution network. regulations. 9) The Malaysian Distribution Code (when available). distribution and supply licensing.5. 1. 1. 1 .5. 7) The Malaysian Grid Codes. rules and guidelines.2 The relevant safety. Since these documents are subject to revision and amendments by the appropriate authority.6.3 There are also guidelines published by authorities including the Ministries and the Energy Commission that are complementary to this Guidebook and therefore DG Developers and Utility Engineers are encouraged to refer to those documents. codes.6. electricity production. 1 .2 The Guidebook is structured to allow for any amendment to the detailed technical contents and the case studies be updated separately and independently through the additions or amendments of the appendices.5. Regulations.6 Scope of the Guidebook 1. Therefore.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 1.

1. are some of the subjects not covered by this Guidebook.1 This Guidebook comprises of 6 chapters and 12 appendices. Issues such as: identifying and obtaining fuel supplies. discusses the steps involved from DG plant inception to its operation focusing on activities or procedures for getting connected to the distribution network. 1 . The chapters are: 1) Chapter 1: Introduction.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research not with the connection. 1. Each of the technical issue is discussed in a brief and concise manner in a section in chapter 3 and the details of which would be found in an appendix or appendices of the Guidebook. 2) Chapter 2: Process of Getting Connected. For each of the issue discussed.7. power sales and purchase negotiations.8. provides background to the Guidebook including objectives.3 Technical issues related to the connection of DG plants are usually addressed at the planning stage. requirements for connection are elaborated. land matters etc. DG plant design. a reader may then refer directly to the relevant chapters and appendices for details.1 If you have reached this point of the book you should by now have basic understanding of the background to the Guidebook and its objectives.7. basic definitions of terms. 1. 3) Chapter 3: Technical Issues and Requirements for Connection.7. Two main activities carried out during planning are system and design studies and these activities are discussed in chapter 4. list of legal documents and description of the scope.7.4 If a reader intends to find out typical requirements of interface designs. A reader who is interested to find out how TNB performs preliminary planning study or design studies should first refer to the relevant sections in chapter 4 and the associated appendices. Chapter 2 outlines the general procedures for getting connected and therefore is referred to as the root of the Guidebook from which all other chapters and appendices are referred to. 1 . . equipment and possible distribution network reinforcements one can refer to chapter 5 where all interface requirements are summarized.8 Contents of the Guidebook 1.15 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . To scan through all technical issues related to connection of a DG plant one can refer to chapter 3.7 Using this Guidebook 1.2 After understanding the basic procedures for getting connected. getting approval of local authorities. identifies and discusses technical issues associated with the connection of a DG plant to the distribution network. project financing.

specifies performance standards that TNB has to comply with during planning and operation of the distribution network. Connection and Operation of the DGs. .16 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 7) Appendix G: Connection Agreements. provides list of typical protection. The chapter also describes TNB distribution planning and design practices. contains definitions of key terms used throughout the Guidebook. The chapter also discusses connection process and its typical operation after successful tests and commissioning.8. discusses in detail planning and design studies carried out by TNB to identify technical issues and their resolutions. 4) Appendix D: Quality of Supply and Network Performance Standards. 5) Appendix E: System Studies Associated with the Connection of DGs. This chapter also describes typical requirements for distribution network reinforcements. 5) Chapter 5: Interface Design Requirements and Network Reinforcements. 2) Appendix B: Types of DGs. The appendices are: 1) Appendix A: Summary of TNB Power Systems.2 The appendices are intended to provide useful information and data as well as details of technical issues mentioned in the chapters including case studies and examples. describes planning process involving studies to identify relevant technical issues and their resolutions. identifies information available from TNB at different stages of getting connected and list of data that the Developer should make available to TNB for various purposes of planning the connection. provides basic information on the power systems managed and operated by TNB focusing on its distribution network. provides list of items that should be included in a typical connection agreement between the DG Developer and the Distributor. controls and interlocking requirements for the DGs including their details. Controls and Interlocking Requirements. 6) Chapter 6: Glossary. 6) Appendix F: Protection.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4) Chapter 4: Planning. describes several type of distributed generation available particularly those that have been installed in Malaysia. 1. summarises typical interface design requirements and equipment DG plant connection to the distribution network. 3) Appendix C: Data Available and to be Submitted.

2.17 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2(a) through 2. 2) Exchange of planning information. There are several reasons for a DG plant or an installation with Embedded Generation (EG) may want to be connected to the local distribution network. the Developer should write to the Distributor by providing basic information (see Appendix C) of the proposed DG plant to enable the Distributor to perform a preliminary system study (see Appendix E) to identify technical requirements for network extensions and its associated estimated costs. Standby supply from the utility on normally open switch is also another possible reason for connection.2 Opportunity for implementing a DG Plant at a particular location usually stems out from the availability of long-term indigenous fuel or energy resources. the DG Developer should contact the nearest local or regional TNB offices to enquire on the possibilities for connection to the distribution network. In parallel to the above process.1. and 6) Project Operation. 5) A combination of the above purposes. hydro power and biogas from old waste dumping ground or landfill (see Appendix B). 2) To sell excess generation. for example. To obtain detailed requirements and cost estimates for connection. 5) Project testing and commissioning. The energy resources include biomass from palm oil waste. The above purposes are illustrated in Figure 2.1 A general process involved for connecting of a DG plant to the distribution network is shown in Figure 2.1. 2. 3) Project design. 4) To use utility supply as standby. These may include existing captive generation or a co-generation plant within a factory or host site that produces heat and power considering connecting to the local distribution network. 4) Project construction.1 that comprises of the several phases: 1) Project planning. both the Developer and the Distributor would also enter into several negotiations on commercial arrangements including tariff for power exchange and connection charges. including: 1) To sell electricity as an Independent Power Producer (IPP).1 Summary of Process 2.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Chapter 2: Process for Getting Connected 2 .1. . by a cogeneration plant and at the same time improving overall efficiency. 3) To top-up supply.2(d).3 After identifying opportunity for generation.

4 Given cost estimates for connection to the distribution network. top-up 3 – Project Design Developer submit formal application for connection with detailed information on the plant for utility to carry out Power System Studies. This will then form the basis for the connection agreement (see Appendix G).1. 2 – Exchange of Information & Preliminary Plan Developer & Distributor exchange information so that Preliminary System Studies on connection can be conducted to determine connection cost.Project Planning Developer making commercial & technical assessments and initial contacts with Distributor on connection possibilities. detailed connection requirements & then Developer carrying detailed design of plant and its connection. The Developer would need to provide detailed information of the DG plant and interface facilities to the Distributor (see Appendix C) for the power system study of the connection (see Appendix E). standby.18 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the DG Developer could then negotiate and enter into a commercial agreement with the Distributor before carrying out detailed design. At the same time the Developer would in parallel be carrying out detailed design of the DG plant. 1 .1: Basic process involved for DG connection to the distribution network . Connection agreement – technical & commercial 4 – Project Construction Developer construct plant and Distributor constructs its connection/reinforcement portions 4 – Project Testing & Commissioning Developer & Distributor perform tests and commissioning of the plant and connection Connection Operation Manual 5 – Operation Developer & Distributor coordinate operation of the plant with the distribution network Figure 2. Commercial Agreement – purchase.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 2.

1.Qg DG Load Pg. technical requirements for connections for RE Plant are the same as described in this Guidebook. The steps for getting connected as described in this Guidebook are generally applied for all DG Plants.6 In the following sections.Ql (a) Sell all generation Pt.Qt Di stribution Network Transmi ssion Grid Di stribution Network Transmi ssion Grid Pg.5 Once commercial agreements including connection agreement are executed. .2(a) – 2. The ‘Connection Operation Manual’ must be established by the DG Developer in consultation with the Distributor as the reference document during the operation of the DG plant. the steps are slightly different because of the commercial arrangements and the DG Developer should refer to TNB for the correct procedure.Qg DG Load Pl.1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Pt.Qt Pt.Qt Heat (b) Sell excess generation of Cogen plant Pt. In the case of RE Plant.Qt Di stribution Network Transmi ssion Grid Di stribution Network Transmi ssion Grid Pd.1. both the DG Developer and Distributor would arrange for testing and commissioning to be carried out. Prior to operation of the connection. the DG Developer and the Distributor would enter project construction phase.Ql (d) Standby supply Figure 2. 2. we will describe in more detail the activities involved in each step/phase of the process in figure 2. However.2(d): Various power exchange modes for connection 2.19 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Qd DG Load 0.0 DG Load Pl.Ql (c) Top up supply from Distribution network Pl.

2. types of generating plants (see Appendix B).2 A DG Developer who intends to sell power to the local utility as an IPP would first carry out initial assessment of the availability of energy resources for the DG plant and makes preliminary commercial assessment of the DG. 2. 2. it is important that an enquiry be made with the local distribution offices on possible limitations for standby purposes.3 A cogeneration plant is usually established to provide both heat and power to an industrial plant or large commercial complex.4 A factory or manufacturing plant having its own captive load may find that the on-site generation capacity is insufficient to cater for demand requirements due to production growth.2. energy resources and their long term supplies. 2. This first contact may discuss both technical and commercial issues. it is useful for the DG Developer to prepare basic information of the proposed plant and its possible connection points. and . In most cases where there is local distribution network it is more economical to connect the plant to the distribution network that acts as standby rather than adding new generation capacities. The main objective for the DG Developer at this stage would be to: 1) Identify possible connection points. In this case an initial enquiry with the local Distributor would enable assessment be made on adequacy of the distribution network for providing the top-up supply. excess electricity could be sold to the local utility at an attractive tariff.2 Project Planning 2. It is also important at this point in time for the DG Developer to understand some basic parameters of the local distribution network including possible connection points. voltage levels and organization of the local utility (see Appendix A).Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 2 . 2.20 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Contact with the district or regional offices of TNB should be the first step to find out on the possibility of connection. the Developer may not know exactly how the DG plant would be connected to the distribution network and this is when the first contact with the utility on the possibility of connection should be initiated.2. Such plant or complex may not necessarily be connected to the local distribution network. and cost estimates of the plant. The plant owner may find that it is not economical to increase on-site generation capacity instead a more sensible option is to buy top-up power from the local Distributor.6 When meeting representatives of the Distributor or TNB District or Regional officers.2. At this stage. But since a cogeneration plant consumes fuel efficiently.5 An installation with on-site generation may find that the available generation capacity is not sufficient to cater for emergency situations such as loss of generating units. At this stage of the feasibility study. the DG Developer would have identified potential site for the DG plant.1 ‘Project Planning’ is a phase initiated by the DG Developer who recognizes the potential business opportunities of connecting the proposed plant to the distribution network. 2.2. Since the Distributor needs to ensure that the network has the required capacity to reserve for the plant emergency requirements.2.

the DG Developer should officially submit a request letter giving some basic information for the Distributor to carry out preliminary system study (see Appendix C).3.of the local distribution network. . circuit capacities.3. The preliminary system study would also identify technical issues that may need to be addressed further if the DG plant connection is to proceed to next stage. and 4) Losses. Distribution engineers at the district or the regional offices must recognize that at this point.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 2) To obtain and confirm the basic parameters – voltage. 2.4 On receipt of the request letter. In . 2.2 To request TNB for the cost estimate of connection. After receiving the request letter and basic information on the proposed DG.3. 2) Fuel resource. 2 . 2) Network adequacy. and d) Estimated cost of connection. The analysis carried out include: 1) Voltage performance. 2.3 At this preliminary stage. the Distributor would be in a position to carry out a preliminary system study in accordance with procedures as described in Appendix E.3. the Distributor should carry out a preliminary system study so that major equipment to be added to the network could be identified and their costs estimated. 3) Short-circuit calculations.5 The results of the preliminary system study would enable the following questions be answered: a) The feasibility of connection. the DG Developer requires the above information so that a letter could be submitted to request for estimate of connection cost (see Appendix C).21 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3. Such cost estimate could only be obtained from the Distributor after a preliminary system study is carried out. loads in the areas etc. b) Point of connection. 2. distance to transmission sources.3 Exchange of Planning Information & Preliminary Study 2.1 A DG Developer should enter into the next phase of the connection process after confirming with the utility that connection would be technically feasible and that the next important information required is the cost estimates for the connection. A location map indicating the plant site and nearest existing distribution medium voltage network facilities should also be submitted with the request letter. and 3) Physical location of the plant. c) Major equipment required for connection. Typically the Distributor would carry out a preliminary system study by assuming certain parameters for the plant and applying procedures as described in Appendix E. it is sufficient for DG Developer to provide the following basic data to the Distributor with the request letter: 1) Number of generating units proposed and capacities in kVA.

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particular the Distributor would inform the DG Developer of issues that may need to be addressed during the plant design stage. 2.3.6 To ensure transparency in the preliminary planning process, the Distributor is obliged to provide a summary of the preliminary study report to the DG Developer.

2 .4

Project Design

2.4.1 With the cost estimate for connection provided by the Distributor, the DG Developer would be able make further assessment on the commercial viability of the DG plant and its connection to the distribution network. If the DG Developer decides to proceed with the DG plant development, the Project Design phase should begin. In parallel to the project design, it is usual for the DG Developer to also start negotiations on commercial terms and agreements with the Distributor. 2.4.2 The DG Developer at the project design phase would normally employ services of consultants to carry out detailed design and establish specifications for procurements and installation. As soon as details of plant design and equipment are available, the DG Developer should submit a formal application for connection to the Distributor making reference to the earlier preliminary system study and highlighting major changes to plant basic parameters. Formal application form for connection and details of the data to be submitted to the Distributor are given in Appendix C. 2.4.3 On receipt of formal application for connection, the Distributor should examine the information submitted by the DG Developer and should ensure sufficient data are provided to perform detailed power system study. At this stage, both the DG Developer and the Distributor may organize several meetings and discussions to exchange and confirm information. 2.4.4 The main objective of the power system study to be carried out by the Distributor at this stage is to ensure that the connection of the DG Plant will not deteriorate the quality of supply and power that is being provided to the existing customers in the vicinity of the DG plant. If the connection affects the quality of supply, the Distributor is required in accordance with the prevailing codes and regulations to apply mitigation measures and the cost of which would have to be borne by the DG Developer. It is therefore vital that the Distributor performs the power system study by taking into consideration all factors with valid assumptions and that the full study report should be made available to all stakeholders including the DG Developer. 2.4.5 Study report of the power system study should contain sufficient information on connection requirements to be used by the DG Developer to establish specifications for procurement and implementation of the connection. It is important that the study report provide a list of connection interface requirements with sufficient details of parameters to be applied.

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2.4.6 Based on the recommendations of the study report, the DG Developer should proceed with the specifications and procurements of the DG plant and the associated interface requirements.

2 .5

Project Construction

2.5.1 Project construction phase would normally comprise of the following activities: a) Detailed design; b) Preparation of specifications; c) Bidding; d) Procurement; and e) Construction. The construction of the DG plant can be divided into two parts: plant installation; and interface and connection to the distribution network. Construction of the plant is completely the responsibility of the DG Developer. 2.5.2 With respect to the construction of the interface and connection to the distribution network, two options can normally used: 1) Constructed by the DG Developer under the supervision of the Distributor; or 2) Constructed by the Distributor. This part of the network would be operated and maintained by the Distributor.

2 .6

Project Testing and Commissioning

2.6.1 Prior to the commissioning of the DG Plant and its parallel operation with the distribution network, the DG Developer would coordinate with the Distributor to identify and list of tests and performance criteria, test procedure and approval. 2.6.2 The ‘Connection Operation Manual’ to be established by the DG Developer in consultation with the Distributor must be updated based on the findings and results of the commissioning tests.

2 .7

DG Operation

2.7.1 When a DG Plant begins commercial operation and in parallel with the distribution network, the provisions of electricity rules and associated codes and guidelines govern the operational obligations of both the DG Operator and the Distributor. The details of the operation procedure will be spelled out in the ‘Connection Operation Manual’ (see Appendix G). 2.7.2 Among others, the ‘Connection Operation Manual’ includes the following items: a) Data to be exchanged between DG Operator and Distributor; b) Operational planning and scheduling procedure; c) Dispatching and control procedure; d) Fault and defect reporting; e) Loss of mains and restoration procedure; and f) Joint operation committee.
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Chapter 3: Technical Issues and Requirements for Connection

3 .1

Responsibilities of the Distributors to Customers and the DGs

3.1.1 TNB and Other Distributors regulated businesses are obliged under their licences issued by the Energy Commission (EC) to maintain a standard of supply and services to their customers. These requirements are usually specified in the conditions of the licence issued by the regulator to the utility. Based on the provisions of the licence conditions and to ensure that the requirements are complied with, TNB has established ‘Quality of Supply Standards’ as given in Appendix D. 3.1.2 TNB is responsible for ensuring that the requirements or provisions of the Quality of Supply Standards are complied with at all times. TNB would require imposing some minimum requirements for any User connections such as a DG to ensure that the Quality of Supply Standards is maintained. 3.1.3 The objectives of this chapter are: To summarise the quality of supply standards that TNB has to comply with; To discuss all possible technical issues that may arise with the connection of a DG to a distribution network that could affect quality of supply; and Where appropriate, to suggest mitigations to alleviate the issues.

3 .2

Quality of Supply Requirements

3.2.1 The quality of supply that a Distributor like TNB must comply with comprises of several aspects whose requirements are summarized in the following paragraphs. 3.2.2 Under normal operating condition, the steady-state voltage at a customer’s connection/interface points must remain within the following ranges (see table 3.1). Table 3.1: Steady-state voltage limit, normal condition No Nominal Limits voltage (kV) 1 33 ±5% 2 22 ±5% 3 11 ±5% 4 0.415 + 5% and − 10%

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Table 3. 3. overhead lines and cables.7 The system frequency is maintained by TNB at 50Hz ±1%. duration (s) 1 33 25.3. 3s 3 11 20.6 The maximum three-phase short-circuit current allowed in TNB network are given in table 3.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3. However. switchgears. contingency condition No Nominal Limits voltage (kV) 1 33 ± 10 % 2 22 ± 10 % 3 11 ± 10 % 4 0. 3.4 For a distribution network. Under emergency situation and when the frequency drops below 49.5.5 With respect to thermal capacity limits of transformers. 3s 2 22 25. Table 3.5Hz. a normal operating condition is when all major elements including lines.2: Steady-state voltage limit.415 ± 10 % 3. . 3s 4 0. 3s 3. When the short-circuit level at any point in the network exceeds 90% of the limits in table 3. TNB has set a criterion that under both normal and contingency operating condition these equipments must not operate beyond their thermal limits.25 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3: Maximum 3-phase fault currents No Nominal Maximum 3-phase Fault Current Voltage (kV) (kA). cables and transformers are operating.3 Under contingency operating condition.3.2. actions must taken to circumvent the situation.2. the network is said to be in contingency operating condition when any one or more of the major elements are not operating due to forced or scheduled outages. TNB may shed some loads through the under-frequency load-shedding scheme.2).2. the voltage at a customer’s connection/interface points should remain within the following ranges (see table 3.2.415 31.2.

the load of Medium Voltage the feeder can be transferred to adjacent Distribution feeders by manual or supervisory network Feeders reconfiguration.4. Table 3. Distribution Feeders (<1 the contingency criteria for these feeders are MVA) not applicable. 2 Rural Medium Voltage For rural areas of total loads less than 1 MVA. For actual network planning and design TNB applies Supply Security Criteria or Contingency Criteria as given in table 3. or All of the loads can be transferred to other main intake sub-station transformers within the supply zone or other nearby adjacent supply zones. However. interconnections between feeders shall be provided. 3 Low Voltage Distribution Low voltage distribution service cables to users Networks are planned and operated as radial circuits.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3.4: Security of supply criteria for medium and low voltage networks No Type of network Supply security requirements 1 Urban/Sub-Urban • In the event of a feeder outage. where reasonably (economically) applicable. • In the event of a failure of a main intake substation (PPU or PMU) transformer in the supply zone: all of the loads can be transferred to the other transformer in the main-intake substation. . TNB is required to plan and design the medium voltage network that will minimize the System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI).2.8 With respect to supply reliability.26 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

9 TNB also specifies power quality compatibility requirements and guidelines to be complied with as given in table 3.5 .2.series voltage change that may lead to flickering problems 3%.8. Plt 0.5.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3.2.8 (at 132 kV and below) Pst. Table 3. Plt 3 Momentary V % Voltage Change Limits Pst.27 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 1.9 Details of the quality of supply standards are discussed in Appendix D.single voltage change due to switching ON or OFF of any loads 2 % for 1 minute duration Engineering Recommendation P28 Engineering Recommendation P28 4 Voltage Unbalance 5 Voltage sag Negative Phase Sequence Voltage % % Remaining Voltage 50 % Sag (up to 200 ms) 70 % Sag (up to 500 ms) 80 % Sag (up to 1000 ms) Engineering Recommendation P24-1984 P29-1990 SEMI F47 3.6 (Above 132 kV) 1 % . 0.0. Plt 0.TNB Power Quality Compatibility Standards and Guidelines No Quality of power variation Distortion Measurement Maximum permissible value for all sources 5% at 415/240 Volts 4% at 11 and 22 kV 3 % at 33 kV Standards/ Guidelines Engineering Recommendation G5/4 1 2 Flicker Total Harmonic Distortion Voltage (THDV) % Pst. .

3. In addition to this. voltage control provided by the DG do bring some advantages such as: improving voltage profile across the distribution network. voltage control can aid starting of large motors.). The connection of a DG unit to the distribution system would seem to provide benefits because it serves the loads from local source and thereby reducing transmission. Therefore. The AVR is not capable of maintaining the voltages of other nodes or substations. Where necessary more detail treatment of the subjects will be referred to the relevant appendices.4 Voltage Controls and Regulations 3.g.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3 . being generally passive in nature. there are several technical issues that must be recognized and addressed before a DG could be connected to the distribution network. the two sources are not normally operated in parallel.3 Normally.3 Technical Issues 3.1 Other than the obligations to control voltage within limits. Boosters are seldom used now because of their high costs but have been employed on the medium voltage level.9. 3. 3. switched and fixed capacitor banks are employed at strategic locations within the distribution system. substation and feeder loading. avoiding potential system collapse.3 The technical issues are discussed in details in the following sections.28 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . voltage . Only the voltage at the busbar connected to the transformer LV winding at the transmission substation is maintained more or less to a constant value by the transformer AVR. voltage control in a distribution system is provided by on-load tap changing transformers (in-service transformers tap-changing) at the transmission substations or large distribution substations.2 The power factor at the main intake substations (PMU/PPU) is typically maintained at 0.4.9. reactive sources such as shunt capacitors are located at strategic points in the system. voltage transformation from transmission to distribution is established (e.4.4. Although the distribution network may be connected to another transmission source. However.3. 132/33kV.3. improving system losses. 3.3.1 Distribution systems in Peninsular Malaysia have traditionally been designed with a single source from a transmission substation. In the LV system. to provide further voltage regulation. 275/33kV etc. At the transmission substation.2 Distribution systems. Voltage control is achieved using on-load tap changer with the voltage on the distribution bus being regulated (using automatic voltage regulator or AVR) to a specified range. 132/11kV. are not normally designed to accommodate generators. The Distributor is under an obligation to maintain PMU/PPU’s power factor to not less than 0. and in certain circumstances. 3 . improving system load flows.

1: Voltage control devices in a distribution network 3.5 A synchronous generator embedded in the distribution network would normally be equipped with an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) capable of controlling the voltage or the VAr output at the generator terminal. 3.6 Although the AVR is usually available. Transmission Network 132kV Fixed Shunt Cap OLTC 33kV 33kV Switched Shunt Cap MV Network 11kV OLTC 0. Figure 3. The reasons for running a generating unit on power factor control are: . One example of such a device is Static VAr Compensators (SVC). unless it is above the AVR set limits for voltage.4 More expensive means of voltage control is possible with modern FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) devices.4.4. This is performed by the AVR through regulating DC excitation current to the generator field circuit.1 illustrates different types of voltage control devices employed in the distribution network. 3. Power factor control means that the reactive power output of the generating unit is maintained in proportion to the MW output such that the power factor would remain constant regardless of the terminal voltage (see Figure 3.415kV LV Network NLTC Pole-top Shunt Cap 11kV Booster Figure 3. When on power factor control.29 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research regulators are employed but now being replaced by switched and fixed capacitors. the generating unit does not regulate voltage. These devices are often used within transmission systems but costs of these devices are high.4. it has been the DG and the Distribution System Operator operational practice to keep the generating unit on ‘power factor control’.2).

4. Figure 3. It is useful to note that the advantages and disadvantages of the various controls as in table 3. 3. DGs will be required to have the capability of both voltage control and power factor control.2: Generator reactive capability limit and controls.2 also shows examples of typical reactive power controls for a DG. 3) Where the DG whose output is not constant is connected close to a Grid Transformer it would have less interaction with the Transformer Automatic Voltage Control if the unit is operated on power factor control. This is normally in the region of 0. Example of power factor control line MW 0.8 The choice of control modes will be subject to the ‘Preliminary System Study’ to be carried out by TNB. 3.7 To ensure proper voltage and VAr control within the distribution system.4.95. The reactive capability of typical generator is normally between 0.95 pf Example of voltage control line S Terminal Voltage MVAR Example of MVAR control line Figure 3. 3. However.9 The discussions on Voltage Control above have been focussed on the Generation Unit because a majority of Generating Units are directly connected to .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 1) Commercially the DG is treated as a negative load and penalties can be imposed for poor power factors or leading power factors in relative to real power export.6.85 lagging to 0.30 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 2) It is sometime advantageous for a Distribution System Operator to match the generating unit’s power factor to the demand power factor. using power factor control may result in system voltages breaching the limits particularly during light load condition. Operating the unit this way would ensure that the power factor of the flow from the Grid to the distribution system is kept more or less constant.95 leading at full load.4.

full load to generator tripping 2) Can cause excitation system hunting if more than one generator controls the same busbar voltage VAr Control 1) Normally used in large 1) VAr contributions can only distribution systems.6: Advantages and disadvantages of three VAr controls Controls Advantages Disadvantages Power Factor 1) Fix and forget similar to 1) May cause large voltage Control demand variations between the 2) Prevents commercial extremes of light load to penalty for ‘poor’ power peak load conditions factors 3) Less interaction with Transformer voltage controllers 4) Can be used if more that one generator is connected to the same bus-bar. There are a number of Generating Units that are embedded within their site network. Table 3.31 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the power factor or voltage control requirements will refer to the Connection Point to the Distributor’s network. where voltage generation. be relied on for reliable e. .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research the Distribution System. In these cases. control is ineffective.g. 2) Excitation droop settings 2) Useful if the Var control would need to be set for is dispatched. Var sharing between multiple generators. Voltage Control 1) Can control voltage 1) May cause large voltage variations up to the variations between limit of generator extremes of generating capability. such as a Co-Generation plant.

Under no circumstances should the prospective short circuit current be allowed to exceed the equipment rating 3.5. the prospective short circuit or fault level of the network will increase because of the potential fault current contribution.3 shows the common terms used in defining a typical generator fault current contribution.5. Similarly. Fault Current kA Peak Make Peak Break Phase current DC offset Time (ms) 50 100 150 200 Protection time Contact separation Fault Clearance Figure 3. Figure 3. This rise of prospective fault level will be limited by the system capability to withstand a potential fault current.5 Fault Levels 3.2 When a generator is connected to the distribution network.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3 .3 The common utility practice is to determine short circuit currents in the network on two types of faults. The safety margin of 10% takes into account the tolerance allowed for the network data accuracy especially the existence of induction motors in the system.5. and 2) 1-phase to ground (or earth) fault.1 Synchronous generators contribute fault currents in response to network faults. If the fault level at a node in the network increases to more than 90% of the equipment short circuit rating than measures must be taken to mitigate the situation.32 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . This limit is the equipment capability such as switchgear and cables. namely: 1) 3-phase fault.3: Fault currents contribution from a generator . fault current contributions are essential to reduce transient voltage drops. Fault currents are also required to enable system voltages to recover following a fault clearance. Fault currents are necessary to operate protection systems especially when discriminating between normal operating current and currents produced as a result of a fault. for example during starting of large motors 3.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3. the cost of a transformer is much higher that the cost of a reactor. Installing automatic switching systems. Research is still being carried out using super-conductor technologies which would address these concerns. it does have safety concerns mainly because it is an explosive device and concern about repeatability of operation. rated time) . Although very effective.The capability of the circuit-breaker or cables to carry the specified maximum fault current for a given period of time normally 3 seconds. Transformers are also used for power quality reasons. could make this option viable.5 times the Breaking Capacity. such as active management system. This is normally measured as an RMS value at the time when the circuit breaker contacts are required to open as indicated in Figure 3.3.5. the disadvantages of using reactors are that losses are increased and may also cause undesirable voltage reduction at the connection point. 3.5 The limit on equipment fault level capability is normally the main reason for difficulties in connecting a generator. Although effective. 2) Making Capacity (MVA) (normally 2. However. defined as the asymmetrical peak at 10ms) . there are a number of alternative mitigations to reduce the generator contribution to the system possible namely: 1) Increase generator impedance – The generator impedance is normally limited by the generator design.The capacity that a circuit-breaker is capable of breaking at a stated recovery voltage and re-striking voltage.33 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 2) Use of in-line reactors – Reactors introduce impedance between the generator and the network. however. 3) Short-Time Rating (kA. However. 4) Network Splitting – Network splitting involves keeping certain parts of the circuits normally open to reduce fault levels. 3) Use of in-line transformers – Using a transformer reduces the disadvantages compared to the use of a reactor. Equipment may need to be replaced to enable generators to be connected.5. Replacing equipment in order to raise fault level capabilities can be extensive over the network and the cost of replacing equipment can be very high. . The overall VAr capability of the generator is also decreased because of the VAr consumed by the reactor. 5) Fault limiters – Is limiters are available in the market.4 Generator fault current contributions are calculated using parameters supplied for the generator. thus assist in reducing the generator fault current contribution. but it may mean less system security and increased operational effort. The calculated fault currents on both types of faults must then be checked against the following fault duties of ratings of circuit breakers: 1) Breaking Capacity (MVA/kA) .The capability of the circuit-breaker when closing on a standing fault. Generator stability may be affected by too high impedance. Recovery voltage is the normal frequency voltage that appears across the breaker poles after final arc extinction and re-striking voltage is the voltage that appears across the contacts at the instant of arc extinction. Changing generator impedance could mean a nonstandard design which is normally more expensive than a standard generator.

the developer may have a choice of a firm or non-firm connection depending on the reinforcement costs needed to accommodate the generator capacity (see Figure 3. This is a deterministic contingency criterion. equipment costs would be much higher.6.1 Security assessment will be carried out for any demand or DG connections to the distribution network in accordance with security requirement in table 3.Higher voltage system have a higher fault level capability.4: Demand and generator connections – firm and non-firm 3.6.6 Network/Feeder Capacity and Security Assessments 3. for generation connections.34 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Demand Connections are assessed using (N-1) contingency criteria.4). This option should only be considered if the periods of constraints are very short. 3. This is based on (N-1) contingency. 7) Generation constraints – Some fault levels problems may be only evident during certain network configuration. for example during an outage.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 6) Connection to a higher voltage . It may be acceptable for generation to be prevented from running during these periods. normal and contingency conditions will be considered. As shown in . then the network would be reinforced accordingly.6. Where a firm connection for demand cannot be guaranteed. 12MVA DG connected but 2MVA is non-firm Figure 3.4. 3 . However.3 For both demand and generator connections. However. Demand Connection Generator Connection 10MVA 10MVA 10MVA 10MVA 5MVA 5MVA 2MVA DG DG 12MVA 10MVA 2MVA load cannot be added without reinforcement Choice of firm or non-firm connection.2 There is a distinct difference on how network capacity and security is assessed when connecting demand or generator.

Network reinforcements for demand needs to take into account both current and future demand growth. Generally. the Developer will take the risk of the generator output being constrained during both planned and unplanned outages.e.6.8 If reinforcements are not carried out. This is normally used for unplanned network outages. then network reinforcements will be required. if an immediate constraint is required. an automatic intertripping and/or fast generator de-loading system would be required. However. 3. This means that 10MVA will be firm whilst the remaining 2MVA will be a non-firm output. However. 12MVA can be exported during normal network conditions. i. In the above example either a third 10MVA transformer is installed or the two 10MVA transformers are replaced by two 12MVA transformers to fulfil the (N-1) criteria. This could be from milliseconds to minutes depending on the plant item being overloaded.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 3. Any reinforcement considered will only be for the generator capacity to be connected without any consideration for future generator connections.10 The above is based on a very simplistic configuration. the developer could have a number of options. 3. 3. during one circuit planned outage.6. firm. if the future total demand is greater than 10MVA.6. 3.e.9 There are two main options available for constraining generation given a nonfirm connection. a generator rated up to 12MVA could be allowed to be connected. this particular generator would need to reduce its output from 12MVA to 10MVA over the period allowed for short time overload rating of the circuit. a 10MVA DG will be guaranteed access based on (N-1) criteria. This type of constraint instruction is used for planned outages or short time rating constraint as described above. However.35 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . then a dispatch instruction is used. the network will need to be reinforced to ensure that firm demand is guaranteed on the outage of one circuit.6. For the remaining 2MVA. the developer could schedule his plant outages to coincide with TNB’s planned network outages.4 Generation connections are treated differently. in which case. there are many more parameters to be considered such as network . Using this short term rating of 120% for example and allowing for a (N-1) contingency. To reduce these risks.6. the generator would need to be constrained to 10MVA. 3.4.6 Another option is not to carry out any reinforcements. TNB would co-operate with the developer in understanding these risks.7 The planning criteria could also allow for short term overload rating over the equipment continuous rating. As illustrated in Figure 3. In an actual distribution network. For an unplanned outage of one circuit.6. 3. if there is an allowable period before the generator is needed to be constrained. if a 12MVA generator is to be connected using the same network only 10MVA will be guaranteed. 3.4. no circuit outages. It should be noted that the complexity of intertripping systems depends on the complexity of the network to be protected.6. i.5 If a firm 12MVA connection is preferred.

5: Taking consideration of load and firm generation 3. 3. 3. Generator output higher than the existing demand current flow and the use of shunt reactor may overload segments of the feeder between the generator and the main intake substation as illustrated in Figures 3. local generator outputs should also be considered if appropriate.5. circuit capability for firm generation output should be assessed in conjunction with demand.6. When considering reinforcements for future demand increase.6.6a) and (b). Demands and generating capacities can often be used to optimise on the re-enforcements needed. This will depend on the generator output in relation to the existing demand power flow. A generator of up to 12MVA capacity could be considered for a firm connection whereas if demand is not taken into consideration.12 Active network on-line monitoring and automatic control will reduce the risk of generators being constrained. and will have no effect between the generator and the end of the feeder.36 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 10MVA 10MVA 2MVA DG 12MVA Figure 3.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research operational conditions. a generator of only 10MVA would be considered as firm. level of demand in the area. Feeder loading situation must also be assessed to cover future years.6. The methodology of assessing generator contribution is being used in the UK in the P2/6 Planning standards. Reinforcements could be deferred through knowledge of minute-to-minute demand loadings and generator outputs.11 For example. overload capability of network components and other generation outputs in the area.13 A generator will tend to unload the feeder between it and the main intake substation. This standard is still undergoing public consultation. where practicable. In the example above in Figure 3. .

Feeder 1 Main Intake Feeder 2 S Feeder 3 DG Feeder 3 Feeder 3 Figure 3.15 Distribution system would normally have interconnecting feeders with open points. network assessment could adopt a more probabilistic methodology which should result in reduction in reinforcements.2MW Feeder 3 DG Reactor Feeder 3 Feeder 3 Figure 3.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3.6(b): Feeder segments overload with DG 3.37 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .14 Also in the future.6.6(a): Feeder without DG Feeder 1 Main Intake Feeder 2 S DG Plant 2.6. Under contingency or maintenance when one section is on outage switching operation would be carried out to restore supply. Adequacy of circuit .

7. . with increasing generation connections and different generation technology.6 Flicker is not currently a problem with the levels of generation connected to distribution system. however. Very high harmonic levels are associated with the use of converters in smelting works. It should be noted that studies will be required to obtain the correct settings for the PSS.3 If the DG is to be isolated on loss of mains. If the DG is allowed to operate on islanded mode to supply total or some of the feeder loads.4 The issues on power quality such as voltage sags.1 Supply quality covers two aspects: 1) Reliability of supply – customers expect continuity of electricity supply 2) Power quality – the shape of voltage waveform remains sinusoidal and without distortion.12. 3 . For example. 3. Careful monitoring of harmonic level necessary where a number of these devices are used in the network.7 Supply Quality – Reliability and Power Quality 3. switches and transformers that may fail and disconnect the feeder. 3. Over voltages are discussed in Section 3.7. Power quality is measured using criteria as shown in table 3.5 – Fault Levels. It could however make it worst since new components are added to the network including lines. Information on Total Harmonic Distortions (THD) is available from the Distributor on request. 3. over voltages are discussed elsewhere in this Chapter. interactions between generation and incorrect control settings could cause flicker.5.7.2 A DG can improve the reliability of supply to the distribution network customers by providing network support.7.7.7. the DG does not have impact on reliability and figures for SAIDI and SAIFI remain the same as without the DG.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research capacities must then be assessed under both normal and contingency situations. it will cause overheating. However. Generators and transformers can dissipate harmonics currents. 3.5 Harmonics can generally be a problem when using semiconductor devices such as converters within the network. Supply reliability is measured by indices like SAIFI (System Average Interruption Frequency Index) and SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index). then reliability would improve since sustained failure of components between the feeder source and the DG would enable the DG to supply some loads that otherwise have to wait until repair is done.4 – Voltage Controls and Regulation and Section 3.38 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Voltage sags are discussed in Section 3. if the DG is allowed islanding operation rather than being isolated on loss of mains. Power System Stabilizers (PSS) installed in Generator excitation systems can be used to control flicker. 3.

Connection point minimum requirements – Similarly Appendix 5 shows a typical connection minimum requirements including loss-of-mains protection.Appendix 5 include a typical protection system diagram and the minimum requirements for a generator protection system. whilst the Developer is responsible for design and operation of the Generator systems.1.39 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1. Network and generator protection systems do interact and will need to be designed to co-ordinate with each other. 3. such as any differential protection systems. TNB is responsible for design and operation of the network systems.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3 . Generator Protection System Minimum requirements .1. It may then be necessary for the network operator to define certain protection operation performance. an interchange of information between the developer and the Distribution Operator is essential to enable each system is designed to be coordinated. The use of approvals and Code of Practice is needed to ensure design and plant consistency across the network.8. At a stage in the generation project. Specific minimum requirements may include single generator connection and top-up/standby type connections.Pole slipping protection could self-protected generators from system instability and may be required as identified by stability studies.8. Unit protection for connection cables – It has been the practice of the Distribution Network Operator to equip the connection cable with unit protection.8 Protection and Controls 3. Technical specifications for interface equipment – Protection systems that interface with the network systems.1 General 3. the Distribution Network operator will consider directional current protection. Other requirements . this is limited to protection operation and fault clearance times. The following should also be taken into account when designing generator protection systems.8. Where appropriate and economical. This was found to be necessary to protect the network against incorrect co-ordination afforded by slow over-current feeder protection. NVD protection could be used on systems where it could be inadvertently unearthed for a very short time. All equipment used in TNB’s is approved by TNB.3 Generator connections and generator protection systems should be designed to a prudent utility practice and conform to current safety and regulatory standards. NVD protections – Subject to safety and regulatory considerations. Fault clearance time for generator faults – There are a number of faults within the generator systems that could affect the stability of Distribution Networks.8. will need to use approved TNB specification to ensure compatibility and consistency of performance.1 Protection systems are essential for both the network and the generator to ensure safe operation.2 The design of the network protection systems is based on TNB’s Protection and Control Code of Practice. Normally. 3. .

8.8. For these reasons. thus supporting the island.40 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Provided that the generator is taken off-line as soon as the system is synchronized. These are generator systems which are normally operated in islands with their demand. Controlled short-term paralleling for test and commissioning Complete protection system may not be required Use of timers to limit time for parallel operation Site protection systems will need to be configured when connected to the Distribution Network due to the change in fault levels for example. but require standby supplies from the Distribution Network during generator outages.8.2.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Distribution Network Back-up fault clearance . 3.2 seconds at the source.8.2 Short term Occasional Parallel Operation 3. network configuration.3. 3.3. Depending on the demand requirements and the generator performance. This arrangement would allow a generator to be islanded within its own private network if required. demand and generator output. 3. The following systems may be required to be implemented: Automatic change over between generator circuit breaker and Network connection circuit breaker such as make before break systems.8. Protection systems and earthing systems are also not designed for inadvertent generator island systems. A number of loss-of-mains systems are possible depending on required operation time.8.2 The islanded system is only synchronized to the Distribution Network before the generator supporting the island is taken out of service. Developers will need to take this into account when designing protection systems.Network backup fault clearance can take up to a maximum of 1.1 Consideration for reduction in requirements will be given for generators requiring short time parallel operation.2 Distributors are obliged to maintain a safe system and may be liable for damages if generator without proper control is allowed to supply the regulated network and breach the regulatory frequency and voltage limits.3 Loss of Mains 3. certain protection requirements such as loss-of-mains may be exempted.3 The use of auto-reclosers also makes it necessary for the loss-of-mains protection to trip the relevant generators before the auto-reclose recloses. Lossof-mains protection is usually installed at the point of connection to the Distribution Network. 3.3. due to network faults.8.2. the DG could remain in operation. parts of networks containing embedded generation or DG may be inadvertently islanded.1 Occasionally. . it is essential that generator that could potentially support islanded systems is tripped when the condition arise using loss-of-mains protection systems. 3.

finding suitable settings may be difficult. DG 2MW 2MW A B C D 2MW 2MW Intertripping may only be required between breakers C and D Figure 3. To limit the complexity of the system.8. these systems are prone to nuisance tripping because the relay can detect overall Grid system disturbance.3. depending on the settings.8.3.7. It is the more cost effective system compared to other systems. However.On site operational testing will be a problem.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3.7: Example intertripping on loss of mains . The principle depends on the generator tripping on the generator overcurrent whenever systems islanded contain more demand than the generator capability. In the example shown in Figure 3. Simulating credible system disturbances can assist be used to estimate settings. The use of intertripping in conjunction with auto-reclosers is described in detail below. Generally it will trip more that necessary. It may be necessary to estimate initial settings and monitor its behaviour. Testing . System monitoring is an option. the intertrip is set between the two breakers where the generator can just sustain the network demand. the assessment is based on monitoring circuit breakers up to the point where generator will not be able to sustain system load. Demand to Generation balance – There may be cases where demand almost equals generation output and the rate of change of frequency or vector shift is not sufficient to cause operation. The system is more reliable but can be expensive for an extensive Distribution Network system.Intertripping is an alternative to ROCOF/Vector Shift relays.4 ROCOF/Vector Shift -The system works on the principle of fast frequency change and waveform shift characterised at the instant when systems are islanded.5 Intertripping . 3.41 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . A number of issues have historically been identified with these systems namely: Settings .

5.8. an overcurrent protection relay could be an effective loss-of-mains protection. The impact of connecting out-of-phase systems could be destructive and could lead to: Extensive Generator Damage.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3. Normally. there are isolated areas which are supplied by systems which are islanded or capable of being islanded.1 Islanding within the Distribution system has not been implemented generally.8.8.7 Over/Under Voltage and Over/Under frequency .8.3. .8. The use of over-current relays for loss-of-mains may also be suitable. and Network Voltage Sag due to the high currents caused when connecting outof-phase systems.4. 3.8.5 Islanded Operation 3.1 Auto-reclosing are used on overhead lines within Distribution Networks.3 Reliable and fast loss-of-mains tripping will be required where reclosers are used in systems that can be potentially islanded for a short period.8. Depending on the phase angle at connection.4.4 Auto-reclosing 3.2 Auto reclosing lines that have generators connected within the system could result in out of phase closing. if the potential islanding configuration has demand greater than the generator overload setting. However. such as tree branches touching the lines. consideration must be taken during light load conditions where the condition may not be true and other loss-of-mains of protection as described above needs to be installed.42 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . provided the speed of over-current operation is faster than the auto-reclosing time. Generator capabilities and its performance within these islanded systems are crucial and need to be controlled.4.3. These protection relays normally take longer to operate than those described above and thus may not be suitable for use with autoreclosers 3.6 Generator overload in combination with Over/Under Voltage and Over/Under Frequency . Network Circuit Breaker Damage. 3. twice fault currents can potentially be generated if the voltage at synchronization is totally opposite in phase and amplitude.8. Two main control systems required are voltage and frequency control.As described above. 3.Over/Under Voltage and Over and Under Frequency protection systems is the minimum requirement at the connection point. the use of intertripping for loss-of-mains would provide the reliability and speed of operation. The system is used to reclose lines that are tripped by self-clearing faults. However. Generally these would be remote systems where interconnection to the main distribution system is prohibitively expensive. in the assessment. 3.

all generators required to support the island would need to automatically switch to its islanding capabilities described above. Some of the capabilities for generators and the Distribution System would include: 1) Isochronous operation This type of operation is normally suitable for smaller machines or a single machine supplying a system where the demand is less than the generator output. This system is normally used as an emergency measure.2 Note that it is Distributor’s responsibility within the Electricity Regulations to maintain a safe system.8. Governor droop control is used for larger systems containing multiple generators. demand load shedding can be used for controlling frequency. In order to facilitate seamless islanding. Transformer AVRs operation in particular will be affected by reverse power flows. 2) Governor droop control This is the principle used in Transmission Grid system for controlling frequency. Some form of fast frequency response systems may be required depending on the nature of the demand are required for fine control.5. The Islanded Distribution systems are initially allowed to be de-energised and the systems are then re-energized by matching generator output with demand at .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3. Droop control will allow generators to share their outputs proportionally when maintaining frequency. Transformer AVR controls and generator excitation system controls would need to be switched to enable them to operate within an islanded system. 5) Seamless Islanding/Black Start Seamless Islanding would mean that a customer would not see any supply interruptions. Isochronous control used in the generator will maintain frequency by increasing or reducing its output. This will be an additional cost to the DG Developer. An incentive within the DG ancillary service could provide the needed financial support to provide the capabilities. Demand will need to be prioritised for tripping based on acceptable levels of frequency deviation. 3) Demand load shedding/frequency tripping systems To supplement generator control.43 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 3. Voltage profiles do change when systems are running islanded due to the changing system flows. care is needed in setting the excitation controls to prevent system interactions. A manual system could be implemented where generators would need to be equipped with Black Start capabilities. thus the need for the Distributor to be responsible for generator control. Load shedding schemes can be used to supplement the frequency control. 4) Network voltage control Voltage profiles can be controlled by the generator excitation systems and Transformer AVRs. The frequency control can be coarse and may exceed regulatory limits transiently.8. the technical and performance requirements will need to be specified. These systems may be complex and could be unnecessarily expensive. As such. There is a need to maintain a margin between the generator output and the demand.5. Droop settings will be dependent on the system and its demand. Where multiple generators are present within the same system.3 The performance requirements will require sophisticated generator and network control to match generation with demand.

8 illustrates a variation of losses under different load levels and generating unit outputs. Islanded systems will need to be separated from the main Distribution System by loss-of-mains protection. there should not be any increase in losses in comparison to the system without the generator.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 6) 7) 8) 9) all stages of restoration.5. Where appropriate. lower fault levels and different (such as reverse load flows or increased or lowered load flows). Figure 3. Selection of points of separation is critical to ensure correct islanded operation. System containing generators operating in parallel with the Distribution System are normally earthed through the Distribution network. Protection systems would need to be capable of switching from a paralleled system to an islanded system. could be limited to between 2500kW and 3000kW during light and peak load respectively. It is important that earthing systems are designed to take into account an islanding operation for example lower fault levels and different load flows. Voltage and frequency control between multiple generators would need to be coordinated so that voltage and phase angles could be matched to allow synchronizing.3. Loss-of-mains protection This protection is described in Section 3. 3. In principle.4 Islanding system could make a difference in costs of supply failure during forced or planned outages. potential multiple grounding points. Earthing islanded systems consisting of more than one generator can also be complex and may require switched earths. the generation output. the DG output is limited between 700kW and 1400kW. when a generator is connected to a distribution system.8. it can lower or increase losses depending on its location and the network configuration. Protection systems should take into account the earth switching and its complexities.9. Network re-synchronising control and locations Restoration of sub-islanded systems to the main networks will require synchronizing points to be identified within the system.9 Losses 3. As an example. The length of supply interruptions would depend on the speed of restoration of Black Start cells. 3 .1 Generators do have a significant effect on network losses. for this example. This example case illustrates the possible increase in losses when a DG unit is connected at the end of a long line. and also costs of realizing the benefits. .8. Using the principle of limiting loss level (loss limit line) as indicated in Figure 3. for example when matching demand to generation available.44 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Protection systems A number of parameters will affect the operation of protection systems when a system is islanded from a Distribution System namely. Earthing Arrangement It is essential that systems are adequately earthed when operating separated from the main Distribution System. case studies should be carried out using real systems to discover benefits. However for minimum loss operation.8.

the more scenarios will be required.9.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 500 450 400 Peak Intermediate Light Feeder Losses (kW ) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 700 Loss limit line 1000 1400 2000 2500 3000 4000 DG Output (kW) Figure 3.2 Connecting generators at a higher voltage and/or at a different location can normally reduce losses.4 Losses are calculated by carrying out load flow studies on the system. Essentially.8: An example of loss variation on different load level and unit outputs 3. Procedures for carrying out the studies are described elsewhere in this Guidebook. the methodology for carrying out the studies and assumptions should be made transparent to the DG Developer. In general.3 When designing a generator connection.9. 3. 3. A number of permutations are possible and accuracy of the results will depend on the number scenarios used throughout the year.45 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 3. Location can be important because losses can only be reduced if the generator can back-off demand. there will be an opportunity to reduce system losses and maximize the benefits brought about by the generator and can only be analysed through examination of various network operating conditions. In most cases. the wider the range of demand over the day or year.9. Where practical. the effect on losses needs to be taken into consideration.5 The procedure for calculating losses needs to take into consideration the following: 1) Demand Profiles – Demand varies throughout the day and also throughout the year.9. . losses are reduced by connecting a generator in high demand areas.

there may be occasions that the DG unit is operated to follow a load profile. This will assist in maintaining consistency across the results.10. it could be a means of reducing the fault level infeed into the Distribution Network. Care should be taken when carrying out studies that credible voltage profiles are maintained when varying system demands and generator outputs. generator outputs profiles can vary. changes in network configurations would be less than demand variations.46 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Losses can be capitalized over the project life or ‘loss adjustment factors’ could be applied to generator outputs. 3) As described elsewhere in this Chapter. depending on the availability of fuel. However. 4) Voltage profiles . However.9. 3. especially when it involves transformers. 1) Ensuring that the earthing systems of the generating unit and the distribution system are adequately and independently earthed. To ensure robustness of system earths.Voltage changes will also significantly affect network losses. as discussed in chapter 4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 2) Generator output profiles – Similarly. Most DGs will run at constant outputs. it is recommended that generation systems are interconnected to the distribution network using interface transformers as detailed in Chapter 4. Whichever methodology used would need regular reviews to take into account changes within the system. namely. the generator will experience less voltage dips originating from the Distribution Network. Any potential long term constraints on generators due to network restrictions should also be taken into account 3) Network Configuration – Generally.10 Earthing and use of interface transformers 3. . 2) In certain cases. This could reduce the number of generator trippings due to under/over voltage protection. any planned network improvements or long term network outages would need to be taken into considerations. 3. Losses due to transformers would normally be more significant than losses through lines. There are a number of advantages of using interface transformers.6 Methodologies for calculating losses will depend on how the cost of losses is to be applied.1 Earthing arrangements are discussed in Chapter 4.

11 Stability 3. generators connected to very long lines subject to long protection clearance times could experience transient instability. Stability studies would be carried out to determine the need for additional system and generator protection such as pole slipping protection. especially system insulation levels. 5) Load rejections – Disproportionate load rejection can cause generators to transiently over-excite and cause over-voltages at the generator terminals. However.1 Distribution systems can be prone to over-voltages and resonant over-voltages.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 3. Multiple generator installations could be particularly prone to instability. certain line-to-ground faults in combination with ineffective earthing as described above could give rise to unbalanced voltage conditions. Earthing design does need take into account the over-voltage capabilities of the system including generators. installing surge arresters would offer protection. 4) Line to Ground Faults – Similar to the above.1 Generator transient instability is not normally an issue with generators connected to a distribution system. The primary protection against this phenomenon would be through the earthing system. NVD (Neutral Voltage Displacement) can be used for protection against these ‘unbalanced’ voltage conditions.4 At the onset of a project. Over-voltages are common and normally caused by: 1) Lightning Strikes – Lightning strikes are common in systems having a high proportion of overhead lines. this is a non-standard protection and will be an additional cost to the DG Developer.11. 3.11. Mitigations include installing suitable surge arresters. 2) Switching Surges – These are caused by switching long cables due to their capacitive effects.12 Over voltages and resonant over-voltage 3.3 Studies would also need to identify the pole slipping protection settings required.11. it is unlikely that precise data required for stability studies will be available.12. The settings would need to take into account instability within the generator and also within the distribution network caused by other generators in the system.2 Pole slipping protection system is used to protect the generator from instability and the damage it could cause. However. It . 3. usually when machines are being ordered.47 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 3) Ineffective Grounding of DG – Voltages can rise in the Generator neutrals and also phase terminal could experience up to twice the phase voltages if generators or systems are incorrectly earthed. Detailed studies may be required once actual data are available.11. Similar to the above. It is essential that sensitivity assessments are carried out on estimated generator data in order to identify potential stability problems. 3. 3.

only estimated data would be available. various impedances can be estimated.13. availability and accuracy of data is a major concern when carrying out studies to determine costs of connections. data for load flow studies will be very basic. This will identify the level of data accuracy required. 4) Protection Studies: In order for the Distribution Network co-ordination studies to be carried out.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research is essential that generator excitation systems are designed and tested to ensure correct response of the voltage control during transient conditions.13.2 Resonant over-voltages are caused by resonant conditions brought about by the presence of capacitance and inductance in the system. worst case scenarios should be examined in the studies. 3) Stability studies: Contrary to the Fault Level Studies.13 Data Requirements 3.1 As identified in the various sections of this chapter. 3.48 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Some of the issues that concern safety are discussed in the various sections of this Chapter. This is to allow both network data tolerances and generator data tolerances. The timing of the data submission will be detailed in the PPA. The DG Developer will need to ensure that the protection co-ordination studies within the Developer’s site have been completed before submitting data.14 Safety 3. the Distributor will require protection settings from the DG Developer. The following are some of the issues related to data requirements.2 Where data tolerances are given. the worst case scenario may need to use the higher end of the tolerance. 1) Initial Load Flow Studies: Generally. These conditions can be difficult to detect or calculate because the event may only be triggered by certain network configuration for example during an outage condition. 3. Based on the generator estimated ratings. It is also important to understand the sensitivities of the tolerances to the study results. Developers would need to ensure that data submitted to TNB are reliable and checked by the Developer’s consultant. Once detected. At the onset of the project. as identified in the Appendices C and E. the system can be ‘detuned’. calculation should be based on the worst case. 3. for example using lower end of the tolerance range of generator impedances. 3. 2) Fault Level Studies: TNB’s procedure includes a 10% margin when calculating fault level within the network.12. . The reliability of generator data increases throughout the project. Two issues in particular need particular attention. It should also be noted that manufacturer’s schedules have a tolerance of at least +/-10% on the impedance data as allowed by the IEC standards.14. When using manufacturer’s data.1 Safety must be a priority when designing Distribution Systems and Generation systems.

Similarly. Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002) and EA Engineering Recommendations give further guidance of step.15. Sixteenth edition. but equally effective means shall not be excluded.” “Conventional means of compliance with this regulation are given in regulations 413-02-06 to 413-02-26 according to the type of system earthing. The relevant clauses mentioned include: “Clause 413-02-04: The characteristics of each protective device for automatic disconnection.49 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . BS 7671:2001 Requirements for electrical installations.2 References should include the following when designing systems:. 2) Protection systems – Protection system issues have been described elsewhere in this Chapter.” The relevant Malaysian Standard to conform to is the MS IEC 60364. the earthing arrangement for the installation and the relevant impedance of the circuit concerned shall be co-coordinated so that during an earth fault the voltages between simultaneous accessible exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts occurring anywhere in the installation shall be of such magnitude and duration as not to cause danger. IEE Wiring Regulations. distribution network and power stations. .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 1) Earthing Arrangements – The design of earthing arrangements also need to take into account safe touch voltages and safe transfer voltages. The UK’s ESQRC (The Electricity Safety. 3. Particular attention should be taken systems remote to the main Distribution system and areas of high soil resistivities. particular attention should be taken when designing remote generator connections due to the vulnerability of connecting lines and access to equipment. transfer and voltage gradients for industrial.

4. Such request may also come from within TNB such as the Small Energy Unit (Unit Tenaga Kecil) of TNB Distribution Division for renewable energy projects. 4 . Connection and Operation of the DGs 4 . and 2) For the establishment of the connection to the distribution network. inspections and tests have to be carried out prior to the commissioning of the connection.1. protection setting and coordination studies have to be performed using the data of the installed protective equipment. the focus is to describe the requirements for protection study and commissioning tests. connection and operation. preliminary and power system.50 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1 Objective 4. Planning for establishing the DG Plant is carried out by the DG Developer while that associated with the connection is by the Distributor. Another important activity prior to commercial operation is the establishment ‘Connection Operation Manual (COM)’ that must be developed and agreed upon by the DG Developer and the Distributor.1. connection and operation of the DG Plant. 4. it is vital that the DG Developer understands the tasks and types of analysis carried out during the main phases of planning studies namely.2 When all facilities for connection to the distribution network have been constructed. Before protection and control equipment are tested.1 Introduction 4.2. The chapter will also cover several aspects of DG plant operation particularly on modes of operation and requirements for exchange of operational data and liaisons. Planning of the connection is performed almost entirely by the Distributor and therefore.2 Preliminary Planning Study 4. Planning are carried out for two main purposes: 1) For the establishment of the DG Plant itself.1 On a written request by the DG Developer for cost estimates of connection.1.2. The three main phases are planning. The results of the coordination studies would be referred to by relay test engineers for setting the protection devices.1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Chapter 4: Planning. . With respect to connection.3 The objective of this chapter is to outline the activities involved in the planning.1 Development of a DG Plant undergoes several phases as described in chapter 2. TNB Area/State planning engineers are required to carry out ‘a Preliminary System Study’ so that major equipment and facilities for connecting the DG Plant to the distribution network could be identified and its costs estimated.

1(a).1 At this preliminary stage.2. These facilities could vary depending on the configuration of the connection as shown in Figures 4. 4. 4. connection facilities that will become the operational responsibility of the Distributor must be indicated.2 The main objectives of the preliminary system study are: 1) To determine network capability to accommodate the proposed DG.2 Connection Facilities Under the Distributor’s Responsibility 4.1(c) and 4. and 2) To establish cost estimate of the connection of the DG Plant to the distribution network of the part of the circuit facilities that will come under the operational responsibility of the Distributor.1 (b): Connection configuration .1.1(b). The configurations must be designed based on the principle of ‘clear system boundaries and responsibilities’. DG Plant DG Plant Utility Utility Feeder Feeder House load G G Dual-breaker scheme Three-breaker scheme Figure 4. 4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4.2.1 (a): Connection configuration Feeder DG Plant Utility Utility Feeder Feeder G G DG Plant Three-breaker scheme With bus-coupler Three-breaker scheme With bus-coupler & two feeders Figure 4.2.51 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2.1(d).

52 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1 (d): Connection configuration .1 (c): Connection configuration Utility DG Plant & Network Feeder Interfacing Facilities G G M M M M M M Figure 4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research DG Plant Utility Feeder G Remote connection point with Dual-breaker scheme Figure 4.

The above facilities could be arranged in several ways as shown in Figure 4. In the case of connection configuration in Figure 4. Figure 4.2. 4.2. and 4) Circuit breaker(s).2 Figures 4.53 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . .1(c).2(a): Basic requirements at the plant for connection to the Distribution network – generator transformers.2. 3) Synchronisation facilities as part of the plant. the basic requirements for major DG Plant and interface/connection facilities must include the following facilities: 1) Interface-transformer. 4.4 The Preliminary System Study report must also indicate the connection and interface facilities that should be provided by the DG Developer including their basic requirements. This information must then be provided by the Distributor to the DG Developer. the DG Operator is also responsible to manage and operate the interconnection line up to the interface point.1(a) and 4.2.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4.2.1(c) illustrates the dual-breaker scheme with the interface point remotely located near the utility existing network and this is a typical case of connecting a mini-hydro DG Plant with a long connecting line to the distribution network.3 From distribution network design and operation point of view.2. 2) Interface-transformer star-grounded through NER. NER One LV Breaker NER One HV Breaker NER LV and HV Breakers Synchronising Figure 4.1(b) illustrate connection configurations when the points of interface are located in same premises as the DG Plant.2.

and Losses 2) Biomass: Biomass plant can be located near existing feeders in rural areas as well as near industrial areas. 4.3 Basic Connection Issues 4.2.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research NER M M M DG Plant & Network Synchronising Figure 4. The main issues are therefore: Voltage and its controls.3. .54 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The main issues are: Voltage and its controls.2(b): Basic requirements at the plant for connection to the Distribution network – interface transformer. and Fault Level 3) Co-generation plant: Co-generation plant is usually located near Grid substations and main issue is: Fault level.2. Losses.1 Connection technical issues (see chapter 3) of importance during the preliminary study are listed below in accordance with the type of DG plant: 1) Hydro: The location of hydro DG in the network is normally remote and connected through long lines or cables.

intermediate and light loads o Normal and contingency situations Any option that violates voltage criteria must be eliminated System Adequacy: For system adequacy assessment.2. Based on the fuel resource.55 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2. System Losses: Increase or decrease in system losses must be noted and estimated into the future for purposes of related commercial calculations Short-Circuit Studies: Evaluate fault level – values of above 90% equipment short-circuit rating must be noted During the study.Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4. any branch overload due to introduction of the DG Plant is to be identified for upgrading or reinforcement.4.4. 4. and . the following analysis/assessments should be carried out after the simulation models are carefully checked: Network voltage profile under different loading condition and network contingencies: o Peak. 2) Quantum of power to be sent to the distribution network. The distribution planning engineer should then identify options for connection that will be evaluated.4. and 4) Physical location of the plant including location map. 3) Fuel resource. intermediate and light or minimum. continuous interactions between the area/state planning engineers and the DG Developer are encouraged to confirm data and assumptions.2 The load flow model of the distribution network to which the DG Plant will be connected to must also be updated with the latest available information including: 1) Feeder and PMU/PPU loadings – peak. the distribution planning engineer could use any of the following typical models available in the simulation software employed by TNB – Shaw PTI’s PSS/ADEPT: a) Steam turbine (small) – biomass units. 4.2. 2) Fault levels at PMU/PPU transmission voltage level.2.4 The cost of each option that satisfy all planning criteria are to be estimated by taking into consideration the following: 1) Investment costs: Cost of new asset from DG Plant to the existing network.3.3 For each of the connection options identified.4 Preliminary System Study Procedure TNB Research 4. cogeneration steam units b) Hydro without damper – mini hydro units c) Combustion turbine – gas turbine units 4.1 The ‘Preliminary System Study’ starts by developing load flow and short-circuit model for typical generating units of the DG Plant based on the following basic information provided by the DG Developer: 1) Number of generating units proposed and their capacities.2.

4.6. Under Metering Code 4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Cost of new internal network reinforcement assets.2. 3) Protection at Network Interface The proposed protection scheme and setting from the DG plant to TNB substations shall be reviewed and approved by TNB. 4.2. The purpose of the protection scheme is to ensure proper coordination and integrity of the overall protection system at the interface points. 5) Metering Point and Systems The metering scheme to be reviewed by TNB. However.2.1 Amongst others. . However.2. Information on system losses will be used by the Commercial Department of TNB Distribution for tariff calculations. Control. voltage and flows at interface Monitoring using RTU to be provided DG developer. Metering and Monitoring Requirements 4.6.5. TNB is obliged to make presentation of the report to the DG Developer.2 TNB is only obliged to provide summary of the results and connection requirements of the Preliminary System Study Report and connection cost estimates. the principle to be used with respect to system losses is that ‘the connection of the DG Plant should not result in system losses to be more than when the system is without the DG Plant’. The DG Developer may then use the results of the Preliminary Study Report to decide whether or not to proceed with the DG project.5 Basic Protection. the duration required to conduct the ‘preliminary system study’ is about 2 months. and Cost of operating the new internal network reinforcement assets.2. 2) Operating cost not including losses: Cost of operating the new asset from DG Plant to the existing network. 4) Monitoring of DG Network Operations TNB needs to monitor the status.56 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1 ‘Preliminary System Study Report’ is not normally provided to the DG Developer. From experience.3.5 Losses (increase or decrease) due to the connection of the DG Plant must be calculated and included in the ‘Preliminary Study Report’.6 Preliminary System Study Report 4. 4.2. the preliminary study report should indicate the following basic requirements for connection: 1) Automatic Disconnection On loss of mains 2) Synchronization Point and Procedure On DG terminal Re-synchronizing only proceed once the system is restored to it’s normal state and sanction given by TNB.

3. . data for the following major equipment of the DG unit(s) are provided based on estimates or typical values to be provided as far as possible by the intended manufacturers.3 Power System Study 4.2 As a follow up to the requirements of the ‘Preliminary System Study’. Engineering Services and Logistics Department based in Petaling Jaya.3. 3) Control of equipment and their operation. the DG Developer must also submit the followings preliminary designs with the application for connections: 1) Protection and control schemes. It is assumed that at this point in time the DG Developer would have more detailed information on the DG plant and submits a formal application for connection to TNB (see Appendix C).3.1 Objectives: 4. This study is only carried out when all data as required in connection application form have been provided and the study fee is paid to TNB by the DG Developer.2.3.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4 . 4. 2) To be used by DG Developer to establish relevant specifications for DG plant and its interface with the distribution network.2 Data Requirements 4. 4.3. the DG plant project then enters the design phase.1. and 4) Layout scheme of the plant and circuits.1.1 It is important that when the DG Developer submits the application for connection.2 Power System Study is currently performed by TNB Distribution Division. 2) Synchronisation scheme.1 Following confirmation by the DG Developer to proceed.2. The major manufacturer’s data are for: a) Generator electrical b) Generator transformer and grounding c) Generator mechanical d) Generator excitation control e) Generator turbine-control f) Generator other supplementary controls 4.3. While basic connection requirements have been identified in the ‘Preliminary System Study’.57 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the objective of the ‘Power System Study’ are: 1) To identify additional controls and protection and operating strategies for the DG plant when connected to the distribution network.

However.4 Impact on system losses with the connection of the DG is an important aspect that must be thoroughly examined and cost estimated. At this stage. intermediate and light must be studied for the purpose of identifying the most suitable control method – either voltage or power factor. it is therefore important for the ‘Power System Study’ to revisit the analysis carried out during the ‘Preliminary System Study’. 2) System/network Adequacy. 4. any compensation equipment proposed by the DG Developer (based on the results of the ‘Preliminary System Study’) could impact on the capacity of the network and the interface and therefore this aspect should also be evaluated and reported. 3) Power factor control capability. Any increase in fault of more than 90% of existing equipment rating must be re-evaluated with fault level containment measures – methods are discussed in chapter 3. 4.2 When evaluating voltage profile and controls the following inputs on the DG units must be included: 1) Reactive capability curve. It is also important to note that apart from fault levels.58 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 4. This aspect must be evaluated during the ‘Preliminary System Study’.3.Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4.3 Aspects of system/network adequacy should have been evaluated during the ‘Preliminary System Study’ to identify interface and reinforcement requirements and no particular control is associated with this aspect. the analysis must include evaluation of making and breaking .1 Since the data provided by the DG Developer can be assumed to be more representative of the DG Plant to be established.5 One most important purpose of the ‘Power System Study’ is to identify measures or controls to limit impacts of increased fault level with the connection of the generating unit.3.3.3. and 4) Short-Circuit Studies. The evaluation must also take into consideration response of major voltage control equipment in the network such as the main intake transformer in-service tap-changers.3.3.3. 3) System Losses.3.3.3. However. 4. at this stage more detailed analysis is required to identify possible control measures including equipment that would be installed in the DG Plant and interface specifications. there is a need to reevaluate the losses since compensation and parameters of equipment (including transformer losses) would normally be different from what have been assumed during the ‘Preliminary System Study’. it is vital that generator impedance and time constant parameters provided by the DG Developer would represent the values of the DG units to be installed.3. Voltage profile under at least three load conditions of peak. The analysis include: 1) Network voltage profile. However. 2) Voltage control capability.3 Power System Study Methods and Analyses TNB Research 4.

in distribution system. c) Fault clearing time . and 2) Insulation coordination.2 It must be emphasized that the main purpose of the stability analysis is to examine and analyse electromechanical transient responses of the DG unit under various system faults and contingency situations so that necessary measures could be specified to avoid potential damaging effects on the DG units. the slower the rate of change of rotor angle and reduces the kinetic energy gained during fault. b) Generator output during the fault which depends on the fault location.loss of lines/ cables would change reactance. For purposes of dynamic analysis.4. Responsibility of estimating dynamic models of the DG Plant should not be relegated to the Distributor who is carrying out the Power System Study. 4.4. d) Post fault system reactance .1 Apart from the steady-state analysis described previously and where appropriate.this depends on the field excitation. namely: 1) Stability. 4.3. that is.4 Additional Analysis in Power System Study 4. long clearing time of protective device following fault could result in loss of synchronism. the Power System Study are to include two major additional analysis.3.59 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . e) Generator reactance . all generating units in the distribution network must be modelled in detail. the following factors that can affect generator stability must be noted and taken into consideration when necessary: a) Generator loading – the more the generator is loaded.4. the more advanced is the rotor angle. a classical generator with inertia constant (H) of zero.3.4. and h) Transmission source voltage magnitudes.the higher the inertia.3.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research capabilities of switching equipment in the network particularly those closed to the DG Plant installation. f) Generator inertia . g) Generator internal voltage magnitude . . The transmission main intake source(s) could be modelled as an infinite bus. type.3 The DG Developer when submitting the application for connection must pay particular attention to the data required for dynamic modelling of the generating units.3. 4.a lower reactance increases peak power and reduces initial rotor angle. and severity. 4.4 In carrying out stability analysis of the DG Plant connected to the distribution network. It is essential that the DG Developer obtains the services of experienced consultant who would be able to provide accurate information for the dynamic modelling of the DG Plant.

NER Fault Figure 4. response of the generating unit(s) to the following contingencies must be evaluated and analysed: 1) Determine critical fault clearing time for 3-phase-to-ground fault on the star side of the generator transformer (see Figure 4.4. Presence of large motors where its starting behaviour need to be examined.4.60 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .6 Where appropriate the following contingencies should also be analysed: 1) Determine critical fault clearing time for 1-phase-to-ground fault on the star side of the generator transformer (see Figure 4.4). 4.3. Other contingencies to be applied must be considered depending on the network configurations.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4.3). 2) 1-phase-to-ground fault for 3 seconds at the main intake transformer secondary side followed by loss of one main intake transformer.3. 2) 3-phase fault for 500 ms at the main intake transformer secondary side followed by loss of the feeder to the DG Plant (see Figure 4. including: Presence of other generating units in the distribution network.3).5 As a minimum. 3) 3-phase fault for 500 ms on a bus in the feeder followed by loss of a spur line/section supply large load.3: Fault for determining critical fault clearing time .

Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Feeder 1 Main Intake Feeder 2 S 2. where appropriate. may also include an ‘insulation coordination’ analysis to examine the following two aspects of the DG connection: 1) Lightning over-voltages and arrester requirements at the interface point for overhead line feeder. Fault Reactor Feeder 3 Feeder 3 Figure 4.4. 2) Generator tripping scheme. 4) Dynamic brake.61 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3.4: Fault at main intake transformer secondary and loss of feeder to DG Plant 4. . 4. Breaker Opened DG Plant Feeder 3 DG 1. 3) Generator intertripping scheme.7 In addition to transient stability analysis. 2) Switching over-voltages under fault and load rejection conditions as well as possible self-excitation (may also be examined using transient stability analysis) The transient over-voltages must be compared with the standard BIL and LIL of the distribution equipment normally employed by TNB.8 Control measures that could be applied to mitigate stability problems include: 1) Power system stabiliser (PSS). and 5) Pole slip protection.3. the Power System Study.4.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4.3.5 Power System Study Report and Liaison

TNB Research

4.3.5.1 Power System Study report must be submitted to the DG Developer upon completion and the study must be completed within 4 months from the receipt of application for connection with the complete data. 4.3.5.2 During the duration of the study, continuous interactions and communications between DG Developer and Distributor are encouraged to clarify data and assumptions used for the studies.

4 .4

Connection of the DG Plant to the Distribution Network

4.4.1 Connection Point and Connection Process 4.4.1.1 The connection point is a site in the distribution network at which the DG Plant network connects the Distributor’s MV distribution network. Identification of the connection point is not meant to imply ownership of apparatus adjacent to the connection point. For practical purposes, a connection point is designated as the MV circuit breaker that is under the operational responsibility of the Distributor located at the interface. These connection points are also indicated in Figures 4.1(a) through 4.1(c). 4.4.1.2 Connection process comprises of activities to be carried out when all interfacing equipment are installed and before electrically connecting the DG Plant to the distribution network. These activities are: 1) Protection coordination study; 2) Protective equipment tests and settings; 3) Inspections and pre-commissioning tests; 4) Commissioning procedure; and 5) Plant commissioning and tests. The above activities are described in the following sections. Protection systems drawings must be submitted to the Distributor for approval prior to any Commissioning. 4.4.2 Protection Coordination Study 4.4.2.1 In order for a distribution network having a DG Plant to operate safely and reliably, the protection devices in both the DG Plant and the distribution networks must be properly coordinated. Coordinated operation of the protection devices ensures that no damage to equipment could result due to flow of fault currents and that only selected components of the network would be isolated to remove the fault. 4.4.2.2 With the connection of a generator to the distribution network, the fault current contribution would normally increase and if the generator is connected near to the main intake substation, the fault level could exceed the short-time rating of nearby equipment in the network. With the changes in the value of the fault current and to ensure proper operation of protective devices, resetting and

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Tenaga Nasional Berhad

TNB Research

coordinating of the affected protective devices are required and this is performed through ‘Protection Coordination Study’. 4.4.2.3 Protection coordination study is carried out in two Phases: 1) Phase 1: DG Plant relay setting and data exchange 2) Phase 2: Distributor relay coordination study 4.4.2.4 In Phase 1, the following procedures are to be carried out by the DG Developer: a. Request TNB for short-circuit levels – 3-phase fault and 1-phase-to-ground fault – at the point of interface with TNB; b. Calculate settings of all relays in the DG Plant. In this case, the DG Developer should propose settings for the protection of the DG Plant equipment disregarding any coordination with the utility distribution protection; c. DG Developer to submit a ‘DG Plant Protection Setting Report’ to TNB addressing the following aspects: • Protection philosophies adopted; • Short-circuit limits including making and breaking capacities of equipment - breakers, cables, lines etc. • Generator limits - reactive, active power, field current and voltage limits, over-speed and under-speed; • Documents or references on characteristics of the relays and fuses employed; • Breaker operating time – time taken from receipt of tripping signal from relays to full opening of breaker contacts; • Proposed settings/coordination curves (if applicable) of relays in the DG Plant and the reasons for the chosen setting; and • Other important limits on the DG Plant equipment that the Distributor should know. 4.4.2.5 Upon receipt of the ‘DG Plant Protection Coordination and Setting Report’, the Distributor must examine the report particularly the protection philosophies and data on protection relays. In Phase 2, the Distributor must carry out a ‘Protection Coordination Study’ with the assumption that the DG Plant is connected to the distribution network. The ‘Protection Coordination Study’ Report should address the following aspects: The proposed relay settings and their coordination; and Changes required, if any, on the DG plant relay settings and the reason for the changes.

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Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4.4.3 Protective Equipment Tests and Settings

TNB Research

4.4.3.1 Protective equipment including relays must be tested in accordance with prudent utility practices to confirm that they are in good working condition after installation. When all tests are satisfactory, the relays could then be finally set to the approved setting values. 4.4.3.2 Secondary injection tests are usually carried out to ensure that protective relays, meters and other control equipment are installed and wired properly and in good condition for service. For each protective relay, its approved operating settings (see 4.4.2 on protection coordination study) will be set following completion of the tests. It is the responsibility of DG Developer to carry out the tests for protective and control equipment within the DG Plant. 4.4.3.3 Tests and setting of protective relays at the interface/connection points and its associated equipment (current and voltage transformers) should normally be carried out by the DG Developer using services of licensed test engineers approved by the Distributor. The tests and settings programme must be coordinated with the Distributor to ensure that all safety switching requirements are met and that the Distributor representatives are available for witnessing the tests. 4.4.3.4 Prior to carrying out protective equipment tests and settings at the interface/connection points, the DG Developer should submit the following to TNB: 1) Test programme; 2) List of equipment to be tested; 3) Test methods/procedures; 4) Access requirements to TNB’s sites or part of the network. Tests of protective equipment at the interface should only be carried out with the approval of TNB of the test programme. 4.4.3.5 In addition to testing of protective equipment, check and tests must be carried out on DC equipment and control circuits. Test of the DC equipment is of main interest of the utility since in many cases, this facility is shared with the DG Plant. 4.4.3.6 On completion of protection and control tests, the DG Developer must submit the test reports to the Distributor for approval prior to commissioning and energising of the connection.

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4. It is a normal practice for the DG Developer to prepare a check list of particulars to be inspected and verified for each of the above items. e) Labelling – equipment and safety labels must be clearly visible and noticeable. i) Switches – tests of all switches to ensure that they are working properly including full closing and opening and operation of motorized mechanism. insulation tests of windings etc.3 Pre-commissioning tests that are normally carried out include: a) Earthing resistance measurements.4. connections and grounding.4.4.4. d) Nameplate information – ensure that approved nameplate information are sufficiently clear and installed in accessible locations. The inspection and pre-commissioning tests should be initiated by the DG Developer and coordinated with the Distributor. all protective devices are set and test reports are submitted and approved by the Distributor. At this point in the connection process. turns ratio.1 Prior to commissioning of the connection and thus parallel operation of the DG Plant to the distribution network.4. c) Grounding – all electrical equipment must be adequately grounded. it is the responsibility of the Distributor. winding configuration and phase check. interlocks and status indicators. g) DC system – final tests should be carried out on tripping of circuit breakers and functioning of control circuits supplied from the DC supply. f) Clearances – ensure that clearances to live parts are within safety requirements. if any. heaters. It is the responsibility of the DG Developer to perform inspection and pre-commissioning tests for the DG Plant and its network. insulation level.4 Inspection and Pre-Commissioning Tests TNB Research 4. b) Site conditions – should be free from leftover construction debris particularly that may pose safety hazards. for the interface/connection equipment. c) Test circuit breakers for electric trip and close. k) Surge arresters – visual inspection to ensure that arresters are installed and connected to the lines and it's grounding is properly connected with no sign of damage to the arrester housing. . oil dielectric tests. 4.2 Inspections that need to be carried prior to commissioning and energisation are visual examinations of the following conditions or equipment: a) General inspection of connection equipment & facilities. b) Discharge and recharge tests of DC batteries.4. and d) Transformer test include. colour of silica gel.4. breaker operation time.65 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . However. h) Control wiring – visible inspection of control wiring to ensure that they properly segregated and bunched. manual trip and close. j) Breakers – ensure that circuit breaker auxiliary tools are in place and the truck racking in and out operations are tested.Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4. inspections and pre-commissioning tests should be carried out. and l) Transformers – inspection of the physical conditions of transformers including signs of oil leaks.

5 to the distribution network could comprise of the following steps: 1) Ensure that breaker BR3 is opened and line BR4 – BR3 ready to be energized and all safety earthing removed.4. 13) Close breaker BR1 and this energises the generator transformer. 7) Record voltage at DG Plant busbar.1 Prior to commissioning of the DG Plant and the interface/connection. . If there is doubt as to the impacts on system performance during the energisation. 8) Energise auxiliary transformer through SF2.4) are completed and approved.4. 5) Close SW4 of shunt reactor. 3) Live test incoming voltage at BR3. Ensure that other tests (see section 4. 9) Open generator turbine control valve and run generator to full speed. 12) Set governor on speed control. 4) Rack-in breaker BR3. 6) Close breaker BR3.5. Identify steps for connecting 4. the DG Developer in consultation with the Distributor should identify step-by-step energisation of equipment before synchronization. steps for connecting the DG Plant in Figure 4.4. 10) Excitation controller on manual until terminal voltage magnitude is reached.5. 14) Ensure the synchronisation parameters are within limits and synchronise through closing of breaker BR2. This is particularly important when energizing DG Plant involving long lines with reactive compensation.2 As an example.5 Commissioning Procedure TNB Research 4. simulation of the energisation sequence may need to be performed to ensure network conditions will remain within criteria limits.Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4. 2) Close switch BR4.66 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Energisation procedure document should include: List of precautions to be taken during energisation. 11) Set AVR on automatic control.4.3 and 4.4.

4.2 In the case of the synchronization point being located on the generator breaker.3 When energizing the synchronous generator.4.1 As described in an example in 4.6 Plant Commissioning and Tests 4.4.6. .6. the generator will initially be in open position. typical energisation steps are: 1) Energize circuits from utility side 2) Auxiliary transformer 3) Generator 4) Generator transformer 5) Synchronisation 4. 4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research SW4 AVR BR1 G BR2 BR3 SF2 Governor From source SW1 BR4 SW2 SF1 Figure 4. The turbine is first operated manually to full speed. the generator transformer is energized from the generator and this is to be done after the generator has reached full speed and attained full terminal voltage.6.1. Both turbine and excitation controls are manually adjusted until full speed and the terminal voltage is reached.5. Excitation should only be applied when the speed is more than 90% of rated speed.4: Example system for energisation procedure 4.4.4.5. Otherwise as in Figure 4. it is usual to energise generator-transformer from the utility side.67 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

light indicators.6 Before load rejection tests are carried out. Synchronisation is carried using synchroscope where all parameters are satisfied before the synchronising breaker is closed.1 ‘Connection Operation Manual’ is a document to be jointly prepared by the DG Developer and Distributor outlining procedure to be followed for operation of the connection of the DG Plant to the distribution network. 4.5 Following successful synchronisation and parallel operation of the DG Plant with the distribution network.68 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .6.4.6.6. ensure the followings are verified: Generator phase voltages are well balanced – line-neutral voltage difference should not exceed 1%. 4. An agreed test procedure should be developed between the DG Developer and the Distributor. It may be appropriate that ROCOF type relays be monitored and studied for its performance.6. the following tests and checks are normally carried out: a) Load rejection tests. Opportunity must be taken to perform load rejection tests whose results could be used to verify and derive generator parameters including excitation and governor controllers. 4. Real and reactive power load rejection tests are carried out to record and verify dynamic response of the unit.4. oil leaks.6.7 Establishment of ‘Connection Operation Manual’ 4. transformer noise level. corona noise.4. These checks are visual inspection of all major equipment in the plant including.4. The DG Plant Operator should note that loss of mains protection may not operate at times and should take reasonable precautions.7 Loss of mains tests should be carried out to ensure that the generating plant is isolated from the distribution network when any of the utility-side circuit breaker is opened. 4.4.7. and Phase rotation of generator voltage to be compared with utility side voltage.4. This document is technical and procedural in nature. Line-to-line and line-neutral voltage are related by factor of /3. and c) Final site checks. recording equipment that will not only measure electrical quantities (AC and DC) but also mechanical quantities such as speed and valve positions should be installed. One important element that must be included in all operating procedures is the safety aspect. To verify dynamic response of generators b) Loss of mains test or anti-islanding test. The procedure for load rejection tests would be discussed with Distributor and normally the Distributor would absorb the generator output power during the tests.8 Final site checks should then be carried out before leaving the plant operating in parallel with the distribution network.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4. temperature etc.4 Before synchronization is performed. 4. The tests comprise of staged test at several active and reactive power output with excitation controllers in manual and automatic modes. .4.

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4.4.7.2 Typical contents of the COM include but not limited to the followings: 1) Objectives of the COM – could be slightly different from the perspective of each party; 2) Description of the connection/interface facilities and responsibility of each party: Circuit breakers, isolators Synchronizing equipment Interlocking system Grounding/earthing facilities Protection and controls Metering 3) Liaison and Communication – communication methods and procedures, and contact persons; 4) Switching and isolation procedure – a step-by-step switching procedure for all major equipment at the interface/connection point as well as the DG Plant; 5) Procedure for Reporting/Notifications of Events/Outages/Faults; 6) General outline of DG Plant maintenance requirements; 7) Emergency Operation Procedures

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4 .5

Operation of the DG Plant with the Distribution Network

4.5.1 Control Operation 4.5.1.1 Normally the day to day operation of the DG Plant is the responsibility of the DG Operator. However, the Distributor may need to exercise control under the following circumstances: When the DG plant is operating on varying output mode; For safety reasons; For reasons associated with supply reliability; and For reasons associated with power quality. 4.5.1.2 Control needs for reasons as listed above or any additional reasonable basis must be included in the ‘Connection Operation Manual’. 4.5.2 DG Operating Modes 4.5.2.1 In terms of power output into the distribution network, a DG Plant could be operating in any of the following modes: 1) Constant MW output for the whole day 2) MW output following load demand – load following 3) MW output depending fuel supply variations 4) Zero MW output The first two operating modes are illustrated in Figure 4.5.

MW Load following

Distribution MW profile

Constant MW

Time 24-hours

Figure 4.5: DG Operating Modes 4.5.2.2 For a DG Plant with constant MW output, it is a practice to ensure that the DG output will remain 15% below the minimum load of the distribution network as illustrated in Figure 4.6.
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Distribution Network

Transmission Network

Load Profile
MW Lpk

DG
DG Output to remain 15% below minimum load or less

Lmin

15%

Hours

Figure 4.6: Constant MW output to remain 15% below minimum daily load 4.5.2.3 ‘Load following’ operating mode allows the DG plant output to be varied over the 24-hour period so that its output would remain 15% below the total system demand as illustrated in Figure 4.7.

Distribution Network

Transmission Network

Load Profile
MW Lpk

DG
DG Output to remain 15% below load or less

Lmin

Hours

Figure 4.7: Load following mode with MW output to remain 15% below load profile

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4. . In this case of operating mode.3.1 Distribution network operation is usually organized with control responsibility being assumed by a control centre and/or a supply management centre.4. the Distributor would establish plans for network operation.5.3 The ‘Annual Operation Plan’ should also contain liaison and communication information between Distributor and the DG Operator. 4.3 Distribution Operation Planning 4.2 Two major inputs to the ‘Annual Operation Plan’ are scheduled weekly profile of DG Plant outputs in MW and MVAR and scheduled maintenance outages of the DG Plant.4.3. It is usual for the Distributor to establish an ‘Annual Operation Plan’ that is reviewed on monthly basis and be used on daily basis for a day a head operation. One important results of the Operation Plan that of interest to the DG Operator is the scheduled output of DG Plant particularly those that have to be limited due to network and demand constraints. The main objective of the Operation Plan is to ensure that security supply is maintained to all customers inline with the requirements of operation criteria. and Reporting of faults and/or outages. The control centre monitors. Using these two inputs together with other network information.2.72 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . controls and operates the distribution network and have direct communication with the Transmission Network Operator as well as DG Operators.5.5.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 4.5.1 Distribution Operation Planning is a task carried out by the Distributor to establish Operation Plan that contains strategies on how the distribution network should be operated under normal and abnormal conditions following contingencies after taking into consideration several items including scheduled output of DG Plants.2 To coordinate the operation of the distribution system. the Distributor must be notified of the scheduled output of generator on weekly and daily basis and this procedure is carried out under the operation planning process discussed below.5.3.4 Exchange of Operational Information 4. 4. 4.5.4 The MW output of a DG Plant could vary depending on availability of fuel and this is typical of biomass DG Plant. Notification of events. 4. the Distributor and all other connected entities including the DG Operator must maintain communication and exchange information on operations and events.5.2.5 For all operating modes. the maximum MW output of the DG plant must remain 15% below load profile.5. There are four major occasions where operational information are to be provided by the DG Operator to the Distributor: Information for Annual Operation Plan and monthly review.5. 4. Notification of operations.

Similarly.4.4. 4. Typical information for Annual Operation Plan to be provided by the DG Operator to the Distributor are discussed in 4. and e) occurrence of voltage levels outside the required limits. the Distributor should inform the DG Operator of such operations. b) breakdown of or faults on. 4.5.4. Likewise. d) generating unit synchronizing. This is normally followed by a detailed written report submitted to the Distributor.3 4.4 The notification to the Distributor must contain sufficient detail describing the operations.5 DG Operators must also notify the Distributor of any event in their system which has had or may have had an effect on the distribution network including but not limited to the following: a) the activation of any alarm or indication of any abnormal operating conditions. will have or may have effects on the DG Plant.4. c) switching operation for paralleling of system. and locations of equipment and must be provided before the implementation of the operations.5.5.4.3 DG Operators must notify the Distributor of any operation that will have or may have an effect on the distribution network including but not limited to the following : a) implementation of scheduled outages of plants and / or equipment which has been reported and arranged previously. . forced or partial outages of plant and/or apparatus including protection and controls. b) switching operation that will result in temporary disconnection at the point of interface to the Distributor’s distribution system. in case of any event that has occurred in the distribution system that has had or may have had effects on DG Plant. the Distributor should inform the DG Operator. which to the opinion of the Distributor.6 The notification to the Distributor must be given in sufficient detail to describe the event and locations of equipment immediately by phone after the event has occurred to allow for the Distributor to make the necessary assessment on the implications of the event and if necessary to make adjustment to the distribution system.7 When forced outages or any significant event has occurred in the DG Plant which have or may have resulted in interruption of supplies to Customers in the Distributor’s distribution system.73 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the DG Operator must verbally inform the Distributor of the event providing the details of sequence of events known at that time leading to the supply interruption.5. c) increased risk of inadvertent protection operation.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Exchange of the above information and other relevant information must be included in the Connection Operation Manual (COM).5. 4. in case of any operation in the distribution system. 4. and e) changes in voltage controls. d) operation of plant and / or apparatus either manually or automatically. Both DG Operator and Distributor shall coordinate actions to restore supplies to Customers according to the required security levels.5.

4. both the Distributor and the DG Operator must coordinate. which shall include but not limited to the following: a) Coordination. b) the Distributor and the DG Operator provide each other with the operating diagrams of their respective side of the point of interface/connection. the following requirements are prerequisites: a) at each point of interface/connection between the distribution network and the DG Plant.5. c) the Distributor and the DG Operator must exchange information on safety rules and / or instruction as practiced in their respective system. c) Earthing.1 It is important that for the safety of operating staff and public.74 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .5. individual license conditions. The safety coordination applies to when work and/or tests that are to be carried out involving the interface between the distribution network and the DG Plant and it is the responsibility of the Distributor and DG Operator to comply with the requirements of statutory acts.Tenaga Nasional Berhad 4.5.5 Operating and Safety Requirements TNB Research 4.5. establish and maintain the necessary isolation and earthing when work and/or tests are to be carried out at the interface/connection point. Standardized Distributor’s Safety Rules and the Malaysian Grid Code. . f) Commissioning. regulations. and h) Reenergizing. 4. the boundary of ownership is clearly defined.3 All switching operations shall be carried our according to the procedures as defined in the Standardized Distributor’s Safety Rules (TNB Safety Rules). d) Recording.5.5.5. e) Testing.2 For purposes of safety coordination procedure. b) Isolation. sub – regulations. The above information must be included in the Connection Operation Manual. g) Cancellation.

1.1 Introduction 5.1. Qt Distribution System Transmission System DG Plant Connection Interface CB CB Distribution Operation/ Control Centre Sync M Communication/Data exchange Figure 5.1.1: Connection interface 5.2 Many technical issues identified in chapter 3 and its analysis as described in chapter 4 can be resolved and addressed by having a proper interface design. A connection interface in relation to the distribution network and operation centre as well as the DG Plant is illustrated in Figure 5. Pt.1 An interface between a DG plant and the distribution network comprises of the following set of equipment: protection and control of the connection. and SCADA facilities for remote monitoring and controls. there are technical issues that cannot be addressed at the interface but may have to be incorporated in the DG plant at the design stage. metering facilities for measurements of power and energy. However.75 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Chapter 5: Interface Design Requirements and Network Reinforcements 5 . .

1 The designated connection point of a DG Plant to TNB network must include a means of isolation the two systems (DG Plant/Network and TNB Distribution Network).1 Isolation 5.3 The main objective of this chapter is to summarise the requirements of typical interface design and equipment.2(b)..2(a) and 5.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5. c) It must have facilities to permit work to be undertaken on the TNB network without danger to staff. the chapter will also discuss the types of reinforcements in the distribution network that may become necessary with the connection of the DG Plant.2(a): Basic interface/connection point requirements – 3-breaker scheme .2. The following are requirements for the isolation point: a) It must be suitably labelled. In addition to this. The above requirements are illustrated in Figures 5. b) It must be capable of safety isolating the whole of the DG output from the TNB’s Network.2. The topics covered in the chapter are: 1) Basic Connection Interface Requirements 2) Utility Access 3) Synchronisation 4) Protection and Control 5) Interlocking 6) Metering 7) SCADA and Automation 8) Communications 9) Network Reinforcements 10) Cost estimation 5 .76 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Interlocked DG Plant Feeder Isolation point: •Isolate from TNB network •Suitably labeled •Safely isolating DG output •When opened cannot synchronise (interlocked with synchronising switch) •To permit work •Grounding requirement •Lockable G Figure 5. This chapter will also indicate how connection costs are calculated including the aspects on losses.1.2 Basic Connection Interface Requirements 5.1. d) Isolation must be lockable in the isolated position in accordance to TNB’s standard safety locking procedures.

there are basic requirements to be met for ensuring safe and secure operation of the integrated systems. may not require interface transformers.3).1 Although the design and configuration of a new DG Plant is the responsibility of the DG Developer.2. 3) Two-or three winding transformer with star winding on the Distributor’s side. and use resistor to limit earth-fault current to 300A irrespective of size is a common practice with step touch voltage within the criteria limits.2(b): Basic interface/connection point requirements – two breaker scheme 5. For this case the star-side of the interface shall be grounded as described above. 5.77 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2. 5) An earth fault relay must be installed to detect earth faults on the Distributor’s network fed from the Generator and to disconnect the DG network from TNB’s network. 2) The choice of generator neutral grounding is up to the DG Developer.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research DG Plant Feeder Isolation point: •Isolate from TNB network •Suitably labeled •Safely isolating DG output •When opened cannot synchronise (interlocked with synchronising switch) •To permit work •Grounding requirement •Lockable G Interlocked Figure 5. the followings should be noted: normally DG units are designed to withstand maximum 3-phase fault current but not necessary unrestricted phase-to-ground fault current. . an interface transformer as illustrated in Figure 5.2 Where a DG Plant that has its own network and comprising of more than one generating units.2.2 Connection through Star-Delta Transformer 5. However. 4) The star side of the transformer which connects to the Distributor’s network shall be grounded through an NER designed to limit earth fault current of 150A to flow from the generator side on a single-line to ground fault on the star side of the generator transformer (see Figure 5. It is recognised that existing installation may not currently be connected through interface transformers.2.4 shall be required. including generating plant upgrades.2. These basic requirements applicable to the DG Plants are: 1) The Generator star shall be earthed or grounded. For these existing installations.

1 To enable TNB's operational staff a 24-hour access to the switchgear and equipment that TNB has operational responsibility for.3 Utility Access 5. Qt DG Plant/Network M G Transmission System G M Interface through Delta-star transformer Distribution network Figure 5. Access off an all weather road surface is preferred where this is practicable. .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research DG Plant Distribution Network EF Relay NER 1-phase to ground fault 150A Figure 5.3: Earthing/grounding at the interface Pt.3.78 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .4: DG Plant/network interface through delta-star transformer 5 . otherwise delays will be experienced. consideration should be given to the location of the interface or connection point to permit such access.

5. Locking devices.5: Synchronisation points and interlocks (1) Three-breaker scheme .2 Synchronisation point is usually a breaker under the operational responsibility of the DG Operator. Access procedure to the interface/connection point must be stipulated in the Connection Operation Manual (COM).4. designed for the type of machine proposed. Circuit breakers.79 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The COM must address access to the following equipment: Control and relay panels. will normally be acceptable. Control facilities and methods to be employed for synchronization will need to be approved by TNB.1 DG unit control system must include synchronization facilities to enable the generator to be connected to the distribution network.4.4 Synchronisation 5. An automatic synchronizing panel from a recognized manufacturer. Metering.6.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5. Interlocking control. Locations of synchronizing facilities for various connection configurations are illustrated in Figures 5. This synchronization point and the breaker must be adjacent to the breaker under the operational responsibility of TNB.2 It is acceptable that the interface/connection control panel under TNB’s responsibility be located in the same premises or building as the DG Operator control panels. DG Plant DG Plant Utility Utility Feeder Feeder House load G Interlock Synchronisation point G Dual-breaker scheme Figure 5. 5 . visible and clear indication must be provided to distinguish TNB’s control panels from those under the operational control of the DG Operator.5 and 5.3. However.

6: Synchronisation points and interlocks (2) 5. the relays must trip appropriate circuit breakers to isolate the faulty section: to minimise equipment damage and safety hazards during the faults.80 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Feeder DG Plant Utility Utility Feeder Feeder G Interlock Synchronisation point G DG Plant Three-breaker scheme With bus-coupler Three-breaker scheme With bus-coupler Figure 5. and to maintain power supply continuity on healthy parts of the system.1 Protection 5.5. the Distributor must ensure that these protections are properly coordinated for reliable and safe operation of the distribution feeder (see section 4. c) Voltage angle difference: < 10 degrees.4.1 For synchronising synchronous generator to the distribution system the synchroscope should be able to detect that the following limits be satisfied before closing of the breaker is allowed: a) Frequency difference: < 0.4).2 Hz. and d) Interlocking logics are satisfied. b) Voltage magnitude difference: < 10%.5. Although the design and types of protection for the DG installation is the responsibility of the DG Developer. 5 . See also Appendix F for details on protection practices in TNB .1 The protective scheme must be based on the need to detect system faults and malfunctions both within the DG installation as well as the distribution feeder.1.5 Protection and Control 5. The voltage angle is used to indicate that there is no gross mistake in vector groups of the two systems and therefore the limits on voltage angle difference may have to be relaxed depending on the system. On detection of fault or malfunction. Frequency/speed is adjusted for the generator by the governor control and the voltage magnitude by the excitation control.

items a. h) Loss of system synchronisation / Field failure relay (FF).5.81 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . under-frequency and under-voltage are expected to occur to trip the generator. this may present a hazard to personnel. Transient over-voltages due to .5. These minimum requirements are detailed in Appendix F. When the feeder is supplying load greater than the capacity of the generator.5. The setting of the under-frequency trip (Hz) must be based on the recommendation of the manufacturer.5 If the resulting feeder load could be totally supplied by the generator under islanded operation. Section F.5. items e. However. The following paragraphs describe the reasons for the requirements of the above protection. The setting of the OF relay must also be based on the recommendation of the generator manufacturer. 5. when the feeder load is sufficient to be supplied from the generator under islanded operation.1.2 The basic requirements for the types and design of the protection schemes are that: 1) For any internal fault within the DG installation. 5. If the feeder load to be supplied by the generator is less than the generation. b) Over Voltage (OV). In distribution systems.3 For generating units directly connected to the distribution network. UV. the DG must not cause problems to the utility system and the utility customers. the following protections are required: a) Under Voltage (UV).1. Generator damage would be likely when the feeder breaker is reclosed.1.8). For generating units. Any islanded operation required later must be performed based on operation and safety procedures agreed by both the generator and the utility. d) Reverse Active Power (RP). f and g will be required for the connecting cables and the interface transformers. and 2) For any distribution network fault outside the DG Plant. g) Step up transformer protection.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5. over-frequency will occur and therefore OF relay is required. embedded within its own network. f) Earth fault (EF). UF or OF relays may not operate and special relays such as ROCOF and Vector Shift will be required (see section 3.3. 5. (above 5 MVA transformer size recommended to include transformer unit protection). the overvoltage relay would be useful if when the voltage regulator is defective or limited that it would result in sustained over-voltage. b and c are required at the connection point.4 UV and UF relays are designed to trip the generator when the distribution feeder is taken off (loss-of-mains). e) Overcurrent (OC). a signal is provided to trip the generator. An alternative to dead line check relays is an automatic transfer trip that upon opening of the utility feeder breaker. the generator voltage regulator will take care of the over voltage by reducing excitation.6 OV relays are installed on the DG side to protect against over voltages resulting from a sudden loss of load. For these generating units.1.1. c) Under Frequency (UF). 5.5. However. Therefore. feeder breakers are not equipped with dead line check to prevent reclosing on live feeder. the generator must be protected from any damaging effects.

5. Typical features for breaker controls must include: .9 Loss of synchronism manifested into generator over-speed or under-speed that would be detected by the generator mechanical speed relays.1 To provide for safe and flexible operation of the DG Plant and its interconnection. 3) Excitation controls.2. 5. IDMT relays equipped with instantaneous trip are used in this case. both generator OCEF and feeder OCEF would see these fault currents. the generator would also be tripped out.5. and 5) Emergency trip controls.2 Controls 5. 5. For large generators provided with its own unit protection.8 Combined over-current and earth-fault (OCEF) relays are employed for protection of over-current and earth-fault in both directions. Coordination of the generator OCEF relays with that of feeders would become more difficult due flow of fault currents from both sources into fault.5.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research switching or lightning should be catered for by the design of the distribution network and DG system insulation level and coordination.5. During distribution system fault. Upon loss of excitation.10 Field failure (FF) relays are employed to detect malfunction of the generator excitation field. If the fault is cleared and the generator operates in isolation then frequency and voltage relays would likely to operate depending on the generation-demand balance. 5.5.82 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . if inter-trip is provided. the OCEF relays are used as backup for the generator internal fault. the followings controls are required: 1) Breaker controls.5. 5. 4) Synchronising controls. 2) Turbine-governor controls. the feeder OCEF is allowed to trip first followed by the generator. the generator rotor accelerates to above synchronous speed where it continues to generate power as an induction generator.7 To prevent damage on the prime mover (turbine system) due to motoring of the generator during reversal of power. However. RP or directional relays are installed.1.1.1.2. Loss of field is normally detected by an undercurrent relay connected to a shunt in the field circuit.1.11 Negative phase sequence relays are employed to detect excessive unbalanced loading of the generator.2 Basic breaker controls functions are ‘trip’ and ‘close’ both at local and remote locations. Time delay must be incorporated to prevent nuisance tripping during synchronization of the generator.5. 5. It is normal practice that on a distribution fault on the feeder.5.1. 5.5.

the AVR will adjust reactive power output to maintain to the desired power factor disregarding the resulting terminal voltage level.3 are satisfied.83 – . b) Interlocking control logic. However. all units must have means to control turbine output manually for starting and shutting down. These controls refer to exporting sites only. it may not be required to have automatic governor control provided that the generator will not be susceptible to damages following protracted over. Voltage control is achieved through automatic voltage regulator (AVR) that regulates the reactive power output and absorption by the generating unit to maintain the desired terminal voltage. 5.2.3 DG unit connected to MV network must be equipped with automatic turbinegovernor control for several purposes: For load following. the synchronizing control must also ensure that excitation current could only be applied when the generator speed has reached at least 85% of nominal value. These controls are achieved through excitation system.2.2.5. Importing sites are subject to the demand power factor requirements. 5.3.3.3. the ‘close’ control must be operated through synchronizing control and close only when conditions listed in 5. Both of these controls are discussed in chapter 3. .5.2.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research a) For synchronizing breaker. 5.4 DG unit must be capable of both voltage and power factor controls. For control of generator speed during load rejection and loss of mains. If the generator is required to be on power factor control.5 Synchronisation requirements are discussed in section 5. This ‘push-button’ type control should be located at convenient place for access by TNB operator particularly for emergency purposes.6 Emergency trip control should also be provided for isolating the DG Plant from the distribution network (breaker at the interface).5. For small DG unit with constant output power mode.5. Apart from the requirements in 5. 5.or under-speed conditions.

5.7: Example of corrective interlock . An example of corrective interlock is illustrated in Figure 5.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5 .6.3 Corrective interlocks do not inhibit breaker operation but initiate the additional remedial operations to enable the desired operation.Synchronizing breaker cannot be closed if utility breaker is opened. . SW4 (No Load Break Switch) BR1 Bus Reactor BR2 BR3 G SF2 From source SW1 BR4 SW2 Figure 5. Examples of preventive interlocks are: Inhibit breaker closing for parallel operation until synchronizing criteria are met (see 5.Utility breaker cannot be closed if synchronizing breaker is closed.6.6: . Operating interlocks are categorized into two purposes: Preventive Corrective 5. If BR3 is opened then BR2 automatically opened.7.6. Loss of Mains intertripping is another example of corrective interlock.6 Interlocking 5.6).2 Preventive interlock inhibits operation until all required conditions are satisfied.1 Operating interlocks are required to prevent undesired operation that could present safety hazard to operating staff or public.5 and 5. Remote and local control of circuit breakers – remote control inoperable when local control is selected Utility and synchronizing breakers as shown in Figures 5.84 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

current transformers.000 kWh or as otherwise determined by the Distributor.5 MW and with reactive check meters being installed where reactive energy passing through exceeds 250.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5. substitution or estimation when the main revenue meters are suspected to have malfunctioned.4 All necessary interlocks must be clearly described in the interface/connection design for the approval of the Distributor. secure and protected interconnecting wiring. it is usual for the DG Developer to install all the meters and associated current transformers. 5. This section provides only general guidelines on metering requirements.6.0 with ±2% accuracy and allowable error of ±4% .6 The followings are requirements for metering accuracies of active energy ( kWh ) meters for different range of active energy passing through interface/connection point: 1) Between 50. Reactive power delivered to the Distributor (kVAR or MVAR). communication interface equipment.7. There are two types of metering normally required at the connection/interface point: 1) Revenue metering. voltage transformers.5 The metering installation may consist of combinations of voltage transformers. alarm circuit.7 Metering 5.000kWh and 250. panel and wiring at the connection/interface point in accordance with the requirements of the Distributor. 5.4 Check meters will normally be used on connection/interface point where the monthly active energy passing through is above 50. 5.3 In the case of DG Plant. 5.7. Reactive power consumed by the DG Plant (kVAR or MVAR).000kWh: Main and check meters of class 2. meter. test links.000 kWh or where a maximum demand exceeds 7.7. the following quantities are to measured: Active power delivered to the Distributor (kW or MW). and Energy consumed by the DG Plant (kWh or MWh). Check meters are to be used to provide metering data validation. and Energy delivered to the Distributor (kWh or MWh).7. and 2) Operational metering.7. data logger. and other appurtenances as determined by an Agreement or the Distributor’s Standard. 5. For detailed requirements.1 Each connection/interface point to the distribution network must have metering installations unless other arrangements are made with the Distributor. The Distributor shall later maintain the metering installation including any required meter accuracy instrument transformers.2 For the purposes of revenue metering. Where there is a possibility of power being supplied from the distribution system to the DG Plant the following revenue metering are also required: Active power consumed by the DG Plant (kW or MW).7. 5. the Metering Code adopted by the Distributor should be referred to.85 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

8.7.5 MW: Main and check meters of class 0.000 kWh or having maximum demand exceeding 7.2 The RTU shall monitor the following: Frequency (Hz).7.0 with ±3% accuracy and allowable error of ±6%. 5. and 4) Real and reactive power flows. Current (Amps). for example real power from voltage and current phasors would be acceptable.5% accuracy and allowable error of ±1%.000kWh: Main meters of class 3. where appropriate. This would normally include periodic random audits of metering installations to confirm compliance with adopted metering standards. Real Power Energy flow (kW or MW). 5 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 2) Between 250.2% accuracy and allowable error of ±1%. derived values. Voltage (Volts). 5.000kWh and 250.000 kWh: Main and check meters of class 0. 5) More than 250.8 SCADA and Automation 5. Where appropriate.2 with ±0. 5. and Communication system from DG plant to TNB control centre.8.5 with ±0.0 with ±3% accuracy and allowable error of ±6%. RTU installed must be able to communicate with TNB . 5.000. and Energy meters.7. Breaker Status Relay indications. 3) More than 5.000 kWh or having maximum demand exceeding 7.3 If remote control of switches that are in the jurisdiction/area of responsibility of TNB are required to be installed at TNB’s control centre. Reactive Power Energy flow (kVAR or MVAr). 5.7 The followings are requirements for metering accuracies of reactive energy ( kWh ) meters for different range of reactive energy passing through interface/connection point: 4) Between 50.000kWh and 5.86 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1 All DG Plant interface/connection point must be equipped with the following SCADA facilities: Remote Terminal Units (RTU) c/w Marshalling cubicle. 2) Voltage reading in kV for each phase-to-phase. this shall be able to be executed via the RTUs.8 The Distributor should routinely test and calibrate revenue meters in accordance with current prudent utility practices.5 MW: Main and check meters of class 3.9 Operational metering at the interface/connection points include the following: 1) Current reading in ampere (A) for each phase. 3) Frequency in Hz.000.8.

2) Contingency voltage limits. three options could be applied: 1) Use of voltage and or turbine controls. namely: peak. 6) Losses to be below without DG Plant.10. The followings are typical criteria applied by the Distributor at the ‘Preliminary Planning Study’: 1) Normal steady-state voltage limits. 5 . or 3) Network reinforcements which may include any of the following or their combinations: Additional feeders Additional switches/breakers Shunt capacitors Series capacitors Shunt reactors Series reactors Different voltage levels. intermediate and light loads. 5. 5) Fault level 90% limit.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Master System using IEC 60870-5-101 TNB’s matrix or protocol determines by TNB. The mode of communication to be used should depend on the location of the DG Plant.10.9 Communications 5. and 7) SAIDI Reliability index is not worst of without DG Plant.2 If any of the above criteria is not met or too restrictive.1 The communication system between the DG Plant interface/connection point where the RTU is located and TNB control centre should be dedicated and reliable communication network. . lower than what is proposed by the DG Developer. capacity of the generating units and/or distance of the DG Plant to the nearest TNB main intake substation (PMU or PPU). the Distributor must ensure that the connection of the DG Plant and its proposed quantum of power injection to the distribution would not result in violation of the design criteria as discussed in chapter 3.87 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .9. current practice is to assume that the DG unit is operating at unity power factor and that three load levels are used for assessments. In addition to the above. 5. the following criteria are also applied: 4) Voltage step limit. During the ‘Preliminary System Study’ stage. In carrying out the above assessments. 3) Thermal overload limits of network element.1 The connection of the DG Plant to the distribution network may require network reinforcement to be carried out.10 Network Reinforcements 5. that is. 2) Reduced active power generation from the DG Plant.

5.10.3 The cost of connection should comprise of two components: Circuit from interface/connection point to a point in the Distributor’s existing network.10.4 With respect to network losses. and Any of the network reinforcements as listed above.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5.88 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . or/and Reduce DG Plant export to the distribution network. . the current practice is to use the following options to ensure that losses due to the connection of the DG will not be greater than losses without the DG: Network reinforcement.

. The electric energy produced. unit or .. being the integral with respect to time of the instantaneous power. The product of voltage and the in-phase component of alternating current measured in units of watts and multiples thereof.1 General Terms 6. measured in units of watt-hours (wh) and multiples thereof.89 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . supported. words and expressions shall bear the following meanings: A. The product of voltage and alternating current measured in units of volt amperes. extension. The ability of the distribution system to provide acceptable and continuous supply of electricity while remaining within component ratings during normal or contingency conditions. a. or re-enactment the of and any subordinate legislation made there under. or supplied by an electric circuit during a time interval. The Electricity Supply Act 1990 (Act 447) including any modification. the equipment which automatically recloses the relevant line’s circuit breaker(s) following their opening as a result of the detection of a fault in the transmission line or the distribution line (as the case may be).Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Chapter 6: Glossary 6 .c. Is also the square root of the sum of the squares of the active power and the reactive power. AC or ac Act Alternating current. All items of equipment in which electrical conductors are used. the following general terms. flowing. Automatic Voltage Regulator A system for controlling generating transformer voltage within set limits. or which may form a part.1 In this guidebook.1.C. Active Energy Active Power Adequate / Adequacy Apparatus Apparent Power Automatic Reclose Equipment In relation to a transmission line or distribution line.

A metering installation used as the source of metering information for validation in the settlements process. and to energize part of the Distribution network upon instruction from the Distributor. Connected. to supply electrical energy. Check Meter A meter. A common connection point in a power station switchyard or a transmission/distribution network substation. The agreed point of supply between a Distributor and other Entity. Connection Agreement An agreement between a Distributor and Other Entity or other person by which the Other Entity or other person is connected to the transmission or distribution network and/or receives transmission or distribution services. used as a source of metering information. A notice conveying a warning against interference. or any other transmission/distribution apparatus at a particular time. Electrical equipment used to generate reactive power and support voltage levels on distribution lines in periods of high load. other than a revenue meter. Connection To form a physical link to or through a transmission or distribution network. The net MW and MVAr capacity of generating unit. The process of Scheduling and issuing direct operating instructions by the Grid System Operator. Check Metering Installation Connect. Black Start Capability Busbar Capacitor Bank Capacity Caution Notice Central Dispatch Centrally Dispatched Generator A Genset of a capacity of 10 MW and above subject to Central Dispatch under the Grid Code. The ability of Embedded generation to start-up from a stopped or cold state. See Customer.90 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad Black Start TNB Research The procedures necessary for a recovery from a Total Shutdown or Partial Shutdown. without a source of external power. Connection point Consumer .

Any or all of the following methods of achieving a Demand reduction. A location used for the purpose of control and operation of the Grid System or a Distributor’s distribution network. A person who engages in the activity of purchasing energy supplied through a transmission or distribution system. proportional to and in phase with the current in the primary winding. Control Center Control System Current Harmonics Distortion Is the measure of the departure of the a. current waveform from sinusoidal shape. This device may be a separate item of equipment.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Contingency TNB Research In respect of a transmission or distribution network. unless otherwise stated. Means of monitoring and controlling the operation of the power system or equipment including generating units connected to a transmission or distribution network.c. (a) Customer Demand Management initiated by Distributors. and is capable of being accessed electronically via the data collection system. i. packages it into 30 minute intervals (or sub-multiples).e.e. holds a minimum of 35 days at data. The demand of MW and MVAr of electricity (i. All equipment and arrangements that lie between the metering database and the point where the metering data enters the public telecommunications network and used for calculations of payments due to or from Other Entities. at a particular time or during a time period. within prescribed error limits. Current Transformer (CT) A transformer for use with meters and/or protection devices in which the current in the secondary winding is. and the final and user of energy. A device that collects energy data.91 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . a sequence of related events which result in outages of one or more transmission or distribution elements. both Active and Reactive Power ). caused by the addition of one or more harmonics to the fundamental component.. (b) Customer voltage reduction initiated by Distributor (other than following an instruction from the Independent Grid Customer Data Collection System Data Logger Demand Demand Control .. or combined with the energy measuring components within one physical device.

transport. reactive Power. and consume electrical power at medium and low voltage levels. Dispatch The issue by the Independent Grid System Operator of instructions for Generating plant to achieve specific Active Power ( and in relation to Generating plant. The quality where a relay or protective system is enable to pick out and cause to be disconnected only the faulty Apparatus. (d) Customer Demand reduction instructed by the Independent Grid System Operator.92 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . that is part of a distribution network. transform. including underground cables. The system consisting ( wholly or mainly ) of electric lines which are owned and operated by Distributor and used for the distribution of electricity from Grid Supply points or Generating Units or other entry points to the point of delivery to Customers or Other Distributors. . (e) Automatic Low Frequency Demand Disconnection.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research System Operator). A system comprising of electrically connected equipment or elements that produce. The operation of switching equipment or other action so as to prevent the flow of electricity at a connection point. Disconnection. (c) Customer Demand reduction by Disconnection initiated by Distributors (other than following an instruction from the Independent Grid System Operator). Disconnect Discrimination Distribution Line Distribution Losses Distribution Network Distribution System Distribution System Control Center The facility used by a Distribution System Operator for directing the minute to minute operation of the relevant distribution system. or target voltage ) levels within their Generation Scheduling and Dispatch parameters and by stated times. (f) emergency Manual Demand Disconnection. Electrical energy losses incurred in distributing electricity over a distribution network. Distribution System Operator A person who is responsible for the management of any portion of a distribution system or for directing its operations. control. A power line.

or controls an embedded generating unit. A generating unit connected within a distribution network and not having direct access to the transmission network. (varh) or standard multiples thereof. Any perturbation to the electric system caused by the sudden loss of generation or interruption of load. the Safety Key must be secured in a key Safe and the Key safe key must be retained in safe custody. Reactive energy is the energy produced.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Distributor TNB Research A person who is licensed Under Section 9 of the Act and is connected to the Grid System and distributes electricity for the purpose of enabling a supply to be given to any premises. or (b) maintained and/or secured in position by such other method which must be in accordance with the Local Safety instructions of the independent Grid System Operator or that Distributor. Means connected to the general mass of earth by means of a suitable buried metal pipe or plate or other means approved by the Director General. This includes an Embedded Generator connected to its own Network which Network is interconnected with the Distributor’s network either directly or through a step up transformer. A way of providing a connection between conductors and earth by an Earthing Device which is either: (a) immobilized and locked in the earthing position. Disturbance Earthed Earthing Earthing Device Embedded Generating Unit Embedded Generation Embedded Generator Energy ( Active and Reactive ) Active energy is the electrical energy produced.93 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Where the Earthing Device is locked with a Safety key. flowing or supplied during a time interval measured in units of watt-hours (Wh) or standard multiples thereof. A means of providing a connection between a conductor and earth being of adequate strength and capability. flowing or supplied during a time interval measured in units of volt-ampere-hours reactive. . The production of electrical power by converting another form of energy in a generating unit that is connected to the distribution system. operates. as the case may be. A Generator or Customer who owns.

An outage caused by emergency condition directly associated with a component that requires to be taken out of service immediately. the production of electrical power by converting another form of energy in a generating unit. any apparatus which generates or produces AC electrical power. The system consisting (wholly or mainly ) of high voltage. and 66kV transmission lines owned by a Transmittor and operated by the Grid System Oerator and used for the transmission of electricity from one power station to a substation or to another power station or Event Forced Outage Frequency Generation Generating Plant Generating System Generating units Generator Grid Code Grid Entry Point Grid Supply point Grid System . Any apparatus which produces electricity. either automatically or as soon as switching operation can be performed. or an outage caused by improper operation of equipment or human error. which is directly connected to the Grid System. A point of supply from the Grid System.94 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad Energy Data TNB Research The information that results from the measurement of the flow of electricity in a power conductor. incidents. A point at which a Generating Unit. The Malaysian Grid Code. revised in accordance with the License by the Malaysian Grid Code Committee. An unscheduled or unplanned occurrence on or relating to a system including faults. The measurement is carried out at a metering point. See generating system. A person who is licensed Under Section 9 of the Act and is connected to the Grid System and generates electricity for the purpose of enabling a supply to be given to any premises. as the case may be. namely 500kV. as from time to time. 275kV. Also. and breakdown. the number of alternating current cycles per second (expressed in hertz (Hz)) at which alternating current electricity is operating. A system comprising one or more generating units. 132kV. including Active and/or Reactive Power.

Any license granted by the Energy Commission of Malaysia. Isolating Device A device for achieving Isolation by adequate physical separation or sufficient gap for voltage level involved.95 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . as the context requires. High Voltage (HV) Insulated Interconnection. A voltage level less than 1000 volts or 1 kV. Estimate of future consumption or generation of electricity in MW. Interconnect. who is granted a license for generation. Interruption The loss of service to one or more customers or other facilities and is the result of one or more component outages.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research between substations or to or from any External Interconnection. To Active. Means covered or protected by insulating material. distribution. License Licensee Load Loading Load Forecast Load-shedding Low Frequency Relay Low Voltage or LV . Has the same meaning as Under Frequency Relay. MVAr. or Apparent Power. generated. by the Director General of the Department of Electricity and gas Supply. distributed or consumed. and includes any Plant and Apparatus and meters owned or operated by the Transmittor in connection with the transmission of electricity. Reducing or disconnecting load from the power system. transmitted. A voltage equal to or greater than 50kV. Reactive. depending on the system configuration. or combination thereof to supply electricity to any premises. Interconnector. transmission. Interconnected A transmission or distribution line or group of transmission or distribution lines that connects the transmission or distribution networks in adjacent regions. MWh. Any person. The apparent power level at which each element of the network is operated. MVARh.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad Medium Voltage or MV TNB Research A voltage equal to or exceeding 1kV but not exceeding 50 kV. A device complying with Standards which measures and records the production or consumption of electrical energy and/or demand.96 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . or consumption of Meter Metering Metering Data. An interruption having a duration limited to the period to restore service by automatic or supervisorcontrolled switching where an operator is immediately available. See forced outage. Refers to a set of measures for assessing the performance of the distribution system during the operation stage. The data obtained from a metering installation. Means 50Hz frequency on Grid System or Distribution System. Recording the production electrical energy. The point of physical connection of the device measuring the current in the power conductor. The various circuit and Apparatus owned by the Distributor operating at primary phase to phase voltages above 1kV and less than 50kV. The collection of all components and arrangements installed or existing between each metering point and the metering database. see operating criteria The condition where a System or generating unit cannot meet the requirements to enable it to be synchronized. Describes the state of the component when it is not available to perform the intended function due to Metering Point Metering System MV Distribution Network Momentary Interruption Nominal Frequency Non-Scheduled outage Operating Criteria Operation Operation Criteria Out of Synchronism Outage . the processed data or substituted data. A scheduled or planned action relating to the operation of a System.

which includes equipment. A designated boundary of owner ship between the Distributor and the Other Entities. diligence. operated as an integrated arrangement. voltage of current waveforms. With respect to the Distributor.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research some event associated with that equipment.c. Power Station An installation comprising one or more Generating Units (even where sited separately) owned and/or controlled by the same Generator which may reasonably be considered as being managed as one Power Station. Planned Outage Point of Interface Power Factor Power Quality Power Quality Characteristics In this guidebook the term refers to the measures used for determining the purity of the a. The provisions for detecting abnormal conditions on a system and initiating fault clearance or actuating signals or indications. Power System Protection Protection Apparatus Protection System Prudent Utility practices . used to protect facilities from damage due to an electrical or mechanical fault or due to certain conditions of the power system. means the exercise of that degree of skills. The electricity power system of Malaysia including associated generation and transmission and distribution networks for the supply of electricity. A group of one or more Protection relays and/or logic elements designated to perform a specified protection function. See scheduled outage. Planning Criteria Planning and Design Criteria See planning and design criteria Refers to a set of measures for assessing the performance of the distribution system during the planning stage. prudence and foresight consistent with the applicable acts. Duration will count toward computation of SAIDI.97 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The ratio of Active Power to Apparent Power. It is the measure of the purity of supply voltage and current waveforms. A system.

System Average Interruption Frequency Index for sustained interruption. The rate at which reactive energy is transferred. This distribution reliability index sometimes referred to as customer Minutes or Customer Hours is designed to provide information about the average time the customers are interrupted. condition of license.98 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . An outage that results when a component is deliberately taken out of service at a selected time. Reactive Power Reliability Revenue Meter Revenue Metering Installation A metering installation used as the primary source of metering data. in var hours (varh) of the alternating exchange of stored energy in inductors and capacitors. standards. The product of voltage and current and the sine of the phase angle between them measured in units of volt amperes reactive. codes and the Distributor’s owned standards and practices.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research regulations. Safety Precautions Safety Rules Isolation and/or Earthing The rules of a Generator or Distributor that seek to ensure that persons working on Plant and/or apparatus to which the rules apply are safeguarded from hazards arising from the System. The objective of this distribution reliability index is to provide information about the average frequency of sustained interruptions per customer over a predefined area. preventive maintenance or repair. System Average Interruption Duration Index for all types of interruptions. In the context of a distribution system is a measure of availability of adequate and secure supply to the Customers The meter that is used for obtaining the primary source of metering data for billing purposes. Means security of supply SAIDI SAIFI Schedule Outage Security . Reactive Energy A measure. which is the time-integral of the product of voltage and the out-of-phase component of current flow across a connection point. usually for the purpose of construction.

99 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad Security of Supply TNB Research The ability of the distribution system restore supply to Customers following momentary or temporary interruptions. as the case may be. Refers to each of the performance measures contained in the planning or operating criteria. In respect of a transmission or distribution network. A limitation on the use of System due to lack of distribution capacity or other System conditions. the measure of the purity of the voltage or current waveforms. A transformer with the capability to allow internal adjustment of output voltages which can be automatically or manually initiated and which is used as a major component in the control of the voltage of the transmission and distribution networks. It is any supply interruption to one or more customers not classified as momentary or temporary. In this Guidebook the term refers to power quality characteristics. A facility at which two or more lines are switched for operational purposes. Any distributor or Generator’s System or the Grid System. Single Contingency Substation Supply Characteristics Supply Performance Sustained Interruption Supply Security Synchronized System System Constraint System Operator Tap-changing Transformer . as the case may be. A person whom a Distributor has appointed as its agent to carry out some or all of its rights and obligations. See Security of Supply The condition where an incoming Generating Unit or System is connected to the bus bars of another System so that the Frequencies and phase relationships of that Generating Unit or System. May include one or more transformers so that some connected lines operate at different nominal voltages to others. or transformer. a sequence of related events which result in the removal from service of one transmission or distribution line. The sequence of events may include the applications and clearance of a fault of defined severity. and the System to which it is connected are identical. that is.

100 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . and (2) is connected to another such system. associated CTs and VTs. wiring and other devices or part thereof which are part of the Active Energy or Reactive Energy measuring equipment at a specific Connection Point. A network operating at nominal voltages of 50 kV and above. reactive plant and monitoring equipment and control equipment. A plant or device that reduces or increases the voltage of alternating current. which may include transformers. and is the squares of all harmonics expressed as a percentage of the magnitude of the fundamental frequency. Tripping Unbalanced Load . Temporary Interruption An interruption having a duration limited to the period required to restore service by manual switching at locations where operators are not immediately available. The opening of a circuit breaker as a direct and normally immediate consequence of the operation of a protection relay or advice.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Tariff Metering TNB Research Meters. circuit breakers. electricity to Customers (whether wholesale or retail). data collection. Transmission Plant Apparatus or equipment associated with the function or operation of a transmission lone or an associated substation or switchyard. The departure of a wave form from sinusoidal shape. Where a tap changer is fitted to a transformer. that is caused by the addition of one or more harmonics to the fundamental. metering protection equipment. and control the conveyance of. The situation where the Load on each phase is not equal. The tap position is used as a reference for the output voltage of the transformer. each tap position represents a change in voltage ratio of the transformer which can be manually or automatically adjusted to change the transformer output voltage. Total Harmonic Distortion Transformer Transformer Tap Position Transmission Grid Transmission or Distribution system A transmission or distribution system that : (1) is used to convey.

2. schedules and exhibits hereto as may be amended.c. and (iii) the period beginning on the first day of the month in which the Term expires and ending on the day the Term expires. Transient reduction in voltage magnitude measured as the percentage or per unit remaining voltage magnitude to nominal voltage magnitude. voltage waveform fro.1 The following additional or alternative terms are mainly used in TNB’s connection and commercial agreements and may be used as reference. that is caused by the addition of one or more harmonics to the fundamental.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Under Frequency Relay TNB Research An electrical measuring relay intended to operate when its characteristic quantity (Frequency) reaches the relay settings by decrease in Frequency. The period (i) commencing on the Commercial Operation Date of the Facility and ending on the last calendar day of that month and thereafter (ii) between the first calendar day and the last calendar day of every calendar month throughout the Term for the Facility.101 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . A transformer for use with meters and/or protection devices in which the voltage across the secondary terminals is proportional to and in phase with the voltage across the primary terminals. “Agreement” This Renewable Energy Power Purchase Agreement and the appendices. A load that will mal-operate on transient distortion of supply voltage sinusoidal waveform. It is the measure of the departure of the a. Voltage Dip Voltage Harmonic Distortion Voltage Sag Voltage Sensitive Load Voltage transformer (VT) 6 . deleted and/or changed from time to time by prior written consent of both Parties. Any of the following events occurring after the Effective Date as a result of. Any day on which commercial banks are authorized or required to be opened in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. any action by any “Billing Period” “Business Day” “Change-in-Law” . sinusoidal shape. or in connection with. Transient reduction in voltage magnitude measured as the percentage or per unit reduction of the voltage magnitude to the nominal voltage magnitude.2 Other Terms 6.

6 to be necessary. The imposition of a requirement Governmental Authorization . by The Seller to TNB.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Governmental Entity. “Commercial Operation Date” (COD) “Communication Facilities” “Control Centre” “Default Rate” “Delivered Power” For the purpose of this Agreement shall mean the rate at which electrical energy is delivered by the Facility to TNB at the Interconnection Point and is measured in Kilowatts. A rate equal to two per centum (2%) above the base lending rate then in effect at the principal office of MayBank Berhad. increase. decrease or cease the . TNB Research A change in the manner in which a Law is applied or in the interpretation thereof. Means all of the facilities described under Appendix E as determined by TNB under Clause 12. “Commencement Date” The date on which construction work on the Facility is to begin and written notice of such date shall be given. or its successors in title. being not less than thirty (30) days prior to actual commencement of construction at Site. court or tribunal : (a) (b) (c ) A change in or repeal of an existing Law. The Control Centre of TNB as designated in writing by TNB from time to time (but not more than one at any one time) as being the sole TNB control centre. The date on which (i) all of the conditions precedent set forth in Clause 4 shall have been satisfied or waived by TNB and (ii) shall have established its export capacity of XXX MW.102 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . An enactment or making of a new Law. or for a new (d) (e) A change in the terms and conditions of a Governmental Authorization. for the Facility. “Despatch” Means the issuance of an oral or written instruction communicated to The Seller by the Control Centre directing the Facility to commence. to enable the Control Centre to communicate and Despatch the Facility. in accordance with Prudent Utility Practices.

A condition or situation that. condition or circumstance described in Clause 17 “Emergency Condition” “Energy Payment” “Event of Default” “Facility” “Force Majeure Event” . or (ii) threatens the safety. adequate and reliable electricity service to its customers.103 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The whole of the plant installation with the nominal capacity of YYY MW as stipulated in Recital A. the payment to be made by TNB to The Seller for electrical energy delivered to the Interconnection Point and received by TNB during such Billing Period. Any event. “EC” The Energy Commission. based on Prudent Utility Practices (i) presents an imminent physical threat of danger to life. if any as per Appendix A of this Agreement. The occurrence of any of the events described in Clause 18 hereof. including other utilities with which TNB System is interconnected. health or property. electricity connection and consuming apparatus. in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. in TNB’s reasonable judgment.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research generation and delivery of electrical energy into the TNB System. with all necessary plant. a statutory body established under the Energy Commission Act 2001 and any successors thereof. reliability or security of the TNB System. For each Billing Period. buildings and land in connection therewith. “Effective Date” The date of the execution and delivery of this Agreement by The Seller and TNB and that all corporate authorisations which are required to have been obtained by the Parties in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement have been obtained and are in full force and effect and a statement in writing to that effect has been submitted to each Party. or (iii) could reasonably be expected to cause a significant disruption on the TNB System or (iv) could reasonably be expected to adversely affect TNB’s ability to meet its obligations to provide safe.

coal. transformers and associated equipment. state or local legislature of the government of Malaysia and any ministry. A hydrocarbon deposit that consists of remains of animal or vegetable life from past geologic ages that is now in a combustible form which is suitable for use as fuel. to enable TNB to receive electrical energy from the Facility and to maintain the stability of the TNB System. All of the facilities. instrumentality. Shall mean the reputable consulting engineering firm or professional engineer retained by The Seller and approved by The Seller’s financiers as the Independent Engineer of The Seller in connection with the design and construction of the Facility and Interconnection Facilities. including the sub-station and/or switching station. including Energy Commission. in accordance with Prudent Utility Practices. or (ii) a condition caused by TNB or the TNB System. relay and switching equipment. communications equipment. wherever located. agency. telecommunications equipment and the metering equipment. “Fossil Fuel” “Government Authorization” Any authorization. oil. Means the Malaysian Grid Code.Tenaga Nasional Berhad hereof. privilege. as amended from time to time in accordance with applicable Law. for example. authority or commission of the government of Malaysia or any other similar entity. “Government Entity” “Grid Code” “Independent Engineer” “Initial Operation Date” (IOD) “Interconnection Facilities” . The first date on which electrical energy is generated and delivered from the Facility to the Interconnection Point. department. permit. waiver. all transmission lines. to be necessary. concession. or notice to any Government Entity. or natural gas. circuit breakers and other protective devices and safety equipment. or filing with. consent. “Forced Outage” TNB Research Any interruption (excluding an interruption due to a Force Majeure Event) of the Facility then in effect that is not the result of (i) a Scheduled Outage. Maintenance Outage or Major Overhaul Outage.104 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . exemption and/or approval from. Any national. licence. as specifically described in Appendix D.

but in the opinion of The Seller should not be postponed until the next Scheduled Outage. Kilowatt. Ministry of Energy. rule. enacted. Kilowatt-hour.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research “Interconnection Point” The physical points where the Facility and the TNB System are connected. which work could be postponed by at least seventy two (72) hours. 1990 to enable The Seller to own and operate the Facility and to operate electricity generating capacity and supply electric energy to TNB therefrom. statute.. The Seller Sdn. or (ii) legally binding announcement. act. A planned interruption or reduction of the electricity generating capability of the Facility that (i) is not a Forced Outage. code or regulation. (ii) has been co-ordinated with TNB in accordance with Clause 12 and (iii) is for the purpose of performing work on the Facility. directive or published practice or any interpretation thereof. as shown in Appendix D. Bhd. a company incorporated under the laws of Malaysia. issued or promulgated by any Governmental Entity or court or tribunal. and is in accordance with Prudent Utility Practices and manufacturer’s recommendations. Scheduled Outage or a Major Overhaul Outage. including its successors in title and permitted assigns. order. Communications and Multimedia). Shall mean the periods between 0000 hours to 0900 hours “KTAK” “kW” “kWh” “Law” “Licence” “Maintenance Outage” “Major Overhaul Outage” “The Seller” “MW” “Off-Peak Hours” . Any (i) law.105 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Water and Communication (formerly known as Ministry of Energy. A planned interruption or reduction of the electricity generating capability of the Facility that is needed for a major overhaul of any generating unit or any associated equipment of the Facility that has been co-ordinated with TNB in accordance with Clause 12. or such other point or points as the Parties may agree. legislation. treaty. Megawatt. The licence granted to The Seller under the Electricity Supply Act.

insurance. transmission and distribution equipment of the type used by the Facility and the TNB System.2 hereof. construction. the International Electricity Commission standards. procurement. Any means of fuelling or driving the Facility as permitted under the Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Programme guidelines. The scheduled date for the commencement of commercial . TNB and The Seller and a reference to a “Party” means either TNB or The Seller as the case may be. as more specifically described in Appendix A. being in each case a non-fossil fuel. operation and maintenance of the electricity generating.106 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research and between 1700 hours to 2400 hours of each day. “Operations Committee” “Peak Hours” Shall mean the operations committee described in Clause 11. financing. unincorporated organisation or Government Entity. operation. commissioning. Impact assessment study of the operations of The Seller’s Facility on the TNB System based on TNB requirements as stipulated in the TNBD MV Technical Guidebook. Means any individual. trust. and any modification thereof. testing. construction. ownership. management and maintenance of the Facility including ancillary buildings and associated activities related to this project. testing. design. The development. partnership. corporation. with respect to the design. the Grid Code and any other applicable electricity code approved by EC. methods and standards generally followed by the electricity supply industry in Malaysia. Shall mean the period between 0900 hours to 1700 hours of each day. installation. Means the practices. the operation and maintenance standards recommended by the equipment suppliers and manufacturers of the Facility and the TNB System. which practices. during the applicable period. “Parties” “Person” “Power System Study” (PSS) “Project” “Prudent Utility Practices” “Renewable Energy Fuel” “Ringgit” (“RM”) “Scheduled The lawful currency of Malaysia. methods and standards generally conform to applicable Laws. joint venture.

The electrical energy associated with the start-up and commissioning of the Facility prior to the relevant Commercial Operation Date. and as more specifically described in Appendix A hereto.2001 which is aimed at supporting the Government’s desire to develop Renewable Energy (RE) as an alternative fuel resource. including its successors in title and permitted assigns. and metered at the Interconnection Point.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Commercial Operation Date”(SCOD) “Scheduled Outage” TNB Research operation of the Facility as specified in Clause 5. repair or improvement of the Facility. A programme initiated by KTAK on 11.5. The parcels of land upon which the Facility is to be constructed and located. The period of this Agreement as specified in Clause 3. A planned interruption of the electricity generating capability of the Facility that (i) is not a Maintenance Outage or Major Overhaul Outage. The bulk power network controlled or used by TNB for the purpose of generating electricity. Means the latest edition of the guidebook for other users to be interconnected to the TNB Medium Voltage (MV) Distribution network titled “A Guidebook of the Technical Requirements for the Interconnection of A User’s Network to TNB’s MV Distribution Network”. Means the licence required and obtained by TNB or any extension thereof pursuant to Section 9 of the Electricity Supply Act 1990.1 hereof. and transmitting and distributing electricity to TNB’s customers. a company incorporated under the laws of Malaysia.4. “Sen” “Site” “Small Renewable Energy Power Programme” “Term” “Test Energy” “TNB” “TNB Licence” “TNB MV Interconnection Guidebook” “TNB System” . Tenaga Nasional Berhad. preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance. (ii) has been co-ordinated in advance with TNB with a mutually agreed start date and duration pursuant to Clause 12 and (iii) that is required for the inspection. The lawful currency of Malaysia.107 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

Since 1997. 7. As the demand of electricity grew. and.1. the electricity supply industry in Malaysia was dominated by privately owned companies operating in their respective franchise areas and regulations were minimal. Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd (SESB) in the State of Sabah. there are three main electricity utilities in Malaysia: TNB in Peninsular Malaysia. 7. The government has created competition. In 1987. SESB is owned 80% by TNB and 20% the Sabah State Government. The Government and related government-owned companies/entities own approximately 75% of TNB. especially oil palm waste from the palm oil industry. Nationalisation policy resulted in acquisition of privately owned utilities. The aim of the RE Programme is to generate 5% of the country’s electricity from renewable energy resources by year 2005.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 7. The major shareholder of SESCo is the Sarawak State Government.1. In addition. 7.1 A Brief History of Electricity Industry in Malaysia Prior to 1950’s. The Small Renewable Energy program (SREP) was launched in 2001.108 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Appendix A: Summary of TNB Power Systems 7.3 Renewable Energy (RE) and The Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) The Government of Malaysia has embarked on programmes to promote efficient use of energy as well as to increase the use of renewable energy (RE). TNB has also been gradually divesting their interests in thermal power plants to private investors and until 2004. In 1965.4 Current structure of electricity industry In the current structure. a government utility.1.1 Industry Structure 7. the CEB is renamed as the National Electricity Board (NEB.1.2 Electricity Industry Reform In late 1980’s the Government’s privatization policy marked the beginning of electricity industry reforms of 1990’s that is still undergoing at the present. SESCo in the State of Sarawak. in generation by licensing private sector to build. own and operate power generating plants as independent power producers (IPPs) and supply electricity through negotiated power purchase agreements (PPA). to generate electricity to the local distribution network. well-known in Malay as LLN) with added responsibility to ‘nationalise’ the private suppliers. This is known as ‘RE As 5th Fuel’. particularly biomass from the agricultural sector for power generation in line with the launch of the revised Energy Policy in 2001. the privatisation of the electricity supply industry was initiated and in 1990 the NEB was corporatised as Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). there are 23 IPPs have been given licenses to operate in Peninsular Malaysia. aiming at encouraging private sector to use renewable energy resources. to a certain extent. the Central Electricity Board (CEB) was established in 1949 to acquire many small privately owned companies while the major companies continued to operate and being regulated by the Government. The three .

one transmission licenses and a number of merchant co-generations licenses have been granted. The current structure of electricity supply industry in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak are illustrated in figures 7. Figure 7. besides the three main utilities.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research main utilities are vertically integrated entities undertaking generation.1(a): The Structure of Electricity Supply Industry in Peninsular Malaysia .1(a) and 7.109 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . three mini utilities have been established to provide high quality supply for high-tech semiconductor and petro-chemical industrial entities. transmission.1(b) respectively. distribution and supply of electricity in the Peninsular Malaysia. Until recently. Besides these. about two thousands self-generation licenses have been issued to industrial and commercial entities that generate electricity for their own use. Sabah and Sarawak respectively. In addition. twenty-three IPP licenses.

In 1990.whose functions include: To promote competition in the electricity industry To issue and enforce licenses To undertake economic. However. The power sector of Malaysia remains as regulated industry with vertically integrated utilities.1(b): The Structure of Electricity Supply Industry in Sabah and Sarawak 7. In 2001. after in depth studies. the DES was known as the Energy Commission (EC) of Malaysia .established under the Energy Commission Act 2001 . A balance is required between the market price and the price affordable by majority of the population. in Sarawak the State Electricity Ordinance is in force providing the State Electrical Inspectorate with the legal power for electricity supply regulatory functions.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 7. Currently.5 Regulation and Licensing Malaysia has successfully privatized the electricity supply industry since early 1990s. Electricity pricing is an item handled Electricity Commission. The Department of Electricity Supply (DES) was formed under the Electricity Supply act 1990 as the industry and safety regulator of the electricity supply in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. tariff is approved by the highest decision making body in the country where political and socio-economic considerations are of prime importance. However.1. technical and safety regulations To enforce consumer protection codes To ensure compliance with industry codes The EC reports directly to the Minister and has ‘promotion of competition’ being one of the most important function. Energy . Malaysia did not join the other countries in the ‘dash for deregulation’.110 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . electricity tariff is fixed but varies according to customer groups and voltage level. Currently.

2 Power Generation 7. 819MW in Sarawak. there are 23 licensed IPPs operating throughout the country. 11. was 15. 4.5% oil and the remaining others. SESB in the State of Sabah.2 Generation Mix In 2002.0% gas.2: Institutional and Regulatory Structure of Electricity Supply Industry in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah 7. TNB Generation Division (formerly known as TNB .221MW in Peninsular Malaysia.2. As in 2002. In Peninsular Malaysia.838MW: 14. Sarawak and Sabah.2. as at April 2003. generation mix fuel of TNB and IPP was 75.2 illustrates the current structure of institutional and regulatory structure of the industry in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah Figure 7.0% coal. 7. SESCo in the State of Sarawak.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Laws and Regulation that are regulating the electricity industry in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah are: Energy Commissioning Act 2001 Electricity Supply Act 1990 Electricity Supply Regulation 1994 Figure A. The total installed generating capacity in Malaysia.1 Generation Entities Power generation in Malaysia is mainly provided by three main electricity utilities: TNB in Peninsular Malaysia. 798MW in Sabah. There are also a number of IPPs operating in the Peninsular Malaysia. 7. and.111 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1% hydro. and.

there is an approximate 30% to 35% reserve margin.112 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The Grid can be considered as the backbone of the electricity industry in Peninsular Malaysia. There are also several industrial complexes. Within the total installed capacity in Malaysia. 275kV and 132kVas illustrated in figures 7. provide approximately 60% of the installed generating capacity. Five IPPs provide the remaining 40%. Standard nominal voltages for transmission system are 500kV. In Sabah. The grid is interconnected in the North to Thailand’s transmission system (operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand.5.3. The agriculture and timber processing industries in the remote areas of Malaysia operate self-generation power plants to supply their own needs. especially in the petro-chemical sector. there are also a considerable number of self-generation and co-generation power plants in operation Malaysia.2. SESCo and SESB have monopolies on transmission in Sarawak and Sabah respectively. 275kV and 500kV transmission systems that form an integrated network . A number of industrial and commercial complexes also operate co-generation power plants to supply both their heat or chilled water requirements and electricity by using natural gas as fuel. In Sarawak. EGAT) via a HVDC interconnection with a transmission capacity of 300MW and a 132kV AC overhead line with maximum capacity of 80MW.1 Transmission System TNB Transmission Division (known as TNBT) is the transmission network service provider for Peninsular Malaysia and has a monopoly on the transmission of electricity in Peninsular Malaysia. SESCo provides 499MW (61%) of the installed capacity with the other 320MW (39%) being provided by two IPPs.the National Grid as illustrated in figure 7. connecting power stations owned by TNB and IPPs to customers. 7. In TNB system.3. Large portions of these facilities are using biomass or agricultural waste as fuel.3 Transmission and Power System Operation 7.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Generation and TNB Hidro ).3 Self Generation and Co-generation In addition to the grid connected generating capacity. Sub-transmission voltage system used to interface between bulk power transmission system and distribution system. In the South. 7. TNB Transmission Division manages and operates the 132kV. Similarly. the National Grid is connected to Singapore’s transmission system at Senoko via 2 X 230kV submarine cables with a firm transmission capacity of 200MW.4 and 7. SESB provides 493MW (62%) of installed capacity with five IPPs providing the remaining 305MW of capacity (38%). TNB’s National Grid system spans the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. . the 132kV network is used to deliver power from National Grid to distribution substations. using industrial waste heat for generation.

113 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3: TNB Power System Configuration Figure 7.4: TNB System Voltage Configuration .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 7.

2 Planning & Investment Apart from operating the existing system economically and securely. In order to ensure reliable operation of the power Grid. both long-term and short-term load forecasting are carried out by a group of specialists in the system planning unit. The forecast would then be used by the Production Planning unit to schedule and commit generating units in the system.3.3. In such cases. 7. In TNB.114 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2. 7. operational planning and control operation of The National Load Dispatch Centre (NLDC) must be carried out accurately and efficiently.3.5: Typical Supply Scheme 7.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 7. several activities involving load forecasting. As the system changes and/or different contingencies applied. which is inherently complex.1 Load forecasting In power system operation.2 Power System Operation Operation of Grid is a process and procedure of coordinating the supply and demand of electricity through the Grid. In TNB. short-term load forecasting is a starting point of maintaining the balance between generation and demand. the investment requirements are determined by operation function as opposed to usual cases by the network system planning function.2. operation engineers may find that the network may not be able to operate securely and that can only be corrected through installation of additional equipment or facilities. . planning and investment. power system operation function may from time to time be involved in planning of the network involving investment of capital to enhance system reliability.

4 Control of System Voltage The control of voltage levels especially in distribution network is an important issue. 7. Team of Control Engineers and Technicians are manning the centre on a 24-hour basis to ensure that sufficient generation is scheduled to meet load demand and that the system will remain in secure situation following any disturbance. Although TNB tries to keep system voltages close to their nominal levels. generation unit commitment and schedule. coordination of generation and transmission outages. 7. the electricity system operates at 50 Hz. The voltage at the customer’s terminal shall not vary from system terminal voltage of 6. list of planned transmission outages. power plant operators and other users of the network including maintenance crew on how to operate the network – its components and controls .2. Statuses. This is achieved by scheduling generation to match demand and by means of deliberate control actions on the part of some generators.6/11/22/33kV by more than ±5%. The NLDC communicates directly on real time basis to all power plants in the network and all major substations and load centres.4 Control operation (NLDC) The National Load Dispatch Centre (NLDC) is nerve centre of the Peninsular Malaysia Grid. Operational Planning Unit comprises of several teams of engineers that coordinate their functions to provide three main inputs to the NLDC for the next day operation. 7. 7. outputs and voltage levels of major equipment at power plants and substations are monitored closely and reporting system including alarms will alert operators in case of abnormal operating conditions.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research operation function cooperates and coordinates closely with the planning function to identify short. due to its significance to the end users. plant availability forecasting. while for system .3 Control of System Frequency In Malaysia. the actual voltage varies as the load on the system changes.3 Operational planning Operational planning comprises of activities carried out for the purposes of preparing system operators. Voltages tend to fall when people are using a lot of electricity and they are often lower at the end of long distribution lines.2.3. The supply voltage needs to be kept within a given range for the correct operation of customer’s appliances. Demand forecast is the fundamental input for operational planning – both medium terms and short terms. This operational power frequency is kept very close to this level by all electricity users and generators.to medium term plans to improve system reliability.115 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .in the most economical manner while keeping security as the top priority.3.3. Otherwise most network investment plans including improvement of reliability are carried out by the network planning group.3. In TNB. and to advice control operators on real-time control particularly on responses to contingency situations. These inputs are. fuel transport and storage requirements plans. list of precautions and control/operation strategies for network operations. Activities of operational planning include.

MV network predominantly made up of underground cable while LV feeders are predominantly overhead lines with underground cable for selected commercial and housing areas. These faults may be caused by events such as overhead lines touched by trees.2 Voltages In TNB distribution system.3. but often makes the process of voltage control more complex.1 Fault and fault current It is not possible to eliminate the electrical faults in distribution network due to it being exposed to environmental influence and the large geographical area that the network may cover. The sub-transmission feeding points into distribution systems are via HV/MV substations of 132/33 kV. Until 2002. voltage regulators are employed but now being replaced by switched and fixed capacitors. the 22kV networks are being converted to 33kV and 11kV. 22kV. Normally. Some of these companies also operate their own cogeneration plants to supply part of their demand.4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research voltage of 415/240V by more than +5% to –10%. power in-feeds from distributed generators tend to increase the voltage levels. switched and fixed capacitor banks are employed at strategic locations in the distribution system.4. voltage control in distribution system is provided by on-load tap changing transformer. When these things happen. If they are not quickly detected and stopped. 7. such as shopping complexes and industrial parks.4. 7. these fault currents are a risk to life and can cause extensive damage to transformers. or the accidental excavation of underground cables. as well as affecting the electricity supply to customers. The Government has issued licenses to 26 companies who are allowed to operate as local distributors or suppliers of electricity in certain designated locations.1 Distribution Organisations TNB Distribution Division (known as TNBD).116 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the network system voltage can be categorized into two: 1) Medium voltage (MV).3 Protection in Distribution Networks 7.4. 132/22kV and 132/11kV – normally called PMUs. Sarawak and Sabah respectively. cables and other equipment. Distribution networks are designed to provide electricity to users at reasonably constant voltage levels. The presence of distributed generation can assist in improved voltage profiles. In the LV system. 6.6kV 2) Low voltage (LV) which are 415V and 240V In some areas in State of Perak and Johor. 7. which are 33kV. SESCo and SESB are the main distributors of electricity throughout the Peninsular. In addition to this. Boosters are seldom used now because of their high costs. The transformers that transfer power from the higher to the lower voltage system are fitted with automatic voltage control that compensate voltage changes on the high voltage side.4 Distribution 7. 11kV. Conversely. . very high current can occur at the fault and in the parts of the network that feed current into the fault.

the protection will be activated and the circuit breaker will trip again. Pilot wire protections and directional over-current/earth fault relays are the two methods available for distribution feeders from 6. The typical types of distribution protection system are Over-current and Earth Fault (OCEF) and unit protection for feeders. the relay is set to do nothing or to trip the circuit breakers to interrupt the flow of current. A properly coordinated protection system in distribution network is vital to ensure safety of public and to minimize the interruption to customers and the damage of equipment from the effect of faults. together with protective relays and sensing devices such as current transformers. On detection of unusually high currents or other abnormal conditions by these sensing devices. 7. Automatic re-closers are usually set to operate up to three or four times after a fault.6kV up to 33kV.3.4. the line will then remain reconnected to the supply. The majority of faults occurring on overhead lines are transient faults due to lightning. The advantage derived from auto reclosing is to reduce interruption time to the customers due to transient fault as well as to support fault isolation management. However. tree branch falling on the lines or because of animals.2 Protection system Circuit breakers and fuses are installed at strategic points in the network.117 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . a protection system must satisfy the following requirements: Disconnection of equipment is restricted to the minimum necessary to isolate the fault. the circuit breaker remains tripped and must be re-set manually. Stable and remain inoperative under certain specified condition (such as through faults and transients) Fast operation in order to clear the fault from the system to minimize damage to affected system components. which are the decision makers. The fault level must not exceed the short circuit rating of the circuit . swinging of wires. OCEF relays are used to detect over-current and earth faults on underground cables and overhead lines. Sensitive enough to operate under minimum fault condition. These devices re-close the circuit breakers a few seconds after it is tripped.4. These tripping devices and their respective functions are known as protection systems. Depending on the magnitude of the measured quantity.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 7.3 Fault level and equipment rating It is vital to have accurate information on fault level in the distribution system in order to decide the fault rating of equipment forming part of the network and to specify the parameters of the protection scheme. If the fault has not cleared by this stage. as well as transformers and capacitors. current or frequency is then sent to relays. the measured electricity basic quantities of voltage. Auto reclosers and sectionalisers are installed on 33kV overhead lines system.3. If the fault does not clear after this number of operations. In typical utility practices. The system components must be rated such that during short circuit the resultant heat can be dissipated and mechanical forces will stood under maximum fault. if the fault has cleared. The dead time between each successive reclosure is important information for DG in order that generator protections can be designed to avoid the autoreclosure closing with the generator and the grid out of synchronism.

Distribution Division of TNB has the responsibility to plan and develop their network.415 Fault Current (kA) 25 20 20 31. consistent with the nature of the load. Existing network infrastructure sometimes has to be upgraded to support growing demand for electricity. fault level as well as equipment breaking duty. industrial sites and electricity generation schemes all require extension to distribution network. All of these changes have to be coordinated to maintain standard of safety. In the event of a fault. 7.118 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Planning for the future in general begins with annual load forecasting followed by preparation of master plan. The maximum fault level allowed in the distribution system are as follows: Nominal System Voltage (kV) 33 22 11 0. Existing SCADA comprises of supervision and control at substation level and master station . reliability and operation. New housing developments. as well as maintaining system’s technical efficiency in line with the basic objective of distribution network planning to provide secure supply whilst fully meeting customer demand at the most economic overall cost.4 Distribution Network Planning Distribution network extension. The key sets of planning criteria involve security level standard. The level of automation of the distribution system depends on the level of security of supply defined on certain areas or customers. Distribution system operations are not entirely controlled and monitored via SCADA.5 Control and Operation of Distribution Network Variety of operational configuration in distribution network is useful to minimize disruption due to fault and routine maintenance. loading criteria of network element under normal and emergency.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research breaker interrupting the fault. It is also being aided by the introduction of computer based. the network operator can re-configure the network.415 Rated Voltage (kV) 36 24 12 0. Distribution Automation System that enables the control and operation of distribution networks to be automated.5 The equipment shall be rated to withstand the rated fault current for duration of 3seconds. 7. modification and reinforcement are required to meet changing patterns of demand for electricity. execution and evaluation of current system performance. selecting the configuration that maintains supplies to the greatest number of customers while the fault is being rectified. contingency criteria. while maintaining the standards of safety and reliability. for example.4.4.

. In addition. The EFI will be placed at incomer and outgoing feeder at every distribution substation and be later integrated with planned SCADA.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research only while distribution feeder automation is under implementation stage. a program of wider placement of EFI and LFI is to be implemented in 2004 to improve operational flexibility and system efficiency in general. The number controlled and monitored distribution substation under the on-going SCADA program is only 10% of total number in the whole of TNB system by end of 2007.119 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

As the water rushes through the turbine.1 Energy Source Mechanical energy to turn the generator rotor is supplied by the prime mover. Geothermal and reciprocating engines are more reliable source of energy. the amount of generation is often dictated by the steam requirements of the plant at different times of the day. Landfill gas turbines. The availability of power from wind turbines is highly unpredictable. which is connected to the turbine. The mechanical power is then converted to electrical power through the generator. biomass and wind energy generation meets these objectives.1. Unlike other sources of energy.1 Introduction 8. where the steam from the DG turbines is used for processes. solar.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 8. Consequently any project using the RE sources should be given every assistance and prioroty to connect to TNB’s medium voltage (MV) network.120 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1. . The Government of Malaysia is signatory to the 1992 Rio Earth Summit and participated in the Berlin Summit. The reliability of hydropower turbines is also inherently very high but energy availability depends greatly on the pattern of water flow. water retains its value even after it is used as a medium to generate electricity. which can be planned in advance. Some of the most common type of energy sources for DGs are: • Hydropower • Fuel Cells • Landfill Gas • Biomass • Wind Power • Geothermal • Photovoltaic If the installed capacity of DG Plants is taken into account by the utility in its energy and capacity planning. For back pressure steam turbines. 8.2 Hydropower Hydropower is a valuable source of energy. with long outages to shutdowns for maintenance. it spins the turbine shaft which produces mechanical power as shown in Figure 8. the reliability of the energy source must be considered. This requires the reduction of the greenhouse gases and thus renewable energy (RE) such as run of river hydro. Appendix B: Types of DGs 8. Hydroelectric station uses water that is stored in a reservoir behind a dam or from run-of-river to drive the turbine. This involves energy conversion from mechanical energy to electrical energy.

On the other hand. high initial capital cost and potential environmental impact. Example of impounded facility is the Kenyir Hydro Station in Terengganu. During period of high electricity demand. peaking or pumped storage.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 8. The main advantage of hydropower is that it does not produce or emit any pollutant as byproduct. This method allows water to be released constantly to generate electricity. The . uses dam to store river water in a reservoir – also termed as pondage hydro. In this method. especially for big hydropower plant are the main disadvantages. In addition.121 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Normally such system is built on small dam that impound little water. typically a large hydropower station.1: Pondage hydro-power scheme There are generally three types of hydropower scheme namely: run-of-river. Run-of-river uses natural flow of river without causing an appreciable change in river flow and the surrounding environment. the water is released to the lower reservoir to generate electricity. An example of this type of hydro is the Kenerong Hydro Scheme located in Ulu Kelantan A peaking or pumped storage station impounds and releases water when the energy is needed. excess energy is used to pump water from lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. and impoundment. its operating cost is very low and hydropower can respond quickly to utility load demand when it is required. An impounded facility.

Phosphoric acid fuel cell can achieve up to 40 percent efficiency while molten carbonate and Solid oxide fuel cells have an efficiency of nearly 60 percent. the first practical application for fuel cell was developed.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research environmental impact. each containing hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity which then used to split the water in the upper cell into hydrogen and oxygen. The by-products of the process are water. Fuel cell offers high efficiency and environmental advantage in comparison to some other technologies mainly due to the electrochemical process which does not require any moving parts. heat and carbon dioxide. The features of these fuel cells are summarised in Table 8.1. NASA used fuel cell to power on-board electronics for space vehicles Gemini and Apollo. In addition. Potential use for cars and buses. but is available for land vehicle. Fuel cell can be categorized into five different groups. Used for medium and large scale cogeneration plant Can be utilized for all sizes of cogeneration application.122 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . In the 1960s. however. capable of powering welding machine. distinguished by the types of electrodes used.3 Fuel Cells Fuel cells produced power electrochemically by passing a hydrogen-rich fuel over anode and air over a cathode and separated by an electrolyte.1: Fuel Cell Characteristics Type Alkaline Solid Polymer Phosphoric Acid Molten carbonate Solid Oxide 500-1000° C 600° C 200° C Used for medium scale cogeneration application. 8. Fuel cells was first discovered in 1839 by Sir William Grove who utilized four large cells. . fuel cells are virtually soundless. making it suitable to be used in premises where noise is a problem. Table 8. In 1959. Operating Temperature Status and Application 50-100° C 50-100° C Mostly for space market. can be avoided or reduced with proper planning in the initial stage of implementation.

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8.4 Landfill Gas
Landfill gas occurs naturally wherever household and commercial waste is disposed off in engineered rubbish sites. As the organic matter in the buried waste decomposes it creates a methane-rich biogas. This is made up of about 55% methane and 45% carbon dioxide. It is the methane which is valuable as a source of energy for both heat and power. At a modern disposal site, excavated areas are progressively lined with an impervious material before being filled with waste and then capped over again. The lining and the capping help to prevent gas from escaping. Landfill gas is produced within about a year of the first tipping. It can continue to be exploited for up to decades afterwards. To utilize the biogases produced from the waste landfill, gas wells are drilled at few places on the disposal site as shown in Figure 8.2. The gas would first be filtered before being sent through gas collector line to drive the turbine that generates electricity.

Figure 8.2: Landfill generation

8.5 Wind Power
Wind energy conversion systems are designed to convert the kinetic energy of wind movement into mechanical power, which is the movement of a machine. The mechanical power is then converted to electricity by the generator. The electricity generated can either be stored in batteries or used directly by connecting through utility distribution network. Wind turbine comprises of four basic components; the rotor, electrical generator, speed control system and the tower as depicted in Figure 8.3. Wind power fall into two broad categories:
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1) Horizontal axis with propeller type design 2) Vertical axis, Darrieus or ‘egg-beater’ design. The horizontal axis turbines are generally gear boxes and startup through the action without the need for an external motor vertical axis turbines are generally not equipped with gear boxes but are coupled directly to the most vertical axis turbines are not self starting. Both types of turbines normally employ induction generators which are well suited to the wide range of operating speeds possible.

Figure 8.3: Components of wind turbine The startup time for a vertical axis turbine’ is less than one minute. Smaller machine started by connecting directly across the line larger machines reduced voltage starters may be employed to reduce inrush currents. System disturbances which cause such units to trip off line require a complete and restart of the machine. Wind power typically have no speed control or at best have relatively crude speed control such as varying blade pitch. It is therefore difficult to bring the slip speed of the induction generator to zero because closing the connecting switch to the utility system and voltage fluctuations are likely at the instant connection. The main factor affecting rate of load change is the inertia constant and its relation to wind speed changes. Despite being considered as environmental friendly, wind turbine has several disadvantages. Wind turbines are normally situated off shore and represent negative visual

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impacts. In addition, wind turbines produce acoustics noise and electrical interference which would be unpleasant to the surrounding environments.

8.6 Microturbines
Microturbines are small combustion turbines with output ranging from 25kW to 1000kW. Microturbines evolved from automotives and trucks turbocharge auxiliary power units from airplanes and small jet engines used on pilotless military aircrafts. Most microturbines are typically single-shaft machines, with the compressor and turbine mounted on the same shaft as the electrical generator. It consists of only one rotating part, eliminating the need for gear-box and associated moving parts thus reducing maintenance and increasing reliability. Microturbine rotates at speed of 6,000 to 10,000 rpm driving either a two or four pole permanent magnet generator. The shaft is mounted on either oil lubricated bearings or air bearings. A key component of the microturbine is the recuperator, which transfers heat from exhaust gas to air that is sent to the combustor. Pre-heating combustion air reduces the fuel consumption and increases its overall efficiency to 25 to 30 percent. Further utilization can be gained by utilizing the waste heat from the turbine and incorporating heat recovery system to the unit. Performance of microturbine is better as compared to bigger turbine where it’s combustion process is quieter and cleaner. Microturbines can achieve fuel to electricity efficiency up to 40 percent and produce less than 7 parts per million of NOX gas emission. Microturbines can burn a variety of fuels including natural gas, diesel, gasoline and methane. Microturbine provides an abundance of usable heat for hot water, absorption chilling, and distilling and direct heat applications. This supply of heat makes microturbine, when used in a combined heat and power application, highly efficient with its efficiency in the range of 70 to 80 percent. With maintenance cost forecast to be one third of the traditional reciprocating equipment and very high efficiency, microturbine is an attractive option.

8.7 Geothermal
Geothermal energy is heat energy originating deep from the earth molten area. It is this heat which is responsible for volcanoes and earthquakes. The temperature in the earth’s interior is as high as 7000’C. There are four types of geothermal resources namely hydrothermal, geo-pressured, hot dry rock and magma. Of the four types, only the hydrothermal resource is currently commercially available. Hydrothermal resource comes in the form of either steam or hot water depending on the temperature and pressures involved. High grade resource is normally used for electricity generation and lower grade resource is used in direct heating applications. A typical geothermal plant is shown in Figure 8.4.

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The cost of photovoltaic cell has been reduced by almost 50 percent since 1980 and the sales have been increasing steadily particularly in the remote power operation.126 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . many applications of PV cell have been commercialized.g. This form of generation enhances the utilization of energy efficiently and is highly promoted by the Malaysian Government. depending on how many modules are connected together.4: Geothermal Power Plant 8. Energy efficiency can be increased from 35% to 75 – 80% using .9 Cogeneration 8. With technology advancement in the 1980s and 1990s. The semiconductor cells use thin film and crystalline silicon materials. thermal and electrical) from the same amount of primary fuel input within a manufacturing process.1 Definitions of Cogeneration Cogeneration or more popularly known as combine heat and power (CHP) refers to the sequential generation of two different forms of useful energy (e. security system.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 8. 8. Photovoltaic system can be used to generate electricity at almost any scale.9. The applications in use today include health care system.8 Photovoltaic Photovoltaic system uses semiconductors-based cells to directly convert sunlight to electricity. communications. electricity supply and transport aids. PV cell was initially developed in the 1950s for use on satellites and space program and has been used widely as the source for satellites orbiting earth since 1960s. the more power it will generate. The greater the intensity of the light.

Figure 8.5(a) and 8.5(a): Concept of Cogeneration – conventional generation Figure 8.5(b): Concept of Cogeneration – cogeneration .127 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .5(b) illustrate this approach of generation and its increased efficiency when compared to conventional generation.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research this mode of generation. Figure 8.

Kuala Lumpur International Airport Gas District Cooling (M) Sdn. pulp and paper.4 2 7 2. The list of developers and the amount of generating capacity for each project is shown in Table 8.8 - 0.9 20 Export 0. Johor Shell Refining Company Bhd. Universiti Petronas.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 8.128 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2 26 0. Kuala Lumpur City Center Gas District Cooling (M) Sdn.2 Cogeneration plants in Malaysia Since 1993.2. Bhd. Kemaman. Bhd.2: List of Co-generation plants in Malaysia No Developer and plant address See Sen Chemical Bhd. Bhd.9. Table 8.4 1. Amongst these plants that are connected and operated in parallel to the distribution networks are summarized in Table 8. Batu 1. refinery. The total generating capacity is 645. Tronoh Tractors Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. Bhd. Negeri Sembilan Fuel Installed Capacity (MW) Top Up/Export (MW) Standby (MW) Interconnection Voltage (kV) 11 1 Process Waste Gas Process Waste Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Process Waste Gas Process Waste Gas 6 - 2. Jalan pantai Port Dickson. steel.5 132 . Kampong Puchong. Kawasan Perindustrian Telok Kalong. Putrajaya Precinct 2 Titan Petrochemicals (M) Sdn. Terengganu Gas District Cooling (M) Sdn.5 - 11 11 (not parallel) 33 6 60 - - 33 7 10. Tanjung Langsat Industrial Estate Pasir Gudang. which represents less than 6% of the maximum demand of Peninsular Malaysia.5 33 8 25 6 10 132 9 35 - 17. Bhd. Most of this cogeneration plants uses either natural gas or process waste gas as the main source of fuel. Terengganu TCL Industries (M) Sdn.2. Kawasan Perindustrian Telok Kalong. Kemaman. Jabatan Bekalan Elektrik dan Gas (JBEG. chemical.8 MW.4 Export - 11 3 4 5 8. Selangor Gas District Cooling (M) Sdn. district cooling industries to generate electricity as part of their manufacturing processes. Bhd. now Energy Commission (EC)) had issued more than 26 licenses to major developers in the petrochemical.

9:1 6.6:1 1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research The developments of cogeneration are essentially driven by the following key factors: Advancement in the technology for small-scale power generation e. Energy efficiency or rational use of energy Deregulation or competition policy Environmental awareness – reduction in Green-House-Gas (GHG) emission.4 lists the various technologies used in Co-Generation or CHP plants. efficient lesser capacity generators.129 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .g.7:1 3.4: Cogeneration technologies Main Prime Mover Back-pressure steam turbine Pass-out condensing steam turbine Gas Turbine Combine Cycle Reciprocating Engine Average heat/power ratio 6.8:1 . Table 8.8:1 1. Table 8.

which drives a synchronous generator.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 8.12 – 4 MPa and a temperature of between 200 and 300 °C depending on its use. is passed to industrial process or through a heat exchanger fou use in space heating.130 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the steam. Figure 8. All the steam passes through the turbine. The back-pressure steam turbines have an average heat to power ration of 7:1 and so. The higher the back pressure the more energy there is in the exhausted steam and so less electrical power is produced. After the turbine.9. usually operating at 3000 rpm.1 Back-pressure steam turbine Back-pressure steam turbines exhaust steam at greater than atmospheric pressure either directly to an industrial process or to a heat exchanger. once the site electrical load has been met.3 Description of Cogeneration Technologies 8.6 is a simplified diagram of a CHP scheme using a back-pressure steam turbine.9. at a pressure typically in the range 0.3.6: Co-Generation scheme using a back pressure steam turbine . Figure 8. any export of electrical power will be small.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 8. Figure 8.131 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2 Pass-out condensing steam turbine In a pass out (or extraction) condensing steam turbine (see Figure 8. Gas turbines using either natural gas or distillate oil liquid fuel are available in ratings from less than 1 MW to more than 100 MW. .3.9.3 Gas Turbine Figure 8.3.9. This arrangement allows a wide range of heat/power ratios.7: Co-Generation scheme using a pass-out steam turbine 8.7) some steam is extracted at an intermediate pressure for the supply of useful heat with the remainder being fully condensed.8 shows how the waste heat of a gas turbine may be used.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 8.8: Co-Generation scheme using a gas turbine with waste heat recovery .132 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

distribution lines or cables to the DG plant and their capacities. MVAR for working days and weekends) of the feeder where the plant would be connected.1 Data Available from TNB at the Initial Stage A DG Developer upon recognizing the potential for connection of the DG plant to the local distribution network should make the necessary appointment to meet representatives of the local Distributor. It is important at this point for the Distributor to indicate to the DG Developer how the proposed DG plant should have its power output scheduled to ensure no spill-over of power to the transmission network (operation regime). and 6) Any special problems that the Distributor faces with respect to power supply in the area. 4) Source transmission substation and loading profile (24-hour MW. . 3) Three-phase short-circuit level at nearby substations. 2) The distance to the nearest connection point.133 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 5) Development of the network in the area. Appendix C: Data available and to be submitted 9.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 9. At the initial meeting it will be useful for the DG Developer to brief the Distributor on the DG plant with the following basic information: 1) Location of plant 2) Type of generation and fuel 3) Capacity of plant Basic information that can immediately be obtained from the Distributor includes the followings: 1) Nearest substation.

Ping We refer to the above basic information on the proposed DG plant that we intend to connect to your distribution network. the Developer needs to know the cost estimate for connection to the local distribution network. The local Distributor in order to provide the cost estimates would need to carry out a ‘Preliminary System Study’ so that requirements for additional network components and reinforcements could be identified. For purpose of a preliminary system study. Date: To: District/Regional Officer Tenaga Nasional Berhad Request for Cost Estimates of DG Connection DG Plant units & Capacity: 2 x 3MW Fuel Type: Hydro Location of Plant: Batu 4 Sg.134 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . the Developer is required to submit a letter to local TNB offices. Yours Sincerely. The letter should also describe basic parameters of the proposed DG plant.01 After a preliminary assessment of a possible development of DG plant and contacts with the local Distributor. Thank you. We would be very glad to receive from you as soon as possible indications on the following items: 1) Cost estimates for connection. and 3) Operation regime of the DG plant.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 9. 2) Estimate of duration for implementation of connection.08. Enclosed herewith is the location map indicating the site of the DG plant and the nearest point to your distribution network facilities. (signed) DG Plant Developer .2 Data to be Submitted by DG Developer for ‘Preliminary System Study’ – ES.

3 Data to be Submitted for ‘Power System Study’ – ES. In proceeding with the project.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 9.08. . This application form must be accompanied by details of the plant. the DG Developer should now submit official application for connection to the local Distributor. When details of the proposed plant are available. the DG Developer would enter the design stage where consultants would normally be appointed for the design and specifications of the plant. the Developer with the knowledge of possible operating regime of the plant would be in a good position to make assessment of the commercial viability of the project.135 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .03 Based on the preliminary cost estimates of the DG plant implementation including connection costs. The official application should be submitted in Form DG001 (see next page).

Landfilled Gas. Cogen) Electrical Consultant Name & Contact Information Telephone Email Handphone .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research FORM DG 001 APPLICATION FORM FOR CONNECTION OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION/RE PLANT TO TNB DISTRIBUTION NETWORK SECTION A: DEVELOPER INFORMATION Company Address Contact Information Telephone Email Web site Fax Contact Person Name/Contact Information Telephone Email Handphone SECTION B: FACILITY/PLANT INFORMATON Plant/Facility Address Type of Plant (Hydro. Biomass.136 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

u) Excitation System Controls Governor Controls Leakage Reactance (p.Axis Transient O/Cct Time Constant (p.u) DATA .u) 4 Quadrature-Axis Sub-Transient O/Cct Time Constant (p.u) 3 Direct Axis Synchronous Reactance (p.u) Generator Transient Reactance (p.m) Minimum power factor lagging Minimum power factor leading Type of prime mover Generator voltage control Generator Sub-Transient Reactance (p.Tenaga Nasional Berhad SECTION C: DETAIL EQUIPMENT INFORMATION Part 1 – General Information NO ITEMS 1 Generator type 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Rotor Construction Generator rating (kVA) Generator power factor Rated terminal voltage (kV) Frequency (Hz) Rated speed (r.u) 14 Zero Sequence Reactance (p.u) 15 Negative Sequence Reactance (p.u) Inertia Constant (MW.u) 2 Direct Axis Transient Reactance (p.137 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .p.synchronous 9 .For Generator > 3 MW NO ITEMS 1 Direct Axis Sub-Transient Reactance (p.u) 13 Negative Sequence Resistance (p.u) 6 Quadrature.u) 5 Quadrature.asynchronous (induction type) Part 2 .sec/MVA) TNB Research DATA 9 .Axis Synchronous O/Cct Time Constant (p.u) 7 Direct Axis Sub-Transient O/Cct Time Constant (sec) 8 Direct Axis Transient O/Cct Time Constant (sec) 9 Direct Axis Transient O/Cct Time Constant (sec) 10 Quadrature Axis Sub-Transient O/Cct Time Constant (sec) 11 Quadratura Axis Transient O/Cct Time Constant (sec) 12 Zero Sequence Resistance (p.

Tx.PT) 5 Plant Single Line Diagram 6 Plant Load Profile 7 Open Circuit Saturation Characteristics 8 Block Diagram of Excitation System and Parameters Tick .CT.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Part 3 – Generator Transformer (if applicable) NO ITEMS 1 Rated Capacity (MVA) 2 Voltage Ratio (HV/LV) 3 Tap Range: Max Min 4 Vector Group (HV/LV) 5 Tap Step 6 Impedance (%) 7 Method of Earthing 8 Resistance Value (p. 3 Generator Reactive Capability Chart 4 Protection System Data and Setting (Generator.u) Part 4 – Short Circuit NO ITEMS 1 Maximum 3-N Symmetrical S/Cct Infeed into TNB Network (kA) 2 Maximum Zero Sequence Impedance of the User’s Network at the Point of Common Coupling with TNB’s Network (kA) 3 Breaker Rating (at point of interconnection) (1) Continuous (A) (2) Short-time rating (kA rated time) (3) Making Capacity (MVA) (4) Breaking Capacity (MVA/kA) DATA DATA Part 5 – Diagram/Plan to be Submitted NO Diagram/Plan (Tick (•) in relevant box) 1 Site Plan 2 Single Line Diagram of any Existing or Proposed Arrangements of the interface connection between TNB and Generator.138 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .CB.

High quality electricity supply. The purpose of the distribution system planning/design criteria is to provide the balance between the customer’s need for a safe. 10. Optimal equipment utilization. In certain designated supply load centres. high quality electricity supply and costs by TNB. To meet the planned performance levels in terms of security.2 Distribution Network Design Philosophy TNB designs its distribution networks to operate as radial systems and under normal circumstances. secure. In urban.1 Introduction This appendix outlines the planning/design criteria as applied by TNB to ensure that the distribution networks meet the following requirements: Secure electricity supply. . the distribution networks are configured an open meshed/ring network that is run radially with open points. reliability. Reliable electricity supply. In rural areas where the total feeder maximum demand is less than 1MVA. Open meshed/ring network arrangement allows improvements in supply restoration times following an outage. the network operates in radial configuration without alternative supply. Appendix D: TNB Distribution Planning Criteria 10.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 10. The duration of loss of supply is minimized through the use of fault indicators which improves fault location and hence isolation of the faulty sections. sub-urban and town areas. SCADA is used to further minimize loss of supply duration. fault levels are reduced (as compared to closed rings or meshed) and simply technical and operational requirements. By operating the network with open points. DG must be designed to be disconnected from the distribution network if the feeder that the generator is connected to is separated from the remainder of the distribution system. Optimal network losses. the loss of a component of the network will result in the loss of supply to a number of customers connected to the sub-system.139 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 10. The distribution system is not designed for islanded operation with distributed generation. and Safety of staff and public.3 Network Capacity and Reinforcement Needs Network capacity and the need for network reinforcements are assessed by comparing the planning criteria with network planned performance level due to increase in load or addition of generation like DG Plant.

140 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .4 Distribution System Planning/Design Criteria The planning/design criteria applied are a set of standards/requirements applied to ensure that the distribution network would be operated to the desired security.2Steady State Voltage limits The distribution network must be designed to achieve a continuous network steady state voltages at the customer’s connection/interface during normal operating conditions are to be within the following limits: 1) ± 5 % at 33 kV 2) ± 5 % at 11 kV 3) + 5% and − 10% at .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research reliability and quality.4. the least cost option is normally chosen. These criteria are used as planning and design limits/requirements to serve the interests of the customers connected to the network in terms of quality of supply and at minimum overall costs. reliability and power quality.415 kV It must be emphasized that the steady-state voltage limits are measured at metering points or defined connection/interface and the voltage measured is phase to neutral.4. 10. 10.least cost being the method used.1Steady State Criteria The steady state criteria define the adequacy of the network to supply the electricity/energy requirements of the customers within the component ratings. To choose the best options . The extent of network reinforcement works is dependent on the following: Load forecast projections. frequency and voltage limits. and To minimise losses. and Age and condition of the existing assets. .415 kV Under contingency operating conditions the steady state voltages are to be within the following limits: 1) ± 10 % at 33 kV 2) ± 10 % at 11 kV 3) ± 10% at 0. Economic analysis is applied in assessing network reinforcement requirements for the following purposes: To indicate returns of proposed capital investments. 10. The steady state criteria apply to the normal continuous operating condition of the network and also include post supply interruption/post disturbance condition (or contingency condition) once the network has been normalized. The anticipated max demand of the customers or generation output.

1 Network Reliability TNB will plan and design its networks so that the System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) is minimized. For system planning study purposes.4. 10. The maximum fault levels permitted on TNB distribution network are currently as follows: 1) 11 kV – 20 kA 2) 22 kV – 20 kA 3) 33 kV .4 Fault Level Ratings Limits (Short-circuit Rating) For safety reasons. Under emergency conditions that caused the frequency to drop below 49.141 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . in the event of an outage of any network element. the transmission and distribution network frequency is maintained at 50 Hz ± 1%. the load of the feeder can be transferred to adjacent feeders by manual or supervisory (when planned for) network reconfiguration.25 kA Equipment owned and operated by TNB and connected to the network is designed to withstand these fault levels for 3 seconds (short time withstand current of 3 seconds).4.5Frequency Limits Under normal conditions.4. provision has to be made by reconfiguring the network and steps be taken to have a higher fault rating for new equipment in the foreseeable future. under frequency load shedding scheme will operate to reduce load on the network so as to prevent total failure of the electricity system operated by TNB.6Security of Supply Criteria under Contingency Situation Security of supply under contingency relates to the ability of the network to be reconfigured after an outage of a network element and supply to the healthy portions of the network restored. If fault level studies indicate that the calculated fault level is to be beyond 90% of the fault rating of the existing network beyond a certain specified year. the fault level calculated is not to exceed 90% of the fault rating of the existing equipment installed in the network.4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 10.2 Urban/Sub-Urban Medium Voltage Distribution Feeders Medium voltage distribution feeders in urban areas must be planned and designed so that.6.6.4. 10. . 10.5 Hz. 10.4. the fault rating of any equipment must not be less than the fault level in the network at any time and for any normal network configuration.3Thermal Ratings Limits The thermal ratings of any network components must not be exceeded under normal or contingency conditions and those thermal limits are as follows: 1) Transformers: Specified by TNB / manufacturer name plate rating 2) Switchgears: Specified TNB / manufacturer name plate rating 3) Overhead Lines: Rating as specified by TNB 4) Underground Cables: Rating in accordance with IEC 60502-02 or as specified by TNB 5) Overhead Cables: Rating as specified by TNB 10.

voltage sags and other transients.4. low voltage distribution networks are connected as open rings to provide an alternative supply in the event of circuit outages. 10. open point connections between feeders should be provided. This is also referred to as the quality of voltage provided by TNB at the point of common coupling or interface with customers/generators. 10.4. 10.1 Power quality under steady-state conditions Power quality under steady-state conditions refers to the quality of the normal voltage being supplied to the customer at the point of common coupling. as well as voltage unbalance. 3) System frequency limits 10. momentary interruptions. where economically feasible and reasonable.e.142 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . 10.6.7. for urban areas.7.4 Low Voltage Distribution Networks Low voltage distribution service cables to users are planned as radial circuits.3 System Frequency Limits of frequency must comply with the requirements of clause 10. the security of supply under contingency as in urban/sub-urban areas are not applicable.3 Rural Medium Voltage Distribution Feeders (<1 MVA) For rural areas of total feeder load less than 1 MVA.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research The network shall be planned and designed so that in the event of a failure of a main intake sub-station transformer in the supply zone: all of the loads can be transferred to the other transformer in the main-intake substation.2 Power quality during transient disturbance conditions Power quality under transient disturbance conditions refers to limits of variations of voltage quality during disturbances.7 Power Quality Criteria Power quality criteria define the shape and limits on the deviations of supply voltage sinusoidal waveform in the distribution network. It refers to voltage fluctuation or regulation.5.6.4. The following criteria have been established: 1) Power quality under steady-state conditions. 2) Power quality during transient disturbance conditions. Where practical and safe. harmonics. 10. and limits for flickers. However. or all the loads can be transferred to other main intake sub-station transformers within the supply zone or other nearby adjacent supply zones. In essence. the deterministic criteria of single network element contingency i.7. .4. The disturbances include outages. (N-1) criterion is applied for medium voltage network planning for urban/sub-urban areas resulting in no loss of loss load during repair time.4.4.4.

1 .7. In summary. the compatibility limits currently being adopted TNB are summarized as in Table 10. Plt 0.4 TNB Power Quality Compatibility Limits The distribution networks as well as the transmission network are analyzed to ensure satisfactory performance.4.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 10. 0.0.single voltage change due to switching ON or OFF of any loads. Harmonic Voltage. 1.TNB Power Quality Compatibility Standards and Guidelines Quality of supply variation Distortion Measurement Maximum permissible value for all sources 5% at 415/240 Volts 4% at 11 and 22 kV 3% at 33 kV Pst. whenever a new customer is to be connected to TNB distribution network at the point of common coupling. or when a complaint is received from an existing customer. Engineering Recommendation P28 Standards/ Guidelines Total Harmonic Distortion Voltage (THDV) % Engineering Recommendation G5/4 Engineering Recommendation P28 Flicker Pst. Plt 0.1. Plt Voltage Unbalance Negative Phase Sequence Voltage % 2 % for 1 minute duration Engineering Recommendation P241984 P29-1990 Voltage sag % Remaining Voltage 50 % Sag (up to 200 ms) 70 % Sag (up to 500 ms) 80 % Sag (up to 1000 ms) SEMI F47 .143 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .series voltage change that may lead to flickering problems 3%.8 (at 132 kV and below) Pst. Voltage Unbalance and Flicker Limits will be analyzed depending on the nature of load of the new customer being connected to TNB. Table 10. in accordance with TNB’s Power Quality Criteria.6 (Above 132 kV) Momentary Voltage Change Limits V% 1 % .8.

In designing extensions or network reinforcements.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 10. System Planning.144 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . To achieve cost efficiencies.4. demand forecasts over a planning horizon is used to establish the network concept plan and the initial installations shall conform to the concept plans and TNB will use conductors that are appropriately sized. Distribution Division TNB July 2004 . Engineering Services Engineering Services & Logistics Dept. standard overhead conductors and underground cable sizes have been designed.8 Conductor Selection Criteria TNB uses both underground cables and overhead lines in its distribution network.

In this configuration the power from the source i. Appendix E: System studies associated with the connection of the DG 11. Failure of either one of these will affect the safety of the operating personnel as well as the equipment. This will obviously affect the protection strategy and operation. It is a straight forward one way power flow. There are two stages of studies carried out by TNB for connection of a DG Plant to the distribution network: 1) Preliminary system study. The ‘power system study’ is carried out after DG Developer has submitted formal application for connection and the study has the following main objectives: 1) To confirm the findings of the ‘preliminary system study’ 2) To determine additional control measures. .145 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . In this appendix methods and approaches to both preliminary and power system studies are elaborated to be as guidelines for TNB planning and design engineers. But when distributed generation is introduced in distribution system the power flow becomes more complex and may flow both ways. The present of local generation will alter the behaviour of the distribution system either at steady state or transient state. central generation will flow through transmission system and distribution system and finally absorbed by customer loads.1 Introduction Distribution networks are primarily designed to distribute power from central generation via transmission system to customer loads. The ‘preliminary system study’ has two main objectives: a) To determine the feasibility of connecting the DG Plant to the distribution network. and 2) Power system study. and 3) To be used as guidelines for relevant technical specifications for the DG Plant.e.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11. the network design and operation and restoration operation after fault. designing and operating the distribution system need to be reviewed. In such a configuration the normal conventional way of planning. and b) To determine estimation of cost for connecting the DG Plant to the distribution network.

2 Preliminary System Study 11. the distribution planning engineer could use any of the following typical models available in the simulation software employed by TNB – PTI’s PSS/ADEPT (see figure 11. cogeneration steam units b) Hydro without damper – mini hydro units c) Combustion turbine – gas turbine units Figure 11.1: PSS/ADEPT generator model . 2) Quantum of power to be sent to the distribution network.2. 3) Fuel resource.146 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1): a) Steam turbine (small) – biomass units. Based on the fuel resource.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.1Generating unit data When the DG Developer requests for feasibility and cost estimates of connections. and 4) Physical location of the plant including location map. the only information available to the distribution planning engineers are: 1) Number of generating units proposed and their capacities.

Rg = 0.0.30 0. 40 .02-0.07X”d for Sng < 100MVA.05X”d for Sng > 100MVA Table 11.15-0.1 through 11.8-1.300 0.006 . Table 11.05 0.1.7-2.5 0.5 0.0.8-1.1400 10 .5 0.05 0. Component Tg (s) Note: Generator resistance.4 .5 .1.4 .6 36-63 4 .07-1.2 15-27 3 .14 =X”d (0.0.05 0. Component Tg (s) Note: Generator resistance.4 Salient pole generator without damper winding High Speed Low Speed 2p < 16 2p > 16 22-35 25-40 22-35 80-140 0.300 0.008 .5 25-40 75-125 0.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Tables 11.7-2.03 .c.02-0.1-0.7-1.0.02 .2 0.5 =X”d (0.5 Subtransient reactance (saturated) X”d (%) Transient reactance (saturated) X”d (%) Synchronous reactance (saturated) Xd (%) No-load/Short-circuit Ratio Negative sequence Reactance X2 (%) Zero sequence Reactance X0 (%) Subtransient timeConstant T”d (s) Transient timeConstant T’d (s) Time constant of d.0.1-0.2 36-60 4 .17 26 .4 .05 0.22 0.2: Typical data for LV synchronous machines Turbo Generator Rated apparent power (kVA) Subtransient reactance (saturated) X”d (%) Transient reactance (saturated) Xd (%) Synchronous reactance (saturated) Xd (%) No-load/Short-circuit Ratio Negative sequence Reactance X2 (%) Zero sequence Reactance X0 (%) Subtransient timeConstant T”d (s) Transient timeConstant T’d (s) Time constant of d.147 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .03 0.8 9-32 2 .1: Typical data for HV synchronous machines Type of Machine / Parameters Turbo Salient pole generator Generators with damper winding High Speed Low Speed 2p < 16 2p > 16 9-32 14-32 15-25 14-45 120-300 0.15 20 .3 provide guidelines on typical data for synchronous machines that could be used for studies.33-0. Rg = 0.4 22-36 75-125 0.36 170 .20 0.0.20 0.6 14-25 3 .15X”d Pole Number Salient pole generator 1600-3600 10 .40 150 .2-0.0.4-1.0 0.7-1.c.15 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2-4 2–4 2–4 2–4 2–4 Pole Number .5 0.8 0.0 20-32 80-140 0.7-2.002 .1 Rg = 0.0.13 13 .8)X”d 0.6 .8)X”d 0.12 11 .8 4 .220 260 .7 0.24 0.4 .02-0.0.7-2.

6-1.65 * Xd for hydro) 2) X’q = 2.035 8) T’qo = 0.002-0. only the transient d-axis reactance X’d is known.07 10) s(1.66 X’d 4) Xl = 0.3: Typical range of generator data Parameters Direct-axis synchrounous reactance.1-0.25 3.3 0.4-1.6 9) T"qo= 0.5 0.66 X"d 6) T’do = 6.5-2. X’’d Quadrature-axis subtransient reactance X’’q Direct-axis transient open circuit time-constant T’do Quadrature-axis transient open circuit time-constant T’qo Direct-axis subtransient open circuit time-constant T’’do Quadrature-axis subtransient open circuit time-constant T’’qo Stator leakage inductance Xl Stator resistance Ra Reactances are based on machine MVA in p.05 0.0 0.01-0.3 Xq 4) X"d = 0.1 Xq 3) X’q = 0.15-0.57 Xq 3) X"d = 0.0)= 0.3-1.13 11) s(1.2 0.0 0.0 0. Time-constants in seconds TNB Research Hydraulic Units 0.0) = 0.0 0.02-0.9 * Xd (0.2 0.0 0. For Round Rotor Machines: 1) Xq = 5.0 7) T"do= 0. X’d Quadrature-axis transient reactance X’q Direct-axis subtransient reactance. the other reactances can be estimated using X’d.0-2.3 1.12-0.05 0.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Table 11.09 0. the q-axis parameters can be estimated as: 1) Xq = 0.u.05 7) T"qo = 0.15-0.02-0.05 0.005 If only the d-axis parameters are known.1 8) s(1. Xd Quadrature-axis synchrounous reactance Xq Direct-axis transient reactance.12-0.66 X"d 5) T’do = 8.2)= 0.0 * X"d (can be 3 to 4 times higher) In some cases.5 0.5-9. The relationships can also be used to fill in where one or two data items are missing.0015-0.35 0.0 6) T"do = 0.8 0.2-0.66 X’d 5) Xl = 0.0-2.02 Thermal Units 1.11 9) s(1.45 1.148 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .5 .23 X’d 2) Xd = 1.25 0. In that case.0-10.01-0.1-0.4 For Salient Pole Machines: 1) Xq = 2.2) = 0.33 X’d 2) Xd = 1.2-0.

Peak load level should be chosen as 1..8 and 1.45. The duration of each load levels are then determined from the intersections of the four load level points with the load duration curve. about 0. having four pints at 0. the load levels from light to peak (0.u. 11. These values are to be for defining the load snapshots of network model in PSS/ADEPT. Load could be scaled by selecting all loads in the network or by categories of load. In all applications. 0. and 2) Light load.u. However. the existing data must be reviewed and updated to reflect the condition when the DG Plant will be connected.35 X"dv The relationship varies significantly among machines.u. and light load level 0. Thus. Since we require 3 load levels. After the loads have been updated.149 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . at least 2 additional load snapshots should be prepared. 0. it is possible to estimate the unsaturated reactances needed for input stability simulations. the range of the factor is about 1.2. X"q is assumed equal to X"d.0 respectively) are divided into three equal sections – in the case of figure E.6. only the ‘Base Case’ load should be scaled.4 p. In particular the following updates must be included: 1) All new network additions – substations and circuits 2) Feeder loads must be updated in accordance to the latest load forecast In PSS/ADEPT network model.35 X’dv 2) X"di = 1.7.1 to 1. the reactances must conform to the ratios: a) Xd > X’d > X"d > Xl b) Xq >X’q > X"q > Xl Note that subtransient saliency (i.0.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research If only saturated values of the reactances are known.e. namely: 1) Intermediate. An estimate of the relationship between the two is: 1) X’di = 1. .4. where X"d • X"q) has negligible effect on transient stability calculation and is normally ignored.2 illustrates an example of selecting load snapshots from a 24-hour load profile given in p. There is usually little or no effect of saturation on the steady-state reactances and also no effect on X’q.2.2Review/Update Network Model It is assumed that existing network model has already been established for all distribution networks in TNB. for intermediate load the load level should chosen at the middle of intermediate load duration. Before the DG Plant model is included in the network data. The standard method for labeling reactances is: 1) Reactance at rated voltage (saturated) = X"dv 2) Reactance at rated current (unsaturated) = X"di Similar terminology is used for the transient reactances.0 p.4 to 1. Figure 11.

This approach ensures that the voltage in the distribution network would be maintained within criteria limit on loss of the DG Plant.8 Intermediate Load Level 0. A planning/design approach that ignores the reactive power contribution (sending and absorbing) of the DG Plant is normally used.6 Load duration Load Duration Light Load 0. 11.150 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .u. the DG Plant could then be included in the model. planning and design.2 0 1 6 11 Time (hours) Base/Peak Intermediate Light 16 21 Figure 11. the voltage level at that bus must be within the criteria range (see Appendix D).2. If there is one generating unit. it can be set as . Before a DG Plant is connected to a network bus. Case (i) is the least complex and case (iv) is the most in term of system studies. ii) Isolated with automatic/manual transfer – under normal condition operates independently from distribution network and automatically/manually connected to the distribution network on loss of DG Plant generation sources.4 0.2 Peak Load TNB Research 1 Load Load (p. iii) Connected to the distribution network and operates parallel without export of power. iv) Connected to the distribution network and operates parallel with import/export (bidirectional power flow) possibilities.3Connecting DG Plant and Modelling Approach Generally there are four possible ways of connecting a DG Plant to the distribution network: i) Isolated with no grid connection – operate independently of the distribution network.) 0.Tenaga Nasional Berhad 1.2: An example of calculating load snapshots After the network model without the DG Plant has been established and checked.

0 If there are several generating units in the DG Plant with its own loads. The objective is to have negligible reactive power flow through the interface.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research ‘constant power’ unit with zero reactive power output (power factor 1. Where the DG Plant has its own distribution network. the network together with generating units and interface transformer(s) must be modelled.3: Constant power unit on power factor = 1. Normally. Figure 11. the generators must also be set to constant power factor with reactive power output to match the DG Plant loads. there may be more than one option of connecting the DG Plant to the network. .0) as illustrated in figure 11.151 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3.

250 5 3 1. To illustrate the effects on voltage profile.4: Minimum transformer impedance (IEC 76) No kVA Range Minimum +Ve sequence impedance (%) 1 Up to 630 4 2 631 – 1. the potential for greatest voltage rise will occur when the distribution network is during light load since this condition hinders the local absorption of the exported power. Clearly. intermediate and light. the DG will also .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research The interface transformer has major influence on the short-circuit contribution of the DG Plant to the distribution network and therefore its parameters particular positive and zero sequence impedances must be reasonably modelled.35 6 12501 – 25. Table 11.150 6.301 – 12.4 is modeled in PSS/ADEPT.300 7.000 10 7 25. such voltage rise will reflect directly through to LV customers.152 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .4Network Voltage Profile Clearly. To illustrate voltage profile analysis a distribution network as shown in figure 11. With DG connected to the distribution network.15 5 6. 2) The location of the DG Plant in the feeder. with DG connected to the distribution network the voltage profiles will be altered. the voltage will rise in the direction of the generator terminals.0. For voltage profile analysis. the zero sequence impedance of the transformer would be assumed to be the same with the positive sequence. Table 11. Since distribution transformer uses fixed tap.0.25 4 3. The degree of voltage rise will be related to: 1) Type of generator and its associated control systems – assume power factor of 1. This aspect will tend to be the significant limiting factor in dictating the maximum size of generator that can be accommodated at a specific voltage level. and 5) The size of the feeder conductors and its connections to the DG Plant.5 11. 4) The distribution of load on the feeder.251 – 3. The minimum impedance value should be used in the ‘preliminary system study’ for maximum contribution of fault current from the DG Plant. In PSS/ADEPT.2.500 8.001 – 200. An existing 11kV feeder with uniformly distributed load is where the DG Plant is to be connected. What will influence the zero sequence current contribution is the grounding of the star point of the interface transformer.4 shows minimum impedance values for different size transformers in accordance with the requirements of IEC 76. the generating unit must be set to power factor of 1.151 – 6. The load flow analysis could be used to determine the voltage profiles in the network particularly the feeder where DG is connected. it must not cause the network voltages to stray outside any statutory limits and the limits defined by the planning criteria. The analysis should be carried out under at least the three load conditions of peak (base). 3) The level of export relative to the minimum load condition.000 12. As the power is forced through the feeder towards the source.

u.95 p. 1.4: Example uniformly distributed load feeder for voltage profile analysis 11. In this example.05 1 0.1 Peak Intermediate Light Voltage (p.5. 33kV 33kV connection alternative 33kV Additional 11kV Feeder 11kV DG Plant Feeder with uniformly distributed load Figure 11. the voltage profile along the feeder is shown in figure 11. during peak load.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research be connected to the middle and beginning of the feeder.4.153 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Distance (km) Figure 11.) 1.u.5: Feeder voltage profile without DG Plant . the voltage at the end of the feeder is slightly below the criteria limit of 0. Effects of additional 11kV feeder and distribution at higher voltage level of 33kV would also be demonstrated.2.1 Voltage Profile Without the DG Without the DG Plant.95 0.

1000kW export When a DG is connected at the end of a feeder.6 and 11.7: Voltage profile.0).9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Distance (km) Figure 11.4. .u. When the power export to distribution network is increased to 1000kW. 500kW export 1. intermediate and light.95 0.u. It must be noted that the DG contributes to significantly to increase and flatten the voltage profile along the feeder.) 1.154 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Since the approach is for the DG Plant not to contribute reactive power regulation (constant power factor at 1. 1.05 1 0.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.2 Voltage Profile DG at the end of feeder The voltage profiles with the DG located at the end of the feeder with generator export of 500kW and 1000kW are shown in figures 11.05 1 0.1 Peak Intermediate Light Voltage (p. voltage profile analysis would indicate the limit on power export to the distribution network and thus the total size or capacity of the DG Plant units. With 500kW output voltages remain within criteria for all nodes throughout the load levels – peak.7 respectively.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Distance (km) Figure 11.6: Voltage profile. DG at end of feeder.95 0. voltage profile along the feeder is raised to significant level beyond the criteria limits particularly during light load. a sudden loss of the unit would not result in voltage limit violation. DG at end of feeder.2.1 Peak Intermediate Light Voltage (p.) 1.

1.4.05 1 0.10 show voltage profiles at the three load levels for various DG Plant power export when it is located in the mid of the feeder. 1000kW export Peak Intermediate 1.) 1.155 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .95 0.9: Voltage profile.1 Voltage (p.05 1 0. DG at mid of feeder.1 Voltage (p. 2100kW export When located at the mid of the feeder.10: Voltage profile.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.8: Voltage profile.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Light 1.u.2.u.) Figure 11. DG at mid of feeder.05 1 0. amount of export could be increased but voltage remains the limiting factor.) Figure 11. An export of 1000kW would result in voltage to be slightly out of the criteria range near the generator bus. .3 Voltage Profile DG at the mid of feeder Figures 11.8 through 11. 500kW export Peak Intermediate 1.95 0. DG at mid of feeder.95 0.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Light 1.1 Voltage (p.u.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Peak Intermediate Light Figure 11.

4.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Light 1. 1.95 0. DG at the source of feeder.u.u.05 1 0.1 Figure 11.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.4 Voltage Profile DG at the source of feeder When the DG Plant is located near the source of the feeder. the amount of export to the distribution network could be increase further with respect to voltage limits as indicated in figure 11.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Distance (km) Figure 11. DG at the source of feeder.95 0.13. 5000kW export .95 0. DG at the source of feeder.11: Voltage profile.12: Voltage profile.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Light 1. 2000kW export Peak Intermediate Voltage (p.1 Peak Intermediate Light Voltage (p. In this case a maximum export of 2000kW would result in voltage to slightly outside the criteria range (see figure 11.05 1 0.u.) 1. 500kW export Peak Intermediate 1.1 Voltage (p.2.11 through 11.) Figure 11.05 1 0.12).156 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .13: Voltage profile.) 1.

0 kW .u.95 0. the cable capacitance results in slight increase in voltage at the end of the feeder as shown in figure 11. we investigate the impact on voltage profile of a reinforcement comprising of an additional 11kV circuit operating in parallel with the existing feeder as shown in figure 11.15: Voltage profile.2.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Distance (km) Figure 11.14: Reinforcement with parallel 11kV feeder We examine the impacts of voltage profile with the additional 11kV parallel feeder. with parallel 11kV feeder DG output = 0.14. 1.157 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .15.1 Peak Intermediate Light Voltage (p.5 Voltage Profile DG at end of feeder with additional 11kV feeder As an example.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.05 1 0.) 1.4. Without any DG output. 11kV Parallel Feeder Figure 11.

1 Peak Intermediate Light Voltage (p.2. DG output is transferred using the 33kV circuit.) 1.17 using 33kV line. voltage profile must again be examined when reinforcement particularly using long circuits is attempted.95 0. 1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research The addition of the long 11kV feeder cause voltage rise to appear at lower DG output as compared with the one without the additional feeder (see figure 11.u.16: Voltage rise at 500kW output with parallel 11kV feeder The above result shows that a feeder reinforcing the network may not serve to eliminated or reduce the voltage rise problem. Therefore.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Distance (km) Figure 11. In this example.05 1 0.16).158 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .17: Use of 33kV feeder for power transfer .6 Voltage Profile DG at end of feeder with 33kV feeder connection Another possible reinforcement is to have circuit at the next voltage level as shown in figure 11.4. 11. 33kV Feeder Figure 11.

95 0. the limiting factor is overload of circuits.) Distance (km) Figure 11.1 Voltage (p.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research The 33kV circuit significantly improves voltage profile performance even with high DG kW export as indicated in figures 11.) 1.18 through 11.u.05 1 0.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Light 1. 9000kW export In the example of using 33kV feeder.95 0.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Light 1. 500kW export Peak Intermediate 1.20: 33kV feeder.95 0.1 Figure 11.05 1 0.1 Voltage (p. . Peak Intermediate 1.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance (km) Light 1.u.18: 33kV feeder.) Figure 11.20. 2000kW export Peak Intermediate Voltage (p.u.19: 33kV feeder.159 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .05 1 0.

5.160 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .15 Voltage (p. in planning the main principle to be followed is that ‘the connection of the DG must not result in increase in system losses’.9 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 DG Output (kW) Figure 11. the DG output with respect to loss limit can be as high as 3000kW.05 1 Voltage limit Range 0. 11. If loss at peak without DG is used as the limit.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.) 1.2. 500 450 400 Peak Intermediate Light Feeder Losses (kW) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Loss limit (use peak) DG Output (kW) 1.05 (maximum of about 1300kW). .2 Peak Intermediate Light 1. voltage limit may be the limiting factor for export as compared to loss limit.u. this corresponds to minimum (reduced) loss for the feeder. Therefore. If the output is limited to the voltage limit of 1.95 0.1 1. However.5 System Losses Losses must be treated as an important attribute of the DG Plant.2. It must never be assumed that a DG Plant connection will contribute to reduce losses.4 indicate the behaviour of system losses. The following results using network of figure 11.1 Losses DG at the end of the feeder Figure 11.21 shows losses and voltage profiles with different DG kW outputs.21: Loss variation with DG connected at the end of the feeder When a DG is connected to the end of the feeder. the limiting criterion is the voltage where the maximum export at peak is limited to less than 1500kW.

15 Voltage (p. losses are reduced significantly with DG Plant maximum export of slightly less than 5000kW (see figure 11.95 0. However.2 Peak Intermediate Light 1.) 1.2 Losses DG at the mid of the feeder When the DG is located at the middle of the feeder.161 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .u.9 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 DG Output (kW) Figure 11.1 1.22).2.22: Loss variation with DG connected at the mid of the feeder When a DG is connected to the mid of the feeder.05 1 Voltage limit Range 0.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.5. voltage criterion requirement results in limiting the DG Plant output to less than 2500kW 500 450 400 Peak Intermediate Light Feeder Losses (kW) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Loss limit (use peak) DG Output (kW) 1. voltage limit may also be the limiting factor for export as compared to loss limit. .

162 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .15 Voltage (p.23: Loss variation with DG connected at the source of the feeder Based on the above analysis. However. the amount of export could increased significant from both the perspective of losses and voltage (see figure 11.2.) 1.2 Peak Intermediate Light 1.u.95 0.3 Losses DG at the source of the feeder When the DG is located at the source of the feeder.9 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 DG Output (kW) Figure 11.5.05 1 Voltage limit Range 0.1 1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11. the output (the quantum of export) of the DG when connected to existing feeder would significantly limited by voltage limit criteria.23). voltage criterion requirement results in limiting the DG Plant output to less than 3500kW 500 450 400 Peak Intermediate Light Feeder Losses (kW) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Loss limit (use peak) DG Output (kW) 1. .

Network protection will cause a delay in tripping. Fault level study has to be carried out and it shall not exceed 90% of the rating of the associated switchgears or TNB design fault level. a network in figure 11. particular attention must be paid to: 1) Increase in 3-phase fault MVA (90% limit) 2) Making capacity For calculating of making duty.2. 3) Step-down transformer (at Main Intake S/S) NER must be modelled. and .8 should be used on the 3-phase fault MVA level. as a result fault breaking will be a less onerous condition since fault current have been reduced. 25kA. min. 3-phase Tx with NER Tx with min IEC impedance Tx with NER 150A. 25kA for 3-phase is used. Therefore. 2) Step-down transformer (at Main Intake S/S) impedance must be based on the actual. Figure 11. IEC imped. If however.24 is used.24: Network for fault level analysis The following modelling assumptions are to be used: 1) Source must be modelled with maximum value of fault kA – for 33kV.163 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . To illustrate the analysis of DG Plant contribution to fault level. the values not available. a multiplying factor of 1. 4) DG interface transformer minimum IEC impedance should be used. minimum IEC impedance should be used. Detail knowledge on the protection operating time and the time constant of a particular generator are required to assess this situation.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11. All of the associated switchgears must be able to withstand the stress to which they are subjected.6 Short-Circuit Analysis The connection of DG will contribute to the local system fault level.

164 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The fault current contribution of the DG Plant is most critical when it is located near the source bus as illustrated in figure 11. the LV bus has exceeded the 90% limit.0kA respectively and these should be checked against the actual make rating.6kA and 28. For fault level evaluation the LV transformer tap should be set to the maximum. In this example.9% Figure 11. When evaluating the impact of DG Plant on fault level.5kA for LV equipment may be exceeded with increase fault level due to DG Plant contribution. with highest possible voltage.0kA 91.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 5) DG interface transformer NER must be modelled for 150A contribution the distribution network.6kA 28. The making duty of the 415V and 11kV breakers are 51.1% 77. 51.25. that is.25: 3-phase fault level assessment . This is because the fault rating of 31. it is important to look at the 415V busbar after the LV step-down transformer.

feeder capacity is not normally the limiting parameter in terms of DG Plant output to the distribution network.26). has already occurred. the limiting factor remains voltage and not circuit capacity. However. as in the previous case. feeder overload occurs when the DG output is 4MW (see figure 11. at this power export overvoltage of 1. However. .27. 4MW Output Overload Figure 11.u.7 System/Feeder Adequacy Based on previous analysis. If the DG Plant is located in the middle of the feeder. In this case 5.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.28.5MW as shown in figure 11. overload would occur at higher MW output.165 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2. overload/circuit capacity and voltage issue are limiting DG output as indicated in figure 11. As an example.22 p.26: Feeder overload is not limiting export when DG Plant at the end of the feeder. When the DG is located closed to the source.

27: Feeder overload is not limiting export when DG Plant at the end of the feeder. . 6MW Output Figure 11.5MW Output Figure 11.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Overload 5.28: Feeder overload and voltage are not limiting export when DG Plant at the source.166 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

167 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . This tool will be used in most of the analysis required in the ‘preliminary system study’ and the first part of . typical models as found in PSS/E and PSS/VIPER manuals could be used. The scenarios for this study are both at peak load and base load conditions with disturbance introduce at various selected critical points in the network.1 Models for Excitation Control If model and parameters for excitation controllers are not provided. 11. In this study the frequency and the voltage stability need to be confirmed under fault condition. Apart from reviewing the ‘preliminary system study’.1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.1Stability Analysis Study on local distribution network stability and security need to carried out for every DG installation especially for DG with a capacity of more than 5 MW.3.3 PSS/ADEPT Network Model to PSS/E Dynamics TNB currently employs PSS/ADEPT for distribution network analysis. typical models as found in PSS/E and PSS/VIPER manuals could be used. 11. 11. It is important also to study the stability and the security of the network that has been detached (if any) from the grid due to loss of mains -islanded network. and 2) Insulation coordination. As stated earlier the main objectives of the ‘power system study’ are: 1) To review the results/findings of the ‘preliminary system study’ with revised input data.3.2 Models for Speed-Governor If model and parameters for speed-governor controls are not provided. and 3) To establish functional specifications of the interface and associated equipment for use by the DG Developer. For DG installation that is less than 1 MW the study might be waived.3. 11. If the frequency values either remain constant (at the nominal value of 50Hz) or converge to a different equilibrium value then the system is stable. Frequency stability is analysed by tracking the frequency at each substation as it evolves over time.1. the ‘power system study’ has to include two new studies: 1) Stability.3 Power System Study Power system study is carried following formal submission of application for connection of the DG Plant to the distribution network and confirmation of all input data and parameters. 2) To examine additional control requirements to mitigate possible problems.1. On the other hand if a small disturbance at one substation in the system causes the frequency at one or more substations do diverge from equilibrium then the system is said to be unstable. This would determine how DG should react under such a condition.3.

the network data can be saved into a HUB format and this format could read in PSS/ADEPT Utility as shown in figure 11. a distribution network in figure 11. TNB also uses PSS/VIPER for dynamic analysis. a new approach is being developed that the PSS/ADEPT network model can be translated for use with PSS/E for dynamic simulations.168 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research ‘power system study’.29: Sample network for stability analysis in PSS/ADEPT In PSS/ADEPT. . However.29 is to be examined in terms of transient stability. As an example.30. Figure 11. This way requires that PSS/ADEPT network model for steady-state analysis be reentered into PSS/VIPER. PSS/ADEPT Utility is a program that converts PSS/ADEPT file to PSS/E and thus ready for stability simulations.

The two controls will have to be added separately to the dynamic data file. .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 11. In PSS/ADEPT Utility.169 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .30: Reading PSS/ADEPT HUB File into PSS/ADEPT Utility Currently the Utility converts PSS/ADEPT generator data to corresponding PSS/E dynamic data but without excitation and speed-governor controls. stability simulation with PSS/E in the background can be carried out as shown in figure 11.31 and 11.32.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 11.31: Stability simulation setup Figure 11.170 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .32: Stability run .

1. Figure 11. As an example.4 Stability Analysis Analysis of stability simulations is based examination of the system responses to disturbances.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Figure 11.171 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3.34: Response of states and controls following system disturbances . rotor angle response as shown in figure 11.34 would indicate whether or not out of synchronism had occurred.33: Specifying disturbance 11.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 11.3. In this guidebook.172 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2Insulation Coordination Analysis Insulation coordination study is particularly important when overhead lines are involved. Insulation coordination study is not yet carried out by TNB. insulation coordination study has been proposed to be carried out and therefore TNB is encourage to explore further. The objective of the study is to examine possible overvoltage conditions following contingencies and to ensure that sufficient insulation and protection are provided. .

On detection of fault or malfunction. The setting of the under frequency trip (Hz) must be based on the recommendation of the manufacturer. b) For any distribution fault.1). the generator must be protected from any damaging effects. the DG must not cause problems to the utility system and the customers. When the feeder is supplying load greater than the capacity of the generator. the relays must trip appropriate circuit breakers to isolate the faulty section to minimize equipment damage and safety hazards during the faults whilst maintaining power supply continuity on healthy parts of the system. 12. . under frequency and under voltage are expected to occur and UV and UF relays will operate to trip the generator (see figure 12. Under voltage (UV) and Under Frequency (UF) relays are designed to trip the generator when the distribution feeder is taken off.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 12.173 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . The basic philosophies for the types and design of the protection schemes are that: a) For any internal fault within the DG installation. Appendix F: Protection and Control Requirements 12.2 Types of Protection Requirements The following paragraphs describe the various functions of the required protections under various types of faults and conditions. TNB must ensure that these protections are properly coordinated for reliable and safe operation of the distribution feeder to protect TNB equipment and safety of other TNB customers.1 Introduction The protective requirement must be based on the need to detect system faults and malfunctions both within the DG installation as well as the TNB distribution feeder. Although the design and types of protection for the DG installation including its generating units is the responsibility of the DG Developer.

1: Illustration of UV and UF relays operation When the feeder load is sufficient to be supplied from the generator under islanded operation. BR2 S DG Plant 2MW BR3 DG Feeder 4 3MW UF UV BR4 Total load 5MW Feeder 5 BR5 Figure 11. overfrequency will occur and therefore OF relay is required as illustrated in figure 12. UV and UF relays may not operate. Therefore. this condition where flow to the feeder at the source will result in sustained islanded operation of the DG Plant with feeder must be avoided by rescheduling the DG export to the distribution network.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Feeder 1 Main Intake BR1 Feeder 2 1. or/and • Undervoltage trip. feeder breakers are not equipped with dead line check to prevent reclosing on live feeder. under the current operational practice. Any islanded operation required later must be performed based on operation and safety procedures agreed by both the generator and the utility. An alternative to dead line check relays is an automatic transfer trip that upon opening of the utility feeder breaker. In distribution systems.174 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . If the feeder load to be supplied by the generator is less than the generation. Generator damage would be likely when the feeder breaker is reclosed. BR3 open DG to supply 5MW with 3MW turbine power limit then: • Underfrequency trip. The setting of the OF relay must also be based on the recommendation of the generator manufacturer. this may present a hazard to personnel. .2. a signal is provided to trip the generator. 2. If the resulting feeder load could be totally supplied by the generator under islanded operation.

It is normal practice that on a distribution fault on the feeder. both generator OCEF and feeder OCEF would see these fault currents. However. Combined over current and earthfault (OCEF) relays are employed for protection of overcurrent and earthfault in both directions. To prevent damage on the prime mover due to motoring of the generator during reversal of power. Transient over-voltages due to switching or lightning should be catered for by the design of the distribution and DG systems insulation. Time delay must be incorporated to prevent nuisance tripping during synchronization of the generator. Loss of synchronism manifested into generator over-speed or under-speed that would be detected by the generator mechanical speed relays. Therefore. the generator voltage regulator will take care of the overvoltage by reducing excitation. the OCEF relays are used as backup for the generator internal fault. If the fault is cleared and the generator operates in isolation then frequency and voltage relays would likely to operate depending on the generation-demand balance. However.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Feeder 1 Main Intake BR1 Feeder 2 1. the generator would also be tripped out. the over-voltage relay would be useful when the voltage regulator is defective or limited that it would result in sustained over-voltage. 2. BR3 open DG to supply only 1MW with 3MW turbine power: • Overfrequency trip. IDMT relays equipped with instantaneous trip are used in this case. On distribution system fault.175 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .2: Illustration of OF relay operation OV relays are installed on the DG side to protect against over-voltage resulting from a sudden loss of load. Coordination of the generator OCEF relays with that of feeders would become more difficult due flow of fault currents from both sources into fault. . the feeder OCEF is allowed to trip first followed by the generator. RP or directional relays are installed. For large generators provided with its own unit protection. if inter-trip is provided. BR2 S DG Plant 2MW BR3 DG Feeder 4 3MW OF BR4 Total load 1MW Feeder 5 BR5 Figure 12.

176 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Loss of field is normally detected by an undercurrent relay connected to a shunt in the field circuit. To summarise. Upon loss of excitation. the requirements of protection are as follows: i) Undervoltage (UV) ii) Over-voltage (OV) iii) Under Frequency (UF) iv) Reverse Power (RP) v) Over-current (OC) vi) Earthfault (EF) vii) Step-up transformer differential protection . the generator rotor accelerates to above synchronous speed where it continues to generate power as an induction generator.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Field failure (FF) relays is employed to detect malfunction of the generator excitation field. Negative phase sequence relays are employed to detect excessive unbalanced loading of the generator.above 5MVA requires unit protection (TD) viii) Loss of system synchronization/Field failure relay (FF) .

3: Distributed Generator protection schemes .3 Distributed Generator Protection Scheme Figure 12. Figure 12.3 shows the functional details of the required DG protection scheme. All the relaying code used follows the TNB protective device code.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 12.177 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .

1General Requirement 12.C supply is lost and during restoration.4 Summary of TNB’s Distribution Protection Practices “The Protection and Control: Code of Practice (2nd Edition)” was launched in May 2003 as a main guidebook to standardize the policies.C supply.178 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Generation. 2) All protective relays shall be stable and not be affected by a slow decay.1. their primary equipment shall also be protected against damage from any type of faults and shall follow the setup and schemes specified as in the guidebook. dips. 4) The Relays shall be housed in dust and moisture proof cases according to IEC 60529 and shall be suitable for duty under tropical climate. For substation and transformer faults.4. while for cable and overhead lines the maximum fault clearing time allowed is 600ms. 22kV and 11kV systems for the Main protection relaying scheme. These requirements applied for 33kV.C converter. The condition also applies for D. the maximum fault clearing time shall not exceed the short-circuit rating of the primary equipment.C system in the range of 80% to 120% of the nominal 110V DC or 30 V D. For the Backup protection relaying scheme. ripples.C without the use of voltage dropping devices. control and their supporting equipment for all TNB core business.C/D.2 Protection Relays The general requirements for protection relays to be used in TNB system are as follows: 1) Relays shall be suitable for operation on D.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 12. 7) Reset facilities shall be made available. Operating and Reset Time The maximum fault clearing time is defined as the maximum time interval between the fault inception and the fault clearance of the faulty element from the power system. either electrically or mechanically and all indicators shall be clearly visible without opening of relay front cover or relay panel door. maximum operating time and maximum reset time shall be standardized not to exceed 50ms. co-generators and bulk customers. 5) The relays shall be insensitive to the capacitive effect of control cable.4. the fault clearing time must not exceed 150ms. surges. schemes and practices on the protection. All TNB primary equipment shall be protected against damages from any type of faults.4. . 6) All relays shall be correctly rated to the current transformer secondary rating and voltage transformer secondary rating.1 Maximum Fault Clearing Time. 3) The protective relays shall not give a trip output signal when D.1. 12. For all external parties such as IPPs. Transmission and Distribution Divisions. 12. Maximum Pickup time. spikes and chattering of the D.

2.C current and A. Control and auxiliary relays shall be limited to the TNB Accepted Relay List.4. Over-current. 9) The relays.1: Distribution overhead line feeder protection requirements Voltage Route length Scheme 33kV and > 2 downstream 1. The functional scheme for underground cable feeder protection is tabulated as in Table 12.2.2.2 Underground Cable Feeder Protection The underground cable shall be protected against severe damage caused by faults and insulation breakdown. Under-voltage b) Model and version. Main unit protection [87CC or 87CD] below substation 2. shall b provided with clearly inscribed labels describing their rating and application.2.4. 12..2Protection Scheme Policy All Main. whether mounted in panels or not. Main Over-current and Earthfault protection [50OC + substation 50EF] 2.4. Backup.1 Overhead Line Feeder Protection The overhead line shall be protected against faults and equipped with appropriate autoreclosing facilities to reduce the outage period. control and alarm functions. auto-reclose shall also be initiated by Backup protections.g.179 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . REL561 V1.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 8) The relays contacts shall be suitably rated for tripping. In addition.C voltage. For distribution network.0 c) Serial number d) Nominal input ratings of D.C frequency 12. including at least the following : a) Function. . Table 12. e. 12.1. for 33kV system and below..g. 7VK512 V1. A scheme for live line maintenance purposes shall be also incorporated. control and indication purposes and sufficient number of contacts shall be provided separately for tripping. Backup Over-current and Earthfault protection [51OC + 51EF] All Main protection relays shall be able to initiate auto-reclose cycle. The overhead lines shall be protected as tabulated in the following Table 12. Backup Over-current and Earthfault protection [50OC (outgoing + 50EF + 51OC + 51EF] feeder) < 2 downstream 1. A. direct optical fiber connections shall be applied. e. All the relaying code shall follow the protective device codes.

3: Transformer protection requirements Type Protection scheme Power 1. where required . Backup Over-current and Earthfault protection [51OC + 51EF] Unit protection relays shall have sufficient contacts to initiate the Breaker failure protection and other protection. Main Unit protection [87TBD] Transformer 2. Backup Standby Earthfault protection [64SBEF2] Earthing Transformer 1. Table 12.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Table 12. direct optical fiber shall be used for tele-protection.2: Distribution underground cable feeder protection requirements Voltage Scheme 33kV and below 1.2. Main Transformer Guard Protection [63BT] [63BA + 63PRD + 71OLL] 2. Backup Over-current and Earthfault protection [51OC + 51EF] Control scheme Automatic Voltage controller Automatic Voltage Controller. Main Restricted Earthfault protection [64REF/LV] 4.4. In addition.180 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Mains Transformer Guard protection (33[26OT + 26WT + 63BT + 63 TCBT + 22)/11kV 63PRD] [26OA + 26WA + 63BA +71OLL] 3. it shall be treated as underground cable feeder. For Aerial Bundle Cable (ABC) installation. Backup Over-current and Earthfault protection [50OC + 51OC] HV side [51OC + 51EF] LV side 5. Main unit protection [87CC or 87CD] (outgoing feeder) 2. Types of transformer protection and its associated protection can be categorized as tabulated in Table 12. 12. Backup Standby Earthfault protection [64SBEF2] Local Transformer 1. control and signaling function and optical fiber shall be used for new installation. and to minimize the loss of life due to over-excitation. while no auto-reclose scheme shall be applied for underground cable feeder protection. where required Automatic Voltage Controller.3.3 Transformer Protection Transformer protection is required to prevent any damage to transformer and all associated equipment for all internal electrical and mechanical faults.

12. .4: Busbar protection requirements Voltage Level Functional scheme Reverse blocking scheme or 87BBHI 33kV.5 Coordination between DG and Distribution Protection For the distribution system with the DG to operate safely and reliably.. d) Generator limits . 22kV and 11kV. to the transformer shall be protected by their relevant protection scheme. the protection devices in both systems must be properly coordinated. cables. the D. In addition.. Table 12. alarm and tripping indications for all types of transformers shall be separated. It is only proper that coordination study be carried out to verify the proper operation of the protective equipment.4 describes the functional details of the required Busbar protection scheme. The following general procedure should be followed: Initially. With the connection of a generator. lines etc.2. independent from any other relays except for over-excitation protection relay. Busbar Type Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) Reverse blocking scheme or Arc protection Air Insulated relay Substation (AIS) Intertripping scheme to the remote end shall be provided for complete clearing of faults. b) Short-circuit limits including making and breaking capacities of equipment . All Main protection relays shall be dedicated.4. over-speed and under-speed. field current and voltage limits.reactive. c) Transformer heat withstands capability. active power. The DG should set all the protective relays for the protection of their installation disregarding any coordination with the utility system.181 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . etc. Table 12. the fault current contribution and distribution would change significantly requiring detailed analysis and resetting/coordinating the protection devices. The report to the utility should include: a) Protection philosophies adopted. e) Documents on characteristics of the relays and fuses employed. In addition.breakers. where it is required. The LV side of earthing and local transformers shall be protected by suitable rated fuses.C supply for the Busbar protection scheme at the busbar protection panel shall be separated from other protection schemes.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research All other interconnecting equipment such as power cable etc.4 Busbar Protection Busbars shall be adequately protected and the Busbar zone of protection shall be provided for each busbar section in any busbar configuration system. the DG should submit proposed setting of all relays given the interface short-circuit contribution from the utility. 12.

SCADA-ready prior to commissioning of the plant. digital to analog converters (DAC). and b) Changes required on the DG plant relay settings and the reason for the changes. “Computer Applications in the Electric Power Industry”). The utility perform coordination with the generator interconnected and the report should include: a) The proposed setting and their coordination. 12. power line carrier or fiberoptics) to a number of remote terminal units (RTUs) placed at various locations to collect data. that is. automatic generation control (AGC). isolation and service restoration. 472 and ANSI Std. RTUs are designed for an extended temperature environment (-40 to +85°C) expected of the electric utility environment. and more recently perform intelligent autonomous (local) control of electrical systems and report results back to the remote master(s). recloser blocking.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research f) Information on breaker operating time. automated meter reading (AMR). All the control centers will be equipped with SCADA facilities for supervisory control. feeder switching and reconfiguration. The SCADA facilities required are as follows:Remote Terminal Units (RTU) c/w Marshalling cubicle.6. g) Proposed settings/coordination curves (if applicable) and the reasons for the chosen setting. C37. RTUs are ruggedly constructed. .1 Basic SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) SCADA systems consist of one or more computers with appropriate applications software (Master Stations) connected by a communications system (wire. economic dispatch. Recognizing that the operation of any DG Plant would become an important feature of distribution operation. RTUs are designed to be powered by 120/240 Vac or 24/125 Vdc substation battery. 12.6. and h) Other important limits required of the utility. dispatch accuracy feedback. load management. system emulation. as well as metering power functions. system load. archiving processes.182 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . generator control.90a. remote control.2 SCADA Practices in TNB and Requirements TNB distribution system will be SCADA ready by 2007. An RTU may have multiple communications ports so that more than one master station can share the RTU. capacitor bank switching.6 SCADA/DA Requirements 12. inputs and outputs are fully protected against spurious electrical transients per the surge withstand capability (SWC) test specified by IEEE Std. digital inputs (status) and outputs (control). breaker control. monitoring voltage regulators. transformer temperature. voltage control. energy purchased and sold. see also Chapter 25 in the Standard Handbook. all DG Plants interface/connection are to be equipped with SCADA facilities. (For additional discussion. line switching. radio. SCADA systems are used for fault identification. Remote Terminal Units (RTU) RTUs are special purpose computers which contain analog to digital converters (ADC).

Wire configuration shall include lease lines or telephone lines. 1 nos. Wireless configuration shall include via microwave. remote control shall be able to be executed via the RTU on all switches that are in TNB’s jurisdiction/area of responsibility The communication system between the generator plant where the RTU is located and TNB could be via wire or wireless configuration. The RTU shall be maintained by the DG Plant Operator. TNB will provide the necessary functional and detailed specifications as well as the approved models/make. Nevertheless. The mode of communication to be used shall depend on the siting of the generator plant. of RTU complete with marshalling cubicle is required to be placed at the point of connection/interface. The RTU shall be provided by the DG Developer.6. All necessary interface modules to the RTU used for measurement purposes such as transducers shall be fixed. TNB will advice the generator plant of the mode of communication to be used. Lease line is the preferred option by TNB. 12. satellite or GSM. The RTU will be commissioned during commissioning of the DG Plant interface connection.183 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3 Master System The following data shall be required to be submitted to TNB for the purpose of TNB Network Application installed in the Master System: For each interface Transformer: • Rated voltage (kV) for every winding • Rated Apparent power (MVA) • Impedance voltage drop (%) • Short circuit (Copper) loss (kW) • No load loss (kW) • No load current loss (%) • Earth possibility • Short circuit resistance (ohm) • Short circuit reactance (ohm) • No load resistance (ohm) • No load reactance (ohm) • Vector group For each generating unit: • Nominal voltage . If required. The RTU shall measure / record the following :1) Frequency (Hz) 2) Voltage ( Volts) 3) Current (Amps) 4) Power factor 5) Real Power Energy flow (MW) 6) Reactive Power Energy flow (MVAr) and any other measurements deemed necessary by TNB. capacity of the generator plant and/or distance of the generator plant to the nearest TNB main substation (PMU or PPU).Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research Communication system from the DG Plant to TNB designated control centre.

such components require special software drivers. IBM OS-2 or Microsoft Windows disk operating system. a map of the affected area from an AM/FM database on the mapping system. There are also several variants of Unix that are PC compatible but their use in SCADA is minimal. True multi-tasking (running several independent programs in parallel) on a single PC is only possible with OS-2.1 Master Station. Dynamic data exchange (DDE) mechanisms in the operating systems allow the computer to link automated mapping/facilities management (AM/FM) databases to the SCADA system. The PC VGA display screen (the highest standard available for the PC) is considered a medium resolution device. The ability to call up multiple databases in conjunction with SCADA alarms allows for more efficient maintenance crew callouts when trouble occurs. While there are special drivers and video boards to enable non-standard higher resolution modes. The most common Master Station today is the ubiquitous IBM PC compatible microcomputer with either Microsoft or IBM DOS.6. Artificial intelligence programs will be able to filter alarms and perform corrective actions without operator intervention. TNB requires that 10% of the development cost to be charged to the plant generators 12.184 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .3. Mouse or trackball cursor pointer support is optional as is a LAN system such as Ethernet. Therefore. which monitors and controls RTUs and their attached electric apparatus. if TNB has to develop this function and any other associated function in order to meet the requirement.Tenaga Nasional Berhad • • • • • • • • Bus type (PV or PQ) Rated Voltage (kV) Rated apparent power (kW) Ratio delta P /delta f for equivalent governor model (kW/Hz) Rated power factor Sub-transient reactance (%) Stator resistance (%) Zero sequence reactance TNB Research In the case that TNB has to control the generator. . The Master Station has a core program which is called the operating system. the master system installed does not cater for AGC (automatic generator controller). The Master Station can not only monitor and control RTUs but can call up customer records from a networked billing computer. is no longer a turn-key custom product. Running on the operating system are the applications programs written by the utility or the SCADA vendor. The SCADA Master Station. The graphics capabilities of the modern workstations (and to a limited extent PCs) generally results in a man/machine interface (MMI) that makes it possible for the operator to easily deal with a variety of systems without sensory overload. PCs can be networked so the processing and displays can be distributed either for multiple users or to share tasks. PC Based Systems.

. This appendix contains a list of possible technical information on the DG plant and the network that the DG is connected to.1 Description of Facility and Site.1.1.2.1. Block diagrams of all controls and model parameters Excitation capability Protection settings and grounding Settings of each protective device Grounding types and values Generator Transformer data including tap changing facilities 13.2 Electrical system diagram – The electrical system diagram should be a high level diagram showing the electrical system at the connection point.2. auxiliary transformers and interconnecting cables.1. The connection agreement will contain both commercial and technical sections and information related to the connection of the DG plant.3 Machine Data – This should include all the relevant machine capability and data such as: Data on the turbine Manufacturers and test data of generator impedances and time constants.6 Control settings – control settings such as interlocking systems. 13.5 Auxiliary system data – Data on large items of equipment should be included such as large motors. such as a single line diagram.2. 13. Appendix G: Connection agreement 13. 13. Generally.2. 13.185 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 .1. mechanical.1 This section describes the DG plant and its auxiliaries and may include the following: 13.2.2.2.1. switchgear capability.4 Fault level contribution – The fault level infeed into the network should include contribution from generators and any induction motors.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 13.1 General This appendix outlines the possible technical contents of ‘Connection Agreement’ or ‘Connection Operation Manual’ to be established and agreed by both the DG Operator and TNB.2 Connection Agreement Examples of data required for the connection agreement include: 13. synchronizing systems should be described and where necessary details provided. 13. this information should describe the ‘as installed’ plant.

5 Max Import – If necessary. The levels should include Maximum MW and Maximum Mvar. Metering locations and a single line diagram should be included.3 Excitation Controls – The agreed control regime including agreed appropriate such as Power Factor Voltage control Var Control settings where 13. 13. The description should include: .2. the agreed levels of imports.1 The metering system should be described.1.1 This section should list out the technical conditions and any agreed requirements for the connection.2.2 Permitted Max Export Maximum MW Maximum Mvar 13.2.The DG plant operating regime should be described and may include description of: • Short term Parallel to network • Intermittent operation • Continuous operation • Standby generation 13.2. It is important that the current revisions of the standards at the time of design and installation are stated.2.4 Interconnection Facilities.2. Where necessary. . If the connection has firm and/or non firm offers.1 List of standards used in the design of the facility and network. 13.2.2.2. such as Standby and Top Up supplies should be included. 13.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 13.4.4 Constraints – Agreed constraints and description of the conditions for constraints should be included here.Operational and Tariff Metering 13.2 Design & Operations Standard 13.2.186 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . Items include: 13.4.3.4.7 Operating regime .Main and Check Meters . 13.2.4.4.2. the conditions of each should be described.MW and Mvar meters . the conditions for the agreed levels may be included.3 Energy Accounting and Metering Equipment.

13.1 This section describes the Distribution network characteristics and should include items such as: 13.5.3.2 System limits Operating Voltage Operating frequency Harmonics 13. It should include any interlocking facilities implemented.3 Maximum Network Design System fault levels – This is normally the designed capability of the Distribution network at the point of connection.2.3.8 Auto-reclosing facilities – Any auto reclosing facility that may affect the DG plant should be described. .1 This section should describe all the communication facilities and the list of available indications and control points. 13. 13.3.5.5. It should also include any voice communication equipment. including protection system details relevant to the DG plant.3Electricity Characteristics. It should be made clear whether this fault level includes the DG plant.5.5 System Drawing – a system drawing such as a single line diagram at the connection point should be included. 13.4 Current System Fault Levels – This is the normal fault level at the connection point. Normal configuration Outage configuration 13.Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 13.6 Interface protection system – The network protection system relevant to the connection point should be described.2Communication Facilities 13.5.7 Operating limits – Any other agreed operating limitations should be described. Normal Configuration Outage Configuration 13.3. This may include description of operation such as short term paralleling operation.3.5.5. Items may include: • SCADA control points • Remote indications • Output dispatch controls if any 13.3.3.5.5.187 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . It should have sufficient details as necessary.5.3.5.

• Communicating daily dispatch.3 Connection Operation Manual. • Supply restoration following a network disturbance. .Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNB Research 13.188 – 1_DG_Technical_GUIDEBOOK_Edition_1_MARCH_2005 . • Any interim operational arrangements. • Safety procedures. The operation agreements should include section such as: • Brief description of how network maintenance and DG plant maintenance is to be communicated.

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