PROJECT TITLE

MILLING MACHINE CONTROL WITH AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM

Under the guidance of

Mr. C.SUBRAMANI M.E (Ph.d)
(Asst. Professor, School of Electrical Engineering)

Name MEGANATHAN. C

Reg No - 5050910057

MOHAMMED HUSSAIN .M - 5050910059 MURALI KRISHNAN. S MURUGANANDAM. D - 5050910061 - 5050910063

Overall View:
1. Project Objective 2. Introduction 3. Analysis of hydraulic & AC Digital Servo system 4. AC Digital Servo Drive System 5. Result 6. Conclusion 7. Reference

1.Project Objective
2. Introduction 3. Analysis of hydraulic & AC Digital Servo system 4. AC Digital Servo Drive System 5. Result 6. Conclusion 7. Reference

1. PROJECT OBJECTIVE:

To improve the following parameters of existing milling machine by changing the table movement control from Hydraulic to AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM, to
 Increase the availability  Reduce rejections  Reduce power consumption

1. Project Objective

2.Introduction
3. Analysis of hydraulic & AC Digital Servo system 4. AC Digital Servo Drive System 5. Result 6. Conclusion 7. Reference

2.INTRODUCTION - About the company
• Brakes India Ltd, a TVS Group company is a leading automobile brake manufacturer in India • Customers include Multi national companies like Toyota, Nissan, Maruthi Suzuki, Volkswagen, Daimler and Indian giants like Tatas, Ashok Leyland, Mahindra & Mahindra

2.INTRODUCTION - About the project
• The Milling machine has hydraulic system for controlling the table movement. Problems faced with hydraulics: - Less reliability and repeatability - More time taken for setting-up of machine - Components scrapped during setting - Needs skilled man power for setting and breakdown attending - High power consumption - Running of multiple parts not possible • These problems are planned to be eliminated/ reduced by controlling the table movement with AC Digital Servo Drive system

2.INTRODUCTION - Working of a Brake System

Our Project is on Caliper Disc Brake

2.INTRODUCTION - Reason for Project Selection
Carrier

Housing
Brake Disc

• The caliper brake has housing and carrier • The carrier is mounted on the knuckle • During braking, the entire vehicle inertia comes on the carrier • The dimension of carrier is highly critical • Hence, this project is selected

1. Project Objective 2. Introduction

3.Comparison of hydraulic & Electrical Servo systems
4. AC Digital Servo Drive System 5. Result 6. Conclusion 7. Reference

3. COMPARISON of HYDRAULIC and ELECTRICAL SERVO - What is a Servo?

3. COMPARISON of HYDRAULIC and ELECTRICAL SERVO - Example of a Servo
Motor – Hydraulic/ Electric Position feedback

Position Input

Power source

3. COMPARISON of HYDRAULIC and ELECTRICAL SERVO - Merits and Demerits
No

HYDRAULIC SERVO

ELECTRIC SERVO

1

Positioning accuracy depends on hydraulic oil viscosity, temperature etc.
Needs skilled man power for setting and trouble shooting Suitable for manufacturing one part number in large volumes. High power consumption due to continuous running of Hydraulic motor Constraints in hydraulic pressure restricts the cutting parameters. Hence less output and low productivity. Low cost

Accuracy is independent of the environment. With closed loop control, micro millimeter accuracy is possible
Since control is through buttons and alarm messages, can be operated easily. With easy positioning, can be used for manufacturing multiple part nos. Servo motor gets power only when the table movement is required. Hence low power consumption. Suitable for very high cutting parameters. So productivity can be increased by many times. Cost is comparitively high

2 3 4 5

Changing the table position takes time Can be done by the touch of a button

6

7

1. Project Objective 2. Introduction 3. Comparison of hydraulic & Electrical Servo systems

4.AC Digital Servo Drive System
5. Result 6. Conclusion 7. Reference

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - AC Servo System Concept

AC Digital Servo Drive System

Servo Drive
Encoder

Servo Motor

Servo Motor, Servo Drive and Encoder are the important parts of an AC Servo System

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Block Diagram
1

2

3 1. AC Servo Motor 2. AC Digital Servo Drive 3. Position Sensor

Servo Drive System

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Drive types

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Classification of Servo Motors

AC Servo motor is AC synchronous motor, with 3 phase winding in Stator and rare earth permanent magnets in Rotor. It is generally called as AC SERVO motor

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Comparison of Servo Motors
S. no

Parameter Capacity

DC Servo Motor Less than 2 kW

AC Servo Motor 100W to 10 kW

Stepping motor Less than 100 W

1

2

Advantages

3

Disadvantages

 Smaller outside  High Speed dimensions.  High Torque  Large Torque  Compact  Good Operation  Good Operation  High output efficiency efficiency  Cheap  Good controllability  No maintenance  Low cost  Out of step and magnet noise at low speed  Out of step at low operations  Costlier, compared to speeds  Maintenance other models.  Magnet noise at low speeds intensive due to

brushes

AC Servo motor is more suitable for High Speed, High response, faster acceleration and deceleration controls. • Since no brushes, no maintenance is required.

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Construction of AC Servo motor

Overall construction

Very simple design, life determined by bearing life, no brushes and winding in rotor. • Working principle same as AC Synchronous motor.

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Operation of AC Servo motor

Vector Diagram Vector Control or field oriented control • Permanent magnetic field is shown as N-S • Field oriented control generates three phase stator currents in such a way that the resultant current vector Ir is always perpendicular to the magnetic field vector B •

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Working of AC Servo Drive
Input AC DC Bus

PWM Inverter

Output Voltage from PWM Inverter

Control circuit

• •

AC input is converted and inverted, and fed to the motor. The control Circuit monitors the Voltage, current etc and also has the “Lock-out” circuit to introduce delay in firing to compensate for the delay in OFF time of the IGBTs.

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Types of Feedback devices

Resolver

Encoder

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Comparison of feedback devices
S. no

Item

Photo Type Encoder Magnetic type encoder
 Simple processing circuit  Durable against noise, since Digital Signal  High resolution  Not suitable for high temperature application  By Frequency to Voltage conversion  Usable as Digital data

Resolver

1

Features

 Complex processing  Simple processing circuit circuit  Durable against noise Rugged  Strong against shock and  Strong against noise and vibration vibration  Not suitable for high  Available for high temp. temperature application application  By Frequency to Voltage conversion  Usable as Digital data  Uses phase variation of voltage as speed data  Needs processing circuitry for getting incremental data

2

Speed Detection

3

Position Detection

 Uses incremental pulse Uses incremental pulse  Easy to apply Zero  Easy to apply Zero position position pulse pulse

Photo type encoder is selected for our system, due to its High resolution

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Working of Photo Encoder

Encoder Schematic

Pulses A,B and Marker Pulse - C

Fall and raise of A&B are counted for position, speed and direction • Marker pulse C is used for arriving at initial position

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - System working
Position Input

1

2

3 • • • AC Power flows from Drive to the motor Motor speed and position detected by Encoder and feedback first given to drive. Based on the error value, the amplitude of the power signal varies Position feedback given to other controls for checking the position and stopping the motor

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Schematic
Before - Hydraulic system

After – AC Servo Drive system

4. AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM - Steps in changing part no
BEFORE - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM AFTER – AC SERVO DRIVE SYSTEM
Adjust hyd. cylinder position

Hydraulic Cylinder

Adjust cylinder travel speed

Hydraulic Valve
• Check the dimension by trial & error Job checking • If not ok repeat the above process

1. Project Objective 2. Introduction 3. Comparison of hydraulic & Electrical Servo systems 4. AC Digital Servo Drive System

5.Result
6. Conclusion 7. Reference

5. RESULT
- MTTR & MTBF
MTTR – Mean Time To Repair : - It is the average time required to repair a failed device - It reduced from 7 hours to 0.5 hours MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures: - It is the time elapsed between two failures - It increased from 100 hours to 350 hours Mean Time To Repair
Average Repair time in Hours

9 Average Repair time in Hours 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 MT…

AC Servo System Replaced

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Mean Time Between Failures
AC Servo System Replaced

Month

M…

Month

5. RESULT
- Cycle time per component
Cycle time: - It is the total time from beginning to the end of the milling operation. - Lower cycle time will improve productivity and give more no of components for the same time frame.
Operation Time - In seconds
Before - with Hydraulic system
S No Operation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 0 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3 0 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4 0 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5 0 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 6 0

1 2 3 4 5

Rapid forward Spindle start Feed start - Milling starts Rapid return Spindle stops

Cycle starts ---->

Cycle Ends ---->
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

After - AC Digital Servo Drive System
S No Operation
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 0 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3 0 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4 0 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5 0 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 6 0

1 2 3 4 5

Rapid forward Spindle start Feed start - Milling starts Rapid return Spindle stops

Cycle starts ---->

Cycle Ends ---->

-Cycle time reduced from 60 secs to 30 secs due to: * Faster speed of servo motor, Higher rigidity during milling

5. RESULT
- Average setting time
Average Setting time: - It is the time taken for changing from one product to another Average setting time
4.0
4.0 3.5 3.0 Time in Hours

2.5
2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 With Hydraulics Setting Time With AC Servo

0.5

Setting time reduced from 4 hrs to 0.5 hrs by eliminating trial and error adjustment

5. RESULT

- Power Consumption
Before After

Hydraulic Power pack
• Motor capacity in kW – 5.0 • Running time/day in Hrs – 16 • Power consumed/ day – 60 Units

Servo Motor
• Motor capacity in kW – 2.5 • Running time/day in Hrs – 16 • Power consumed/ day – 16 Units

Power cost saving – Rs 1 lakh per annum – 44 Units/day, Rs 8/ unit for 300 days

5. RESULT

- Cost saving
Total cost saving working: Reduction of MTTR: Setting time reduction Rejections Power consumption Total Net Cost saving Productivity increase Total cost saving Cost of AC Digital Servo Drive System Return on investment Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Before 21,000 12,000 1,500 144,000 178,500 137,100 200,000 337,100 600,000 2 years After 1,500 1,500 38,400 41,400

5. RESULT
No

Parameter

Unit of Required Measure Trend

Before – Hydraulic system

After – with AC DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE system

1 2 3 4 5

Reliability – Mean Time To Time in Repair – MTTR Hours Reliability – Mean time Time in between failures – MTBF Hours

7 .0 100 0.8 4.0 15

0.5 350 1.67 0.5 0

Repeatability – Process Index no capability Index - CPk
Average Setting time Components Rejection Productivity per shift Power consumption Need for Skilled man power Cost Saving Hours Nos Nos kWh/ day No Rs in lakhs -

6
7 8 9

480
60
Required -

960
16
Not Required

3.37

1. Project Objective 2. Introduction 3. Comparison of hydraulic & Electrical Servo systems 4. AC Digital Servo Drive System 5. Result

6.Conclusion
7. Reference

6. CONCLUSION

• All the project objectives are achieved: - Availability increased by decreasing MTTR and improving MTBF - Rejections reduced to Zero - Power consumption reduced by 44 units/ day
• Cost saving of Rs 3 lakhs per annum achieved, with return on investment of 2 years

1. Project Objective 2. Introduction 3. Comparison of hydraulic & Electrical Servo systems 4. AC Digital Servo Drive System 5. Result 6. Conclusion

7.Reference

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Basics of Industrial Servo Drives -Marcel Dekker 2. Mechatronic Servo System – Nakamura 3. Servo Motors and Industrial Control Theory – Frederick F Ling 4. Electrical Technology – BL Theraja & AK Theraja 5. Basic Electronics for scientists and Engineers – Dennis Eggleston 6. A text book of Electrical Technology – AC & DC Machines – Theraja 7. Wikipedia 8. AC Servo Motors – Mecapion 9. Servo System Basics - Omron

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