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BY  H.S.


Introduction Basic radars. Types of Radar. Search Radar Moving Target Indication Scan with search radar

Search Radar equation Conclusion



R=CTR 2 .



but use short waves that reflect off hard surfaces.Search radars scan a large area with pulses of short radio waves  Targeting radars use the same principle but scan a smaller area more often Navigational radars are like search radar. They are used on commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft .

 in tracking mode . An antenna with narrow pencil beam is sufficient for finding the target  Operated in both search and tracking mode. Operated only in search or acquisition mode. therefore separate radar is used for searching . only detecting target  both detecting and tracking.  it will have knowledge of other potential target. it has no idea of other potential targets  An antenna with narrow pencil beam is not sufficient for detecting and ranging.

r.f .-Pulse radar that utilizes doppler frequency shift as a means of discriminating moving from a fixed targets is called MTI -Blind speeds ( ambiguous Doppler measurement ) -2nd time around echoes (unambiguous range measurement) depends on p.

Blind Phases: It is due to the presence of sampling pulses at the point in the Doppler cycle at each sampling instant . With blind speeds moving targets are suppressed by a MTI system like ground clutters.The blind speed is a radial speed of the airplane at which the phase shifting of the echo-signal has the value ±n · 360° between two pulse periods.

Block Diagram of MTI .

Block Diagram of MTI with power amplifier .

Block Diagram of MTI with power amplifier .


processing the echoes over the whole PRI. i. this is performed over 360° in azimuth and over elevation angles ranging from 20-30° up to almost 90°.Search radars are systems devoted to the systematic exploration of a large volume of space for typical air search radars. over the whole observable range  a search radar has large beam in elevation and has a stacked beams in azimuth the beam steered both in elevation and azimuth in search radar. The search volume indicated solid angle ‘Ω ‘ .e.

Tracking scan 4.Circular scan 2.Dopplerscan Gain Sweep frequency .MODE: 1.Sector scan 3.

1 to 2 .     AZ EL steradians and the elevation extent goes from Ω=θaz θal R 90 100 2 180  Δβ=azimuthal extent from α1 to α2 1 Search Sector .

of the target • F = pattern propagation factor • R = distance from the transmitter to the target .The power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the equation: Where • Pt = transmitter power • Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna • Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna • σ = radar cross section. or scattering coefficient.


navigation search radar are extending their services to both military and civilian applications .There are several search radar like surveillance search radar .