Social Exclusion, Caste System and Anti Oppressive Social Work

Dr. Prashant Bhosale

Outline of Presentation
1. Concept: Social Exclusion 2. Problem : Caste System 3. Frame of Action : Anti Oppressive Social Work

 It’s as per the general agreement about core features and indicators related to poverty and inequality(Mayara Buvinic 2005).

Concept of Social Exclusion
 Social Exclusion is denial of equal opportunities imposed by certain group of society up on others which leads to inability of an individual to participate in the basic political, economic and social functioning of the society.

1. The Deprivation Caused through

2. It embedded in Societal Relations
and Societal Institutions (Arjan Hann 1997)

 Deprivation (i.e. denial of equal opportunity) and Poverty(i.e. lack of resources as compared to other member of the social group) can be the products of the Social Exclusion; the consequences depend on functioning of social institutions.

• An individual’s access to equal opportunity is largely impacted by the Social Exclusion provided interaction occurs between power/ subordinate relationship. (Mayra Buvinic 2005). • Exclusion from Societal Relation and Societal Institution : The process through which individuals or groups are wholly or partially excluded from full participation in the society in which they live.

Caste System
 “Historically, the caste system has regulated the social and economic life of people in India.”  Exclusion in form of deprivation, discrimination and isolation based on identity and ethnicity of a social group.  Caste system has the basic epistemological premise of the Hindu religious philosophy.

 It has an organizational scheme based on the division of social group (Caste) in which rights (i.e civil, cultural and economic) of an individual are predetermined and ascribed by birth passing through generation to generation.  Social Ostracism or social and economic penalties is the regulatory mechanism which enforces the social exclusion.

Anti Oppressive Social Work
 Anti oppressive practice embodies a person centered philosophy, an egalitarian value system concerned with reducing the deleterious effects of structural inequalities upon people’s lives;  A methodology focusing on both process and outcome; and structuring relationships between individuals that aims to empower users by reducing negative effects of hierarchy in their immediate interaction and the work they do together

 Structural Social Work Theory:
 The order and conflict perspectives are two competing views on the nature of people, society and social problems.  Former views : Society orderly, stable, persistent and shared culture , values and consensus on its form and institution  Later views: Society held together not by consensus but by differential control of resources and political power

A. Working within (and against) the system
        The personal is political Oppression Empowerment Consciousness raising Normalization Collectivization Redefining Dialogical Relationships

B. Working outside (and against) the system
    Social movements and coalition Building Progressive Unionism Professional Association Electoral Politics

1. Robert Mullay Structural Social Work: Ideology , theory and practice , M & S Publication, 1993. 2. Thorat Sukhadeo, Caste, Social Exclusion and Poverty Linkages, E article retrived on 4.10.12 3. Ray I. A., Ray S., B.R.Ambedkar and his philosophy of land reform: an evaluation, Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences, 2011

Thank You….!!!

Amartya Sen (2000)
 The “Unfavorable Inclusion”, with unequal treatment may carry same adverse effects as “Unfavorable Exclusion.”  There is important need to differentiate in between “Active Exclusion” and “Passive Exclusion” for casual analysis and policy response.  Exclusion or deprivation have an intrinsic importance of there own i.e. “Constitutive Relevance”  The exclusion in itself is not impoverishing but can lead to impoverishment of human life i.e. “ Instrumental Importance”.  In economic sense, the exclusion may operate through restrictions on the entry in market and/ through “selective inclusion” with an unequal treatment to market and non market transactions.

Market Economy framework and Exclusion
 “In market economy framework, occupational immobility would operates through restrictions in various markets such as land, labor, credit, other input and services necessary for an economic activity.  Labor being an integral part of the production process of any economic activity, would obviously become part of market discrimination.”

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