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Chap 91
Fundamentals of Hypothesis
Testing: OneSample Tests
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 92
What is a Hypothesis?
A hypothesis is a
claim (assumption)
about the population
parameter
Examples of parameters
are population mean
or proportion
The parameter must
be identified before
analysis
I claim the mean marks
of this class is 3.5!
© 19841994 T/Maker Co.
µ =
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 93
The Null Hypothesis, H
0
States the assumption (numerical) to be
tested
e.g.: The average number of TV sets in U.S.
Homes is at least three ( )
Is always about a population parameter
( ), not about a sample
statistic ( )
0
: 3 H µ >
0
: 3 H µ >
0
: 3 H X >
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 94
The Null Hypothesis, H
0
Begins with the assumption that the null
hypothesis is true
Similar to the notion of innocent until
proven guilty
Refers to the status quo
Always contains the “=” sign
May or may not be rejected
(continued)
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 95
The Alternative Hypothesis, H
1
Is the opposite of the null hypothesis
e.g.: The average number of TV sets in U.S.
homes is less than 3 ( )
Challenges the status quo
Never contains the “=” sign
May or may not be accepted
Is generally the hypothesis that is
believed (or needed to be proven) to be
true by the researcher
1
: 3 H µ <
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 96
Hypothesis Testing Process
Identify the Population
Assume the
population
mean age is 50.
( )
REJECT
Take a Sample
Null Hypothesis
No, not likely!
X 20 likely if Is ? µ = = 50
0
: 50 H µ =
( )
20 X =
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 97
Sampling Distribution of
= 50
It is unlikely that
we would get a
sample mean of
this value ...
... Therefore,
we reject the
null hypothesis
that m = 50.
Reason for Rejecting H
0
µ
20
If H
0
is true
X
... if in fact this were
the population mean.
X
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 98
Level of Significance,
Defines unlikely values of sample statistic if
null hypothesis is true
Called rejection region of the sampling distribution
Is designated by , (level of significance)
Typical values are .01, .05, .10
Is selected by the researcher at the beginning
Provides the critical value(s) of the test
o
o
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 99
Level of Significance
and the Rejection Region
H
0
: µ > 3
H
1
: µ < 3
0
0
0
H
0
: µ s 3
H
1
: µ > 3
H
0
: µ = 3
H
1
: µ = 3
o
o
o/2
Critical
Value(s)
Rejection
Regions
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 910
Errors in Making Decisions
Type I Error
Rejects a true null hypothesis
Has serious consequences
The probability of Type I Error is
Called level of significance
Set by researcher
Type II Error
Fails to reject a false null hypothesis
The probability of Type II Error is
o

© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 911
Errors in Making Decisions
Probability of not making Type I Error
Called the confidence coefficient
( )
1 o ÷
(continued)
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 912
Result Probabilities
H
0
: Innocent
The Truth The Truth
Verdict Innocent Guilty Decision H
0
True H
0
False
Innocent Correct Error
Do Not
Reject
H
0
1  o
Type II
Error (  )
Guilty
Error
Correct
Reject
H
0
Type I
Error
(
o
)
Power
(1   )
Jury Trial
Hypothesis Test
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 913
Type I & II Errors Have an
Inverse Relationship
o

If you reduce the probability of one
error, the other one increases so that
everything else is unchanged.
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 914
Factors Affecting Type II Error
True value of population parameter
Increases when the difference between
hypothesized parameter and its true value
decrease
Significance level
Increases when decreases
Population standard deviation
Increases when increases
Sample size
Increases when n decreases


o

o

o

n


o
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 915
Critical Values
Approach to Testing
Convert sample statistic (e.g.: ) to test
statistic (e.g.: Z, t or F –statistic)
Obtain critical value(s) for a specified
from a table or computer
If the test statistic falls in the critical region,
reject H
0
Otherwise do not reject H
0
X
o
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 916
pValue Approach to Testing
Convert Sample Statistic (e.g. ) to Test
Statistic (e.g. Z, t or F –statistic)
Obtain the pvalue from a table or computer
pvalue: Probability of obtaining a test statistic
more extreme ( or ) than the observed
sample value given H
0
is true
Called observed level of significance
Smallest value of that an H
0
can be rejected
Compare the pvalue with
If pvalue , do not reject H
0
If pvalue , reject H
0
X
s >
s
>
o
o
o
o
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 917
General Steps in
Hypothesis Testing
e.g.: Test the assumption that the true mean number of of
TV sets in U.S. homes is at least three ( Known) o
1. State the H
0
2. State the H
1
3. Choose
4. Choose n
5. Choose Test
0
1
: 3
: 3
=.05
100
Z
H
H
n
test
µ
µ
o
>
<
=
o
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 918
100 households surveyed
Computed test stat =2,
pvalue = .0228
Reject null hypothesis
The true mean number of TV
sets is less than 3
(continued)
Reject H
0
o
1.645
Z
6. Set up critical value(s)
7. Collect data
8. Compute test statistic
and pvalue
9. Make statistical decision
10. Express conclusion
General Steps in
Hypothesis Testing
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 919
Onetail Z Test for Mean
( Known)
Assumptions
Population is normally distributed
If not normal, requires large samples
Null hypothesis has or sign only
Z test statistic
o
s >
/
X
X
X
X
Z
n
µ
µ
o
o
÷
÷
= =
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 920
Example: TwoTail Test
Q. Does an average box
of cereal contain 368
grams of cereal? A
random sample of 25
boxes showed =
372.5. The company
has specified o to be
15 grams. Test at the
o = 0.05 level.
368 gm.
H
0
: µ = 368
H
1
: µ = 368
X
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 921
372.5 368
1.50
15
25
X
Z
n
µ
o
÷ ÷
= = =
o = 0.05
n = 25
Critical Value: ±1.96
Example Solution: TwoTail Test
Test Statistic:
Decision:
Conclusion:
Do Not Reject at o = .05
No Evidence that True
Mean is Not 368 Z
0
1.96
.025
Reject
1.96
.025
H
0
: µ = 368
H
1
: µ = 368
1.50
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 922
t Test: Unknown
Assumption
Population is normally distributed
If not normal, requires a large sample
T test statistic with n1 degrees of freedom
o
/
X
t
S n
µ ÷
=
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 923
Example: OneTail t Test
Does an average box of
cereal contain more than
368 grams of cereal? A
random sample of 36
boxes showed X = 372.5,
and s = 15. Test at the o =
0.01 level.
368 gm.
H
0
: µ s 368
H
1
: µ > 368
o is not given
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 924
Example Solution: OneTail
o = 0.01
n = 36, df = 35
Critical Value: 2.4377
Test Statistic:
Decision:
Conclusion:
Do Not Reject at o = .01
No evidence that true
mean is more than 368
t
35
0
2.437
7
.01
Reject
H
0
: µ s 368
H
1
: µ > 368
372.5 368
1.80
15
36
X
t
S
n
µ ÷ ÷
= = =
1.80
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 925
PHStat  onesample tests  t test for the
mean, sigma known …
Example in excel spreadsheet
t Test: Unknown in PHStat
o
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 926
Proportion
Involves categorical values
Two possible outcomes
“Success” (possesses a certain characteristic) and
“Failure” (does not possesses a certain
characteristic)
Fraction or proportion of population in the
“success” category is denoted by p
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 927
Proportion
Sample proportion in the success category is
denoted by p
S
(continued)
Number of Successes
Sample Size
s
X
p
n
= =
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 928
Example: Z Test for Proportion
Q. A marketing company
claims that it receives
4% responses from its
mailing. To test this
claim, a random
sample of 500 were
surveyed with 25
responses. Test at the
o = .05 significance
level.
( )
( ) ( )
Check:
500 .04 20
5
1 500 1 .04
480 5
np
n p
= =
>
÷ = ÷
= >
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 929
( ) ( )
.05 .04
1.14
1 .04 1 .04
500
S
p p
Z
p p
n
÷ ÷
~ = =
÷ ÷
Z Test for Proportion: Solution
o = .05
n = 500
Do not reject at o = .05
H
0
: p = .04
H
1
: p = .04
Critical Values: ± 1.96
Test Statistic:
Decision:
Conclusion:
Z
0
Reject Reject
.025 .025
1.96 1.96
1.14
We do not have sufficient
evidence to reject the
company’s claim of 4%
response rate.
© 2002 PrenticeHall, Inc.
Chap 930
Z Test for Proportion in PHStat
PHStat  onesample tests  z test for the
proportion …
Example in excel spreadsheet
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