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Defining attitudes
• A predisposition to evaluate an object or product positively or negatively.

Is lasting because it tends to endure over time.
Is general because it applies to more than a momentary event.

Has three components - beliefs, affect, and behavioural intentions.

• Instrumental conditioning.Forming attitudes Attitudes can form in different ways. They can occur via: • Classical conditioning. depending on the particular hierarchy of effects in operation. . • Or via a complex cognitive process.

.formation of attitudes in order for the consumer to be similar to another person. Identification .Levels of commitment to an attitude • • • Lowest level: compliance. This attitude is formed as it helps in gaining rewards or avoiding punishments. Highest level: internalisation .deep seated attitudes which become part of a consumer’s value system.


their power to reject or accept the product To relate with them there perceptions. expectation. to target market . needs wants and desires. i.e.Most Important part  - - Why we are studying this?? To understand consumer better his beliefs.

ATTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE Methods for changing attitudes in performance interventions. .

.Men are disturbed not by things but by the views which they take of them.

that does not mean he or she will have the desire (attitude) to do so correctly. . competencies give us the ability to perform.Measurement of attitude 1) Cognitive 2) Affective (values & beliefs). In other words. Attitudes change with various events in a person's life. These emotional changes also vary in length of time.     While a person may have the competency to perform a task. while attitudes give us the desire to perform.

Changing attitudes  There are four main methods used for changing attitudes in performance interventions: .

or fear. or person a number of times. pain. object. And normally this is done through "positive" experiences as "negative" experiences require disgust. .Exposure Effect  This technique uses simple "experiences" to start the attitude formation by exposing a person to a concept.

Changing Viewpoints Although discussions mainly work through our cognitive side." Classical conditioning are involuntary reflexes. . we have to remember that almost everything we do is based upon our emotions. while operant conditioning is based upon voluntary behavior.Reinforcement This concept is based upon "classical conditioning" and "operant conditioning.

This technique is based upon three main characteristics: source. other attitudes. e.Persuasive Communication     The advertisement industry is based upon this technique. and audience.: the source — how believable and likable you are the message — content and style and audience — educational level.g. . message.

Theories of Attitude .

there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i. beliefs.  Dissonance Lack of agreement  According to cognitive dissonance theory. including aspects such as awareness. and judgment. perception.Cognitive Dissonance  Cognitive The mental process of knowing. .e. something must change to eliminate the dissonance.. reasoning. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance). opinions).

if they are inconsistent. knowledge of the environment.   Dissonance and consonance are relations among cognitions that is.Contd. beliefs. or if. Two opinions. one does not follow from the other . or beliefs. among opinions. and knowledge of one's own actions and feelings. or items of knowledge are dissonant with each other if they do not fit together that is. considering only the particular two items..

Lets make it better  A cigarette smoker who believes that smoking is bad for his health has an opinion that is dissonant with the knowledge that he is continuing to smoke. . beliefs. or items of knowledge that are consonant with continuing to smoke but the dissonance nevertheless exists too. He may have many other opinions.

Contd… .

Attribution theory seeks to explain how and why people make these causal attributions. .are the reasons we give for our own and others behaviors People are motivated to understand the causes of behavior.Attribution Theory  Attributions .

Why is this baby smiling? .

There are two general types of attributions that people make Personal attributions  Situational attributions  .

For example:  “The baby must be a happy baby.Personal Attributes  Explanations in terms of personal characteristics.” .

” .Situational attributions  Explanations in terms of situational factors. For example:  “Someone must have just played with the baby .

The ABC model • • • Affect . and a consumer feels about an attitude object. feeling.the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object.the consumer’s intention to do something with regard to an attitude object. Behaviour . The model emphasises the interrelationships between knowing. Cognition . .

Three hierarchies of effects Figure 5.1 .

Social. Individual and Psychological Factors affect all steps Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Postpurchase Behavior .Consumer Decision-Making Process Need Recognition Information Search Cultural.

Thank You .