อุบัติการณ์ของเชื้อ Streptococcus suis ในเลือดสุกรดิบที่วางจำาหน่ายในตลาดเขตกรุงเทพมหาน คร

นายทรงกริช หนูนารถ 4612110047 น.ส.มัทนี เอกพณิชกิจ 4612110048 นายวสันต์ กฤตกรธนา 4712110084
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Contamination of Streptococcus suis in food for human consumptions

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Significance
• Bacterial contamination in food is one of major Thai public health problems. • Concerns of WHO • Increase in incidence of S. suis infection among human consumers. • Health personnels are paying much more attention and awaring for the correct diagnosis.
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Streptococcus suis Infection
• People closely contact with live pigs or raw pork products, slaughterer, butcher (Rusmeechan, 2008) • Improperly cooked pork or products from pigs (Tramontana, 2008; Lee, 2008) • Other routes (Rusmeechan, 2008) • Household rearing and slaughtering (Yu, 2006)
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China Thailand

Japan

USA

Vietnam Australia

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Streptococcus suis
• • • • • • Gram’s positive cocci or coccobacilli Paired or filamentous Facultative anaerobe Produces capsules Able to hemolyze red blood cells Lancefield group R (Facklam, 2002)

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Clinical signs
• • • • Sepsis Purulent meningitis Arthritis Deafness from meningogenic labyrinthitis (Madsen, 2001) • Death

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Objectives
• A survey of the contamination of S. suis in raw pig blood selling in Bangkok metropolitan’s fresh market • A collection of information to raise a concern to protect consumers in Bangkok and vincinity areas

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Procedures
• Randomly selected samples of raw pig blood in fresh market by using two-stage random sampling technique • Randomly chosen 3 Bangkok’s districts for this study namely Huai-Kwang, Bangkapi, and Ladkrabang • Collected 12 samples from each district without bias of hygiene and cleanliness
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Culture and Purification
• Luria-Bertani broth at 37°C for 18-24 hrs. • Sheep blood agar at 37°C for 18-24 hrs (Hardie, 1986)

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Identification
• • • • • Colony characteristics α-Hemolysis Gram-positive cocci or coccobacilli Biochemical tests S. suis type II CCUG 7984 DMST 18783 as positive control (DMSC)

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S. suis type II

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DMSC recommended biochemical tests
• • • • • pin-point to small size cocci and coccobacilli sheep blood agar catalase –ve oxidase -ve

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Carbohydrate Fermentation Tests
• • • • • • glucose +ve sorbitol –ve mannitol –ve lactose +ve innulin +ve raffinose +ve • • • • • sucrose +ve amygdalin -ve melibiose -ve trehalose +ve esculin +ve

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Results
Criteria Colony Characteristics Morphology Gram’s stain α-Hemolysis Biochemical tests Number of Sample 34 27 16 3 0
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Discussion
• Methods using for this study were modified from Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Holt, 1994) and from DMSC protocol for S. suis Identification. • Markets randomly selected from 3 districts of Bangkok were the representatives of sources where consumers could easily access and be effected from bacterial contamination in food materials.
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Discussion
• S. suis could live in the environment for several hours, therefore, if bacteria are truly persisted in pig products, the tests could have proven (Higgins, 2006). • The study could not find the bacteria from raw pig blood but did not prove that there were absolutely no bacterial contamination.
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Discussion
• The biochemical tests could not certainly identified S. suis from other Streptococci. • There are 35 serotypes of S. suis to be identified but by using molecular techniques.

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Discussion
• No trace of S. suis to be found in pig blood could be the consequence of good food hygiene policy and regulations. • Otherwise, the number of samples taken may be too small to include the incidence of contamination.

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Discussion
• Major factors associated with the infections from other areas of Thailand are close contact with pigs and home rearing and slaughtering of pigs unlawfully, for instance. • API Strep system test could not clearly identified S. suis from other Streptococci because of variation of biochemical tests.
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Discussion
• Avoiding consumption of improperly cooked food with ingredients from pigs. • Practicing good hygiene if experiencing contact with live pigs or raw pork products. • Further studies are needed to identify other factors involved in bacterial growth and survival such as the preservatives usage or other sampling collected from abattoir.
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Acknowledgement
• รศ.ดร.นวลฉวี เวชประสิทธิ์ ภาควิชาเทคโนโลยีชีวภาพ คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยรามคำาแหง • นางสุรางค์ เดชศิริเลิศหัวหน้าฝ่ายแบคทีเรียทั่วไป และ น.ส.ปิติมน พลวิชย ฝ่ายแบคทีเรียทั่วไป สถาบันวิจัยวิทยาศาสตร์สาธารณสุข ั กรมวิทยาศาสตร์การแพทย์ กระทรวงสาธารณสุข • นพ.กฤษดา ศิรามพุช ผูอำานวยการสถาบันเวชศาสตร์อายุรวัฒน์นานาชาติ ้
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Thank you very much!

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