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Alternatives and Sources of Data Transmission

Data Transmission
 The transportation of any

kind of information, from one place to another by physical means.  In computer terminology, this means sending streams of bits or bytes from one location to another location using technologies such as copper wire, fiber optics, lasers, radio, or infrared light.

Data Transmission

 Data transmission

involves the communication of digital messages between digital devices. Signals are sent via a network to external devices, such as printers or other computers.

Example of Data Transmission
Emails  A form of data transfer very popular because virtually free, but not secure.  Its possibilities in terms of transmission / reception are limited to a few megabytes (usually up to 5 megabytes or exceptionally up to 10 Megabytes).

The Data Communications Channel
 A communications

channel is the medium through which digital information must pass.

Same as line, link, or pipe Requires special hardware that transmits the digital information between computers

Transmission Channels
 Transmission

channels are pathways that transfer data  Three Transmission Modes used to exchange data: 1. Simplex Data flows in only one direction from the transmitter device to the receiver device 2. Half-duplex Half-duplex mode allows data to move in either direction, but each device must take turns in using the line 3. Full-duplex mode With full-duplex transmission, data can flow in both directions simultaneously.

Transmission Channels
Three Transmission

Modes used to exchange data: 1. Simplex 2. Half-duplex 3. Full-duplex mode

Transmission Media: Twisted-Pair Wire
 Twisted-pair

wire contains two insulated copper wires twisted around each other  One twisted-pair line provides POTS  Plain old telephone service: analog line that permits voice service  Another service is DSL  Digital subscriber line

Transmission Media: Coaxial Cable
 Coax:

the cable in “cable television”  Minimum signal distortion  Has a very wide pipe  Hundreds of times faster than POTS  100 times faster than ISDN  Need a cable modem

Transmission Media: Wireless Communication
 Carries

data via microwave or radio signals  Transmission is line-ofsight  Use transceivers/repeater stations  Satellites
 

Eliminates line-of-sight limitation Geosynchronous orbit set at 22,300 miles above earth

Transmission Media: Fiber Optic Cable
 Carries

data as lasergenerated pulses of light  Foundation transmission medium for Internet backbone  Better for data security  Future technology looks like very big “pipe”

Controlling Transmissions over Communications Channels
 Communication 

protocols Rules that govern the way data are transmitted TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet)

Asynchronous and Synchronous
Asynchronous Transmission  

uses start and stop bits to signify the beginning and end of a transmission. The start and stop bits must be of opposite polarity. This allows the receiver to recognize when the second packet of information is being sent.

Asynchronous and Synchronous
Synchronous Transmission

uses no start and stop bits but instead synchronizes transmission speeds at both the receiving and sending end of the transmission. A continual stream of data is then sent between the two nodes.

Asynchronous Transmission

Synchronous Transmission

Low speed  Modem needed  Transmitted as needed  Start/stop bits used

High speed  Source and destination in “synch”  No start/stop bits needed

“Just because you can, doesn’t mean you should.”

Acheron Parthenopaeus

“There are three kinds of family: those we are born to, those who are born to us, and those we let into our hearts.”

- Simi Parthenopaeus