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Content

Types of Data Descriptive/Summary Statistics

Tables

Graphical Presentations

Types of Data

Variables

Variables

Exercise

Consider the following variables and decide if they are

Numerical or Categorical; continuous, discrete, nominal or ordinal Gender Height Number of staff in a department Length of psychiatric inpatient treatment Preferred strength of coffee Organisational size Types of anxiety disorder Levels of anxiety Types of medication

Derived data

In the medical field, other types of data may be

encountered

Percentages e.g. % of operational interactions Ratios or quotients e.g. Body Mass Index (BMI), kg/m2 Rates e.g. number of disease events/total number of

variables

Descriptive/Summary Statistics

Measures of location

Measures of location summarise data with a

single number

- Mean - Mode - Median

Mean

The mean (more precisely, the arithmetic mean) is

commonly called the average

read as x-bar.

x x n

All the values (x) are added together and the sum divided by the number of observations (n)

Mode

The mode represents the most commonly occurring

value within a dataset

distribution in which how often each value occurs is counted

If two or more values are tied as the most common value then the distribution has more than one mode

Median

Median means middle, and the median is the middle of

a set of data that has been put into rank order

two halves, with one half of the observations being larger than the median value, and one half smaller

Half the data < 29 Half the data > 29

18

24

29

30

32

Quartiles

Are a subset of percentiles

Lower quartile - 25% of the data is below this

value

this value

Measures of Dispersion

The dispersion in a set of data is the variation among

the set of data values

more scattered

Four common measures of spread are

- the range - the inter-quartile range - the variance

Range

The range is the difference between the largest and the

smallest values in the dataset

It is sensitive to extreme values The range of a list is 0 if and only if all the data values

are equal

4 Range

16

Days

Inter-quartile Range

Upper Quartile Lower Quartile Describes how much the middle 50% of the dataset

varies

- example: if all patients at a clinic took more-or-less the same time to be treated with only one or two exceptionally quick or long appointments you would expect the inter-quartile range to be very small - but if all appointments were either very quick or very long, with few in between then the inter-quartile range would be larger

(s2, s2) =(population notation, sample notation)

are measures of the deviation or dispersion of observations (x) around the mean (m) of a distribution

squared

The standard deviation (SD) is the square root of the

variance

- small SD = values cluster closely around the mean - large SD = values are scattered

1 SD Mean 1 SD

1 SD

Mean

1 SD

10

12

14

16

Days

10

12

The following formulae define these measures

Population

Variance s 2

2 ) x m

Sample

N Variance s 2

x x)

n 1

StandardDeviation s s 2

StandardDeviation s s 2

Measures of Distribution

Measures of distribution are

- Skewness - Kurtosis

distribution shapes that deviate from the shape of a normal distribution

Skewness

A skewed distribution is characterised by a tail off

towards the high end of the scale (a positive skew) or towards the low end of the scale (a negative skew)

Normal Distribution

Skewness statistic ~ 0

Positive Skew

Skewness statistic > 0

Negative Skew

Skewness statistic < 0

Skewness

If the distribution has no skewness, then the

skewness statistic will be zero

the skewness statistic will be positive

the skewness statistic will be negative

Kurtosis

A distribution with kurtosis is characterised by the

distribution being too narrow and peaked (a positive kurtosis) or too wide and flat (a negative kurtosis)

Normal Distribution

Kurtosis statistic ~ 0

Positive Kurtosis

Kurtosis statistic > 0

Negative Kurtosis

Kurtosis statistic < 0

A few examples:

a representation, either in a graphical or tabular format,

which displays the number of observations within a given interval a mathematical function showing the number of instances in which a variable takes each of its possible values an arrangement of statistical data that exhibits the frequency of the occurrence of the values of a variable

Contingency Table

A table in which the entries are frequencies

A matrix format that displays the frequency

distribution of the variables

contingency table

Chi-squared test, Diagnostic test

Contingency table: 2 x 2

Characteristic Group 1 Group 2 Total Present a b a+b Absent c d c+d Total a+c b+d n=a+b+c+d

Gold Standard Test Characteristic Disease No disease Total Positive a b a+b Negative c d c+d Total a+c b+d n=a+b+c+d

How many individuals have the disease? What proportion have the disease (the prevalence)?

True/False Positive/Negative

Of the a + c individuals who have the disease, how

many have positive test results (true positives)?

many have negative test results (false negatives)

how many have negative test results (true negatives)?

how many have positive test results (false positives)?

The proportion of individuals with the disease

who are correctly identified by the test = Sensitivity

a a c )

disease who are correctly identified by the test

= Specificity

d b d )

Graphical Presentations

Typical graphs

Bar Chart Pareto Chart Pie Chart Box Plot Histogram

Useful for getting an initial feel for the data Useful for explaining/presenting results to others Useful for identifying outliers

Categorical or some Discrete Numerical data can be

displayed visually in a:

Bar (or Column) Chart Pareto Chart Pie Chart Continuous Numerical data (and some Discrete

Numerical data) can be displayed visually in a:

Bar chart

Why use it?

categorical or discrete data

Bar chart - the number of different types of patient in a study

20

15

Frequency

10

g Type of patient

Vilfredo Pareto (Italian economist), studied the

distributions of wealth in different countries

20%) of people controlled the large majority (about 80%) of a society's wealth from 20% of the causes (Pareto effect)

Pareto chart

Why use it?

potential for improvement

Pareto chart

What does it do?

most impact displays the relevant importance of problems allows progress to be measured in a visible format

The most frequent problems may not always

have the largest impact in terms of quality, time or costs In these situations it may be best to use two Pareto charts:

both?

Obvious Pareto effect

Project focus

80 70 60

100 80 60 40 20 0

Frequency

40 30 20 10 0 Cause Count Percent Cum % A 30 41.7 41.7 B 25 34.7 76.4 C D E Other 3 4.2 100.0

6 8.3 84.7

5 6.9 91.7

3 4.2 95.8

Percent

50

No Pareto effect

No Pareto effect

70 60 80 50 100

Frequency

40 30 20 10 0 Cause Count Percent Cum % A 18 26.5 26.5 B 15 22.1 48.5 C 14 20.6 69.1 D 10 14.7 83.8 E other 5 7.4 100.0

40 20 0

6 8.8 92.6

Percent

60

Causes of medication errors

60

Project focus

50

100

Frequency

30 20 10 Cause

60 40 20

g g g ly in g in in l t r n i r du ro a de w g e r v w n o a ch nd d e ro s a e un s H w o n ct ck d o n e o i i r t t t s or ec ca ed d c i r e M In or ed M c M In Count 21 8 6 6 5 5 Percent 39.6 15.1 11.3 11.3 9.4 9.4 Cum % 39.6 54.7 66.0 77.4 86.8 96.2 e bl a il e ac l p

er h Ot

2 3.8 100.0

Percent

40

80

Pie chart

Why use it?

contribution of categories of data

Pie Chart - type of patients in a study

Category dental insurance gov ernment healthcare priv ate 15, 30.0% 15, 30.0%

20, 40.0%

Why use it?

data set

to identify outliers

Box plot

What does it do?

allows a comparison to be made before and after interventions graphically shows key statistics such as the Median, Inter-quartile Range (IQR) and Quartiles

Box Plot

Whisker extends to this adjacent value the highest value within the upper limit

First Quartile (Q1) Whisker extends to this adjacent value the lowest value within the lower limit Outliers *

Reaction Time (s) Reaction times of 2 groups

0 Group A Group B

Histogram

Why use it?

- to evaluate whether certain statistical tests

can be applied

Histogram

What does it do? Displays bars representing the count within different intervals of data Allows visualisation of the shape and spread of a data set Allows patterns to be identified Provides an indication of where the mean lies

Normal Distribution

Normal Distribution

25

20

Frequency

15

10

45.0

46.5

48.0

49.5 Data

51.0

52.5

54.0

Bimodal distribution

Bimodal distribution

40

30

Frequency

20

10

44

48

52 data

56

60

64

Skewed distribution

Skewed distribution

60 50 40

Frequency

30 20 10 0

40

80

120 Data

160

200

240

Histogram: Example 1

Histogram: Example 2

Exercise

Identify situations in your research/work

environment where Bar charts, Pareto charts, Pie charts, Box plots, and Histograms could be used

describe the situation identify the type of data determine the x and y axis variables describe typical visual output

Summary

Types of Data Descriptive/Summary Statistics

Tables

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