This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• • • • Earliest use of plant fragrance lost in history Perfume (burning plants) may have been first use Egyptians using scented oils at least 5000 years ago Egyptian men would put solid cone of perfume on the head, let it melt
• Greeks used various scents for different body parts
– mint, marjorum, thyme, etc
• Romans scented clothes, houses, bedding and bath oil, as well as their bodies • Japanese and Chinese used incense as clocks
Traditional methods of extracting essences
• Not usually water soluble • Macerate (chop) plant parts in hot oil, then extract with alcohol • Enfleurage
– flowers placed on layer of purified fat or oil – they are replaced every couple of weeks – yields outstanding scents, very expensive
• Popularity of perfume waned in Europe after the fall of the Roman empire. Arab. late 900’s . returned with the crusaders • Distillation of essential oils • Attributed to Avicenna.
oil floats and can be skimmed • 5-6 tons of roses needed to get one kilo of essential rose oil • Fractional distillation allows collection of substances with different volatility .Distillation of natural fragrances • Plant parts are exposed to steam • Volatile oils are carried out in steam • Steam is cooled.
Attars (steam distillates) being prepared in India .
Perfumes in 18th century Europe • More flowery as opposed to heavier scents • Numerous ways to use perfumes. elaborate containers • Vinaigrettes • Pommanders go out of style with availability of liquid perfume .
Eau de Cologne • Germany. and bergamot oils distilled in grape spirits • Non-greasy • Napolean decreed the formula must be public in 1810 . invented an 1709 by an Italian barber • Rosemary. orange flower.
rose. France • Started with tannery perfumes – for scenting gloves? • A local company got a patent on the distillation system • 1720’s become a local industry • Good sources for jasmine.Grasse. orange • Modern perfume industry started here . in Provence.
from plant secretions • Tinctures – direct extraction with ethanol • Distilled essential oils – most common modern methods .Perfume odorant types today • Concretes – purest. soft plant parts are placed in solvent • Absolutes – concretes concentrated in alcohol • Resinoids – extracted like concretes.
Perfume anatomy • Top notes – immediately perceived. perhaps vanilla. lavender • Bottom notes – often animal. ginger • Middle notes – a minute to an hour. bright. often citrus. sandlewood . resin scents. often rose. highly volatile.
Types of fragances • • • • Perfume (22% essential oils) Eau de Parfum (15-22%) Eau de Toilette (8-15%) Eau de Cologne (4%) .
household products companies.Business of scents (perfumes) • 10-20 billion dollar industry • Only a few companies are doing smell R & D • They work for two main client groups. and perfume companies • Lots of secrecy .
angustifolia and L. latifolia) most often used today • Obtained by steam distillation • More than 300 components.Lavender • Mint family • Sterile hybrid of two species (L. linalool important • In many men’s fragrances (fern note) .
Rose • Rosa centifolia and damascena • Petals extracted with steam or solvents • Used in many perfumes. foods .
insect repellent . similar fragrance in some types • Essence from Reunion island especially fruity • Also in drinks.Geranium • Pelargonium graveolens • Oils distilled from leaves and stems • Much cheaper than rose.
Geraniol and related compounds • Found in a variety of plants • Also produced synthetically .
biosynthesis perhaps similar to prostaglandins • Benzyl acetate and related compounds common Jasmine .• Jasminum grandiflorum • Volatile solvents now used. used to be enfleurage • A ton of flowers to yield a kilo of essence • Extremely expensive • Wide range of “jasmonoid” compounds.
nerol) also some weird tuberose lactones . done by enfleurage until relatively recently • Many fragrance compounds (eugenols. low yield to extract.Tuberose • Polyanthes tuberosa • Amaryllis relative • Expensive.
Orange • Citrus species • Flowers. leaves. even bark all used • Distillation or solvents used • Wide range of compounds isolated. including linalool . fruits.
Bergamot • Citrus bergamia • Zests from unripe fruits used • Harmonious with many other compounds. soaps • Eau de Colognes . as well as perfumes. contains linalool. limonene does not dominate in this as it does in orange oil • Coumarins removed from essence (photosensitizing) • In Earl Grey tea.
Iris of Florence • Iris pallida • Violet-scented rhizomes (orris root) used to produce a concrete with iron in myristic acid (called a butter) • In perfume with heavy. woody notes .
ylang-ylang • Cananga odorata. but blends well . linalool) also • p-Cresyl methyl ether – stinks by itself. related plants • From SE Asia (?) • Annonaceae • Very floral scent • Several common compounds (eugenols.
but also mixes well .Patchouli • Shrub in the mint family • Pogostemon cablin • Distilled dried leaves yield several important fragrances • Distinctive strong odor.
• Vanilla Native to Mexico. it’s very strong • Lots of synthetic vanillin relatives used Vanillin analogs. much now grown in Madagascar • More than 200 compounds have been identified • Extract used in small amounts in perfumes. some with carnation. cocoa butter overtones vanillin .
Oakmoss • Evernia prunastri • A lichen found in much of Europe • Some constituents now synthesized .
woody smell • Used in some perfumes (Opium.Olibanum (incense tree) • Resin from a Boswellia tree • Resinous. Jicky) .
Fixatives • Various animal products – Ambergis. castoreum. civet – synthetics often used now – e.g. musk. ambergris compound from sage .
clove • Many more… . cardamom.Others • Ginger. pepper (Piper nigrum).
oakmoss). cedar) • Oriental (includes vanilla. coumarin. jasmine. ambergris) .5. described as piquant) • Fougerè (lavender. often in men’s products • Woody (sandlewood. oakmoss) • Aldehydic (most famous is Chanel No.Perfume themes • Floral • Chypre (bergamot. patchouli.
a living plant.com/fragrance_oils.” • Remember.Synthetic vs natural: what are the issues? • “The truth about fragrance oils” – www.earthmamaangelbaby. they are all chemicals! • We may actually know more about the synthetic mixtures than the natural ones .html – “Each essential oil comes from just one source. There are no chemicals involved.
Concerns • • • • • Toxicity to people? Allergens? Increasing asthma incidence? Unknown compounds in the mix? Persistence in the environment? – Example: synthetic musk .
g. mussels). prevents removal of other toxins .Synthetic musk • May accumulate in some organisms (e.