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Module 3: Heavy Equipment

Overview of Module 3
• Introduction, Types Of Heavy Equipment • Hazards Associated with Heavy Equipment • Injury / Illness Prevention For Heavy Equipment Operations • Summary • Applicable Standards

Heavy Equipment
• Examples of heavy equipment:
– – – – – – Excavating equipment Lifting equipment Loading and hauling equipment Compaction equipment Grading and finishing equipment Paving and surface treatment equipment

• Integral part of roadway construction/maintenance

Excavating Equipment
• Backhoes (used for surface or subsurface excavation of soft soils and sludge) • Excavators (large backhoes, hydraulic powered) • Front – End Loaders (selfcontained unit mounted on rubber tires or tracks; can be equipped to operate as a loader, dozer, scraper, clamshell, forklift, backhoe, crane, auger, or sweeper)


Front - end loader

Lifting Equipment • Cranes are the most commonly used lifting equipment • Cranes are used for raising. shifting and lowering loads • They use projecting swinging arm or hoisting apparatus supported on an overhead truck Crane .

dumping. • Wagons – Earth moving trailers pulled by tractors . and spreading loose materials • Dump Trucks – Most common type of hauling equipment due to their versatility.Loading and Hauling Equipment • Loaders – Used to excavate and move soft materials and load/unload trucks • Dozer (Bulldozer): – Used for pushing and pulling loads typically in earthwork operations and demolition work • Scrapers – Used for loading. hauling.

Loading and Hauling Equipment Loader Wagon Dump truck Dozer Scraper .

aggregates and bituminous mixtures • Commonly used rollers are: – Static steel-wheeled rollers – Vibratory steel-wheeled rollers – Pneumatic rollers Steel Wheeled Roller Pneumatic Tire Roller .Compaction Equipment • Rollers: – Used for compacting road materials like soil.

Grading and Finishing Equipment • Graders: Multi-purpose equipment used for: – Finishing – Shaping – Bank sloping – Ditching – Mixing – Spreading – Side casting – Leveling and crowning – Site striping operations – Earth road maintenance Grader .

asphalt kettles – Asphalt pavers – Rotary power brooms – Blowers or water sprays – Pavement profilers Asphalt Distributor Pavement Profiler .Paving and Surface Treatment Equipment • Heavy equipment typically used in pavement and surface treatment operations are: – Aggregate spreaders – Asphalt distributors.

General Hazards • Poor repairs or service • Obstructed view in backing Dirty or broken windows can block operators’ view of hazards .

General Hazards • Striking people and collision with other equipment • Pinch points between equipment and objects Worker under equipment .

General Hazards • Riders falling off equipment or bucket • Overturning of equipment • Traveling empty at excessive speeds Over turned truck .

General Hazards • Unexpected electrical shock (e. overhead and underground power lines) • Failure of lifting mechanisms/operational failures • Ingress/egress difficulties • Runaway machines ( Not blocking Risk of Hitting Power Line wheels upon parking or operator’s inability to control) • Being struck by limbs of trees or other overhead obstructions.g. and by moving equipment Nearby Power Lines and Trees .

Collision accident .

Tip over accident .

Rollover accident .

Rollover accident .

unattended equipment) • Safety measures for specific heavy equipment .Injury/Illness Prevention for Heavy Equipment Operations • • • • • Safety rules for equipment operators Service and repairs Safety check for heavy equipment Safe operation around heavy equipment Other safety measures (using personal protective equipment. area and terrain hazards.

utilize safety features. fatigued.Safety Rules for Equipment Operators • Only authorized persons should operate the heavy equipment (with appropriate training and/or licenses) • Operators should know and understand the limitations of the machinery. or taking medication that may affect their ability to safely operate machinery . and heed the manufacturer’s warnings • Operators should notify their supervisors when they are sick. They should follow safe operating procedures.

– – – – . Start engine. fluid levels. check engine sounds. tires. make sure back up alarms can be heard. suspension and steering system. check gauges and warning lights. the operator should use a check list and do the following: – Approach equipment. test equipment’s movements. Look for unguarded moving parts or other unsafe conditions. warn people in the area. make sure windows are clean. make sure seatbelt is ready to use. check fire extinguisher. adjust mirrors. remove trash. Inside the cab.Safety Checks for Heavy Equipment Before the start of each shift. Before moving. walk fully around it and look for hazards Check lights. turn on all exterior lights. exterior hoses and filters.

Safe Operation Around Heavy Equipment • On-foot workers should be trained to work safely around the equipment – Wear high visibility clothing – Do not assume operators can see you • Signal person may be used to assist the operator • Good communication is essential – Use standardized hand signals – Use walkie-talkies (two-way-radios) This worker is clearly visible! • Keep back up alarms working properly at all times .

Hand Signals .

Other Safety Measures • Heavy equipment must be equipped with a rollover protective measures (e.g. steel toe shoes. outriggers). reflective clothing) • Use appropriate hearing protection when working on or around loud equipment. hard hats. • Do not wear loose fitting clothes that may caught in moving parts Types of Hearing Protection Proper seat belt use on equipment .  Use seat belt and required PPE when operating your equipment (e. gloves.g.

or one foot and both hands in contact with the ladder access all the time) • Never operate any of the controls from any position except the operator’s seat • Never permit anyone to ride on the equipment • Never refuel when the engine is running • DO NOT SMOKE when refueling Worker with Hearing Protection .Other Safety Measures • Never jump onto or off the equipment (three point rule: having both feet and one hand.

Other Safety Measures • Be aware of area and terrain! – Stumps. traffic signals & power – Inspect banks and slopes for lines in close proximity stability – Plan path of travel downhill on steep slopes – Beware of wet or icy surfaces – Never take shortcuts – Check the area for underground Temporary road near utilities and overhead power lines edge of embankment . they can knock an operator off the equipment Trees. and hidden debris can cause overturns – Watch for low tree limbs. rocks.

Other Safety Measures • When equipment is left unattended make sure that: – All elevated work surfaces such as buckets and lifts are lowered – All moving parts are disengaged and their motion has stopped – Transmission is in appropriate parking position – Engine is off. and vehicle is secure – Equipment is secure against movement Heavy equipment on bridge project .

Safety Measures for Specific Heavy Equipment • • • • • For crane operations: Never hoist any unknown weights When handling a heavy load.550) for cranes. raise it a few inches first to ensure whether the load is balanced Before hoisting near-capacity load. . keep the hoisting line vertical Dual lift shall be done with only supervision Note that coverage is limited here. For detailed information refer to OSHA standard (Subpart N 1926.

Safety Measures for Specific Heavy Equipment • For asphalt paving operations: Make sure fire-extinguishing equipment (foam type) is present at all times. Ensure that asphalt distributor or asphalt kettle are in a level position (before heating) and are located at a safe distance from buildings and any flammable materials. Wear gloves and full body clothing to avoid prolonged skin contact or burns from hot bituminous material • • • . Avoid exposure to fumes from hot bituminous material-stay on the windward side.

Case Study Worker Run Over By a Dump Truck (Source: Minnesota FACE Report No. 92MN007) .

Case Study: Facts • A member of a highway paving crew died from being run over by a rear end dump truck that was backing up • The dump trucks were hauling/unloading concrete to a paver for spreading • Victim was guiding drivers of several dump trucks while repositioning their vehicles • Victim died from loss of excessive blood .

and proceeded backwards to the paver where they dumped their concrete load Dump Trucks Paver Turn-a-round Trucks drove away on the left side.Case Study: Operation and Initial Circulation Pattern of Dump Trucks Dump trucks drove towards the paver. turned around in a blacktopped area. opposite to normal traffic patterns .

Case Study: • Paver had advanced to a position where the blacktopped area could no longer be used by trucks to make the turn-a-round • A new circulation pattern was to be used to access the paver – Trucks waiting in line had to reposition themselves – Victim was guiding the truck movements .

Case Study: Incident Details • Victim was asked to instruct the drivers of dump trucks waiting in line to a different position – Victim was behind Truck 1 (see next slide) and gave the signal to back up – At the same time another truck (Truck 2) was pulling up to join the line of trucks – As victim was signaling Truck 2 to stop. he entered the blind spot of the driver of Truck 1 and was in the vehicle’s path – Truck 1’s back-up alarm was operational and the driver of Truck 2 was trying to warm the worker • Victim was hit by Truck 1and was pushed 14 feet on the blacktop .

Case Study: Intended Route of Backing Truck at Time of Incident Turn-a-round Truck 2 Truck 1 Victim Paver .

noisy construction sites • In employee safety training.Case Study: NIOSH Recommendations • Workers should direct only traffic moving in one direction on busy. include information about human inaccuracy in estimating the arrival time of a moving vehicle • Equip trucks used on construction sites with rearview sonar which alarms drivers of close proximity to objects behind them .

– 1926. Motor vehicles. Haulage and Earth Moving (Sections 1590-1596) . Derricks. mechanized equipment and marine operations. • MIOSHA – Section B Construction – CS Part 10. Boom-Type Excavators (Section 1581-1589) – Article 10.601. Cranes. Lifting and digging equipment – CS Part 13.Applicable Standards • OSHA – Construction – 1926. Mobile equipment – CS Part 25. – 1926. Material handling equipment.602. Motor vehicles. Concrete construction • CALOSHA – Subchapter 4 Construction Safety – Article 9.600.

Summary of Module • Various types of heavy equipment are used in highway construction projects • Large machinery operating in confined area with potential threat of: – Striking on-foot worker due to vision restrictions/inattention – Striking overhead/underground power lines – Being involved in collision with other equipment .

Summary of Module • General safety precautions covered in this module are applicable to all heavy equipment – Specific operating instructions and warnings should be carefully reviewed • Understanding the hazards associated with heavy equipment and their injury prevention techniques are critical to improve worker safety .