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Artificial Intelligence

On Robotics
done by:
Where AI meets the real world.

Y.SHRAVANI
M. Tech CSE 1st yr. 12BD1D5811

Contents
What is A.I? Areas where A.I. is used A.I. in robotics Take an example of line follower Line follower Software and hardware requirements C in robot control Code Demo Future Enhancement Conclusion References

Artificial Intelligence
The ability of a computer or other machine to perform those activities that are normally thought to require intelligence. Simply, the machines which are automated and do their work according to the code we built into it is artificial intelligence.

Tuning test
Proposed by Alan Turing(1950), a British Computer Scientist. Intelligence is defined as the ability to achieve human level performance in all cognitive tests, sufficient to fool a human interrogator. The test was devised in response to the question,

Can a computer think ?.


Result :+ve.

Major branches of A.I.


Expert systems Robotics Vision systems Natural language processing Learning systems Neural network

Applications of A.I. : Game Playing Speech recognition Understanding the natural language Computer vision Expert vision Heuristic classification

A.I. In Robotics
A robot is a machine that gathers information about its environment (senses).

It uses that information (thinks) to follow instructions and to do work (acts).

Some of the robots in different domains

This is a diagram of a robotic space arm.

This is the DaVinci robot. A surgical robot used today.

This is a drone plane with A.I features.

This is a robotic dog with A.I. like abilities.

Take an example of line follower

Y line follower??? How it works.

Line follower (requirements)


Software requirements
1. 2. Atmel Studio 4 Robosapiens avrloader v1.0 Beta

Hardware requirements
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ATMega 8 Microcontroller 5V DC Motor 300rpm Wheels PCB Sensors 9V Battery

Code (for line follower)


#define F_CPU 12000000UL //cpu frequency for delay function #include <avr/io.h> // includes input/output header file #include <util/delay.h> // includes delay header file #include"lcd.h" #include"lcd.c int stop=0b0000000; int right_turn=0b00001010; int move_fordward=0b00001001; int left_turn=0b00000101; int left_sensor_on=0b0010000; int right_sensor_on=0b0100000; int left_sensor_off=0b0000000; int right_sensor_off=0b0000000;

int main(void) { DDRB=0xFF; //PORTB as output Port connected to motors DDRC=0b0000000; //PORTC Input port connected to Sensors //lcd_init(LCD_DISP_ON); int left_sensor = 0; int right_sensor = 0; while(1) // infinite loop { left_sensor = (PINC & 0b0010000); // mask PC4 bit of Port C right_sensor = (PINC & 0b0100000);// mask PC5 bit of Port C if((left_sensor==0b0000000) & (right_sensor==0b0000000)) //if both sensors "off" { PORTB=0b00001001; // move forward left_sensor=0; right_sensor=0; }

if((left_sensor==0b0010000) & (right_sensor==0b0100000)) //if both sensors "on" { PORTB=0b0000000; // stop left_sensor=0; right_sensor=0; } if((left_sensor==0b0000000) & (right_sensor==0b0100000)) //if right sensor "on" { PORTB=0b00001010; // turn right left_sensor=0; right_sensor=0; }

if((left_sensor==0b0010000) & (right_sensor==0b0000000)) //if left sensor "on" { PORTB=0b00000101; // turn left left_sensor=0; right_sensor=0; } } }

Screen shots:-

Sample video of line following robot

Future Enhancement: Obstacle detector can be added. Edge avoider can also be added in the functionality. This Combined technology can be used for automating cars.

Conclusion: This is how artificial intelligence has occupied a major role in the present life. This technology is very useful in our day to day life.

References: http://extremeelectronics.co.in/avr-tutorials/linefollowing-robot-using-avr-atmega8/ Artificial Intelligence, A guide to intelligence systems(second edition)- By Michael Negnevitsky. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence

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