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# Work, Energy and Power

Review

Newtons Laws

## Used to analyze motion of an object

Force and mass acceleration Acceleration velocity over time

## Motion Based on Work and Energy

Objective:
Understand and calculate the effect of work on the energy of an object (or system of objects) Predict the resulting velocity and/or height of the object from energy information

Basic Terminology
Work Mechanical energy Potential energy Kinetic energy Power

Work

## For a force to qualify it must

1. Displacement MUST happen 2. Force MUST cause the displacement

## What are some examples of work?

Examples
a horse pulling a plow through the fields a father pushing a grocery cart down the aisle of a grocery store

## (would a junior do work like this?)

a weightlifter lifting a barbell above her head a shot-put launching the shot, etc.

No. The wall is not displaced. Yes! The is a downward force (gravity) which acts on the book to displace it. No. There is an upward force, and there is a horizontal displacement but the force does not cause the displacement Yes the expelled gas is the force which accelerates the rocket through space.

Work or NOT?

A teacher applies a force to a wall and becomes exhausted. A book falls off a table and free falls to the ground. A waiter carries a tray full of meals above his head by one arm across the room.

## When = 0 or 180 degrees Cos = 1!

Perpendicular force

Since cos = 0,
F*d* = 0 No work done!

REMEMBER!
A

## Cos = 0 when = 90 degrees

Force at an angle

The chains force pulls upward and rightward Only the horizontal component of the in the chain displaces Fido (backward) The force F * angle cosine between d and = horizontal force

The ANGLE determines the portion of the force which actually causes a displacement.

## What angle is used?

the angle between the force and the displacement vector. NOT the angle of ascent in this case

The Joule

One joule =

## 1 Newton of force displacement of 1 meter

1 Joule = 1 Newton*meter

Summary

## three quantities must be known in order to calculate the amount of work.

Force Displacement Angle between the force and the displacement.

Application
1. Apply the work equation to determine the amount of work done by the applied force in each of the three situations described below. Cos 0 = 1. Cos 30 = .866

Application 1
Free-Body Diagram A 10-N forces is applied to push a block across a friction free surface for a displacement of 5.0 m to the right. Forces Doing Work on Amount of Work Done the Object by Each Force
Depress mouse here. Depress mouse here.

Application 2
A 10-N frictional force slows a moving block to a stop after a displacement of 5.0 m to the right.
Depress mouse here. Depress mouse here.

Application 3
A 10-N force is applied to push a block across a frictional surface at constant speed for a displacement of 5.0 m to the right.
Depress mouse here. Depress mouse here.

Application 4.
A 2-kg object is sliding at constant speed across a friction free surface for a displacement of
Depress mouse here. No w ork is done

5 m to the right.

## Work and Energy

What is the relationship?

Objectives

Explain the relationship between energy and work Define potential energy and kinetic energy Calculate kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy Distinguish between mechanical and nonmechanical energy Identify non-mechanical forms of energy

Forms of Energy

Mechanical Energy
Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy

## Chemical reactions potential heat or kinetic Solar energy plants or heat

Solar Energy
Converted to chemical to kinetic or chemical to heat

Nuclear reactions
Fission vs. Fusion

Electricity
Electrons move

Light energy
Carries energy across space

What is Energy?
Measured in Joules (same as work) Why?

Definition of work:
Transfer or transformation of energy Transfer is often from one system to another

Demonstration

Slingshot or rubberband
You stretch the slingshot where is the transfer? Release the slingshot what has happened?

How do you know the rock has energy? amount of energy transferred is measured by work done on the stone.

Potential Energy

How does the rubber band get energy? Where is the energy in the stretched rubber band?

## Stored energy occurs if something is stretched or compressed (elastic)

clock spring bungee cord

Gravitational PE

Kinetic Energy

## which variable impacts kinetic energy mass or speed?

speed is squared!

## The impact of speed

Speed as a factor

## Something as small as an apple:

At a speed of 2 m/s = .2 J

Buta car.

## 2000 lbs = 900 Kg

At 60 mph = 27 m/s = Force of 328 kN 65 mph = 30 m/s = 405 kN 70 mph = 31.7 m/s = 452 kN 80 mph = 36.4 m/s = 596 k N ALMOST DOUBLE

Conservation of Energy

Objectives
Identify and describe transformations of energy Explain the law of conservation of energy Where does energy go when it disappears? Analyze the efficiency of machines

## Energy changes form many times.

Energy from the initial conveyor Work stored : Grav. Potential Energy

Converted to kinetic as it goes through ups converts back to potential (if still moving, has kinetic too)

## TOP: all potential

potential gradually changes to kinetic as the car accelerates at the bottom of the lowest hill