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Work, Energy and Power

Basic Terminology and Concepts

Review

Newtons Laws

Used to analyze motion of an object


Force and mass acceleration Acceleration velocity over time

Used to predict final state of an object's motion

What are other ways to look at motion?

Motion Based on Work and Energy

Objective:
Understand and calculate the effect of work on the energy of an object (or system of objects) Predict the resulting velocity and/or height of the object from energy information

Basic Terminology
Work Mechanical energy Potential energy Kinetic energy Power

Work

A force acting upon an object to cause a displacement

For a force to qualify it must


1. Displacement MUST happen 2. Force MUST cause the displacement

What are some examples of work?

Examples
a horse pulling a plow through the fields a father pushing a grocery cart down the aisle of a grocery store

(Hmmmm work or a miracle?)

a freshman lifting a backpack full of books upon her shoulder

(would a junior do work like this?)

a weightlifter lifting a barbell above her head a shot-put launching the shot, etc.

Answers

No. The wall is not displaced. Yes! The is a downward force (gravity) which acts on the book to displace it. No. There is an upward force, and there is a horizontal displacement but the force does not cause the displacement Yes the expelled gas is the force which accelerates the rocket through space.

Work or NOT?

A teacher applies a force to a wall and becomes exhausted. A book falls off a table and free falls to the ground. A waiter carries a tray full of meals above his head by one arm across the room.

A rocket accelerates through space.

Describing Work Mathematically


W = f*d*cos Force and displacement are rightward.

Force left, displacement right Force up, displacement left

When = 0 or 180 degrees Cos = 1!

Perpendicular force

Since cos = 0,
F*d* = 0 No work done!

REMEMBER!
A

vertical force CANNOT cause horizontal displacement!

Cos = 0 when = 90 degrees

Force at an angle

The chains force pulls upward and rightward Only the horizontal component of the in the chain displaces Fido (backward) The force F * angle cosine between d and = horizontal force

The ANGLE determines the portion of the force which actually causes a displacement.

What angle is used?

the angle between the force and the displacement vector. NOT the angle of ascent in this case

Direction of pull = Displacement direction

Units of Work (and Energy)

The Joule

One joule =

1 Newton of force displacement of 1 meter

1 Joule = 1 Newton*meter

Each set of units is equivalent to a force unit times a displacement unit.

Summary

Work is a force acting upon an object to cause a displacement.

three quantities must be known in order to calculate the amount of work.


Force Displacement Angle between the force and the displacement.

Application
1. Apply the work equation to determine the amount of work done by the applied force in each of the three situations described below. Cos 0 = 1. Cos 30 = .866

Application 1
Free-Body Diagram A 10-N forces is applied to push a block across a friction free surface for a displacement of 5.0 m to the right. Forces Doing Work on Amount of Work Done the Object by Each Force
Depress mouse here. Depress mouse here.

Application 2
A 10-N frictional force slows a moving block to a stop after a displacement of 5.0 m to the right.
Depress mouse here. Depress mouse here.

Application 3
A 10-N force is applied to push a block across a frictional surface at constant speed for a displacement of 5.0 m to the right.
Depress mouse here. Depress mouse here.

Application 4.
A 2-kg object is sliding at constant speed across a friction free surface for a displacement of
Depress mouse here. No w ork is done

5 m to the right.

Work and Energy


What is the relationship?

Objectives

Explain the relationship between energy and work Define potential energy and kinetic energy Calculate kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy Distinguish between mechanical and nonmechanical energy Identify non-mechanical forms of energy

Forms of Energy

Mechanical Energy
Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy

Chemical reactions potential heat or kinetic Solar energy plants or heat

Solar Energy
Converted to chemical to kinetic or chemical to heat

Nuclear reactions
Fission vs. Fusion

Electricity
Electrons move

Light energy
Carries energy across space

What is Energy?
Measured in Joules (same as work) Why?

Definition of work:
Transfer or transformation of energy Transfer is often from one system to another

Demonstration

Slingshot or rubberband
You stretch the slingshot where is the transfer? Release the slingshot what has happened?

How do you know the rock has energy? amount of energy transferred is measured by work done on the stone.

Potential Energy

How does the rubber band get energy? Where is the energy in the stretched rubber band?

Where is the energy upon release?

Stored Energy = Potential Energy

AKA energy of position

relates to the relative position of objects in the system.

rubber band- position (distance) between the two ends

Stored energy occurs if something is stretched or compressed (elastic)


clock spring bungee cord

Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational potential energy

= height * mass * gravitational pull.


Gravitational PE

= mass x freefall acceleration (a or g) x height PE = mgh = (fxd)

mg = weight of the object in Newtons height

is relative to whatever we are interested

Kinetic Energy

A falling apple does work

Energy that an object has when it is in motion = kinetic energy

KE = (mass) (speed)2 KE = (mv2)

which variable impacts kinetic energy mass or speed?

speed is squared!

The impact of speed

Speed as a factor

Something as small as an apple:

At a speed of 2 m/s = .2 J

at a speed of 8 m/s = 3.2 J (4 x speed = 16x force)

Buta car.

2000 lbs = 900 Kg

At 60 mph = 27 m/s = Force of 328 kN 65 mph = 30 m/s = 405 kN 70 mph = 31.7 m/s = 452 kN 80 mph = 36.4 m/s = 596 k N ALMOST DOUBLE

Conservation of Energy

Objectives
Identify and describe transformations of energy Explain the law of conservation of energy Where does energy go when it disappears? Analyze the efficiency of machines

The Roller Coaster Game

Energy changes form many times.


Energy from the initial conveyor Work stored : Grav. Potential Energy

Converted to kinetic as it goes through ups converts back to potential (if still moving, has kinetic too)

Where could energy be lost?

Friction, vibrations, air resistance

Roller Coaster KE and PE

TOP: all potential


potential gradually changes to kinetic as the car accelerates at the bottom of the lowest hill

maximum of kinetic energy a minimum of potential energy

No more energy than original energy