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9-1

9-1-1
1.

2.

3.


9-1-2


22
x yx y z

u Ni ( , )ui

: x Ni ( , ) xi

v Ni ( , )vi

y Ni ( , ) yi


9-2
9-2-1
:
4

u Ni ( , )ui

v Ni ( , )vi
2

1
Ni (1 0 )(1 0 )
4
2

1
2

0 i

0 i

x Ni ( , ) xi

y Ni ( , ) yi
y

4
1

12

12 = -1,

1
o

x Ni xi

2
x

1
(1 )(1 ) x1 (1 )(1 ) x2 (1 )(1 ) x3 (1 )(1 ) x4
4

1
1
(1 ) x1 (1 ) x2 c d
2
2

y Ni yi

1
(1 )(1 ) y1 (1 )(1 ) y2 (1 )(1 ) y3 (1 )(1 ) y4
4

1
1
y (1 ) y1 (1 ) y2 e f
2
2
x y x , y

y=kx+b

x, y

x
v
e
e

B
B
B
B


1
2
3
4

u v

y x
Ni, x
0

Bi 0 Ni , y
i = 1,2,3,4
Ni, y Ni, x

Ni , x

N i

Ni, y

N i


N x, y,
Ni Ni x Ni y

x y

Ni Ni x Ni y

x y

Ni , x,

Ni , x,
x
x,

x
x,

y, Ni , x

y, Ni , y
y
y,

y
y,

x,
J x
,

y,

y,

(Jacobian)

[Bi]Ni,x Ni,y Ni, Ni,

Ni , x
1 Ni ,

N
N
i ,
i, y

y,
x
,

y,
x,

J x, y, y, x,


Ni, :
Ni ,

1
i (1 i )
4

Ni ,

1
i (1 i )
4

i= 1,2,3,4


x
e
e

D
B

y

xy

S S1 S2

Ni , x
E
Ni , x
Si D Bi
2
1
1
1 Ni , y
2

Ni , y

Ni , y

1
1 Ni , x
2

S3 S4


[K]e:

K B D B tdxdy
e

1 1

B D B t J d d
T

[K]e :

kij Bi

k11 k12
k
k22
21

k31 k32

k41 k42

k13
k23
k33
k43

k14
k24
k34

k44
T

D B j tdxdy 1 1 Bi D B j t
1

i, j = 1,2,3,4

J d d


:
1

N
N

Ni, y N j , y
E i,x j,x
T
2
Bi D B j

1
1 2
Ni, y N j , x
Ni, x N j , y

Ni , y N j , x
2

Ni , x N j , x

Ni, x N j. y
Ni, y N j , y

:
1. :

2. :

P N
e

p tdxdy N

pt

J d d

N1
0

N2

1 1
0

1 1 N
3

0
N
4
0

0
N1
0

N 2 px
t J d d

0 py

N3
0

N 4

pi

1 1
pxi
px
Ni t J d d
1 1
p yi
py

i= 1,2,3,4

3. :

qx
tds
q y

N1
0

N2

N3

0
N
4
0

0
N1
0

N 2 qx
tds

0 q y

N3
0

N 4

Qi

qxi
qx
Ni tds
q yi
q y

i=1,2,3,4

qx ,qy,
dx
dy
qx

qx cos sin
ds
ds
dy
dx
q

q y sin cos
y
ds
ds


, qx , qy

Qi

qxi
dx dy
Ni
t
dy dx
q yi

i=1 ,2 3. 4

34 =1

Qi

1
qxi
x, y,
Ni
td

1
y, x,
q yi

i= 3,4


9-2-2
2

x, y
y

.
7

8
2

.
5
2

.6

3
1

.6
2


:
u a1 a2 a3 a4 2 a5 a6 2 a7 2 a8 2

v b1 b2 b3 b4 2 b5 b6 2 b7 2 b8 2

Ni (i= 1,2,3,8)
Ni( , )
N1( , )
j i
1
Ni ( j , j ) ij
ji
0

N1(1 , 1)=1, N1(j ,j )=0 (j=2,3,4,5,6,7,8)


263,374,58,
(2,3,4,5,6,7,8),=1, =1, ++1=0
(1)(-1)(++1)


N1(2,3,4,5,6,7,8)
0N1 11N1
:

( 1)( 1)( 1)
1
N1 ( , )
1 1 1
1 1 1 1,1 4

1
N 2 (1 )(1 )( 1)
4

1
N3 (1 )(1 )( 1)
4
1
N 4 (1 )(1 )( 1)
4


N5(, ) 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 0, 14,
34, 23,+1=0, -1=0,
-1=0, (+1)(-1)(-1 )
N5(, ), N5 (, ) 51

2 1 1

N5 ( , )

1
2

2
1 1

0,1 2

1
N 6 1 2 1
2
1
N 7 1 2 1
2
1
N8 1 2 1
2


Ni=1

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8

1
1
1
1
(1 ) 1 1 (1 ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

2
2
2
2

:
f N

N
1
0

N2

N3

N4

N5

N6

N7

N8

N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

N6

N7

0
e

N8

:
x=Nixi,,
y= Niyi
,
x,y


263 =1
xy
x= Nixi, Ni
1
1
1
x (1 ) 1 1 x1 (1 ) 1 1 x2 1 1 1 x3
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1

1
x


4 5 6 7 1 2 1 x8
4
2
2
2
2

x3
x2
2
x 1 2 x6
2
2
2

x a 2 b c

y d 2 e f

B B1
e

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

[Bi]:
Ni, x

Bi 0
Ni, y

Ni, y
N i , x

Ni , x,

Ni , x,

i = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

y, Ni , x
N
y,
i, y


Ni, , Ni, Ni,x Ni,y
Ni , x
1 Ni ,

N
N
i ,
i, y

y,
x
,

y,
x,

J x, y, y, x,


x
e
e

D
B

y

xy

S S1 S2

S3 S4

S5

S6

S7

S8


[Si]:

Ni , x
E
Ni , x
Si D Bi
1 2
1
1 Ni , y
2

Ni , y

Ni , y

1
1 Ni , x
2

i=1,2,8

[K]e:

B D B tdxdy
T

B D B t J d d
1

1 1

[K]e :


[K]e1616:

k11 k12
k
21 k22

k81 k82

k13
k23

k14

k15

k16

k17

k83

k84

k85

k86

k87

k18
k28

k88

kij Bi D B tdxdy Bi D B j t J d d
1 1
1

N
N

Ni, y N j , y
i,x
j,x

E
T
2
Bi D B j

1
1 2
Ni, y N j , x
Ni, x N j , y

Ni , y N j , x
2

1
Ni, y N j , y
Ni , x N j , x

2
i=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

Ni, x N j. y

:
1. :

2. :

p tdxdy N pt
T

J d d


N1

0
N2

0
N3

1 1
e
P 1 1

N8
0

0
N1

e
N2
p
1
1
xi
px
e

0
pi p 1 1 Ni p t

yi
y
N3

i= 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
px
p t J d d
y

0
N8

J d d


3. :

N1
0


s
N8

qx

tds
q y

0
N1
qx
tds
q y
0

N 8

Qi

qxi
qx
Ni tds
q yi
q y

i=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

qx ,qy,
dx
dy
qx cos sin
qx

ds
ds
dy
dx
q y sin cos
qy

ds
ds


, qx, qy

Qi

qxi
dx dy
Ni
tds
dy dx
q yi
i=1 ,2 3.4,5,6,7,8

374 =1

Qi

1
qxi
x, y,
Ni
td

1
y, x,
q yi
i= 3,7,4


9-3

u
r
r u

w
z

rz z
u w

z r


N1

N1
r

N
1
z

B B1 B2
e

N i
r

Ni

Bi r
0

N
i
z

N i
z
N i

0
0
N1
z
N1
r

B3

N 2
r
N2
r
0
N 2
z

B4

N8
r
N8
r

0
0
N 2
z
N 2
r

B5

0
N8
z

B6

B7

u1

0 w
1
u
2

0
w2

N8
z
N8 u
8
r w
8
e

B8

Ni
N i
r=0,
r
r


9-4
:



:

u a0 a1 x a2 y

v b0 b1 x b2 y

u Niui

v Ni vi

u Ni a0 a1xi a2 yi a0 Ni a1 Ni xi a2 Ni yi


v Ni b0 b1xi b2 yi b0 Ni b1 Ni xi b2 Ni yi
:

Ni=1

u Niui

v Ni vi


9-5

20
2

. 15. .7
16.
.14
5. ..
.6 .19
20 13
11
..18 .3
2 17. 4.
.12
.10 2
. .
.2
1
9

16

2
o

15

.14

.7

.6
.
.19
13
17.
4.
.11 .18 .3
.12
.10
.1
.9
.2
5

20



u a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 2 a6 2 a7 2 a8 a9

a10 a11 2 a12 2 a13 2 a14 2 a15 2


a16 2 a17 a18 2 a19 2 a20 2

v b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 2 b6 2 b7 2 b8 b9
b10 b11 2 b12 2 b13 2 b14 2 b15 2
b16 2 b17 b18 2 b19 2 b20 2
w c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 2 c6 2 c7 2 c8 c9
c10 c11 2 c12 2 c13 2 c14 2 c15 2
c16 2 c17 c18 2 c19 2 c20 2


:
20

u N i ( , , )ui
i 1

20

20

i 1

i 1

v N i ( , , )vi w N i ( , , ) wi

Ni

N1 (, , , )
Ni (, , , ) 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11.12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20
1 12, 10, 3, 19, 7,14, 6,18
-1=0,5,13,6,14,7,15,8,16
-1=0,4,11,3,19,7,15,8,20
-1=0, 9,12,17+++2=0

N1

1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 1,1,1

N1

1
1 1 1 2
8

N9
N9

1 1 1

2 1 1 1

0, 1, 1

1
N9 1 2 1 1
4


N1,N2,N20

1
Ni 1 i 1
i 1 i i
i i 2 i=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
8
1
Ni 1 2 1 i 1 i
4

i=10,12,14,16

1
Ni 1 2 1 i 1 i
4

i= 9,11,13,15

1
Ni 1 2 1 i 1
i
4

i= 17,18,19,20


Ni:
x=Ni(,,)xi y= Ni(,,)yi z= Ni(,,)zi

B B1
e

Ni, x
0

0
Bi N
i, y
0

N i , z

B2
0
Ni, y
0
Ni, x
Ni, z

B3
0
0
Ni, z

0
Ni, y

N i , x

B19

B20


:
N i ,
Ni, x
1

J
N

i, y
i ,
N
N
i
,
z

i ,

xi ,

J xi ,
xi ,

yi ,
yi ,
yi ,

zi ,

zi ,
zi ,

1
*
J

J


J
[J]*[J],Jij*[J]Jji
1

:
{}=[D][B]{}e

[Si]=[D][Bi]

i=1,2,3,20


[Si]:

Ni , x
AN
1 i,x
A1 N i , x
Si A3 A N
2 i, y
0

A2 N i , z
A1

A1 N i , y
Ni, y
A1 N i , y
A2 N i , x
A2 N i , z
0

(1 2 )
A2
2 1

A1 N i , z
A1 N i , z
Ni, z

0
A2 N i , y

A2 N i , x
E 1
A3
1 1 2

B D B dxdydz
T

B D B J d d d
1

1 1 1

[K]e2020,[Kij]33

K ij Bi D B j J d d d
1 1 1
e

pi

pxi
px
1 1 1


p yi N i p y J d d d
1 1 1
p
p
zi
z

i=1,2,320

Qi

qxi
qx


q yi Ni q y ds
q
q
zi
z

ds, =1dsdd


9-6
(xi)
(Wi):
1
n
:
f ( x)dx f ( xi )Wi

i 1

nnxinWi,2n
f(x)2n-1
xiWin=22
f(x)2n-1
x1,x2,W1,W2 f(x)


f(x)
f ( x) c0 c1 x c2 x 2 c3 x 3

2
2
3
c

c
x

c
x

c
x
dx

2
c

c2
0 1 2 3
0
1
3

x1, x2,W1,W2
2
W1 (c0 c1 x1 c2 x12 c3 x13 ) W2 (c0 c1 x2 c2 x2 2 c3 x23 ) 2c0 c2
3

,x1,x2,W1,W2

W1+W2=2,

W1x1+W2x2=0

W1x12+W2x22=2/3

W1x13+W2x23=0

x1=-x2=-0.57735

W1=W2=1.000000


:
1.

f x, y dxdy WW f x , y
1

1 1

i 1 j 1

xy
n

f x, y dx W f x , y y
1

i 1

y:

f x, y dxdy y dy W y W W f x , y
1

1 1

j 1

WW
i
j f xi , y j
n

i 1 j 1

j 1

i 1


2. :

f x, y, z dxdydz WW W f x y z
1

1 1 1

i 1 j 1 k 1

j k