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# Boundary Layer Modeling Modules 1.1 and 1.

## Boundary Layer Prediction Module 1.1

Flow over a flat plate

Boundary Layer is defined as the region where the fluid velocity parallel to the surface is less than 99% of the free stream velocity The thickness of the layer, , grows along a surface which the fluid is flowing over from the leading edge. Rate of growth of depends on the pressure gradient ( p / x ) Where NRx is the Reynolds number based on length x, we have to solve:

4.64 /x N Rx

Solved by hand with Prandtl Equations and Blasius Solution The exact solution to the appropriate equations describing the laminar boundary layer is difficult, and only a few simple problems can be treated. Fluid Dynamics, Hughes and Brighton (1967)

## How does CFD Predict Boundary Layer?

Star-CCM+ will provide all calculations based on CAD geometry and user specified conditions Program automatically detects and computes based on Y+ value Y+ is a non-dimensional number based off a cells velocity and its centroids distance from the wall High Wall vs. Low Wall Treatment

Low Wall (0-11 Y+ value): Logarithmic, approximation High Wall(11+ Y+ value): Linear, no approximation

CCM+ uses a Hybrid function, a mix consisting of both by default Simulation yields accurate data without by hand computations

## How CFD Simulation is Helpful

Ability to handle complex and large geography Graphical interface to visualize, data output capability Export report on values per distance x Excel spreadsheet, etc.
Boundary Layer Thickness
0.16 0.14 0.12

## (mm) Gamma Gamma

0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 X (mm) 0.8 1 1.2

x 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21

BL Thickness 0 0.01490562 0.02107973 0.025817291 0.029811239 0.033329979 0.036511163 0.039436563 0.042159459 0.044716859 0.047135708 0.049436348 0.051634581 0.053742976 0.055771722 0.057729217 0.059622479 0.061457445 0.063239189 0.06497209 0.066659958 0.068306131

## Simple Flat Plate Prediction

Note: since we are just getting started, we will leave out more detailed aspects of this simulation The next slides will illustrate how to:

Start STAR-CCM+ Load the simulation Run the simulation Look at the boundary layer thickness

## The file we will be using is BL_Trim_at300.sim, and is already prepared

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Starting STAR-CCM+
Launch STAR-CCM+ by either double clicking the icon in Windows or by issuing the command starccm+ in LINUX/UNIX. To start the session: Select File Select Load Simulation Set Run Mode as Serial Select OK Click Browse and select the simulation file BL_Trim_at300.sim
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## Run the Simulation

Normally, we would setup physics conditions and modify other settings Today, we will focus on loading the file and running the simulation only We have set everything up and all you need to do is: Click the run icon

Run
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## Watching the results

In order to watch our simulation, some steps need to be taken Right click on Scenes folder, located in the left-most control panel Select Open all scenes Now, select the Scalar Scene 1 tab at the top of the scene window You can toggle between this view and the plot of the residuals

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Watching Results

Continue to watch the scalar scene as the simulation runs Use the wheel button on your mouse to zoom Use the right mouse button to pan the scene

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Plot of Residuals

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Interpreting Results

## Use the measure tool to look at thickness of the boundary

First click a point on the outer edge of the red region Then click a point directly underneath the first point at the bottom edge of the black region, forming a line Examine the results of the measurement in the output window

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Interpreting Results

Since the previous method of determining boundary layer thickness is somewhat primitive, we have set up a plot of the thickness which was calculated and compiled during the run-phase of the simulation The next slide will show you how to open this plot for review

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Interpreting Results

Right click on Boundary Layer Thickness in the Plots folder Select Open This will open a new tab in the scene output window Select Boundary Layer Thickness in the scene output window

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## Review of Drag and Lift

Force acting on a fluid in motion in the direction of the fluids motion is Drag (D) Force acting on a fluid in motion normal to the direction of the fluids motion is Lift (L)

D CD ( V 2 / 2) A L CL ( V 2 / 2) A

Where A is the characteristic area, and CD and CL refer to the coefficients of drag and lift respectively.

Drag and Lift are caused by the sum of the tangential and normal forces at the surface of a body Drag coefficients for bodies of given shapes depend primarily on the Reynolds number Some examples are on the next slide

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## Circular Cylinder L/d CD

1 5 10 20 .63 0.8 .83 .93 1.2

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## Review of Laminar Flow

Ordered and smooth flow Consider a fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe The velocity is at a maximum at the center The velocity is zero at the walls of the pipe This velocity distribution is symmetric about the y-axis

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## Review of Turbulent Flow

Fluctuating motion superimposed on the mean flow Velocity can be approximated by the power law:

u / um ax ( y / R )1 / n

The logarithmic form of the law of the wall may be used to approximate the velocity distribution except for the region not close to the centerline.

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## Movement of mass per time m=*V*A

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m= Mass flow rate = Density of fluid V= Velocity of fluid A= Cross sectional area

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## Boundary Mesh Characteristics in CFD

CCM+ will provide all calculations based on CAD geometry and user specified conditions Program automatically detects and computes based on Y+ value In the next example, we want to look at drag values, so it is important that we keep our Y+ value close to 1 Low-Wall treatment We can mesh the geometry, look at the Y+ value, then determine if the mesh characteristics need to be modified before continuing with the simulation Goal: For an accurate simulation (improbable by hand)
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The next few slides will provide instruction on how to import the 2D car with radiator mesh file and analyze it for drag and flow results This module will provide a slightly more in-depth look at the set up for the simulation You will input specific conditions and gain a better understanding of how to operate CCM+ Follow the steps outlined on the next slides
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Starting Star-CCM+
Launch STAR-CCM+ by either double clicking the icon in Windows or by issuing the command starccm+ in LINUX/UNIX. To start the session: Select File Select Load Simulation Set Run Mode as Serial Select OK Click Browse and select the simulation file car_intial.sim
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Note:

You will see other files with similar names Leave them alone at this point They will be used at the end of this tutorial for a homework problem In the next section, we will go over how to set some initial things up- most of these changes have already been made for you, but some need to be updated by you

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Setup Simulation

Setting Physics Models Right click on the Physics folder in Continua Select the following models* and then click close: Stationary Gas Segregated flow Constant density Steady Turbulent Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes K-Omega Turbulence SST(Menter) K-Omega All y+ wall treatment Two Dimensional
*Note: Some of these models will be automatically added with certain selections
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## Setup Simulation (cont)

Select the Initial conditions folder in the Continua folder Open the Velocity folder and click on constant Set the value to [60.0,0.0,0.0] mph *Make sure to change m/s to mph!

In the Regions folder, select Body_1_2 and then Inlet Open the corresponding Physics Values folder Set the Velocity Constant to 60.0 mph

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## Updating the Regions

To practice the CCM+ interface, we will update some settings to Body_1_2 in the Regions folder Open the Regions Folder Open Body_1_2 Open the Boundaries Folder Find and open Outlet Set Type to Pressure Outlet

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## Updating the Regions cont

In the same fashion, select Roof and change its type to Pressure Outlet also Now open the Physics Conditions folder in the Roof tree Select Backflow Direction Specification Set method to Extrapolated The next slide illustrates these steps

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## Setup Simulation- Plotting CD and CL

Setting up a plot: CD and CL Right click on the Reports folder Select Force Coefficient Make the following changes in the properties section:

Change the Direction to [1.0,0.0,0.0] Enter 1.262 m^2 for Reference Area Enter 60.0 mph for Reference Velocity Right click the new report and rename it CD

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## Setup Simulation- Plotting CD and CL

Select the report you just made, and copy it Paste it in the Reports folder Change the Direction to [0.0,1.0,0.0] Right Click and rename the new report CL

Shift+Select both Plots CD and CL Right click, select Create and Monitor from Plot Select One Plot

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## Setup-Viewing the new plot

Right click on Reports Plot in the Plots folder Select Open View the Plot

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## Setup Simulation- Plotting Mass Flow Rate

Setting up a plot: Mass flow through the radiator Open the Derived Parts folder in the control pane Right click and select Plane Section Check Plane Tool Open the Geometry Scene and locate the Plane Section Drag it from its ends to the middle section of the radiator Make sure it is a vertical line Input Parts : Select only Region 1_2 Check No Displayer Click Create, and Close

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## Setup Simulation- Plotting Mass Flow Rate

Open the Reports folder, and right click on it Create a new Mass Flow report For the parts input, select only Section Plane Right Click and select Create and Monitor from Report

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## Setup Simulation Making a new scalar scene

Solver Settings + Post Processing Set up a Scalar Scene by right clicking the Scenes folder Select new Scalar Scene Open the new scene, and right click New Function above the blue bar Scroll down and select Velocity Magnitude

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## Setup Simulation (cont)

Before we run the simulation, we need to modify the number of steps To do this, open the Stopping Criteria folder Select Maximum Steps and set to 1000 Hit enter to secure the value change

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## Click run icon

Keep an eye on the plots monitoring: Coefficient of Drag and Coefficient of Friction Mass flow through radiator
Look at the velocity magnitude scene, note its change over time All three will update periodically To stop the simulation before it is completed, click the stop button (you can resume it by clicking run again)
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Interpreting Results

Coefficient of Drag and Lift plot The Mass Flow rate of the Radiator

## Also look at the scalar scene we set up to monitor Velocity Magnitude

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Hi, this is Frank from CFD Specialists. We recently received your application and we would like to offer you a position. We have a project for you to start working on right away- an auto company wants us to run simulations of different radiator inlets and see what kind of drag results Looks like a good entry level project for you to get in on. Call me back at (555) 223-9083

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## Case Study: 2D Car

You are working as a private consultant, and your firm has been asked to solve a dispute between the external aerodynamics department and the engine department of a major auto company over the radiator inlet size of their latest sports car

The engine department seeks the highest mass flow through the radiator as possible The aerodynamics department wants a design with smallest possible drag coefficient There are six different configurations of inlet size proposed

## Use your engineering skills and Star-CCM+ to solve this problem

Which configuration provides the least drag while still providing a high mass flow rate? (Back up your decision!)

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Hints

Make sure you are using the correct .sim files Instead of re-setting up physics and boundary conditions, reports, and scenes CCM+ enables you to copy and paste them from simulation to simulation Remember to close simulations you have already completed after saving/printing as it will slow your current simulation

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Hint
Current Settings Car 6 Paste consistent folders in same location for Car 7 simulation, Car 8 simulation, and so on This will allow you to just open the 2D sim file and paste in the settings, click run, and look at the results! Note: Make sure to go back and check your settings that reference these copied valuessometimes the folders will rename Copy of Physics1 rather than Physics1 by default. Ctrl+C Ctrl+V Car 7 control panel

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