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PUPUK P dan K

Phosphorus Sources
• Inorganic P Sources
– Rock Phosphate – Bone Meal – P fertilizer

• Organic-based P sources
– Green Manures - ? – Manures – Composts
• Composted Manures • Composted Plant Biomass

0% P • P analysis in commercial fertilizers is expressed as %P2O5 .• Manufactured from mined apatite minerals – Apatite is treated with H2SO4 or H3PO4 to form various inorganic P fertilizers: • superphosphate (0-20-0) solid • triple superphosphate (0-45-0) • mono ammonium phosphate (11-52-0) • di ammonium phosphate (18-46-0) • ammonium polyphosphate (10-34-0) • Phosphoric Acid (0-52-0) Phosphorus Fertilizers solid solid solid liquid liquid – Organic: manures contain 0.5 to 2.

↔ H2PO4.1M solution is 7.+ H+ • Diammonium phosphate (DAP) – (NH4)2HPO4 – pH of 0.↔ HPO42.0 – 6.5 – Hydrolysis reaction Photos courtesy of Agrium Sauchelli.8 • HPO42.1M solution is 4.Common phosphate fertilizers with ammonium • Monoammonium phosphate (MAP) – NH4H2PO4 – pH of 0.0 • H2PO4. 1965 .+ OH- • Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) – pH 6.

BFA BFA H2SO4 H2SO4 H3PO4 TSP 0-46-0 Superfosfat beramonia 8-16-0 H2SO4 H3PO4 NH3 H2SO4 NH3 Pupuk P H2SO4 H2SO4 HCl Normal Super Fosfat 0-20-0 Asam Super Fosfat NH3 Fosfat nitrat Amonium Fosfat 11-55-0 18-46-0 NH3 NH3 SP 36 0-36-0 Amonium Polifosfat Amonium Fosfat 11-55-0 18-46-0 .

• • Alternative: Band with the seed. • Broadcast-incorporation is less time consuming and is popular when large acreages must be fertilized and planted in a short period of time. .Methods of P fertilization • Most common application of P fertilizers: Broadcast fertilizer over the soil surface and then incorporate it with a tillage operation. or labor is scarce. or two inches below and to the side of the seed at planting.

Methods of nutrient placement .

AZ .Broadcasting Broadcast TSP followed by “listing” (making beds) Maricopa.

Preplant Applications • Broadcast – Uniform distribution of dry or liquid materials over the soil surface – Can be mechanically incorporated – Can be incorporated by rain or irrigation Liquid manure from hog feeding being pumped onto farmland in Iowa. USDA-NRCS .

sprinkler-irrigated Oregon “Side-dressing” lettuce with liquid N fertilizer.Band Application Surface band near transplanted broccoli. Yuma .

Fertigation .

Nutrient Considerations • Phosphorus – Banding minimizes soil:fertilizer contact • Minimizes reversion – Banding is generally more efficient in soils with lower amounts of available P – At higher levels of available P banding and broadcasting result in similar efficiencies – Apply just before or at planting • Less time for reversion to occur .

Model Response Curve Maximum Profit Crop Response Maximum Yield Amount of Input .

Fertilizer K Sources Source Potassium chloride.17 Potassium nitrate.2MgSO4 Potassium thiosulfate. K2S2O3 13-0-44 0-0-22-22-11 0-0-25-17 . K2SO4 Analysis 0-0-60 (62) 0-0-50 . KCl Potassium sulfate. K2SO4. KNO3 Potassium-magnesium sulfate.

murah 60-63% potassium oxide (K2O) Yang berwarna merah mengandung Besi Yang berwarna putih.Potassium chloride (KCl) – – – – – – – 95% dari seluruh pupuk K Harga paling . besinya dihilangkan Nilai pupuk darike 2 nya sama KCl berbentuk pril/butiran Often referred to as Muriate of Potash. Sumber K yang mudah larut dlm air .

Fertilizer K Management .

18% S. – More expensive than KCl . and no more than 2.Potassium sulfate (K2SO4): – Contains 50-53% K2O.5% Cl. – Major use is for chloride sensitive crops.

• Potassium-magnesium Sulfate (K2SO4. 11% Mg. and 22% S – Used when Magnesium or Sulfur is required • Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) –saltpeter – 44% Potassium chloride and 13% N – Excellent but expenxive .2MgSO4) – Sul-Po-Mag or K-Mag – 22%potassium chloride.

sejalur dg baris tanaman. • Disebarkan dipermukaan (Broadcasting) • Diberikan secara jalur 2 X. • Langsung bersamaan dengan biji jika bijinya kecil (Directly with seed).Pemakaian pupuk K • Sebaiknya dibenamkan agar mencapai daerah perakaran. tetapi harus hati2 jika memerlukan K banyak .

TERIMA KASIH .